ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004

Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

Brian Lynch, Big Ass Fans Lynch, Secretary Committee Member thru June 2012 Michael O’Rourke, Radiant Advantage O’Rourke, Voting Member Committee Member thru June 2011

ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004
Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

Standing Standard Project Committee (SSPC) 55

Meets:
ASHRAE Winter Meeting (January) ASHRAE Annual Meeting (June)

Conference Call 2-4 times per year 2-4

ASHRAE Research
The ASHRAE Research Strategic Plan centers on the concept of Sustainability. One of the goals of this research is to optimize and make consistent ASHRAE Standards 90, 62, and 55 to achieve measured and verified high system energy efficiency with high indoor environmental quality.

.ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Thermal comfort is the main reason we have buildings.

ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Tents are pretty energy efficient. .

20 to 60 % RH. 45 fpm .History 1966 – replaced 1938 Code for Minimum Requirements for Comfort Air Conditioning Comfort Zone = 73-77 F.

ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Section 1 Purpose: . .acceptable to a majority of the occupants within the space.specify the combinations of • indoor thermal environmental factors • personal factors .

000 ft doesn’t cover air quality. etc.General Requirements • • must specify the space to which it applies activity and clothing of the occupants must be considered .ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Section 2 – Scope • • • • Addresses environmental factors And personal factors up to 10. doesn’t Section 3 – Definitions Section 4 .

1 Introduction Six Primary Thermal Comfort Variables Air temperature Humidity .ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Section 5 – Conditions that Provide Thermal Comfort 5.

1 Introduction Six Primary Thermal Comfort Variables Metabolic rate Clothing insulation Air temperature Radiant temperature Air Speed Humidity .ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Section 5 5.

ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Method for Determining Acceptable Thermal Conditions in Occupied Spaces (Section 5.2) Graphical Method for Typical Indoor Environments Computer Model Method for General Indoor Application .

1 .Acceptable Range of Operative Temperatures ASHRAE 55-2004.1.2. Figure 5.

2.Acceptable Range of Operative Temperatures Figure 5.1.1 Operative Temperature .

PMV – PPD Index predicted mean vote (PMV): an index that predicts the mean value of the votes of a large group of persons on the sevenpoint thermal sensation scale. PMV model uses heat balance principles to relate the six key factors for thermal comfort to the average response of people on a seven point scale. predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD): an index that establishes a quantitative prediction of the percentage of thermally dissatisfied people determined from PMV. .

5 +3 hot +2 warm +1 slightly warm 0 neutral -1 slightly cool -2 cool -3 cold .5 to <+0.ASHRAE Thermal Sensation Scale Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) <10% Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) >-0.

1 .Acceptable Range of Operative Temperatures ASHRAE 55-2004.1.2. Figure 5.

Acceptable Range of Operative Temperatures ASHRAE 55-2004.1 .1. Figure 5.2.

1 .1.Acceptable Range of Operative Temperatures ASHRAE 55-2004. Figure 5.2.

ISO Comfort Standard 7730 defines draft as “Unwanted local cooling””.Local Thermal Discomfort Factors •Radiant temperature Asymmetry •Vertical air temperature difference •Floor surface temperature •Temperature variation with time •Cyclic variations in operative temperature •Drifts or ramps •Draft (in winter) . such as draft or radiant asymmetry. . cooling A certain percentage of people are usually dissatisfied by a factor other than thermal sensation.

ASHRAE Thermal Comfort Tool .

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Cooling Typical Office Cooling Values Air temperature (75 ˚F) ˚F) Humidity (50% RH) Metabolic rate (1 met) Radiant temperature (75 ˚F) ˚F) Clothing insulation (0.0 clo) Air speed (40 fpm or less) .Designing for Thermal Comfort .5 to 1.

35 % 7.7F Cooling 108.01 % 9.290 kWh 94.147 kWh 79.799 kWh % Reduction 10.Savings from Raising Thermostat Settings in Cooling Rule of Thumb Each degree of thermostat offset saves ~ 2% of cooling energy Energy Model .20.91 % 9.66 % 8.175 kWh 35.000 ft2 Office Location Miami Houston Los Angeles Kansas City Chicago Denver Madison 75F Cooling 121.404 kWh 46. 147 kWh 34.904 kWh 38.46 % 8.420 kWh 45.035 kWh 38.071 kWh 39.78 % .81 % 5.046 kWh 43.735 kWh 87.575 kWh 43.913 kWh 50.

3 .2.Air Speed Required to Offset Increased Temperature Figure 5.

Air Speed Required to Offset Increased Temperature Figure 5.2.3 .

2.1.Acceptable Range of Operative Temperatures ASHRAE 55-2004.1 11° F per clo – effect of changing clothing insulation on the optimum operative temperature . Figure 5.

Due to the wavelength of the energy.Radiant Temperature Radiant heating or cooling sources do not change the temperature of the air in a space directly. . an object is directly heated or cooled without cooling the air between.

Where is the Standard going? Standard 55 must find ways to better support High Performance Buildings better. Must work on Adaptive Method. . Change in Air speed limits good step.

Acceptable Operative Temperature Ranges for Naturally Conditioned Spaces Figure 5.32) °F .255(tout .3 toc = 66 + 0.

3 Denver = 73.6 .Acceptable Operative Temperature Ranges for Naturally Conditioned Spaces Figure 5.4°F 76.5 76.

Where is the Standard going? Mixed Mode ventilation – swing seasonal use. . different zones.

Where is the Standard going? What are people submitting for Standard 55 compliance (LEED and Standard 189.1) .

Move impact of clo on setpoints from Appendix B to front of normative body of standard.Where is the Standard going? Rearrange standard to start with occupant. Start with parameters such as metabolic rate. . clothing. and then working outward.

.Where is the Standard going? HVAC is for people. Goal should be to focus on making people comfortable not buildings. not buildings. requirements are for occupants.

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