JAZZ MASTERS

JAZZ MASTERS by Jed Distler New YorklLondonlSydDey Amseo Publkatiom .

101 . NSW 2018. .. Corporatkm l. . Loudon WI V 5TZ England lrIusic Sales Pty.t Prbid . Sydney.S7 Park Avenue South.. Australia .. without pet lidnion in wridnJ from the publisher .. -. New y~ ~_ Sa1cs Limited NY 10010 USA LI9 Prlth Street. IXb ~ ~ Id..8256.. 0:Ip0nIi0I . l20 Rocbschi1d S~ Rosebery.. I would like to thank. AM 30719 rights reserved No part of this book may be [ntemational Standard Book Number... . 0. nus book published 1986 by Amsco Publications " Civilian ofMUIic SIles CorporatiOD New Yert..4085 ~ 7 3xclusive Distributors: \atusic Sales.. ~cept by • reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review.. ::>rder No. CUfford Jay Safane for his help in getting thi s proj ect off the ground Edited by Patricia Ann Neely Cover design by Barbara Hoffman Book desian by Tina Cernano Covet pboIo by Robert Parent 1981 by CoDlOHdated Music Publishers. UailaI . IJmitcd .. NY l 1 CopyriJht C t M reproduced in any fonn or by any electronic or mechanical means IncludinJ information IIOraF and rctricva1 systems. MOSl of all. I thank two exceptional musicians and friends ~ Dick HymlD and Andrew Thomas.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS and contributing research material~ as well as Gary Giddens and Felicity Howlett for providiDI recordings and vital information. ... Their insights and suggestions were invaluable to me in my wode.

62 A Selected Discography 70 .au· Art Tatum 6 The Art Tatum Style 7 Notes on the Sol08 10 Ain't Misbehavin' 15 Fine and Dandy 22 Moonglow 35 I Surrender Dear 46 Sweet Lorraine (I) 56 Sweet Lorraine cn) .

. was-with a band consisting of the winners of the first annual Esquire poll at the Metropolitan Opera House in January..5051) and is a rare and instructive example of Tatum succesafully working with his peers in a live performance. Tatum died of uremia on November 4th. After 1945 Tatum began to play jazz concerts regularly. Tatum worked primarily in nightclubs throughout the aOs He led a small band for a long run at the Three Deuces in Chicago and played at the legend· ary Onyx Club in New York..(1910-1966) Art Tatum was born October 18th. 1944~ The concert was recorded in its entirety (on Radiola 2MR. Almost twenty-five years after his death and with the significant developments in jazz piano. Tatum. although he still made frequent nightclub appearances as a solo artist and with his trio. however. Ohio. At eighteen Tatum became staff pianist on a Toledo radio station._ made his first recordings. 1932.:I on Aug. uTiger Rag. 1966. in Los Angeles. As "Arthur Tatum. He cut his rlrst 8010 record. Tatum had made incredible progress" establishing an unprecedented degree of pianistic control and maturity for i. . ust 5th." he played background music for Ellen Kay's dajly shopping chat program . totally blind in one eye and with only slight vision in the other.. Tatum also placed first in the 1945 Metronome Readers' Poll and in the Down Beat Critics' PoU from 1954 f to 1956. In late 1937 he embarked on a small European tour. and it was with her that he . He studied the violin for two years and then changed over to the piano when he was about fourteen years old . first came to New York in 1932 as an accompanist for singer Adelaide Hall. WSPD.·Within a few years. His first major concert appearance. Toledo's blind pianist.. Art Tatum '8 music still remains the standard by which the mainstream of jazz solo piano is measured. teenager. 1910 in Toledo.

Tatum 'a bass lines are more adventurous. and often didt deliver driVing. The role of the left hand hu in~~ considerably. HiJ recordinp from the latter part of that yaar. (CoJDP~f tor e. ·The Waller influence. gios.hortly before his death in 1956. by suddenly falling into v~ fast stride tempOI and embroidering his naturally swinging melodic phrases with glib arpeg..'" "Tiger Rag.hand chords with tenths as the outside interval.t' and "HumorBIQue_" All the facets ot his style have become ~Q~. : The first recordings ot the Art Tatum Trio appeared. with the notable exceptions of George Shearinl. l~ear improvisations that hinted at what Bud Po we] 1 would be doing in the late 40s and what OlCar Peterson would do vwry loon after.in 1943. Although. JohI. Tatum often "strides in tenths" (the lett hind using patterns alternating tenths in the baas . He uaea lUna and arpeggios more discreetly. and extended harmonic structurea to embellish the melodies be used. The overall importance of these recordings Iiesin.. ve~ons ot I!uch •• clards u "Tea for Two.ample. "Sweet ..The Art Tatum Style .z. tOCUled. non-stop.. Even at breakneck tempos Tatum managed to BOund completely relaxed and at ease. and sophia· ticated harmonically.poradically from 1946 to the middle of 1949 .·however.· runs...11' Art Tatum made his first commercial solo piano recordings in 1932 and 1933. are faecinatinl and overwhelming . frequently using walking left. These leslioni in. reveal .) TatulUts lett hand frequently breaks away from its accompanying . . He worked on and off in a trio letting until .. two piant isb who made deep impreaions upon the young Tatum. . inl the momentum of a ballad. ignificant musical a ItOwth and are important in comparison to bis subsequent recordinpt His playing on the three 1010 sessions for Capitol and on the Columbia LP reM corded in concert is richly textured. From a musical standpoint these recordings. 81.LQ~et'l uEJegie..AiD ~ Misbehavin I' " with "-Moollllow" or the two ve_ona qt I·Sweet Lor.Like Waller.d the P4mutjc textures are both trailIparent and yet full bodied. clude hia m... has a pealer bearlnr on Tatumta style in terms of his left·hand conception and hit overa1llenJe of swing . p1t. The clever enaemble arrangements and often humoroUi interplay between Tatum. can be o~ in the transcriptions in ~ v~lume. Tatum recorded .. . and Hank Jones.Jt liGet Happy. Between 1934 and 1941 Tatum recoJ'ded..iola or drop . rhythmically adventurous.. Dave McKenna.and embellimQlents and providing countermelodies.". aJong with an e~j5tiril' 1934 aiicheck show an accom. .role and becomes an equal partner with the right 'hand.ster with full chords in the middle register) and also like Waller. theit awesome pianistic authority and control.. many so1oa tor the. . Brunswick and ·Decca labels (reissued in ~e United States by MeA). These records.J. tlJe trio was 8 tempting format tor ditplaylnl the flashy &ide of his talent Tatum could..lOn and Willie "The Lion' t Smith.. and bUliit Slam Stewart added to the group's popularity .. and probably deftnitive...regi. guitarist Tiny Grimes. freq~~ntly destroy . Lee Sim~ was a "pop" pianilt who often uaed arpeggios.. Iharing roles .hed YirtuOiO steeped in the roots of Fat& Waller and Lee Sims. (This is particularly significant since the bop pianists who were coming of age lett their left hands at home. The younl·Art Tatum sho~ off his taehnique. however.ost famous.1. seldom uses the hem. This mUlical development . bass left-hand patterns developed by James P.

.four marathon solo pi8no sessions for jazz producer and entrepreneur Norman Granz .one hears these recent presaings simply cannot compare to ~e beautifully clear and close-miked piano sound captured on the ori8inaJ Clef and Verve LPs. '_ -----:-- . There were two books published..also recorded Tatum·bi:a myriad of small group settings with such.. not originally recorded for commercial release and their sound quality is poor. considering Granz's intentions. 16.minor op. (There is a private tBJ?" existinl of Tatum improvising on the Chopin ·C minor waltz that must be heard to be belieYed. th~~y building an u Art Tatum library. According to his liner notes on the original Clef and Verve LPs . and Ben W~~ster. .-"~ that ·resulted" . . 1953 and January. muJti-faceted style. literature that be knew...Granz intended to record and release as many Art Tatum 8010 selections as pOMible. Tatum re-recorded his '''semi-claasical'' arrangements ot "Humoresque" and "Elelie" when he . such .. The clarity' of tbe·b~··tegister is all but totally lost and in general the piano sounds muffled .. and "Fine and Dandy" were .featured artists as Ldonel Hamp~:·'Benrty carter. Granz . in a project undertaken to preserve huge dOl8l of exceptional pianism. --. it was only partially auccessful. No. A very fine tnlnscnption otthe 1949~'AuntHapr~.. Jo Jones..could very well have recorded some ot the ela'sical piano .at. the releoe of fourteen long-playing albums . (To be fm. Tatwn re.. 's music· would have been affected if he had collaborated with these players on a regular basis (as Coleman Hawkins did throughout his career. -.. The solo piano project however was probably the most ambitious and. 'l'he sound quality of the original· recordinp used for these transeriptions varies from each session. Unlike the music making of other major jazz figure8~ little ot Art Tatum's music has . for transcribers and listeners alike. The six pieces ·included herein were recorded between 1938 and 1955 and together display a good representation of Art Tatum·. UAm tt Misbehavin' . 28. ·Unfortunately.Blues" is available in John Mebegants book Ja:zz Rhythm and the lmproviled Line (Amsco Musie Publishing Company). Buddy de Franco. 1955 Tatum recorded _.were reissued on Pablo is extremely poor.. However.been transcribed for publicaticn. . successfully and uncompromisingly)~ It is alIo a pity that. Nevertheless. . and some of the startling harmonic and rhythmic complexities in these selections partly indicate that Tatum listened to and had absorbed the innovations of the bop musicians. Jazz Masters: Art Tatum is the first book consisting exclusively of complete piano 80101 transcribed from Art # Tatum's released recordings.. Tatum"s 8ccompiishmentaareoften : :Between ntc4UPber. " ·Most of the· tunes were recorded in one-take: the producer apparently assumed that h~ pianist could do no wronga The end results are always diffuse and uneven because Tatum's health \vu ·failing around the time of these sessionsl This writer thinks the Norman Granz sessions were more of 8 token to posterity than-an attempt to preserve a fin·ished product. • - !:J • fascinating~ There are times when it seems that Tatum was searching for a new musical language.. the sound on The Tatum Group MCUlterpiecea is very good . in the 408 that··consisted of one chorus piece edited from longer improvisations ·and which cannot be considered representative· of Tatum's improvisational techniques.. .. the remastering of the Norman G~ solo sessions th.. Buddy Rich .. "1".which are indisputably parts of a musical phrase.It.. " . I have used parentheses encasing I} certain notes that are not clearly 'audible but which were possibly played and 2) notes that are not actually .<What-. mained a swing player in his overall conceptions of time and phrasing~ Although Tatum played informally with Charlie Parker and other modem musicians one wonders how Tatum. played but. Roy Eldridge. ·the·Chopin waltzes or the Chopin Prelude in B& . ...) on 8 .

or else execute a quick. wen on 9 . . pianistic.. Cole . to aim for a style With a ceitain kind of scund and ·ph~mg than to tJy to play ~ last grace note verbatim. Fats Waller. . be compared to the cl. ODly hiI mentor. had.oard. pieces~ After all Tatum himself was always making chanl8l here and there in . Tat1UD~. the rhythmic syncopations and trumpet. stride piecea which P'~w out of the fomu that SCott Joplin and Jelly Roll Morton used. and Smith consisted mostly.le m~ of what mOlt jazz musicians were doing. t . and Willie ''The Lion" Smitht Like Tatuln.Fo~ this reason.fingering.mIP~ts I have·not indicated any fingerings (not wishini tb b1lpOte own b8d babiu!)~ Some pianists may find many ot the le~haJ?d tenth. be encouraged to interpolate your own impro~ phrases or . vincin~ musical interpretation of· the notes. and alia perhap~ beca~e it presented somethiD. man Hawkins. . who "81 often acCUBed of playing "set" improvisations. el that he made everythinl he played soQlld easy.tI. Waller. of embellishments and different turns of pluuea in the pieces tha~ they played. ~ond their natural span. and Teddy Wilson... Tatum. when all is said and done. Ta~uni was an atavilt. AI. .. high lev. Art Tatum'. I feel it is more important to emulate the spirit ·of the music.eshed tol8ther suCh·. I note a "clipping·· device that Tatum often used.. the real essence of this musi~ lies in the original .. But it must be remembered· that ·their rapertoR ~ consisted of their own elaborately _ multiaectioned .:.1 outside of . in mne. Johnson.'..~c. a throwback to an older era of jazz pianists. in. ~iq. .adhering closely to the melody . Yet.. the Tatum style w~ hard to pup at first bearing. u as the popular or semi-classical piano stylis~ of the day. the _troDg rhythmic underpinning oftheltridepiaDistl. .Because of. e1epnt melodiea of Teddy Wilson. an e1cance and clarity tIt·at can eaiU. textures and harmonic nuances. approach to improvisation has fa~inated and e1ud~ mUliciam and critica for ye8181t Compued with his co~temporaries Roy El~le. It was a style that had a vacillating...orciilialY piano technique and phenomenal ear Tauun created a Ityll that juxtapoaed th·. mercurial nature with subtley chanl. the iriiproviainl of Johnson. By virtue of his extra. runS into these ...: ozdiD. my Whenever posaible one can substitute the right hand for the upper voice of the tenth. ~deedt· if you are 10 incliDed. alpeggiated tenth emphasizing the upper far as realizini a con . his so-called '''set pieces t. .p and no~in ·the plinted ~ transcriptions.rata Waller could match. improvising material almOst ezclUliYely cODli&ted of ltandard Tin Pan Alley longs. method of . his technique and his musicianship .like phrases of:Earl and the delicate passage work found the works of Ch~pin and Lint. divergencies in·. and his touch at tbe keyb. by use of omamentation and embellishment comes from James P.· in jUz. leal pianista V1~ir ·de Pachmann ~d ~fr8d CortOt Ind ·that.

6. . The opening chorus CQntains all his styllatic traits Uling different registers·in an orcheltral p__ phrasing the m810dy '_rith runs. tremolos.·In re&din. the Hines influence is apparent throUlhaut thjs recording. 2.·T. ex. ..31. Tatum ~s unique fusion of blues. trills. . and ··7~ degrees of the ·major seale). of the 8rd.technique is explicitly used in the opening and in the last choftl8 of . Dandy" apU1 froin his other recortiilip of standard.. literature.. Tatum .· The bridge is the point of greatest harmonic ten . There is a structur8l momentum that builds throughout each moms based upon the chord voicings and rhythmic pattems set up in the thematic exposition and the stark rmt chorus (measures 39-40). 23-2~..~e Pillages.. . lrideed. through these :transcrIpt ions one 'notices:-Ttitum'.~e melody (lor ~ow many times do we need. ·4:Moonglow. 7-8. Tatum ts deft use of Qlusical. 4. and straight-ahead swing is particularly successful here.··t'· .nt seventh .. indUlging himself Insome "telling atoptime ~I that are interspersed with intricate rilbt-hand phrases.. 6th. his thumb on the upper note (see measures 1. Although this piece is as full of stylistic juxtapositions as any of his other reCordings.. partially due to the deficiencies ot the out-ot-tune.replacing . th~t ~expec:tedly resolves to a Va chord .... oura h clubs. AiJi't M~behllVin' (1938) .iiii . we find his playblg to be leaner in texiure and eompletely uncluttered. like the solo work of Earl Hines . full advantage of the whiskbrooms. what aets this piano and on of ·'Fine and.. . sion . to hear it?). With elaborate right-hand runS and embellishments wially . and occasjonally using rehannonizations. tak. He takes .way~ ". engulfed ~th thick· chords and brash octaves and the third ~e it is quieter.e~ The first time ~ugh.. 15.. . is. leaving. the second bridge is much louder.Thit.' that ~our Tatuni useS these ·ublulsy'" . niB the improvised choruses ·foDo·Wingthe statement of the theme.: a • the presence of the time-keeping whiskbrocms player. 1). In this rare document ot Tatum playing in one. ~e· keePs the ~elody virtUally intact. quotation is characterised.. . is . Notice how ~tw:n uses pure melodic phrases in the transitory meuures before the beginning . 1 8 .ignificant aspect . . . o~. beat-up . The elllbellished F riff (measures 39-42) ap~ears in different forms and functions throUlhout the piece.the foUowiilg· A or B sections of the tune (measures .tum's use of left-h~d tenths is the way he "'clips" or shortens the . trequent use of irace notes. In contrast to the chromatic movemerit of the bass line in the A section the root and third remain stationarywhile the fifth chromatically ascends to the major sixth and again rises to the seventh along with the third fonning a do~. .V~i. most notably at the beginning of the second . and blues licks (pStterns using the flatted in.cho~ . 2). in the unexpected endinl wbere ··'Turkey ill the Strilw" is tumed into it cleverly leharm. One . classical pima. ..recording is a good introduction to the Art Tatum style. of . of those leg~rid8ry Harlem atter . ...aequen~.. altematinl·w81king tenths with . ten~ed harmonic patterns. ~. baas note.1941) ~is is perhaps th~ most rev~aIing o·t all Art Tatum·recordings. not un . no doubt. . .em~e~ts ai stnictUral oornerstones for _10 . 24). advantage of thii structure by fashioning stoptime chorus each tim.onized II. ~ FiDe ~<l D~dy (.

monic.. of the open . and. restating the 'melody and suddenly bursting into a bluesy stride passage. and p~lessly (see measures 47-48.. 9) and in the thild chorus (me8sures ~O6-121)." Art Tatum created multi .mterplay between the right and left hands. . to ~atuin's innate sense of proportion and balance.. in the form of a trill (measures 103-112)~and in the syncopated left-hand pattern in the second part of the third chorus (measures 120-~27)1 Tatum. time coda which is a pretty har. ~~e ~IOdy is restated in the style. . on the . The SUbtle harmonic shifts present in the walking left-hand chords slip by so faS~ that they tickle the ear. turn prepare for another stop-time passage.s~ting . he: would play the theme ad libitum.basa note technique is effectively used in the exposition of the theme (measure. only to be resolved by jabbing left . Dear (1955) . often exploring different ~ys of iltering and revoicing the harmoriy.qr.. . either re. Moonglow (1955 ) This little masterpiece captures Tatum in an eloquently reckless mood .. anded blues h .. embracing these disparate elements.. ure (measures 185-195). eveled variations on 8 l theme in which the separateness of the thematic components is maintained by the way they are individually developed throughout the piece. urea 57·58 actually begins on the upbeat of ...with a loud.. then Tatum suddenly . These chords are . with some altered harmcnies (measures 154-1~4) that serve as a deceptive ending.serve as a strong vehicle for exprelsive~ lyrical. there is an organic unity .chorus (meaaures 71-80)t the beginning ot the third chorus.. enabling them "to co-exist in a larger structure that transcends the confines of the thirty-two bar song fonn. . . Note. a stop . 9... introduces new ideas.' .. paraphras~g _the theme aria then would ·finiih with 'a little coda.he bar. tinue alone. and 87-89 for such traps) . thereby creating greater ~on~uity between choruses.harmonized . Yet. sequence based. differently each time and the melody also hu different rhyth~ic embellishmentS. When TIltum p18yed tunes with sn iliA· structure he woUld close the im- 11· ' .laet four bars of the theme that humoroUsly revolves with a two-bar blues phrase. and it seems as though no matter what kind of trap Tatum falls into he works himself out of it quickly . the latter meas1 ures are notable for Tatum's imqinative tehannonization of the theme. and virtuosic m~i~ making in the hands of a skilled and sensitive pianist-musician. I Surrender. . ing.. changes . 9'f all the components making up the Art Tatum ~tyle it is the art of ad lib playing that is at ·once easy to approach pianistically yet musically very difficult to pull offt Tatum created an excellent model for out-of-tempo solo piano playing that c~ . the characteristic runs take on unexpected tums (measures 62-66 are particularly delicious). " . '. transparent . for example. In ballads. and chords in me~ures 60h 61 which in. the pianistic texture on the weak beats of a measure. 80~81. He would then use the last few bars· ·of the the~e to' ~establish his tempo and execute a number of choruses.. how the s~~~ right-hand line in meas . The new material . thereby giving the material at hand a smoother flow and creating a more flexible.. III the Penultimate chorus. Toward the end of the piece he would again play out of tempo.where he repeats the same proced . Another interesting structural feature is the way the second eight bars of the theme are restated in each chorus in right-hand octaves and walking tenth chords in ·~e left hand . .Tatumts clipped. In "Fine and Dandy. This leads into. frequently begins phrases. run that leads right into the last chorus. due . lets loose .. with the walking bass t starting a bit later and then stopping abruptly to let the right-hand run con . two . introduced at the beginning of the fjrst four choruses begins at least one bar betore~and.

e~y ~ed' yersion.from chorus. breeds faster tempos. ~~~ revfI$on._ 'i~40'~rding ..' I' . ot ideas . .s1. ' " Sweet Lorraine I (DeCca. in relation to his recordings of 1949 and aftet. ballad style.t non-dotted.. Dear" is· a 'tine example of Art Tatunl"ts'baDad approach.tructive to take dif· ferent recordings of one common tune and compare th~ chrOnologically.lit:.. embraeel the essential structure of the song so when he finaDy arrives at the theme the basic arrangement makes a little more sense. " ." "That Old Feeling~" "Memories 'of You. I: i' . althoup he really does not play ad lib until the last five measures ot the piece. it found in the way he constantly wavers from a I£straightt.. " ''" "' tbere~is ~uch to ~ 8~d . • . and tentha. lIain ~presenting a man. For example.."commercial and"non~omm8rclaI alike including many re-recordings of standaid tunes.k of the " ." and "Jitterbug Waltz").. I". See Sweet Lorraine II)....proviaation ~y repeating the B and the final A sections of the tune. most importaDtly t' Tatnm hu added a IODI in1z9duction ~t ~ts the mood f9t the piece aDd. The first sixteen bars are executed in a manner akin to' classical piano'styles in that the rhythmic focus is centered within the highly ornamented treatmen't of the melody in the ri&ht hand and in the connective runs.. Not. ~t Having heard most of Tatum's complete recordings. comtiJ. Tatum frequently follows sections of tender passage work with thick arpegiated chorda and he makes effective use of left-hand counter-melodies and decorative harmon . length before safely settling into jazz tempo. It Iitrue that Tatum could reproduce 80me of his recorded ~tetpretatioftl note for note. monic sequence at measure 7 is smoother in 'the later version. Tatum would sometimes rhapsodize at. The har. the 1940 version of "Sweet Lorrame't ii fuller in ita realization ~ its earlier' counterpart (also taken from a transcription disc).. pulse to tripleta' or 'dotted eighths and sixteenths. Within one year Tatum.- • :- • • - • . • • • . ." "Don't Worry About Me. • • .' r" ".. that lasts all of measure 8.u "Danny Boy. .t are not only ~ reproductions of early rece:rdiltp but they also bear out the old jazz credo stating that 4~familia~ty. . importarit and revealing aspect of Tatum'.~~'j~)8nd~j.'l11elater. (His Pablo reconiings of "Y_~ayIU and "B8jm Beguine. Likewise.. Tbe sequence on ~e' Jater recording rewlves to the tonic inStead~ The introducti~n to the p~e'is four iNtead of two.ii "In a Senti· mental Mood. 1940) Sweet Lorraine U (Capitol. aPproach to the tune ~lved signiflcantlYIt . In this par:ticu1ar selection Tatum states the theme in tempo.:. .. AD. ' I' '. of a standard jazz pulse often within the l81De bar (measures 38-39 and 7S. • ... .. HI Surrender.~:'. even rhythmic.'. Indeed.. This technique illustrates Tatum's romantic impulses and there are many other tunes that utilize this vacUlating rhythmic approach in the Nonnan Granz solo aesaions (these in ..' • ' •• ~ow m~1 ' ••••• • .' I I. tc embellishments such as the whole tone scale in measures 18 and 20. It is basically a vi V I IV progression with contrapuntal movement in seventh." "You're BIase. is similar to the lesser known transcription dise veraio~ from 1939. to chorus' are clearer and.." HThe Way You Look Tonight.' the basic arrangement of. th~ ~tiol1lhiP. 1949) Because of his penchant tor setting his improvilations into arrangements Art TJtum was often accused ot not being a real jazz musician. where~ the earlier version has what is baSically an aUlDlentitd' ~th' chord on the 'third end fourth beats of measure 7 resolving to a domin~t chord. I think' it's ~. elude such tunes as "Lover Come Back to Me. . only did Tatum improvise '\'fi'th the melodic and harmonic materials of these songs but he also improvised with the stntciure of his se-called "arrangements .. is more' bilanced. the 1940 version of " "Gei Happy'.

anges the harmony each time around on the e Jut two m~ ot ~ ~rid__ reaching a ~imax. . and rhythmically and banDonical)y ·tDore eOJllpJu·.~ to~y organized as the earlier version.entive use of quoting. Of Jiil' later ~r~. . ":Tatum utlUzft· more.. Lee..~. . ~ ..." ~·EthelbertNevin's·uN~.. ··...... this . .o.··.l8Q... ..~) .J . . the gentle swing style and the effective.-...tt...perpetually spiced with unusual inter ... 75·76. .Wai~l·for the Robert E. full-chorded stride pauagee with their "clipped" tenths and lubtJeeoQJltermelodiesl Tatum's runs are naturaUy developed from melodic impulses and are used in such a discreet manner that they are even singable Tatum's harmonic geniuB is reveal~ as much in his melody line as in his chord progressions. ·the . ~~po. ~tion. . .·the :sam.'. tIi·ereby re~."uet. ..~ Con~1 .from··tbe ~.....U. lyridai:-·CIuatit.' c~omatically descending seventh . .oph~ticate4. choids--tive or take &: t~:··auiP"·.~~~ ~ p..:. .~ . . .ilito tni Iut. ll. In later recordings Tatum played these measures ( .. ifiilot:. . a major ~~tic. 4844.. ~: ". The contours 01· th_linea are fascinating. Note 1»1 ~. ~ 13 . . ..ue!ice·0. . )~. · ~ . : .. and· w81~g left-hand chords. Note ·also b~ Tatum .. they are. . . "Sweet Lorraine . . and the quote from '~ Monkey Wrapped His Tail Around the Flagpole" at measures ·~7-8). ·. tbat meshes perfectly with . ·and telling accents (see measures 11-12.. .ted· .Jd . carefree....· . I .(J"~~·. at measures 59·60 going .... . o~·the :··bridp With harmony as in the previous eight measures. . · .: -~. me· "'-:. eight ~~ .'~~~ ~ .U It has a sparse. tim~ :..

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