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Europian Union

Europian Union

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Published by Gaurav Gupta

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Published by: Gaurav Gupta on Mar 29, 2012
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. The EU traces its origins from the European coal and steel community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC).EUROPEAN UNION • European union is an economic and political union of confederation of 27 member states which are located primarily in europe . formed by six countries in 1958.

In 1957. (EEC) establishing a customs union and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for cooperation in developing nuclear energy. . which extended the earlier cooperation within the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and created the European Economic Community.HISTORY OF EUROPEAN UNION • After World War ii. the six countries signed the Treaties of Rome. The treaty came into force in 1958.

However. It came into force on 1 July 1967 and created a single set of institutions for the three communities. • Throughout the 1960s tensions began to show with France seeking to limit supranational power. although commonly just as the European Community.CONTI………. . which were collectively referred to as the European Communities (EC).. in 1965 an agreement was reached and hence in 1967 the Merger Treaty was signed in Brussels. Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission (Rey Commission).

Hungary. Since then. Lithuania. In 2004. The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force on 1 November 1993. Slovakia and Slovenia joined the Union. the Czech Republic. Finland and Sweden joined the newly established EU. and in 1995 Austria. euro notes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. the EU saw its biggest enlargement to date when Cyprus. Malta. Latvia. Estonia. In 2002. Poland. the eurozone has increased to encompass 17 countries.Conti…………. .

In the same year Slovenia adopted the euro.CONTI……… • On 1 January 2007. by Slovakia in 2009 and by Estonia in 2011. and in July 2009 Iceland formally applied for EU membership. followed in 2008 by Cyprus and Malta. In June 2009. . Romania and Bulgaria became the EU's members. the 2009 Parliament elections were held leading to a renewal of Barroso's Commission Presidency.

merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with legal personality. In particular it changed the legal structure of the European Union. the first of which is Herman Van Rompuy. and a strengthened High Representative. and it created a permanent President of the European Council. Catherine Ashton. the Lisbon Treaty entered into force and reformed many aspects of the EU.CONTI……… • On 1 December 2009.[ .

Conti………. with the majority voting for Croatia's accession to the European Union making it the 28th member state as of July 2013 .. Croatia signed the EU accession treaty. The EU accession referendum was held in Croatia on 22 January 2012. • On 9 December 2011.


Ireland. Poland. Malta. Belgium.The Lisbon Treaty now provides a clause dealing with how a member leaves the EU. Spain.To join the EU a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria. Luxembourg. Slovenia. Lithuania. and the acceptance of the obligations of membership. and the United Kingdom. France. the Czech Republic. Portugal. Hungary. Italy. Bulgaria. Luxembourg and the Netherlands—to the present day 27 by successive enlargements as countries acceded to the treaties and by doing so.MEMBER NATIONS • The European Union is composed of 27 sovereign Member States: Austria. Slovakia. including EU law. Cyprus. a functioning market economy capable of competition within the EU. . France. defined at the 1993 Copenhagen European Council.No member state has ever left the Union. Greece. Estonia. Romania. Latvia. Sweden. the Netherlands. Denmark. Germany. These require a stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law. Italy. Evaluation of a country's fulfilment of the criteria is the responsibility of the European Council. Finland. although Greenland (an autonomous province of Denmark) withdrew in 1985. The Union's membership has grown from the original six founding states—Belgium. (then-West) Germany. pooled their sovereignty in exchange for representation in the institutions.

The relationships of the European microstates. Liechtenstein and Norway.Kosovo is also listed as a potential candidate but the European Commission does not list it as an independent country because not all member states recognise it as an independent country separate from Serbia. The Croatian accession treaty still has to be ratified by all current EU member states. which has similar ties through bilateral treaties. and Switzerland. Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina are officially recognised as potential candidates. Andorra. Serbia and Turkey.• Croatia is expected to become the 28th member state of the EU on 1 July 2013 after a referendum on EU membership was approved by Croatian voters on 22 January 2012. San Marino and the Vatican include the use of the euro and other areas of cooperation CONTI……… . which are a part of the single market through the European Economic Area. Monaco.Montenegro. • There are five candidate countries: Iceland. • Four countries forming the EFTA (that are not EU members) have partly committed to the EU's economy and regulations: Iceland (a candidate country for EU membership). Macedonia.

Herman Van Rompuy .President of the European Council.

it is specific to the EU rather than originating from the Council of Europe . It is one of the newest symbols of Europe.Its translations in the other 22 languages of the EU (see right) have equal standing.Motto of the European Union • United in diversity is the official motto (in the English language) of the European Union (EU). The Latin version. In varietate concordia is also used as a compromise. alongside the European flag and anthem but. unlike most.


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