Presented by A. Krishnakumar M.Tech-OE11M034
Fathometer, echo or depth sounder measures the round‐trip travel time of an acoustic pulse emitted by a transducer at the ocean surface, reflected from the ocean bottom and received back at the same transducer Travel time is converted to range by multiplying half the round‐trip time by the speed of sound ’c’ Most echo sounders are calibrated for nominal sound speeds c= 15000 m/s or 800 fathoms/s (4800 ft/s) Accuracies achieved with no correction for departures from these nominal values are within a few percent of water depth Where greater precision is required, corrections are made based on catalogued historical sound speed data or by measuring local so und speed directly.
Factors affecting performance of Echo sounder
• Operating frequency • The characteristics of the emitted signal • Signal amplitude • Duration and • Modulation • The size of the transmitter and receiver aperture • Signal conditioning and processing algorithms Depth accuracy is governed by the precision of the travel time measurement,σt, which is controlled by signal bandwidth BW and received sig nal‐to‐noise ratio SNR: σt = 1/(BW*√SNR) Spatial resolution is governed by beam width φ, which is proportional to wavelength λ and inversely proportional to aperture size For both a circular piston transducer of diameter d or continuous line arra y of length d, the full half‐power beam width is approximately φ= λ/d Most common echo sounders for deep water operate near 12 kHz
these are caused by defective mechanical or electronic components • Systematic errors Systematic errors are mainly the result of the offsets (fixed errors) or biases (errors that vary under different conditions) in motion sensing of the survey vessel. misalignment of the transducer and other sensor mounting angles. These errors can be easily corrected if the sign and size of the systematic error can be identified. random errors will remain and these can be analyzed using statistical techniques
. • Random errors After removing blunders and systematic errors in the depth data.Sources of errors in echo sounder
• Large errors (blunders) Blunder is the terminology used to define errors made by machines. This category of errors can be determined and removed during calibration of the system.
ECHOSOUNDING MEASUREMENT CORRECTION
• Chart depth is obtained as the sum of • Observed depth (raw uncorrected sounding). • Instrumental corrections.• All depths must refer to a common datum. b)Settlement (difference between rest and underway positions). c) Squat (change in trim when underway) • Water level (tidal correction). which is the sum of a) Static draft (depth of transducer when the vessel is at rest).
. • Sound velocity correction (discrepancy between actual and constant velocity used by the sounder to derive depth). • Dynamic draft correction. Numerous corrections must be applied to the results of soundings in order to get chartered depths which refer to the defined datum.
Depth Measurement Correction
SOURCE OF ERRORS AND ITS CORRECTIONS
SINGLE BEAM ECHO SOUNDER
.25. Due to bottom slope
• Taking into consideration the different seafloor slopes. the error on the depth measurement. depends on both beam width and slope • If no correction is applied. dz.1. is half beam width and
is the slope of the seafloor. the error in depth will be given by:
where. in Figure 3.
Effect of beam width and seafloor slope on depth measurement and positioning
proportional to the mean sound velocity error or variation (dc) and to the depth:
. Due to sound velocity
• Sound velocity variation is difficult to monitor and produces.2. errors in the depth measurement (dzm). in single beam echo sounders.
b) temporal variation of sound velocity. . is the sound velocity measurement variance and is the sound velocity variance due to spatial and temporal variations
. due to sound velocity measurement error and to sound velocity variation is written as
The magnitude of the sound velocity error varies with: a) accuracy of sound velocity determination. c) spatial variation of sound velocity The depth variance.
. . dzt • In modern echo sounders. relates directly to depth error.e. time measurement error is usually small and constant.
is the time measurement variance. on the algorithms used for signal detection • The depth variance. This error is also taken into consideration during calibration
• The major error is a function of identification of the measurement point within the echo. Due to time measurement
• An echo sounder effectively measures time. The error in time measurement.3. converting the measurement to depth. dt. due to time measurement error is written as.
4. Due to roll and pitch
• Roll and pitch contribute to the error in depth measurement when the magnitude of those angles is greater than one half the beam widths. pitch changing θR by θP are depicted in the figure Effect of beam width and seafloor slope on depth measurement and positioning
. θR. • The error in depth measurement and in positioning due to roll. φ/2.
• For narrow beam echo sounders.e. i.Contd…
• Wide beam echo sounders are usually immune to the roll and pitch of the survey vessel. keeping the beam vertical regardless of the vessel’s attitude or correcting the measured depth and position as follows:
. this effect may be compensated with beam stabilisation.
installation should be close to the centre of gravity of the survey vessel with the known lever arms from the centre of gravity to the transducer. • With the roll and pitch instantaneous angles. ht. effect caused by the action of sea and swell on the survey vessel. hm. hi. the measured heave.
. • When using inertial sensors. • The heave compensator should be placed over the transducer to measure the heave in the same vertical axis.5. can be transferred to the transducer position. is measured with inertial sensors or heave compensators. through the application of the induced heave. Due to Heave
• The heave (h).
θP is the pitch angle and (xt. The total error on the depth measurement due to heave is therefore. yt & zt) are the transducer co-ordinates. adapted from Hare  for the reference frames defined is given by:
Where. θR is the roll angle. where dhm is the error in heave measurement and dhi is the error in the induced heave determination.
.Heave error correction
• The induced heave.
Where..e. is the heave measurement variance and heave variance
• The total heave variance corresponds to the depth variance.
is the the induced
in non significant roll conditions. it is possible manually to smooth the data in the echo trace.
. The general procedure. is that the echo trace should be smoothed half way between crests and troughs. This task requires considerable experience in the interpretation of the echo trace in order to preserve seafloor features.Manual heave filtering
• When no heave compensator is available.
• Shore-based electro-optical method to correct for heave (for nearshore surveys).Compensation for Heave error
Heave can be corrected by. • The use of a heave compensator. This is a vertically mounted accelerometer on a stabilized platform. Carrier phase data observed at a high sampling rate (1 Hz or more) is used to average the height variations caused by heave motion. Heave compensation by shore-based electro-optical methods
. • The use of precise DGPS.
relative to its motionless state level. The draught error propagates directly as a depth error. squat and relative position of transducer
• Draught: The accurate measurement of the transducer draught is fundamental to the accuracy of the total depth. for the same displacement. increases with the decrease of the float area at the sea surface.6. Due to draught. The reasons for the draught variation are mainly due to the fuel and water consumption. This effect. The draught variation. The depth error due to settlement is referred to
. is due to the regional depression of the surface of the water in which the vessel moves. settlement. • Settlement is the general lowering in level of a moving vessel. particularly noticeable in shallow waters. Even so it is generally necessary to update that value during the survey.
The depth error due to squat is referred to . In surveying vessels where the change in squat is significant. dzi is:
The total depth variance due to transducer immersion is written as:
Where. it is usually computed in a table of squat versus vessel speed. the change in level of the bow and stern from the rest condition in response to the elevation and depression of the water level about the hull resulting from the bow and stern wave systems. is the squat variance.
is the settlement variance and
.• Squat is another effect that takes place under dynamic conditions. • The relative position of the transducer: The total error due to transducer position to the water line. is the draught variance.
In cases of doubt over the validity of measured depths. an investigation of that sounding should be performed and the particular part of the survey line re-run if necessary.7.
. False Echoes
• False echoes are caused by foreign matter such as kelp or fish in the water column • False echoes are occasionally recorded by echo sounders and might be interpreted erroneously as correct depths.
8. These reflections are often recorded as multiples of the first depth
. Multiple echoes
• Multiple echoes – are echoes received subsequent to the very first one due to a multiplicity of reflections back and forth between the seafloor and the surface.
consequently. between two measurements. and κ is the ray parameter or Snell constant. given by:
. to errors in depth measurement and positioning. the sound velocity is represented as follows: where gi is the constant gradient at layer i. Due to sound velocity
• where ci is the sound velocity. is constant. it is reasonable to assume that the sound velocity gradient in a layer.• Errors in sound velocity or in its variation result in incorrect refraction solutions and. • The ray tracing is based on Snell’s law which states the relation between the ray direction and the acoustic wave velocity:
1. Though. • Assuming that the sound velocity profile is discrete . θi is the incidence angle referred to the vertical at the depth zi.
. dc0. given by:
• The depth error. by differentiation can be approximated by. σg corresponds to the variance of the gradient of the sound velocity profile and σc0 corresponds to the variance of the initial value of the sound velocity profile used for depth calculation. ρi. The depth variance due to sound velocity errors is written as:
Where. due to the gradient variation. dzc.Contd…
• In each layer the acoustic pulse travels a path with constant radius of curvature. and surface sound velocity variation.
Beam steering error due to sound velocity variation
The depth variance due to beam steering is: The estimated total depth variance due to sound velocity errors is written as
the contribution being given as follows: and • The depth variances are and • The total depth variance due to vessel attitude and heave is
.2. Due to motion sensing
• The depth measurement is dependent on pitch error and roll error.
are fundamental to the accuracy of the measured depths. squat and relative position of transducer. These errors will contribute to the depth error independent of the beam angle. The total depth variance due to transducer immersion is. Due to draught.
• The accurate measurement of transducer draught and knowledge of vessel behavior in dynamic conditions. settlement and squat.3.
• The tide variance . • The estimated reduced depth variance is written as follows.DEPTH REDUCTION IN ECHO SOUNDER
• The measured depths. The depth error from co-tidal error is dzco-tidal. The depth error due to tide error measurement is referred to dztide.
. due to measurement error and co-tidal variation is written as. corrected for the attitude of the surveying vessel. • In addition to the error in tide measurement. are reduced to the vertical datum by the application of the tide. sometimes a more significant error is the co-tidal correction which results from the difference of the actual tide in the survey area and in the tide gauge.
. the accuracy after the correction depends on the care and experience of the Hydrographer handling the measurement. Greater the correction. the corrections comes into picture. But.CONCLUSION
• Wherever greater precision is required. greater is the precision.
.htm • www.hk/basic/multi.knudsenengineering.REFERENCES
• “Depth determination”.gov.hydro. articulated in IHO publication.com/files/manuals/320MMaintenance Manual.