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Supdt. Engineer (Testing) Gujarat Energy Transmission co. Corporate office, Vadodara (M) 099789 36145 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Deputy Engineer (Testing) Gujarat Energy Transmission co. Mehsana. (M) 099252 09022 E-mail: email@example.com
Power Map of Gujarat
The Maximum Power handled by GETCO is 10461 MW.
of S/s CKT Kms. 1050 39516 Case Study 3 .Network Statistics KV Class 400 KV S/s 9 2047 220 KV S/s 73 13081 132 KV S/s 48 4764 66 KV S/s 919 19553 33 KV S/s 1 69 Total No.
1 132/66 KV. Tr.. was repeatedly tripped on diff. Relay indication: 1) Y phase. Was again tripped during rainy season. 2) HV 86 trip. There after. 4 .During season’s first rain The static differential relay DTH 31 was provided on Transformer The static Diff. .P 632). was tested & nothing found abnormal. Annunciation facia: 1)Differential protection operated. DR from P632 relay was extracted for analysis.Case Study:. relay was replaced by Numerical relay (Areva make. 2) 86 trip operated Action taken: The Tr. 50 MVA Tr. 3) LV inter trip DR shows waveforms of the Y phase fault current before and during tripping of transformer. relay.diff.
• It was found that there were hair cracks on cementing portion of the LA. 5 • IR value of the LA was found low. • Water had entered through cracks. • Leakage current developed by 132 kV Y-phase LA was more than the diff. •132 KV LA is in zone of differential protection. • LA has leakage current having third harmonics components(THRC) • The P632 relay has feature to block second harmonics and not the third harmonics component. • DR shows there are predominant (52%) third harmonics contents in fault current. • The gap type LA was replaced by new gapless LA and the transformer was charged. .Phase. Also angle between HV and LV current is 180 deg. pickup current and resulted into tripping of the differential relay on Y.The chart shows predominant (52%) third harmonics present in the fault current 3rd 52 % Harmonics Analysis • No increase in current on LV side. So there was no suspected fault in the transformer. • Detail investigation of Y phase HV side LA carried out.
With the help of DR. ‘In built’ Disturbance recorder and oscillographic waveforms are very good tools for measurement of harmonics content in the fault current. 6 .Root cause & conclusion The operation of diff. relay during first rain was due to the defective LA only. It helps in predicting for deterioration of equipment in advance and prevents catastrophic failure of equipment After replacement of LA no such incident observed. Due to static differential relay. there was no other fault data available for the fault analysis. pickup current and resulted into tripping of the differential relay. it was analyzed that there were predominant third harmonics in the fault current. The LA did not failed completely but leakage current developed by 132 KV Y phase LA was more than the diff.
2) 86 trip 3) LV inter trip • It was observed that transformer tripped on through fault of 66 kV outgoing feeder.2 220/66 kV. so no data available from the REF relay.EM).Case Study:. Action taken • HV side REF relay is EM type. 2) 86 trip operated. 100 MVA TR tripped on Ext. DR Shows normal behavior of HV & LV current & also shows no Fault current 7 . relay and Siemens-7SJ622 backup OC & EF relay triggered through operation of tripping relay 86. Rely indication 1) HV REF (ER-4B3. REF relay (HV) with 66 KV outgoing feeder tripped on E/F relay. • 66 KV outgoing feeder also tripped on O/C R-ph & E/F relay. • DR in Areva-P632 diff. Annunciation facia 1) HV REF protection operated.
Main 220 KV CT core 5 and HV NCT are used.phase CT secondary. • For HV REF protection. core and phase angle between HV and LV current shows that. • Magnitude and angle of the fault current was also matching with the fault current of 66 kV feeder. one wire found earthed. there was no fault in the transformer.Analysis • Analog channel of HV and LV current of diff. it was analyzed that there was trouble with CT secondary circuit of Main CT core 5. Manufacturing defect 8 . one core used for REF •IR value of CT secondary circuit taken and in B . So.
fault current passes through the transformer. 9 . Root cause & conclusion During fault on 66 kV outgoing feeders. it should not operate in through fault condition. there was unbalanced of current in protected circuit and this resulted in to operation of HV REF. the transformer was charged. Due to defective Main CT secondary circuit of core 5 of 220 kV CT. the wire got earthed. From DR it was clear that fault was external & there was no fault in the transformer. Defective cable replaced by another cable and after necessary testing of CT circuit. Due to proper setting of REF relay. • It was found that one wire had joint (normal PVC tape was provided for covering the joint) inside the cable (made during manufacturing). • Since water trapped inside the jacketing of the cable.• Same cable was disconnected and opened completely after removal of rubber sheath and armor of the cable. core and phase angle between HV and LV current shows that. there was no fault in the transformer. Analog channel of HV and LV current of diff.
was taken in to service. • All feeders connected on Bus A tripped on 96. • 100 MVA TR tripped on LBB and E/F with 96 relay. 100 MVA TR tripped on LBB. • All the feeders of 220 KV Bus A and B/C breaker tripped while 220/66 KV. 86 A & 86 B •Action taken •DR extracted from Backup relay Argus-2.Case Study:. 100 MVA Tr.3 220/66 KV. DR extracted from Back up Relay (Argus-2) for analysis. and E/F with 96 relay at 220KV S/S. 10 .
(Annu). (Annu.OUTPUT 1). 2).E/F Oprt.O/C Trip 5).LBB Trip to Energies 96 6).96 Operated Bus Bar S3.186 Operated 11 . (Annu. RL3.O/C Oprt. RL4 . INPUT S1. RL7 – Fault trigger (Not use). 4).) 3). RL5 . RL6 – LBB Oprt. RL1 – Protection Healthy.) 7). RL2.
1000-1250 m sec. TC-1 181.6 ms TC-2 20.6 ms R Phase Y Phase B Phase The Pole discrepancy Relay (PDR) & LBB time was of 500 m sec.6 ms 20.—PDR timing for transformer. 150 m sec.8 ms 20.6ms 20.5 m sec.Root cause & conclusion The transformer tripped on E/F on charging due to high inrush current. The breaker timing taken after the occurrence is as under. The setting of PDR is revised because second chance for tripping to breaker will be available than to operate LBB & clear Bus. After detailed investigation of breaker. it was found that the delayed tripping of R-Ph pole of transformer was due to weak/faulty trip Coil-1.2 ms TC-1 & TC-2 made parallel 20. The LBB of this feeder operated due to delayed tripping of R phase pole of this transformer while Y & B pole tripped. breaker pole tripped out timely than it has prevented LBB operation. Practically it is experienced that.0 ms 19. the maximum time required for closing operation of 220 KV class breakers is approximately 100. 12 .4 ms 20.0 ms 19. From DR if R-ph.—PDR timing for lines with A/R scheme in service. reactor & line without A/R scheme in Service. which can be seen from the breaker timing found as under. & 200 m sec respectively and also bus bar protection was in service.
1 (110%) at Soja end and direct trip received at Wanakbori end. •Testing of the over voltage relay carried out. Same was found normal. delay 5 sec) 2) 86 trip operated 3) 85LO operated • There was no actual system over voltage in GETCO system hence above tripping was suspected.4 400 kV Soja . •DR extracted from main 1 distance protection relay-ABB.Case Study:. • 400 kV Soja-Wanakbori line tripped on O/V stage.Wanakbori line was tripped on over voltage even though there was no system over voltage. Soja end: Annunciation facia 1) O/V stage 1 operated 2) Direct trip send 3) 86 trip operated Wanakbori end Annunciation facia 1) Direct trip received Relay indication 1) 86 trip operated Actions taken Relay indication 1) O/V Y-ph Stage .1 trip (VTU31. Setting 110%. REL521 13 .
1 kV (106. •Actual secondary voltage measured for core 1.14% of 231kV-400/v3kV) 3) B Phase Voltage 243. • It was decided to replace the defective CVT by new CVT. Occurrence was analyzed.0 kV (105. 14 • Comparatively high voltage measured in the actual secondary output of the Y-ph CVT.400/v3kV) 2) Y Phase Voltage 252.19% of 231kV-400/v3kV) Y Phase voltage was high compared to R & B phase voltage.From the DR voltage analog Channel. . Analysis • From the DR following data is obtained 1) R Phase Voltage 246. core 2 and core 3 of line CVT at C & R panels and at CVT junction box.49% of 231kV.1 kV (109.
15 .Root cause & conclusion Operation of Y phase over voltage relay and hence tripping of 400 kV Soja Wanakbori line was due to high secondary output of Y . Tripping of line on distance protection for under reaching or over reaching due to faulty VT supply can be prevented. In built Disturbance recorder is a very good tool for analysis of behavior of instrument transformer such as CVT.phase line CVT.
• New 66/11.55 kV. charged first time.operated 2) 86 trip operated Relay indication: 1) R.ph. Y. prot. • The transformer tripped on inrush current. B. • DR extracted from backup relay.Case Study:.ph. 16 .ph trip on ER make MIB 202 differential relay 2) 86 trip Actions taken: • MIB 202 relay is not having fault data storage feature as well as disturbance recorder with oscillographic waveforms. • ER make Argus 1 provided on the same panel for backup protection of transformer is having fault data storage feature as well as disturbance recorder. Annunciation facia: 1) Diff.5 ER make numerical differential relay MIB 202 tripped on inrush current on charging of new 66/11 kV 10 MVA Tr. 10 MVA Tr. even though relay is having second harmonics blocking feature.
17 .DR shows Fault current having Inrush current.
. DR shows that the fault current is having 115% of DC components..DR shows % dc Components and harmonic current drawn by transformer at the time of initial charging. 18 .
• Same DR simulated on other make static and numerical relays with inrush and second harmonics blocking feature.Analysis • These waveforms are analyzed and re run by simulation with the help of Trans win software and numerical relay testing kit of Doble on all recently purchased ER make MIB 202 relays. • It shows that MIB202 relay does not prevent protection operation against such inrush condition. • During testing. it was observed that relay issues every time wrong tripping command. 19 . All other relays have blocked tripping for such inrush condition. it should not operate. DR converted into Trans win file for simulation on another make relay of same function. . • As it is inrush magnetizing current condition.
Captured waveforms are useful for manufacturer to rectify the defect of particular type of fault and upgrade the feature in relay. 20 .Root cause & conclusion Tripping of the transformer was due to inability of the relay to block such type of inrush charging current. In built Disturbance recorder and oscillographic waveforms are very good tools for analysis of behavior of protection relay during particular type of fault in the field condition. Simulation of captured waveform on same type of another make relays is possible and same is useful for analysis of response and performance of various makes relays for a particular type of fault.
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