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10 Q1. The hydrolysis of urea by urease can be described by Michealis-Menten kinetics with the maximum reaction rate Vmax = 5 moles/l-min and Km = 0.05 M. Determine the time required to consume 90% of the initial urea concentration (S0), when (i) S0 = 10 moles and (ii) S0 = 0.1 mole? Q2. Evaluate the pH value at which the maximum enzymatic rate occurs for the below pH dependent mechanism for a given substrate concentration of S0 assuming Haldane’s approach?

Q 3. Enzyme inhibition kinetics: The following data was obtained for an enzyme ‘E’ for a fixed substrate concentration S0 Substrate concentration S0 50 50 25 Inhibitor concentration (mM) 0 10 10 0.9 0.75 0.6 v/vmax

Find the cell concentration in the centrifuge effluent. Determine the feed flow rate for the process and determine the final biomass concentration? Assume Yx/s as the yield coefficient? Q3. bulgaricus produces lactic acid only while it is growing. whose growth rate is given by 0.5 and YP/X = 2 for L. Fed-Batch Operation: A fermentor is operated as a fed-batch process.21/h.5g/g. If alpha=0. X0=50 g/l Find V0 (initial volumn). Determine the concentration of biomass at t=2h assuming quasi steady state. values of the following parameters are given at time t=2 h. Ks=1g/l. In a fed batch culture operating with intermittent addition of glucose solution. Find the cell concentration in the recycle stream.Determine the enzymatic rate as a fraction of vmax for a substrate concentration of 10mM and an inhibitor concentration of 25 mM. The feed stream has a substrate concentration of Sf.2g/g Determine the concentration of product at t=2h assuming P0=0.5g/g. The outlet stream contains 3 g/L of Lactose. Q2. F=200ml/h. It is known that L. Another organism has contaminated the fermentation. The system is operated under glucose limitation and the yield coefficient. Yx/s=0. It is known that Y X/S = 0. The system is at steady state. A chemostat (CSTR) is operated for the preproduction stage. mumax=0.4 µ= P 1+ 10 where P is the lactic acid concentration. The value of C is 1. The growth rate of L.5 and the recycle ratio is 0. Ks=0. The substrate concentration is kept constant in the reactor at S. Find the substrate concentration in the recycle stream Find the specific growth rate of the organisms. bulgaricus on lactose (S) in milk is given as follows: 0. A methanol utilizing strain has a specific growth rate given by: .1g/l.2 + S Will the organism spoil the chemostat operation through contamination? Q2. Yx/s =0. respectively. The growth rate of the organism is represented by Monod’s kinetics.3 1/hr. where the input to the reactor is sterilized milk with 5 g/L of lactose. Q1. Glucose concentration in the feed is S0=10g. bulgaricus. the feed flow rate and culture volumes are F=100ml/h and V=1000ml.7. Lactobacillus bulgaricus is used to ferment milk to yogurt. Q4. S0 = 100g/l.32 S µ= 0. V =1000 ml. when the system is at quasi-steady state. The kinetic constants of the organisms are mumax=0. In a chemostat with cell recycle.

2 s 0. beta=1 and YX/S = 2 g/g [Marks 3. growth related product formation constant. The outlet stream contains 3 g/L of Lactose.32 S µ= 0. It is known that L.5] Q3. bulgaricus. bulgaricus produces lactic acid only while it is growing.2 + S µ= Will the organism spoil the chemostat operation through contamination? Justify your solution with an explanation.4 P 1+ 10 where P is the lactic acid concentration.5 and YP/X = 2 for L. non growth 40 associated constant. Consider the following reaction sequence: S + E ↔ (ES)1 ↔(ES)2 → P + E Develop a suitable rate expression for the product formation (dP/dt = k4(ES)2) assuming quasisteady state approximation? . Determine the final volume and cellmass concentration for operating a fed batch reactor at maximum growth rate in the reactor. bulgaricus on lactose (S) in milk is given as follows: 0.4 g dw cells/g glucose. product and biomass formed to maximize (a) product productivity and (b) Biomass Productivity for an organism with the following growth parameters: P µ = 0. where the input to the reactor is sterilized milk with 5 g/L of lactose. whose growth rate is given by 0. [Marks: 3.µ = 0. Another organism has contaminated the fermentation. Determine the dilution rate.5] Q2 Chemostat Operation: Lactobacillus bulgaricus is used to ferment milk to yogurt. A chemostat (CSTR) is operated for the preproduction stage. amount of substrate consumed. The growth rate of L. Q1. alpha = 2. It is known that Y X/S = 0.61 − . The yield coefficient YX/S = 0.5 + s + s 2 50 Methanol concentration in the feed solution is 100 g/L with an initial cellmass of 20 g/L and an initial volume of reactor of 500L.

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