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Twenty Suttas

Twenty Suttas

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Sections

  • Ambalatthika Rahulovada Sutta
  • Kalama Sutta
  • Anumana Sutta
  • Pilahaka Sutta
  • Abhaya Rajakumara Sutta
  • Culakammavibhanga Sutta
  • Culapunnama Sutta
  • Bahitika Sutta
  • Piyajatika Sutta
  • Mahacattarisaka Sutta
  • Canki Sutta
  • Thana Sutta
  • Dhammadayada Sutta
  • Satipatthana Sutta
  • Culamalunkya Sutta
  • Kinti Sutta
  • Maharahulovada Sutta
  • Sabbasava Sutta
  • Devaduta Sutta
  • Cularahulovada Sutta
  • Final Comments

Twenty Suttas

An Introduction to the Theravadin Buddhist Scriptures

edited by

Steve Weissman

Copyright ©

2000-2011 Steve Weissman

Artwork Copyright © 2000 Rosemary Weissman All rights reserved. Permission is not necessary for reprinting for free distribution only. Twenty Suttas has been prepared totally free of charge. It is free by email attachment to anyone who wishes it. Permission is granted for anyone to copy and distribute freely this book in full form to anyone. If parts of this book are given to others or used within any other texts, websites, etc., please state where the material came from, so others may get the entire book, if they wish.

ii

Other books by Steve & Rosemary: Published: "Der Weg der Achtsamkeit," Hugendubel-Irisiana, Germany, 1994 "Meditation, Compassion & Lovingkindness," Samuel Weiser, Inc., U.S.A., 1996 "Méditation Vipassana," Médicis-Entrelacs, France, 1996 "...with Compassionate Understanding: A Meditation Retreat" Paragon House, U.S.A, 1999 "Mitfühlendes Verständnis," Jhana Verlag, Germany, 2001 Chinese translation of "...with Compassionate Understanding", Dhamma Cultivation Publishing House, Taiwan, 2002 "Wise Reflection: The Importance of Yoniso Manasikara in Meditation," Buddhist Publication Society, Sri Lanka, 2006 "Der verborgene Diamant," Waldhaus Verlag, Germany, 2009 eBooks available at www.watkowtahm.org: "Do you see the Diamond hidden in the Rock?" 2000 "A Little Inspirational Book" 2001 "Kleines Buch zur Inspiration" 2003 "Special Old Students' 10-day Retreat Teachings and Questions & Answers Volume One" 2005 "Questions & Answers Volume Two" 2004 "...con Comprensión Compasiva" Spanish translation of "...with Compassionate Understanding" 2006 "...con Compassionevole Comprensione" Italian translation of "...with Compassionate Understanding" 2006 "Questions & Answers Volume Three" 2007 "...ด้วยปัญญาอันเปี่ยม ไปด้วยกรุณา" Thai translation of "...with Compassionate Understanding", 2009 "The Brahma Viharas Old Students' Retreat Teachings and Questions & Answers Volume Four" 2010 "Questions & Answers Volume Five" 2010 "Mitfühlendes Verständnis" German translation of "...with Compassionate Understanding" 2011

.................................................................................... 18 Inference Pilahaka Sutta ............................. 29 Dung Beetle Abhaya Rajakumara Sutta.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 51 The Cloak Piyajatika Sutta .............. i Introduction ..................................................................... 59 Dear Ones i .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31 To Prince Abhaya Culakammavibhanga Sutta..................... 45 The Shorter Discourse on the Full Moon Night Bahitika Sutta...............................................iv Ambalatthika Rahulovada Sutta ..................................... 1 Advice to Rahula at Ambalatthika Kalama Sutta .....................................Table of Contents Table of Contents............................... 8 To the Kalamas Anumana Sutta .......................... 37 The Shorter Exposition of Kamma Culapunnama Sutta...........................................................

...............172 The Shorter Discourse of Advice to Rahula Final Comments....... 96 Four Qualities of a Person Dhammadayada Sutta ........................................ 79 With Canki Thana Sutta................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................185 ii .............................................................................137 What Do You Think About Me? Maharahulovada Sutta................................................................... 69 The Great Forty Canki Sutta ....................................................................................108 Four Foundations of Mindfulness Culamalunkya Sutta ....................................................................129 The Shorter Discourse to Malunkyaputta Kinti Sutta.............................................................................................152 Getting Rid of All Anxieties and Troubles Devaduta Sutta..........................................144 The Greater Discourse of Advice to Rahula Sabbasava Sutta .....................................................Mahacattarisaka Sutta.....................162 The Divine Messengers Cularahulovada Sutta....................................................101 Heirs in Dhamma Satipatthana Sutta..................................................................................

......................................................................................................................190 Glossary...Bibliography............................................................192 iii .

much time was spent researching some of the major and minor sections of the Pali Canon and these twenty Suttas were iv . but after that what were we to suggest? There are quite a few general “Introduction to Buddhism” books. or experienced ones who have not done very much scriptural study. the Buddhist Pali Scriptures are not easy reading! Many of the Suttas can be quite intellectual and beyond an average meditator’s understanding. Differences as to whether the writer is Buddhist or non-Buddhist. etc. then the biases can be more easily seen and the basic story of the Buddha’s life can be better understood. the Buddha says just a few words and the listener gets enlightened! It is obvious that often he was talking with people who were much more developed than most people today. This tends to make much of the scriptural reading difficult. Sometimes it is like reading about Calculus before one knows how to add and subtract. Normally our first suggestion is to read two good-sized biographies of the Buddha. We say two because often they are written with some bias of the writer. can affect the general feel of the biography. By reading two good-sized ones. “What books do you recommend?” and “Do you think I should read the scriptures?” Well.” These twenty Suttas (discourses) have been put together for the purpose of helping relatively new meditators. many of our old students have been returning and have been keen to learn more about Buddhism. The question of reading the scriptures demanded deeper thought. In some stories. so there is much on that by many writers at present. That has been our first suggestion. As we have been teaching for over twenty years. Frequently came the questions. meditator or scholar. It can get quite confusing and upsetting for many. Thus. known as the “Pali Canon.Introduction This book is a small collection of some of the teachings recorded in the Theravadin Buddhist scriptures. The thought of writing “Twenty Suttas” came from requests of our students. man or woman.

Take your time. Horner. F. different types of people are being taught. Nyanasatta Thera. children and adults. “Twenty Suttas” is not a direct translation of the scriptures done by a Pali scholar.selected to provide an introduction to the scriptures. W. These Suttas were chosen for various reasons. Maurice Walshe. And in some of the stories. rather it is one of his senior disciples. Venerable Dr. Even one Sutta in which the Buddha describes the Hell realms – very interesting to think about! In reading this book. at times. and then read the Sutta again. Woodward. by comparing various existing English translations written by recognized Western scholars: I. read the Sutta. That is. please do not try to rush through this little book. I would also like to encourage you to read each Sutta twice before continuing to the next. and many scholars have used older translations in order to prepare their own version. Rahula. in general I chose one translation and then compared other works with it. As well. There is also one Sutta where a lay woman disciple teaches her husband after being taught by the Buddha. It may be necessary. I have listed a bibliography at the end of this book. the Buddha is not the main teacher. a Western meditation teacher. L. In comparing these translations. ordained and lay people. These adaptations were done by myself. I would like to encourage you to read when you are not feeling tired. consideration was given as v . Phra Khantipalo and Thanissaro Bhikkhu. As most translations are fairly similar. illustrating some various aspects of the teachings. Even reading only one per day can be very valuable. This is because the nature and depth of the Suttas will often challenge our views. B. All Suttas have comments at the end and some have specific notes. rather when you are feeling fairly fresh with an open mind. They were also chosen as a fairly broad group. Venerable Nyanamoli Thera. The main one is that they seemed appropriate to the level of someone who has some meditation experience and who wishes to start looking deeper into the recorded teachings of the Buddha. to expand our perspectives and examine our life. Bhikkhu Bodhi. personal disciples and adversaries. Soma Thera. then read any notes and comments which follow the Sutta.

Of special note. In some cases. but also it has helped them build a better foundation in their practice. Such words as: Brahmin. I also checked the Pali text of the “Sri Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tripitaka Series. Dukkha. Personally. This is even clearer when one recites the Sutta. There were certainly difficulties regarding several words. them. their” as third person singular pronouns. There is also an index of these words for easy reference. Bhikkhu. All of the Suttas have been written in their entirety. To be able to follow a teaching word-byword without it being disjointed can be very important.” and Thai translations of the Pali Canon in many instances. consideration regarding how to phrase particular sections was based on experience as to how the section was applicable to one’s practice. Repetitious sections serve to help deepen the teaching. my apologies to those who would have preferred that I write the Pali words with any accent marks that they feel should be present.to usage of vocabulary and in trying to make the Sutta easily readable by both ordained and lay meditators. This can be a very important part of many meditators’ practice and a valuable aid. Nibbana. Tathagata and others are not easy to translate into English. The shortest of this collection is about two minutes to recite and the longest is about an hour. I have used “they. as is to be expected in any translation work. German translations of the Pali Canon were also used to check some points. Where the different translators did not fully agree. One of the ways that we are using them is to have our assistant students (staying with us for longer periods of time) memorize them one at a time. In printing the Pali words. I did not use accent marks. I have left the Pali word and put a footnote when it is first used. I have found reading Suttas which have parts left out to be quite distracting and interrupt the “flow” of the teaching. This has not only helped them as an introduction to the scriptures. I might also mention that we have been using these Suttas with our older students for many years to help them with their introduction to scriptural reading. especially when one feels isolated from vi . that is they have not been shortened simply because they have many repetitious parts or to save paper.

Soma Thera. B. As well. Rahula. To be able to recall the recorded words of the Buddha in one’s own mind can be a wonderful aid. I would like to thank Rosemary. Josie. If parts of this book are given to others or used within any other texts. etc. contentment and compassionate understanding of life.500 years! "Twenty Suttas" has been prepared totally free of charge. Nyanasatta Thera. and Mike for their help in proofreading and suggestions. It is a wonderful collection of many very valuable teachings which can help us find deeper peace.good friends. Thailand teachers@watkowtahm. It is sincerely hoped that this little book will help many in studying and understanding the Theravadin Buddhist Pali Canon. It is also of value to mention that this has been a practice which Buddhists have been doing for over 2. websites. Maurice Walshe. if they wish. L. Venerable Dr. F. W. Permission is granted for anyone to copy and distribute freely this book in full form to anyone. please state where the material came from. Bhikkhu Bodhi. And a special thank you to Kay for some direct translations from the original Pali. Much thanks and appreciation to I. Patrick. 2011 vii . It is free by email attachment to anyone who wishes it.. so others may get the entire book. Woodward. Andrew. Phra Khantipalo and Thanissaro Bhikkhu for their hard work in translating the Pali scriptures into English. Horner. Added thanks to Patrick and Helge for help with German translations and to Cathy for help with Thai translations.org 22 January. Steve Weissman Wat Kow Tahm International Meditation Center Koh Pah-ngan Island. Venerable Nyanamoli Thera.

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the Blessed One said to Venerable Rahula. “Rahula. said to Venerable Rahula.” Having turned the water dipper upside down. Venerable Rahula saw him coming from afar. washed his feet. Then the Blessed One. Venerable Sir.” 1 . do you see this little bit of remaining water left in the water dipper?” “Yes.Ambalatthika Rahulovada Sutta Advice to Rahula at Ambalatthika Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying near Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove.” “Whatever there is of a true meditator in anyone who feels no shame at telling a deliberate lie is tossed away just like that. arising from his meditation in the late afternoon. and having sat down. the Blessed One said to Venerable Rahula. “Rahula. Venerable Sir. and on seeing him. Then the Blessed One. sat down to one side. Venerable Rahula. do you see how this little bit of remaining water is tossed away?” “Yes. having left a little bit of the remaining water in the water dipper.” “That is how little of a true meditator there is in anyone who feels no shame at telling a deliberate lie. do you see how this water dipper is turned upside down?” “Yes. the Squirrels’ Sanctuary. went to where Venerable Rahula was staying at Ambalatthika. Venerable Sir. On that occasion the Venerable Rahula was staying at Ambalatthika. “Rahula. bowing down to the Blessed One. The Blessed One sat down on the seat set out.” Having tossed away the little bit of remaining water. set out a seat and water for washing the feet.

you should reflect on it: ‘This bodily action I wish to perform. uses its forefeet and hindfeet. Thus. Rahula. with painful consequences. verbal acts are to be done with continual reflection.” “In the same way. it uses its forefeet and hindfeet. the Blessed One said to Venerable Rahula. “Rahula. Having gone into battle. Rahula. Venerable Sir. even in jest. or to both? Would it be an unskillful bodily action. “Rahula.’ “So too. accustomed to battles. The elephant trainer notices that and thinks. its tusks like chariot poles. painful 2 . bodily acts are to be done with continual reflection. its head and ears and tusks and tail. its forequarters and hindquarters.” Having turned the water dipper right-side up. but will simply hold back its trunk. would it lead to self-affliction. do you see how empty and hollow this water dipper is?” “Yes.“Whatever there is of a true meditator in anyone who feels no shame at telling a deliberate lie is turned upside down just like that. imagine a royal elephant: immense. ‘This royal elephant has not given up its life for the king. and mental acts are to be done with continual reflection. There is nothing more (in training) for this royal elephant to do. its forequarters and hindquarters. Rahula: What is a mirror for?” “For the purpose of reflection.” “Whatever there is of a true meditator in anyone who feels no shame at telling a deliberate lie is empty and hollow just like that. when one is not ashamed to tell a deliberate lie. ‘I will not tell a deliberate lie. and its trunk. the elephant trainer notices that and thinks. “Whenever you wish to do an action with the body.’ “How do you understand this. Rahula. accustomed to battles. its head and ears and tusks and tail. pedigreed. Venerable Sir. having gone into battle. you should train yourself. ‘This royal elephant has given up its life for the king. its tusks like chariot poles. to the affliction of others. I do not say that they have nothing more (in training) to do.’ But when the royal elephant: immense. pedigreed.

to the affliction of others. painful results. to the affliction of others. lay it open to the Teacher or to a wise companion in the holy life. to the affliction of others. then any bodily action of that sort is absolutely unfit for you to do. you should reflect on it: ‘This verbal action I wish to perform. you know that it would not lead to selfaffliction. you know that it is leading to self-affliction. would it lead to self-affliction. is it leading to selfaffliction. on reflection. you should exercise restraint in the future. But if. you know that it would lead to self-affliction. to the affliction of others. happy results. you should reflect on it: ‘This bodily action I am doing. you know that it did not lead to self-affliction. on reflection. on reflection. it was a skillful bodily action with happy consequences. painful results. it would be an unskillful bodily action with painful consequences. then any bodily action of that sort is absolutely unfit for you to do. with painful consequences. reveal it. you know that it is not leading to self-affliction. But if. it is an unskillful bodily action with painful consequences. painful results?’ If. on reflection. “Whenever you wish to do an action by speech. you should reflect on it: ‘This bodily action that I have done. happy results. to the 3 . painful results. painful results?’ If. did it lead to selfaffliction. to the affliction of others. it was an unskillful bodily action with painful consequences. with painful consequences. it would be a skillful bodily action with happy consequences. or to both. then any bodily action of that sort is fit for you to do. or to both. to the affliction of others. Having confessed it. on reflection. to the affliction of others. “After you have done an action with the body. it is a skillful bodily action with happy consequences. then any bodily action of that sort is fit for you to do. on reflection. “While you are doing an action with the body. then you should confess it. or to both? Was it an unskillful bodily action. painful results?’ If. on reflection. or to both? Would it be an unskillful verbal action. or to both. to the affliction of others. to the affliction of others. or to both. or to both? Is it an unskillful bodily action. you know that it led to self-affliction.results?’ If. or to both. But if. then you can abide happy and glad as one who trains day and night in skillful bodily qualities. you know that it would lead to selfaffliction. with painful consequences. or to both. happy results.

But if. you know that it did not lead to self-affliction. to the affliction of others. you know that it is not leading to self-affliction. with painful consequences. “While you are doing an action by speech. But if. or to both. you should reflect on it: ‘This verbal action I am doing. then you should confess it. then any verbal action of that sort is absolutely unfit for you to do. painful results?’ If. to the affliction of others. lay it open to the Teacher or to a wise companion in the holy life. or to both. painful results. did it lead to selfaffliction. on reflection. then any verbal action of that sort is absolutely unfit for you to do. or to both? Is it an unskillful verbal action. you should reflect on it: ‘This verbal action that I have done. happy results. or to both. or to both? Would it be an unskillful mental activity. it would be an unskillful mental activity with painful consequences. you know that it led to self-affliction. then any verbal action of that sort is fit for you to do. Having confessed it. to the affliction of others. or to both. with painful consequences. happy results. on reflection. to the affliction of others. to the affliction of others. “Whenever you wish to do a mental activity. on reflection. or to both. “After you have done an action by speech. painful results?’ If. it is a skillful verbal action with happy consequences. on reflection. painful 4 .affliction of others. to the affliction of others. you know that it would lead to selfaffliction. is it leading to self-affliction. it was a skillful verbal action with happy consequences. reveal it. it would be an unskillful verbal action with painful consequences. or to both. painful results?’ If. you should reflect on it: ‘This mental activity I wish to perform. or to both? Was it an unskillful verbal action. to the affliction of others. it is an unskillful verbal action with painful consequences. then any verbal action of that sort is fit for you to do. it was an unskillful verbal action with painful consequences. on reflection. happy results. with painful consequences. on reflection. you know that it is leading to self-affliction. it would be a skillful verbal action with happy consequences. painful results. you know that it would not lead to self-affliction. to the affliction of others. painful results. would it lead to self-affliction. But if. then you can abide happy and glad as one who trains day and night in skillful verbal qualities. you should exercise restraint in the future. or to both. to the affliction of others.

or to both. it was a skillful mental activity with happy consequences. verbal actions. to the affliction of others. “After you have done a mental activity. who will purify their bodily actions. all those meditators in the course of the past. and disgusted by that mental activity.results. or to both? Is it an unskillful mental activity. it was an unskillful mental activity with painful consequences. ashamed and disgusted by that mental activity. verbal actions. to the affliction of others. Having become repelled. and mental activities. it is a skillful mental activity with happy consequences. “Rahula. on reflection. painful results?’ If. will 5 . did it through continual reflection on their bodily actions. “All those meditators in the course of the future. to the affliction of others. you know that it would not lead to self-affliction. to the affliction of others. on reflection. you should reflect on it: ‘This mental activity that I have done. “While you are doing a mental activity. is it leading to self-affliction. it is an unskillful mental activity with painful consequences. and mental activities. then you should be repelled. then any mental activity of that sort is fit for you to do. did it lead to self-affliction. But if. or to both? Was it an unskillful mental activity. and mental activities in just this way. you know that it is not leading to self-affliction. or to both. painful results. or to both. happy results. painful results. on reflection. then you can abide happy and glad as one who trains day and night in skillful mental qualities. to the affliction of others. painful results?’ If. then any mental activity of that sort is absolutely unfit for you to do. to the affliction of others. ashamed. with painful consequences. But if. you know that it led to self-affliction. on reflection. to the affliction of others. you know that it did not lead to self-affliction. or to both. happy results. you know that it is leading to self-affliction. it would be a skillful mental activity with happy consequences. or to both. on reflection. then any mental activity of that sort is fit for you to do. verbal actions. with painful consequences. then any mental activity of that sort is absolutely unfit for you to do. you should reflect on it: ‘This mental activity I am doing. you should exercise restraint in the future. who purified their bodily actions. But if. happy results.

Venerable Rahula was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words. “All those meditators at present. I will purify my mental activities through continual reflection. and mental activities in just this way. do it through continual reflection on their bodily actions. Majjhima Nikaya 61 Note Venerable Rahula was the Buddha’s only child.’ This is how you should train yourself.do it through continual reflection on their bodily actions.” Thus spoke the Blessed One. verbal actions. born on the day his father left the royal palace to seek enlightenment. Rahula. The Buddha declared Venerable Rahula to be the foremost disciple among those desirous of training. shortly after his ordination. who purify their bodily actions. and mental activities in just this way. I will purify my verbal actions through continual reflection. you should train yourself: ‘I will purify my bodily actions through continual reflection. Venerable Rahula was seven years old when this discourse was delivered to him. and mental activities. According to the Commentary. At the age of seven he was ordained as a novice by the Venerable Sariputta on the occasion of the Buddha’s first return visit to his family’s home in Kapilavatthu after his enlightenment. 6 . verbal actions. verbal actions. “Therefore.

during. Right Mindfulness. In the beginning. the Buddha warns Venerable Rahula not to tell a deliberate lie. Right Action.. is. after. Sympathetic Joy.. and much more.... Why was this Sutta chosen to be first? There are a number of reasons. can we accept our responsibilities and try to restrain ourselves from repeating the mistakes? Though short. Right Speech. Right Thought.. after.. within this teaching lies much of the scriptures: Right Understanding. Can we be “children of the Buddha” and work hard to be mindful of our actions. Now that you have read “Instructions to Rahula” once and also these “comments. be mindful. Compassion for ourselves and others... And this is what the Buddha wanted his own son to do. Reflect.. before. before. reflect. In its simplicity lies the total practice.” you may like to reread the Sutta again and look deeper.. Yet this is the practice. will you be able to heed this warning now?? Being truthful is very important to ourselves and to others. This teaching was given to the Buddha’s son when he was newly ordained as a novice monk. Following this short teaching.. But did we heed that type of warning when we were young? Now that you are an adult and a meditator. Moral Shame and Moral Dread... Right Livelihood. It is simple.? And if we do make mistakes.. Spoken to a gifted child of a very young age. be aware. during. all we really need – if only we could do it.? Can we work hard to be mindful of our thoughts. A simple warning for any child.? Can we work hard to be mindful of our speech.. in brief... after. Can you see the vastness of this simple little teaching? 7 .. before. continually change our actions. Right Concentration. during.. speech and thoughts to be skillful so that we can abide happy and glad.Comments by the editor This is the first Sutta in this small collection of teachings taken from the Theravadin Buddhist Pali Canon. and given to a young child. It is direct. Right Effort.

with its kings and its people. In later Suttas. a district of those Kosala people. “The monk Gotama. has been wandering in the country of the Kosala with a large community of disciples. and good in the end. to be the highest gods. Or. ‘The Blessed One is accomplished.” it means the Truth or the teachings which will lead one to realize the truth. enlightened. while wandering in the country of the Kosala people with a large community of disciples. this term refers to “higher” spiritual practitioners. with the right meaning Mara: A name used to signify the personification of our ignorance. and its Brahmas2. Brahmins. and has reached Kesaputta. sublime. fully enlightened.Kalama Sutta To the Kalamas Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One. A good report of Master Gotama has been spread to this effect. realized with direct knowledge. the “Brahmas” are considered. which he has. the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan clan. “monks and other religious teachers” in this reference. good in the middle. 3 Recluses and brahmins: In general. in particular. incomparable leader of persons to be tamed. at times to signify someone who is being controlled by their own ignorance and causing harm to others. 8 4 2 1 . perfect in true knowledge and conduct. knower of the worlds. came to Kesaputta. and especially those who are in a position to teach others. Brahma: Within the Buddhist view of the universe. were the acknowledged spiritual caste at that time in India. Dhamma: When spelled with a capital “D. I have often used the words. himself. teacher of gods and humans. He declares this world with its gods. The Kalama people of Kesaputta heard. its Maras1. He teaches the Dhamma4 that is good in the beginning. this generation with its recluses and brahmins3. in general. blessed. seemingly.

Kalamas. conversed in a friendly and courteous way. the Kalamas of Kesaputta said this to the Blessed One: “Venerable Sir. In a doubtful matter uncertainty does arise. they illustrate and explain it in full. do not make Arahants: A fully enlightened being.’ Now it is good to see such Arahants5. do not make the basis for religious beliefs reflecting on reasons. having its origin in some revelation from a God. while others. Venerable Sir. sat down to one side. As to their own teachings. do the same thing. Kalamas. do not make the basis for religious beliefs an authoritative tradition maintained by oral repetition. we have doubt and uncertainty as to which of these famous teachers is speaking truly and which is speaking falsely. some. saying nothing. do not make the basis for religious beliefs speculative metaphysical theories [or reasons and arguments]. 9 5 . do not make the basis for religious beliefs grounds for reliability of a person. and pull it to pieces. sat down to one side. you may well doubt. Having approached him. and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure. So seated. Moreover.” So the Kalamas of Kesaputta approached the Blessed One. When we listen to them. they abuse it. but as to the teachings of others. yet other religious and meditation teachers. do not make the basis for religious beliefs acceptance of a statement as true because it agrees with a theory which one already believes in. Venerable Sir. some prostrated towards the Blessed One and sat down to one side. do not make the basis for religious beliefs a point of view or inference. certain religious and meditation teachers come to Kesaputta. Come. you may well be uncertain. do not make the basis for religious beliefs report and hearsay. some greeted the Blessed One politely and having sat down to one side.” “Yes. do not make the basis for religious beliefs the authority of scriptures and books. revile it. on coming to Kesaputta. some called out their names and those of their clans and sat down to one side.and phrasing. aversion and ignorance of reality. raising their joined palms to the Blessed One. do not make the basis for religious beliefs an unbroken succession of teachings or of teachers. free of all greed.

speak false words and lead another into a like state? Is that for their loss and sorrow for a long time? “ “Yes. ‘Such teachings are unskillful. go after another’s spouse. take what is not given. Kalamas? When delusion arises within people. do they not: take the lives of living beings.” “Now.” “Well then. Kalamas. being overcome by delusion and losing control of their mind. Kalamas. Kalamas. does it arise for their benefit or for their harm?” “For their harm. Kalamas.” “Now. people thus given to aversion. speak false words and lead another into a like state? Is that for their loss and sorrow for a long time? “ “Yes. Venerable Sir.. does it arise for their benefit or for their harm?” “For their harm. people thus given to delusion. being overcome by greed and losing control of their minds.. thinking. Kalamas? When greed arises within people. such teachings are rejected by wise people. Venerable Sir.” “What do you think. such teachings are blamable. do they not: take the lives of living beings. Venerable Sir. people thus given to greed. and if followed and performed such teachings would lead to harm and ill.” “Now.’ But. does it arise for their benefit or for their harm?” “For their harm. go after another’s spouse. go after another’s spouse. Venerable Sir. speak false words and lead another into a like state? Is that for their loss and sorrow for a long time? “ “Yes. take what is not given.the basis for religious beliefs respect. when you know for yourselves. what do you think? Are these qualities skillful or unskillful?” 10 . ‘Our teacher says thus and thus. take what is not given. Venerable Sir. “What do you think. Kalamas.” “What do you think. Venerable Sir. being overcome by aversion and losing control of their mind. do they not: take the lives of living beings.’ then it is wise not to follow and perform such teachings. Kalamas. when aversion arises within people.

“Unskillful, Venerable Sir.” “Are they blamable or not blamable?” “They are blamable, Venerable Sir.” “Are they rejected or praised by wise people?” “They are rejected, Venerable Sir.” “If followed and performed, do they lead to harm and ill, or not?” “They lead to harm and ill, Venerable Sir. That is how we understand this.” “Therefore, Kalamas, was it said, ‘Come, Kalamas, do not make the basis for religious beliefs an authoritative tradition maintained by oral repetition, having its origin in some revelation from a God; do not make the basis for religious beliefs an unbroken succession of teachings or of teachers; do not make the basis for religious beliefs report and hearsay; do not make the basis for religious beliefs the authority of scriptures and books; do not make the basis for religious beliefs speculative metaphysical theories [or reasons and arguments]; do not make the basis for religious beliefs a point of view or inference; do not make the basis for religious beliefs reflecting on reasons; do not make the basis for religious beliefs acceptance of a statement as true because it agrees with a theory which one already believes in; do not make the basis for religious beliefs grounds for reliability of a person; do not make the basis for religious beliefs respect, thinking, “Our teacher says thus and thus...” But, Kalamas, when you know for yourselves, “Such teachings are unskillful, such teachings are blamable, such teachings are rejected by wise people, and if followed and performed such teachings would lead to harm and ill,” then it is wise not to follow and perform such teachings.’ “Come, Kalamas, do not make the basis for religious beliefs an authoritative tradition maintained by oral repetition, having its origin in some revelation from a God; do not make the basis for religious beliefs an unbroken succession of teachings or of teachers; do not make the basis for religious beliefs report and hearsay; do not make the basis for religious beliefs the authority of scriptures and books; do not make the basis for religious beliefs speculative
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metaphysical theories [or reasons and arguments]; do not make the basis for religious beliefs a point of view or inference; do not make the basis for religious beliefs reflecting on reasons; do not make the basis for religious beliefs acceptance of a statement as true because it agrees with a theory which one already believes in; do not make the basis for religious beliefs grounds for reliability of a person; do not make the basis for religious beliefs respect, thinking, ‘Our teacher says thus and thus...’ But, Kalamas, when you know for yourselves, ‘Such teachings are skillful, such teachings are praised, such teachings are approved and encouraged by wise people, and if followed and performed such teachings would lead to benefit and happiness,’ then it is wise to follow and perform such teachings. “What do you think, Kalamas? When absence of greed arises within people, does it arise for their benefit or for their harm?” “For their benefit, Venerable Sir.” “Now, Kalamas, people thus not given to greed, not being overcome by greed, and not losing control of their mind, do they not: refrain from taking the lives of living beings, refrain from taking what is not given, refrain from going after another’s spouse, refrain from speaking false words, and refrain from leading another into a like state? Is that for their benefit and happiness for a long time?” “Yes, Venerable Sir.” “What do you think, Kalamas? When absence of aversion arises within people, does it arise for their benefit or for their harm?” “For their benefit, Venerable Sir.” “Now, Kalamas, people thus not given to aversion, not being overcome by aversion, and not losing control of their mind, do they not: refrain from taking the lives of living beings, refrain from taking what is not given, refrain from going after another’s spouse, refrain from speaking false words, and refrain from leading another into a like state? Is that for their benefit and happiness for a long time?” “Yes, Venerable Sir.”
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“What do you think, Kalamas? When absence of delusion arises within people, does it arise for their benefit or for their harm?” “For their benefit, Venerable Sir.” “Now, Kalamas, people thus not given to delusion, not being overcome by delusion, and not losing control of their mind, do they not: refrain from taking the lives of living beings, refrain from taking what is not given, refrain from going after another’s spouse, refrain from speaking false words, and refrain from leading another into a like state? Is that for their benefit and happiness for a long time?” “Yes, Venerable Sir.” “Well then, Kalamas, what do you think? Are these qualities skillful or unskillful?” “Skillful, Venerable Sir.” “Are they blamable or not blamable?” “They are not blamable, Venerable Sir.” “Are they rejected or praised by wise people?” “They are praised, Venerable Sir.” “If followed and performed, do they lead to benefit and happiness, or not?” “They lead to benefit and happiness, Venerable Sir. That is how we understand this.” “Therefore, Kalamas, was it said, ‘Come, Kalamas, do not make the basis for religious beliefs an authoritative tradition maintained by oral repetition, having its origin in some revelation from a God; do not make the basis for religious beliefs an unbroken succession of teachings or of teachers; do not make the basis for religious beliefs report and hearsay; do not make the basis for religious beliefs the authority of scriptures and books; do not make the basis for religious beliefs speculative metaphysical theories [or reasons and arguments]; do not make the basis for religious beliefs a point of view or inference; do not make the basis for religious beliefs reflecting on reasons; do not make the basis for religious beliefs acceptance of a statement as true because it agrees with a
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theory which one already believes in; do not make the basis for religious beliefs grounds for reliability of a person; do not make the basis for religious beliefs respect, thinking, “Our teacher says thus and thus...” But, Kalamas, when you know for yourselves, “Such teachings are skillful, such teachings are praised, such teachings are approved and encouraged by wise people, and if followed and performed such teachings would lead to benefit and happiness,” then it is wise to follow and perform such teachings.’ “Disciples of the Noble Ones6, Kalamas, who are freed of coveting, freed of ill will, undeluded, clearly comprehending and mindful, dwell, having pervaded, with the thought of Metta7, one quarter; likewise the second; likewise the third; likewise the fourth; so above, below, and across. They dwell, having pervaded because of the existence in the entire world of all living beings, everywhere, with the great, exalted, boundless thought of Metta that is free of hate or malice. “Disciples of the Noble Ones, Kalamas, who are freed of coveting, freed of ill will, undeluded, clearly comprehending and mindful, dwell, having pervaded, with the thought of Compassion, one quarter; likewise the second; likewise the third; likewise the fourth; so above, below, and across. They dwell, having pervaded because of the existence in the entire world of all living beings, everywhere, with the great, exalted, boundless thought of Compassion that is free of hate or malice. “Disciples of the Noble Ones, Kalamas, who are freed of coveting, freed of ill will, undeluded, clearly comprehending and mindful, dwell, having pervaded, with the thought of Sympathetic Joy, one quarter; likewise the second; likewise the third; likewise the fourth; so above, below, and across. They dwell, having pervaded because of the existence in the entire world of all living

6 7

Noble Ones: Anyone who has obtained part or full enlightenment.

Metta: One of the four “Sublime States” with Compassion, Sympathetic Joy and Equanimity. There is disagreement as to a single English word to use in translation. One meaning can be: Compassion and Lovingkindness supported and balanced by Equanimity. 14

beings, everywhere, with the great, exalted, boundless thought of Sympathetic Joy that is free of hate or malice. “Disciples of the Noble Ones, Kalamas, who are freed of coveting, freed of ill will, undeluded, clearly comprehending and mindful, dwell, having pervaded, with the thought of Equanimity, one quarter; likewise the second; likewise the third; likewise the fourth; so above, below, and across. They dwell, having pervaded because of the existence in the entire world of all living beings, everywhere, with the great, exalted, boundless thought of Equanimity that is free of hate or malice. “The disciples of the Noble Ones, Kalamas, who have such a hate-free mind, such a malice-free mind, such an undefiled mind, and such a purified mind, are ones by whom four assurances are found here and now: “‘If there is a world beyond, and there is the fruit and result of Kamma well-done or ill, then at death, at the dissolution of this body, I shall be reborn in a good destination, in a heaven world.’ “This is the first assurance attained by them. “‘If, however, there is no world beyond, and there is no fruit and result of Kamma well-done or ill, yet in this very life I dwell free from hostility and affliction, sorrowless and happy.’ “This is the second assurance attained by them. “‘If ill (results) befall an evil-doer, I, however, think of doing evil to no one. Then, how can ill (results) affect me who does no evil deed?’ “This is the third assurance attained by them. “‘If, however, evil (results) do not befall an evil-doer, then I see myself purified in any case.’ “This is the fourth assurance attained by them. “Thus, Kalamas, those disciples of the Noble Ones, who have such a hate-free mind, such a malice-free mind, such an undefiled mind, and such a purified mind, are ones by whom four assurances are found here and now.” “So it is, Blessed One. So it is, Sublime One. The disciples of the Noble Ones, Venerable Sir, who have such a hate-free mind,
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such a malice-free mind, such an undefiled mind, and such a purified mind, are ones by whom four assurances are found here and now: “‘If there is a world beyond, and there is the fruit and result of Kamma well-done or ill, then at death, at the dissolution of this body, I shall be reborn in a good destination, in a heaven world.’ “This is the first assurance attained by them. “‘If, however, there is no world beyond, and there is no fruit and result of Kamma well-done or ill, yet in this very life I dwell free from hostility and affliction, sorrowless and happy.’ “This is the second assurance attained by them. “‘If ill (results) befall an evil-doer, I, however, think of doing evil to no one. Then, how can ill (results) affect me who does no evil deed?’ “This is the third assurance attained by them. “‘If, however, evil (results) do not befall an evil-doer, then I see myself purified in any case.’ “This is the fourth assurance attained by them. “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overturned, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. We go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha.8 From today let Master Gotama remember us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge for life.” Anguttara Nikaya III.65

8

Sangha: This has different levels. Here it refers to all Noble Ones. 16

Comments by the editor No small collection of Suttas like this could be complete without the Kalama Sutta. This is one of the most important Suttas in the entire Pali Canon. Here the Buddha is encouraging the Kalamas (and all who have read or heard this teaching for over 2500 years) not to believe just because; it’s a famous book, an old tradition, a famous teacher, our teacher, or any number of other reasons why people will often blindly believe. How much harm comes through blind belief? In other words, he is saying, “Test it. See if it is beneficial or not. Test it, don’t blindly believe just because...” Even with regard to his own teachings, he did not want people to just believe. How very important this advice is. Without it, people will follow all sorts of wrong teachings and unwise teachers. And much, much harm can come as a result. Because the Kalama Sutta is so important, it is one of my personal favorites and I include it in my final evening talk of our 10-day retreats.

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“What qualities make a person difficult to admonish? “Here. ‘Let the venerable ones admonish me. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. “A person lauds themselves and disparages others. The Venerable Maha Moggallana spoke as follows: “Friends. “A person is angry and they utter words bordering on anger.Anumana Sutta Inference Thus have I heard: At one time the Venerable Maha Moggallana was staying in the Bhagga country. though a fellow meditator asks thus. fellow meditators. 18 . “Friends. a person has evil wishes and is dominated by evil wishes. they think of this person as a person not to be trusted. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. “A person is angry and revengeful because of anger. “A person is angry and overcome by anger. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. if they are impatient and do not take instruction rightly. the Deer Park. at Sumsumaragira in the Bhesakala Grove. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. There he addressed the fellow meditators thus.’ yet if they are difficult to admonish and possess qualities which make them difficult to admonish. then their companions in the holy life think that they should not be admonished or instructed. “A person is angry and stubborn because of anger.” “Friend.” they replied. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. I need to be admonished by the venerable ones.

’ yet if they are easy to admonish and possess qualities which make them easy to admonish. “A person is envious and greedy. and relinquishes them with difficulty. if they are patient and take instruction rightly. ‘Let the venerable ones admonish me. they think of this person as a person to be trusted. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. 19 . this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. and show anger. I need to be admonished by the venerable ones. “A person adheres to their own views. holds onto them tenaciously. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish.“A person is reproved and they resist the reprover. though a fellow meditator does not ask thus. and bitterness. “A person is reproved and they prevaricate. “What qualities make a person easy to admonish? “Here. “A person is reproved and they fail to account for their conduct. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. hate. “Friends. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. “A person is fraudulent and deceitful. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. then their companions in the holy life think that they should be admonished and instructed. “A person is reproved and they counter-reprove the reprover. “Friends. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. “A person is obstinate and arrogant. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. a person has no evil wishes and is not dominated by evil wishes. lead the talk aside. “A person is contemptuous and domineering. these are called the qualities that make a person difficult to admonish. this is a quality which makes them difficult to admonish. “A person is reproved and they denigrate the reprover.

“A person is not fraudulent and deceitful. “A person is not angry and overcome by anger. “A person is reproved and they do not prevaricate. “A person is not angry and revengeful because of anger. “Friends. “A person is reproved and they do not denigrate the reprover. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. and bitterness. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. “A person is not angry and they do not utter words bordering on anger. 20 . this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. “A person is reproved and they do not fail to account for their conduct. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. “A person is not contemptuous and domineering. “A person is not obstinate or arrogant. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. “A person is not angry and stubborn because of anger. “A person is reproved and they do not counter-reprove the reprover. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. lead the talk aside. these are called the qualities that make a person easy to admonish. and they relinquish them easily. “A person is reproved and they do not resist the reprover. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. “A person does not adhere to their own views or hold onto them tenaciously. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. and show anger. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. this is a quality which makes them easy to admonish. “A person is not envious and greedy.“A person does not laud themselves and disparage others. hate.

‘I shall not be angry and revengeful because of anger. who knows this. who knows this. ‘I shall not be angry and utter words bordering on anger. who knows this. If I were to have evil wishes and be dominated by evil wishes. should arouse their mind thus.’ A meditator. ‘I shall not be angry and overcome by anger.’ “‘A person who is angry and overcome by anger is displeasing and disagreeable to me. who knows this.’ “‘A person who is angry and stubborn because of anger is displeasing and disagreeable to me. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others. should arouse their mind thus.’ “‘A person who lauds themselves and disparages others is displeasing and disagreeable to me. If I were angry and revengeful because of anger. should arouse their mind thus.“Now. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others. should arouse their mind thus. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others. If I were to laud myself and disparage others.’ A meditator. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others.’ A meditator. If I were angry and uttered words bordering on anger. If I were angry and overcome by anger. If I were angry and stubborn because of anger. ‘I shall not laud myself and disparage others. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others.’ “‘A person who is angry and revengeful because of anger is displeasing and disagreeable to me.’ A meditator.’ A meditator. If I were reproved and resisted 21 .’ “‘A person who is reproved and resists the reprover is displeasing and disagreeable to me. friends. should arouse their mind thus. ‘I shall not be angry and stubborn because of anger. ‘I shall not have evil wishes and be dominated by evil wishes.’ A meditator.’ “‘A person who is angry and utters words bordering on anger is displeasing and disagreeable to me. a fellow meditator ought to infer about themselves in the following way: “‘A person who has evil wishes and is dominated by evil wishes is displeasing and disagreeable to me. who knows this. who knows this. should arouse their mind thus.

’ A meditator. ‘I shall not be reproved and fail to account for my conduct. led the talk aside. hate. lead the talk aside. ‘I shall not be contemptuous and domineering. and bitterness is displeasing and disagreeable to me.the reprover. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others. should arouse their mind thus. and show anger. and shows anger. If I were envious and greedy. should arouse their mind thus. and bitterness. ‘I shall not be reproved and resist the reprover. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others.’ A meditator. who knows this. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others. ‘I shall not be reproved and counter-reprove the reprover.’ “‘A person who is reproved and prevaricates. who knows this. ‘I shall not be reproved and denigrate the reprover. hate.’ A meditator. who knows this. leads the talk aside.’ A meditator. If I were reproved and denigrated the reprover.’ “‘A person who is envious and greedy is displeasing and disagreeable to me. should arouse their mind thus.’ “‘A person who is contemptuous and domineering is displeasing and disagreeable to me. hate. ‘I shall not be reproved and prevaricate. and showed anger. who knows this.’ A meditator. should arouse their mind thus. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others.’ “‘A person who is reproved and fails to account for their conduct is displeasing and disagreeable to me. should arouse their mind thus. If I were reproved and failed to account for my conduct.’ “‘A person who is reproved and counter-reproves the reprover is displeasing and disagreeable to me. should arouse their mind thus. who knows 22 . I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others.’ A meditator.’ A meditator.’ “‘A person who is reproved and denigrates the reprover is displeasing and disagreeable to me. who knows this. and bitterness. If I were reproved and prevaricated. If I were reproved and counter-reproved the reprover. who knows this. If I were contemptuous and domineering.

’ “‘A person who is fraudulent and deceitful is displeasing and disagreeable to me.’ A meditator.’ then they can abide happy and glad. when they review themselves. when they review themselves.this. “‘Do I laud myself and disparage others?’ If. friends. ‘I shall not be fraudulent and deceitful. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others.’ “Now. they know. ‘I shall not adhere to my own views. and relinquishes them with difficulty is displeasing and disagreeable to me. But if. and relinquish them with difficulty. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others. ‘I do not have evil wishes and I am not dominated by evil wishes. If I were fraudulent and deceitful. who knows this. 23 . hold onto them tenaciously. when they review themselves. who knows this.’ then they can abide happy and glad. when they review themselves.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states.’ A meditator. But if.’ “‘A person who adheres to their own views. If I were to adhere to my own views. a fellow meditator should review themselves thus: “‘Do I have evil wishes and am I dominated by evil wishes?’ If. should arouse their mind thus. they know. ‘I do not laud myself and disparage others. who knows this. holds onto them tenaciously. ‘I shall not be envious and greedy. training day and night in wholesome states. should arouse their mind thus. If I were obstinate and arrogant.’ A meditator. should arouse their mind thus. ‘I do have evil wishes and I am dominated by evil wishes. they know. should arouse their mind thus. training day and night in wholesome states.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others. ‘I do laud myself and disparage others. hold onto them tenaciously.’ “‘A person who is obstinate and arrogant is displeasing and disagreeable to me. ‘I shall not be obstinate and arrogant. and relinquish them with difficulty. they know.

’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. ‘I do become angry and overcome by anger. they know. they know.’ then they can abide happy and glad. they know. when they review themselves. when they review themselves.’ then they can abide happy and glad. they know. when they review themselves. ‘I do get reproved and resist the reprover. ‘I do not get reproved and resist the reprover.’ then they can abide happy and glad. ‘I do get reproved and denigrate the reprover. they know.’ then they should make an effort to abandon 24 . But if. ‘I do not become angry and revengeful because of anger. training day and night in wholesome states. they know. ‘I do become angry and revengeful because of anger. training day and night in wholesome states. But if. they know.“‘Do I become angry and overcome by anger?’ If.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. training day and night in wholesome states. they know. when they review themselves.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. training day and night in wholesome states. ‘I do not become angry and stubborn because of anger. when they review themselves. when they review themselves. But if. when they review themselves. “‘Do I get reproved and denigrate the reprover?’ If. they know. they know. ‘I do become angry and utter words bordering on anger. when they review themselves. when they review themselves.’ then they can abide happy and glad. when they review themselves. they know. But if.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. training day and night in wholesome states. ‘I do become angry and stubborn because of anger.’ then they can abide happy and glad. when they review themselves. But if. ‘I do not become angry and overcome by anger. ‘I do not become angry and utter words bordering on anger. “‘Do I become angry and utter words bordering on anger?’ If. “‘Do I get reproved and resist the reprover?’ If. “‘Do I become angry and stubborn because of anger?’ If. “‘Do I become angry and revengeful because of anger?’ If.

‘I do not get reproved and counter-reprove the reprover. hate.’ then they can abide happy and glad. and bitterness. lead the talk aside. when they review themselves. when they review themselves. But if. lead the talk aside.’ then they can abide happy and glad. they know. they know. they know. when they review themselves. But if. ‘I am not contemptuous and domineering. they know. “‘Do I get reproved and prevaricate. when they review themselves. ‘I do not get reproved and denigrate the reprover. But if. But if. training day and night in wholesome states. “‘Am I contemptuous and domineering?’ If. ‘I do not get reproved and prevaricate. ‘I do not get reproved and fail to account for my conduct.’ then they can abide happy and glad. “‘Do I get reproved and counter-reprove the reprover?’ If.these unwholesome states. and bitterness. and bitterness?’ If.’ then they can abide happy and glad. training day and night in wholesome states.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. ‘I do get reproved and fail to account for my conduct.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. But if. ‘I do get reproved and prevaricate. and show anger. when they review themselves. they know. when they review themselves. ‘I am envious and greedy. when they review themselves. they know. lead the talk aside. when they review themselves. they know. they know. “‘Am I envious and greedy?’ If. they know. hate. ‘I do get reproved and counter-reprove the reprover. they know.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. training day and night in wholesome states. hate.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. training day and night in wholesome states.’ then they can abide happy and glad. “‘Do I get reproved and fail to account for my conduct?’ If. ‘I am contemptuous and domineering. when they review themselves. when they review themselves. ‘I am not envious and 25 . they know. training day and night in wholesome states.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. and show anger. and show anger. But if. when they review themselves.

“Friends. ‘I am not fraudulent and deceitful. when they review themselves. they know. they know. and relinquish them with difficulty. training day and night in wholesome states. ‘I am not obstinate and arrogant. hold onto them tenaciously.’ So too. fond of ornaments. ‘It is a gain for me that my face is clean. But if. if they see that these unwholesome states are not abandoned in themselves.’ then they can abide happy and glad. they know.’ then they can abide happy and glad. But 26 .’ then they can abide happy and glad. ‘I am fraudulent and deceitful. But if. hold onto them tenaciously. then they should make an effort to abandon them. they become glad thus.greedy. “‘Am I fraudulent and deceitful?’ If. hold onto them tenaciously. “‘Am I obstinate and arrogant?’ If. if they see that these unwholesome states are not abandoned in themselves. then they should make an effort to abandon them. then they can abide happy and glad. when they review themselves. and relinquish them with difficulty.’ then they can abide happy and glad. ‘I am obstinate and arrogant. youthful.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. when they review themselves. “Just as when a young woman or man. sees a smudge or a blemish on it. But if. But if. when they review themselves thus. training day and night in wholesome states. they know. when they review themselves. training day and night in wholesome states. but if they see no smudge or blemish on it. when they review themselves.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. when they review themselves. they know. on viewing the image of their own face in a clear bright mirror or in a basin of clear water. they know. “‘Do I adhere to my own views. ‘I do not adhere to my own views.’ then they should make an effort to abandon these unwholesome states. and relinquish them with difficulty?’ If. ‘I do adhere to my own views. when a meditator reviews themselves thus. they make an effort to remove it. training day and night in wholesome states. they see that they are abandoned in themselves. training day and night in wholesome states. when a meditator reviews themselves thus.

there were no audio recorders. when they review themselves thus. but to use that judgement to see. Comments by the editor Fairly straightforward. and. The fellow meditators were satisfied and delighted in Venerable Maha Moggallana’s words. learn. Many Suttas are similar. Thus. This Sutta also illustrates an example of writing style with much repetition. by having more parts which are similar. The other one was the Venerable Sariputta. etc. repeat. we are encouraged. memorizing is easier to do. “Do I have these qualities in me?” and then to work to let go of them. Well. Listen. not just to judge them.” Thus spoke Venerable Maha Moggallana. memorize. cameras. this Sutta encourages us to become aware of sixteen ways in which we or others can become “displeasing and disagreeable. As I 27 . In those days teachers often taught students to memorize.if. here you see much more. Why is this? One of the main reasons is that when the Buddha taught. This was how teachings were passed on from generation to generation. You might have noticed the sections in “Advice to Rahula at Ambalatthika” and “The Kalama Sutta” where there were repetitions. Majjhima Nikaya 15 Note The Venerable Maha Moggallana was considered one of the two top disciples of the Buddha. they see that they are abandoned in themselves. then they can abide happy and glad. training day and night in wholesome states.” And with judging others. in which parts are repeated over and over. it is recorded that none of his teachings were written in books until about 300 years after he died.

. each one fresh. each one clear. 28 .mentioned in the introduction. try to read each paragraph one at a time.. clear mind. clear mind.. A second and very important reason also becomes apparent if we have ever listened to a Sutta spoken which has many repetitions. it may go deeper and deeper and deeper. memorizing Suttas is still used today by many Buddhists.. concentrating on the teachings. as it gets repeated. That is – if we can listen with an open. If we can listen with an open. So if you read this Sutta again.

followers. followers. honor and fame. stuffed with dung. Having eaten there as much as they wished. am invited again for the next day. that will be for the long lasting unhappiness and suffering of this foolish person. with a big pile of dung in front of it. thinking. “Suppose. when a certain follower9 is overwhelmed by gain. would look down on the other dung beetles. I am a dung eater! I am full with dung! I am stuffed with dung! I have a big pile of dung in front of me!’ “In the same way. terrible. being of little influence. I. serious harsh dangers to the attainment of the highest freedom from bondage. a resting place and illness-related medical requisites. ‘It is indeed me. my almsfood is plenty. 29 . with their mind entangled. a dung eater. I. are attachments to gain. They look down on other friendly. in the morning they put on their robes.’ “They are overwhelmed by gain. are attachments to gain. almsfood. being invited again for the next day. because of that. do not receive robes. honor and fame. a resting place and illness-related medical requisites. honor and fame. almsfood. take their bowl and upper robe and go for alms into a village or town. Having returned to the monastery they boast in the middle of a group of disciples. 9 In this case. with their mind entangled. their almsfood is plenty. And this dung beetle. followers.Pilahaka Sutta Dung Beetle At Savatthi: “Terrible. indeed. But these other disciples. have eaten as much as I wished. In this way. honor and fame. “Followers. indeed. “a certain follower” is an ordained disciple. full with dung. having little merit. there was a dung beetle. indeed. ‘I. serious harsh dangers to the attainment of the highest freedom from bondage. receive robes. well behaved disciples.

pleasure & pain. honor and fame.. 30 .” Samyutta Nikaya XVII. followers. How much pain does this bring in the world? How much pain has this brought in your world? Working with our attachments to the eight worldly conditions. honor and fame. and we will not let any arisen gain. fame & obscurity. you should train yourselves.5 Comments by the editor Very short but very deep and a major warning to all of us. praise & blame. They are very important aspects of our life and of our meditation practice. Attachment to gain.“Thus you should train yourselves. gain & loss. So important that it is a major focus of our teaching for our more experienced old students.. honor and fame entangle our minds. ‘We will give up attachment to gain.’ In this way.

Refute the words of the monk Gotama. go to the monk Gotama and say this.’” “But how. would the Tathagata10 say words that are unwelcome and disagreeable to others?’ If the monk Gotama. answers. sat to one side. Venerable Sir. ‘The Tathagata would not say words that are unwelcome and disagreeable to others. Then Prince Abhaya went to Nigantha Nataputta. As he was sitting there. he won’t be able to swallow it down or spit it up. In 10 Tathagata: A term used to represent the Buddha. ‘Then how is there any difference between you. and on arrival. answers.’ But if the monk Gotama. in the Bamboo Grove.’ then you should say. did you say of Devadatta that “Devadatta is destined for the states of deprivation. Just as if a two-horned chestnut were stuck in a person’s throat.’ then you should say. Prince. and this admirable report about you will spread afar. thus asked. Devadatta is destined for hell. will I refute his doctrine?” “Come Prince. ‘Venerable Sir. ‘The Tathagata would say words that are unwelcome and disagreeable to others. who is so powerful and mighty. and an ordinary person? For even an ordinary person would say words that are unwelcome and disagreeable to others.’ When the monk Gotama is asked this doubleedged question by you. Devadatta will remain (in hell) for an eon. 31 . they would not be able to swallow it down or spit it up. ‘Then how. thus asked.Abhaya Rajakumara Sutta To Prince Abhaya Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying near Rajagaha.”? For Devadatta was angry and upset with that speech of yours. Venerable Sir. “Come. now. Venerable Sir. ‘Prince Abhaya has refuted the doctrine of the monk Gotama. the Squirrels’ Sanctuary. Nigantha Nataputta said to him. Devadatta is incurable. having bowed down to him.

would the Tathagata say words that are unwelcome and disagreeable to others?” “Prince. Prince Abhaya. Venerable Sir. sat to one side. when the Blessed One had eaten and had removed his hand from his bowl. I went to Nigantha Nataputta. the Niganthas are destroyed. keeping him on his right. early in the morning. ‘Come. Venerable Sir.” Responding.” Prince Abhaya rose from his seat. Then. Refute the words of the monk Gotama.” So he said to the Blessed One. As I was sitting there. “Today is not the time to refute the Blessed One’s words. he bowed down to the Blessed One and sat to one side. Venerable Sir. On arrival. and this admirable report 32 . Tomorrow in my own home I will overturn the Blessed One’s words.” “Then right here.the same way. served and satisfied the Blessed One with various kinds of good food. Prince Abhaya took a lower seat and sat down to one side. Nigantha Nataputta said to me. when the monk Gotama is asked this two-pronged question by you. departed. and on arrival. the Niganthas are destroyed’?” “Just yesterday. Prince. “Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir. now. the Blessed One put on his robes and. he glanced up at the sun and thought. ‘Then right here.” The Blessed One consented with silence. consent to my offer of tomorrow’s meal. After the night had passed. As he was sitting there. he sat down on a seat made ready.” “But Prince. keeping him on his right. with his own hand. “May the Blessed One. and after paying homage to the Blessed One. there is no outright yes-or-no answer to that. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One. carrying his bowl and outer robe. and after paying homage to Nigantha Nataputta. On arrival. rose from his seat. together with three others. Then Prince Abhaya. “As you say. he won’t be able to swallow it down or spit it up. went to Prince Abhaya’s home. and then went to the Blessed One. why do you say. departed. having bowed down to him. understanding the Blessed One’s consent.

go to the monk Gotama and say this. would the Tathagata say words that are unwelcome and disagreeable to others?” If the monk Gotama. ‘Come Prince. and an ordinary person? For even an ordinary person would say words that are unwelcome and disagreeable to others. through your own negligence or that of the nurse.’” At that time a baby boy was lying face-up on the prince’s lap. Devadatta is incurable. even if it meant drawing blood. he won’t be able to swallow it down or spit it up. Venerable Sir. “Then how is there any difference between you. who is so powerful and mighty. 33 . unbeneficial. Devadatta is destined for hell.” then you should say.” But if the monk Gotama. I would take it out. In the same way. Prince. If I couldn’t get it out right away. he won’t be able to swallow it down or spit it up. what would you do?” “I would take it out.”’ “And I said.” then you should say. thus asked. Venerable Sir. “Prince Abhaya has refuted the doctrine of the monk Gotama. answers. “The Tathagata would not say words that are unwelcome and disagreeable to others. answers. “The Tathagata would say words that are unwelcome and disagreeable to others.” “In the same way. Venerable Sir. “Then how. were to put a stick or a piece of gravel into his mouth. ‘But how. “What do you think. Venerable Sir. Prince: “As to words that the Tathagata knows to be untrue. they would not be able to swallow it down or spit it up. then holding his head in my left hand and crooking a finger of my right. unwelcome and disagreeable to others. if this young boy. Just as if a two-horned chestnut were stuck in a person’s throat.’? For Devadatta was angry and upset with that speech of yours. when the monk Gotama is asked this two-pronged question by you. incorrect. did you say of Devadatta that ‘Devadatta is destined for the states of deprivation. will I refute his doctrine?’ “He said. “Venerable Sir.” When the monk Gotama is asked this double-edged question by you.about you will spread afar. Why is that? Because I have compassion for the young boy. So the Blessed One said to the prince. thus asked. Devadatta will remain (in hell) for an eon. he does not say them.

‘If those who approach me ask such. I am renowned for being skilled in the parts of a chariot. Answer as you see fit. I will ask you a counter-question. All the parts of a chariot are well-known to me. he does not say them. are you skilled in the parts of a chariot?” “Yes. having formulated questions. What do you think. he knows the proper time for saying them.” “And what do you think. householders or monks and nuns. unwelcome and disagreeable to others. unbeneficial. many wise nobles or priests. I am skilled in the parts of a chariot. ‘If those who approach me ask such.” “Venerable Sir. Do these thoughts appear in his awareness beforehand. but unbeneficial. but endearing and agreeable to others. Venerable Sir. ‘What is the name of this part of the chariot?’ do these thoughts appear in your awareness beforehand. but unbeneficial. householders or monks and nuns. “As to words that the Tathagata knows to be true and correct. endearing and agreeable to others. “And as to words that the Tathagata knows to be true. correct. correct. beneficial. he does not say them. he knows the proper time for saying them. I – thus asked – will answer in this way’ or do you come up with the answer upon being asked?” “Venerable Sir.“As to words that the Tathagata knows to be true and correct. “As to words that the Tathagata knows to be true. 34 . Prince. yet endearing and agreeable to others. when people come and ask you. but unwelcome and disagreeable to others.” “In the same way. I come up with the answer on the spot. Prince. Why is that? Because the Tathagata has compassion for living beings. “As to words that the Tathagata knows to be untrue. when wise nobles or priests. having formulated questions. come to the Tathagata and ask these questions to him. and beneficial. he does not say them. I – thus asked – will answer in this way’ or does the Tathagata come up with the answer upon being asked?” “In that case. incorrect.

as though he were turning upright what had been overturned. Master Gotama! Magnificent. he comes up with the answer on the spot.” Majjhima Nikaya 58 Comments by the editor The beginning of this Sutta is one example of the many times in the scriptures where another teacher tried to "pull the Buddha down. at least Prince Abhaya was more open and acknowledged the wisdom of the Buddha. if they are unbeneficial. Though on this occasion. “Magnificent. “he does not say them. showing the way to one who was lost. correct.come to the Tathagata and ask these questions to him. Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways. It can be helpful to see that whenever something is unbeneficial.” When this was said. endearing and agreeable. revealing what was hidden. Of special importance in this Sutta is when the Buddha states six different considerations as to whether he would say something or not. Why is that? Because the elements of the Dhamma are thoroughly penetrated by the Tathagata. “he does not say 35 . and the extent of his immeasurable wisdom and compassion. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life. Prince Abhaya said to the Blessed One. or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms.” Even if they are true." Unfortunately many of these rival teachers did not understand just who the Buddha was. he comes up with the answer on the spot. From his thorough penetration of the elements of the Dhamma.

correct.” 36 . “he knows the proper time for saying them. or true. correct. endearing and agreeable.” And even if they are beneficial.them. as well as true. unwelcome and disagreeable.

stupid and wise people. he sat down at one side. abide supported by their Kamma. insignificant and influential people. and heed well to what I shall say. murderous. why inferiority and superiority are met with among human beings. what is the condition. why inferiority and superiority are met with among human beings. beings are the owners of their Kamma. went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him.” “Yes. What is the reason. Subha the student said to the Blessed One: “Master Gotama. Todeyya’s son. When the courteous and amiable talk was finished. so that I might understand the detailed meaning of Master Gotama’s utterance spoken in brief without expounding the detailed meaning. The Blessed One spoke as follows: “Here. among humankind? For one meets with short-lived and long-lived people.” Subha the student replied. Anathapindika’s Monastery. what is the reason.Culakammavibhanga Sutta The Shorter Exposition of Kamma Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove. student. what is the condition. bloody-handed. sick and healthy people. among humankind?” “Student. ugly and beautiful people. given to blows and violence. some woman or man is a killer of living beings. related to their Kamma. poor and rich people. born of their Kamma. student.” “Then listen. It would be good if Master Gotama taught me the Dhamma. Master Gotama. low-born and high-born people. Then Subha the brahmin student. 37 . When he had done so. It is Kamma that differentiates beings according to inferiority and superiority.” “I do not understand the detailed meaning of Master Gotama’s utterance spoken in brief without expounding the detailed meaning. heirs of their Kamma.

after death. in ruin. bloody-handed. they come to the human state. on the dissolution of the body. This is the way that leads to sickness. loving. that is to say. uncompassionate to all living beings. after death. Due to having performed and completed such actions. to be one who harms beings with their hands or with clods or with sticks or with knives. in an unhappy destination. and to dwell compassionately for the welfare of all living beings. Due to having performed and completed such actions. is considerate.uncompassionate to all living beings. “But here some woman or man is not one who harms beings with their hands or with clods or with sticks or with knives. to have abandoned the killing of living beings. in an unhappy destination. This is the way that leads to short life. that is to say. after death. to abstain from killing living beings. Due to having performed and completed such actions. in the heavenly world. If. on the dissolution of the body. in ruin. they reappear in a state of deprivation. on the dissolution of the body. they are sickly wherever they are reborn. that is to say. on the dissolution 38 . they are long-lived wherever they are reborn. instead of their reappearing in a state of deprivation. in ruin. in the heavenly world. If. they reappear in a state of deprivation. murderous. after death. in hell. on the dissolution of the body. in an unhappy destination. in an unhappy destination. loving. on the dissolution of the body. on the dissolution of the body. instead of their reappearing in a happy destination. having abandoned the killing of living beings. and dwells compassionately for the welfare of all living beings. student. Due to having performed and completed such actions. to be considerate. abstains from killing living beings. they come to the human state. in hell. in ruin. to lay aside the rod and lay aside the knife. in hell. “Here. lays aside the rod and lays aside the knife. “But here some woman or man. in hell. after death. they reappear in a happy destination. they are short-lived wherever they are reborn. some woman or man is one who harms beings with their hands or with clods or with sticks or with knives. If. after death. to be a killer of living beings. instead of their reappearing in a state of deprivation. they come to the human state. This is the way that leads to long life. given to blows and violence.

This is the way that leads to health. If. salutations and offerings. resentful. student. even when much is said. they reappear in a state of deprivation. some woman or man is envious. instead of their reappearing in a state of deprivation. to be angry. after death. illdisposed. on the dissolution of the body. resentful. This is the way that leads to beauty. some woman or man is angry. after death. on the dissolution of the body. after death. resentful. begrudge and harbor envy about others’ gains. Due to having performed and completed such actions. illdisposed. and to show ill-temper. not to be furious. much given to rage. Due to having performed and completed such actions. they come to the human state. after death. hatred and rudeness. student. “Here. in ruin. in an unhappy destination. that is to say. that is to say. they are ugly wherever they are reborn. in an unhappy destination. in ruin. This is the way that leads to ugliness. nor do they show ill-temper. angry. on the dissolution of the body. hatred and rudeness. they envy. 39 . “But here some woman or man is not angry or rarely given to rage. in the heavenly world. honor. in hell. in the heavenly world. in an unhappy destination. on the dissolution of the body. ill-disposed. angry. in hell. on the dissolution of the body. they are not furious. not to be one who harms beings with their hands or with clods or with sticks or with knives. If. after death. on the dissolution of the body. in the heavenly world. after death. If. they are healthy wherever they are reborn. they show ill-temper. they come to the human state. in the heavenly world. not to be angry or rarely given to rage. resentful. angry. they come to the human state. hatred or rudeness. veneration. on the dissolution of the body. instead of their reappearing in a happy destination. Due to having performed and completed such actions. in ruin. they reappear in a happy destination. even when much is said. If. even when little is said. they reappear in a state of deprivation. respect. ill-disposed. even when little is said. they are furious. after death. “Here. they reappear in a happy destination. instead of their reappearing in a happy destination. much given to rage. that is to say. angry. in hell. they are beautiful wherever they are reborn. hatred or rudeness. to be furious. nor to show ill-temper.of the body. after death.

shelter or lighting to monks or other religious teachers. that is to say. veneration. honor. bed. on the dissolution of the body. cloth. they come to the human state. salutations and offerings. cloth. perfumes. student. begrudge. after death. they come to the human state. on the dissolution of the body. shelter or lighting to monks or other religious teachers. veneration. not to be envious. in ruin. This is the way that leads to poverty. begrudge or harbor envy about others’ gains. on the dissolution of the body. they are insignificant wherever they are reborn. in the heavenly world. This is the way that leads to riches. respect. in hell. drink. after death. medicines. not to envy. that is to say. salutations and offerings. medicines. in an unhappy destination. If. on the dissolution of the body. on the dissolution of the body. in ruin. Due to having performed and completed such actions. salutations and offerings. If. bed. perfumes. after death. Due to having performed and completed such actions. instead of their reappearing in a happy destination. drink. instead of their reappearing in a state of deprivation. Due to having performed and completed such actions. to be envious. in ruin. in hell. “But here some woman or man is a giver of food. medicines. shelter and lighting to monks or other religious teachers. after death. perfumes. they reappear in a state of deprivation. in the heavenly world. respect. sandals. sandals. not to be a giver of food. honor. bed. garlands. in hell. that is to say. they come to the human state. they are influential wherever they are reborn. This is the way that leads to influence. in the heavenly world. they come to the human state. they are poor wherever they are reborn. they are rich wherever they are reborn. veneration. in the heavenly world. honor. they reappear in a happy destination. garlands. on the dissolution of the body. to be a 40 . and harbor envy about others’ gains. drink. in an unhappy destination. after death. If. sandals. instead of their reappearing in a happy destination. “Here. “But here some woman or man is not envious. that is to say. they reappear in a happy destination. This is the way that leads to insignificance. cloth. after death. some woman or man is not a giver of food. garlands. begrudge or harbor envy about others’ gains.instead of their reappearing in a state of deprivation. in an unhappy destination. they do not envy. to envy. respect.

in the heavenly world. after death. make way for whom they should make way. after death. sandals. they come to the human state. make way for whom they should make way. respect those who should be respected. after death. give a seat to whom they should give a seat. revere those who should be revered. instead of their reappearing in a state of deprivation. give a seat to whom they should give a seat. drink. in ruin. make way for whom they should make way. in hell. If. they reappear in a state of deprivation. make way for whom they should make way. garlands. respect those who should be respected. Due to having performed and completed such actions. they pay homage to whom they should pay homage. they do not pay homage to whom they should pay homage. revere those who should be revered. to be contemptuous and egotistical. they come to the human state. they reappear in a happy destination. worship 41 . on the dissolution of the body. respect those who should be respected. honor those who should be honored. they are low-born wherever they are reborn. on the dissolution of the body. give a seat to whom they should give a seat. bed. shelter and lighting to monks or other religious teachers. worship those who should be worshipped. perfumes. rise up for whom they should rise up.giver of food. on the dissolution of the body. worship those who should be worshipped. “Here. This is the way that leads to high birth. in hell. in an unhappy destination. rise up for whom they should rise up. in an unhappy destination. or worship those who should be worshipped. rise up for whom they should rise up. after death. student. in the heavenly world. medicines. This is the way that leads to low birth. to not pay homage to whom they should pay homage. that is to say. some woman or man is contemptuous and egotistical. give a seat to whom they should give a seat. they are high-born wherever they are reborn. revere those who should be revered. rise up for whom they should rise up. that is to say. honor those who should be honored. instead of their reappearing in a happy destination. honor those who should be honored. to pay homage to whom they should pay homage. cloth. “But here some woman or man is not contemptuous and egotistical. If. on the dissolution of the body. Due to having performed and completed such actions. not to be contemptuous and egotistical. in ruin.

by my doing it. they reappear in a happy destination. that is to say. venerable teacher? What is unwholesome? What is blamable? What is blameless? What should be cultivated? What should not be cultivated? What. venerable teacher? What is unwholesome? What is blamable? What is blameless? What should be cultivated? What should not be cultivated? What. when visiting monks or other religious teachers. they are wise wherever they are reborn. when visiting monks or other religious teachers. on the dissolution of the body. revere those who should be revered. If. some woman or man. student. on the dissolution of the body. in the heavenly world. after death. they reappear in a state of deprivation. If. will be long for my welfare and happiness?’ Due to having performed and completed such actions. “Here. in hell. in the heavenly world. in an unhappy destination. when visiting monks or other religious teachers. not to ask: ‘What is wholesome. in an unhappy destination. in hell. after death. after death. respect those who should be respected. they are stupid wherever they are reborn. instead of their reappearing in a state of deprivation. asks: ‘What is wholesome. will be long for my harm and suffering? Or what. will be long for my welfare and happiness?’ Due to having performed and completed such actions. venerable teacher? What is unwholesome? What is blamable? What is blameless? What should be cultivated? What should not be cultivated? What. by my doing it. does not ask: ‘What is wholesome. when visiting monks or other religious teachers. by my doing it. they come to the human state.those who should be worshipped. venerable teacher? What is unwholesome? What is blamable? What is blameless? What should be cultivated? What should not be cultivated? What. in ruin. will be long for my harm and suffering? Or what. will be long for my welfare and happiness?’ “But here some woman or man. on the dissolution of the body. by my doing it. in ruin. will be long for my harm and suffering? Or what. to ask: ‘What is wholesome. by my doing 42 . honor those who should be honored. instead of their reappearing in a happy destination. This is the way that leads to stupidity. by my doing it. on the dissolution of the body. after death. This is the way that leads to wisdom. they come to the human state. by my doing it. that is to say.

the way that leads to wisdom makes people wise. showing the way to one who was lost. the way that leads to poverty makes people poor. by my doing it. the way that leads to health makes people healthy.it. heirs of their Kamma. born of their Kamma. said to the Blessed One. beings are the owners of their Kamma. Subha the student. Master Gotama! Magnificent. the way that leads to low birth makes people low-born. will be long for my harm and suffering? Or what. will be long for my welfare and happiness?’ “So. the way that leads to sickness makes people sick. revealing what was hidden. related to their Kamma. the way that leads to high birth makes people high-born.” When this was said. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha. the way that leads to stupidity makes people stupid. the way that leads to influence makes people influential. Todeyya’s son. the way that leads to beauty makes people beautiful. the way that leads to riches makes people rich. Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life. as though he were turning upright what had been overturned. the way that leads to ugliness makes people ugly.” Majjhima Nikaya 135 43 . “Student. the way that leads to long life makes people long-lived. “Magnificent. student. the way that leads to insignificance makes people insignificant. abide supported by their Kamma. the way that leads to short life makes people short-lived. It is Kamma that differentiates beings according to inferiority and superiority. or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms.

Comments by the editor Well. To consider rebirth and a basic “Law of Kamma” as possibilities is very helpful in our practice and in our life. In fact. However. etc. don’t they basically live in a type of heaven? Look to your own life – when you are giving in an unselfish way. and that is the “Law of Kamma” on a moment-to-moment level. envious. don’t you see your wisdom grow? Even if someone is considered beautiful. hurting others. It is fairly simple and the examples make a lot of sense as to being possible rewards or punishments of a life of goodness or harm. the Kalama Sutta supports this. when they are loving. do they become beautiful? These are moment-to-moment rebirths which we can examine. However we also do not have to disbelieve. when they get angry. there is another dimension of this teaching to be aware of. do they become ugly? And if a person is considered plain or even ugly. don’t they basically live in a type of hell? When a person is loving. considerate and compassionate. 44 . now you have part of the theory of rebirth as taught in Buddhism. And as we see this “Law” in action. Yet we do not have to believe in rebirth in order to practice the Buddha’s teachings. When someone is angry. don’t you feel rich? When you ask questions of your teachers and get good answers. it will encourage us to do more goodness in our life.

‘This person is a virtuous person. Uposatha: Moon days. On that occasion – the Uposatha11 day of the fifteenth. on the full-moon night – the Blessed One was seated in the open surrounded by the community of disciples. they speak as an unvirtuous person. that an unvirtuous person would know of an unvirtuous person. in the Palace of Migara’s Mother. would an unvirtuous person know of an unvirtuous person. surveying the silent community of disciples.” “Good. they associate as an unvirtuous person.’ “Followers. they will as an unvirtuous person. it cannot be. 11 quarter. followers. Then. It is impossible. he addressed them thus: “Followers. ‘This person is an unvirtuous person. ‘This person is an unvirtuous person’?” “No. that an unvirtuous person would know of a virtuous person.’ But would an unvirtuous person know of a virtuous person. Venerable Sir. first quarter and last 45 .Culapunnama Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Full Moon Night Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in the Eastern Park. ‘This person is a virtuous person’?” “No. full moon. they counsel as an unvirtuous person. Venerable Sir. followers. they act as an unvirtuous person.” “Good. It is impossible. an unvirtuous person is possessed of bad qualities. and they give gifts as an unvirtuous person. new moon. they hold views as an unvirtuous person. it cannot be.

“And how does an unvirtuous person counsel as an unvirtuous person? Here an unvirtuous person counsels for their own affliction. That is how an unvirtuous person associates as an unvirtuous person. and misconducts themselves in sensual pleasures. and unwise. and no moral dread. no moral shame. nothing offered. That is how an unvirtuous person acts as an unvirtuous person. forgetful. is used for the Pali word. and for the affliction of both. here. “Saddha. nothing sacrificed. takes what is not given. for the affliction of others. 46 12 . Faith. who are unlearned. That is how an unvirtuous person counsels as an unvirtuous person. “And how does an unvirtuous person associate as an unvirtuous person? Here an unvirtuous person has for friends and companions those religious and meditation practitioners who have no faith. “And how does an unvirtuous person will as an unvirtuous person? Here an unvirtuous person wills for their own affliction. but a confidence-type faith which believes because one has already tested the methods and has seen that they work.“And how is an unvirtuous person possessed of bad qualities? Here an unvirtuous person has no faith12. That is how an unvirtuous person speaks as an unvirtuous person. harsh speech and gossip. and for the affliction of both. no moral shame. “And how does an unvirtuous person hold views as an unvirtuous person? Here an unvirtuous person holds views as these. “And how does an unvirtuous person speak as an unvirtuous person? Here an unvirtuous person speaks false speech. ‘There is nothing given. lazy. “And how does an unvirtuous person act as an unvirtuous person? Here an unvirtuous person kills living beings. forgetful.” Saddha is normally translated into confidence or faith. for the affliction of others. That is how an unvirtuous person wills as an unvirtuous person. and no moral dread. lazy. malicious speech. and unwise. yet not a blind faith. they are unlearned. That is how an unvirtuous person is possessed of bad qualities.

It is possible that a virtuous person would know of an unvirtuous person.’ But would a virtuous person know of an unvirtuous person. who thus associates as an unvirtuous person. gives it without showing respect. they counsel as a virtuous person. followers. no beings who are reborn spontaneously. “That unvirtuous person – thus possessed of bad qualities.’ “Followers.” “Good. and they give gifts as a virtuous person. And what is the destination of unvirtuous people? It is hell or the animal world.’ That is how an unvirtuous person holds views as an unvirtuous person. and gives gifts as an unvirtuous person – on the dissolution of the body. no this world.” “Good. they act as a virtuous person. no mother. “Followers. “And how does an unvirtuous person give gifts as an unvirtuous person? Here an unvirtuous person gives a gift carelessly. would a virtuous person know of a virtuous person. It is possible that a virtuous person would know of a virtuous person. after death. ‘This person is a virtuous person’?” “Yes. That is how an unvirtuous person gives gifts as an unvirtuous person. a virtuous person is possessed of good qualities. ‘This person is a virtuous person. counsels as an unvirtuous person. wills as an unvirtuous person. followers. ‘This person is an unvirtuous person. they reappear in the destination of unvirtuous people. holds views as an unvirtuous person. they hold views as a virtuous person. no father. they speak as a virtuous person. gives what is to be discarded. Venerable Sir. no good and virtuous religious and meditation teachers in the world who have realized for themselves by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world. speaks as an unvirtuous person. no other world. or gives it with the view that nothing will come of it. ‘This person is an unvirtuous person’?” “Yes. gives it not with their own hand. acts as an unvirtuous person. Venerable Sir. they will as a virtuous person. 47 .no fruit or result of good and bad actions. they associate as a virtuous person.

mindful. mindful. “And how does a virtuous person hold views as a virtuous person? Here a virtuous person holds views as these. That is how a virtuous person counsels as a virtuous person. ‘There is what is given and what is offered and what is sacrificed. “And how does a virtuous person speak as a virtuous person? Here a virtuous person abstains from false speech. energetic. for the affliction of others.’ That is how a virtuous person holds views as a virtuous person. That is how a virtuous person wills as a virtuous person. “And how does a virtuous person will as a virtuous person? Here a virtuous person does not will for their own affliction. there is this world and the other world. and from misconduct in sensual pleasures. there is mother and father. or for the affliction of both. That is how a virtuous person is possessed of good qualities. gives a valuable gift and 48 . gives it showing respect. there are good and virtuous religious and meditation teachers in the world who have realized for themselves by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world. and wise. from malicious speech. there are beings who are reborn spontaneously. That is how a virtuous person associates as a virtuous person. “And how does a virtuous person act as a virtuous person? Here a virtuous person abstains from killing living beings. moral shame and moral dread. they are learned. and wise. That is how a virtuous person acts as a virtuous person. gives it with their own hand. “And how does a virtuous person give gifts as a virtuous person? Here a virtuous person gives a gift carefully. That is how a virtuous person speaks as a virtuous person. moral shame. or for the affliction of both. “And how does a virtuous person counsel as a virtuous person? Here a virtuous person does not counsel for their own affliction.“And how is a virtuous person possessed of good qualities? Here a virtuous person has faith. there is fruit and result of good and bad actions. and moral dread. who are learned. from taking what is not given. for the affliction of others. from harsh speech and from gossip. energetic. “And how does a virtuous person associate as a virtuous person? Here a virtuous person has for friends and companions those religious and meditation practitioners who have faith.

wills as a virtuous person.gives it with the view that something will come of it. wise spiritual friend. mindfulness. after death. Yet within these eight are more than eight. Majjhima Nikaya 110 Comments by the editor This Sutta is a bit similar to Venerable Maha Moggallana’s Sutta earlier. a good. wisdom. The disciples were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words. wise friends. it may be the same as being enlightened. counsels as a virtuous person. acts as a virtuous person. speaks as a virtuous person. The rest of us need the support of good. they reappear in the destination of virtuous people. and gives gifts as a virtuous person – on the dissolution of the body. And what is the destination of virtuous people? It is greatness among the gods or greatness among human beings. That is how a virtuous person gives gifts as a virtuous person. kind. Some of the deeper aspects of training are here: ** Lokapala Dhamma. Right Speech. The Lokapala Dhamma are so important that some people believe that if you could perfect these two qualities.” Thus spoke the Blessed One. generosity. who thus associates as a virtuous person. holds views as a virtuous person. ** Effort. By definition only a Buddha gets enlightened without a teacher. Right Thought. ** Kalyanamitta. the Two Virtues that Protect the World – moral shame and moral dread. Right Action and more. Here are eight different aspects to reflect upon. morality. kind. 49 . in that we are given different ways to check up on ourselves. “That virtuous person – thus possessed of good qualities.

“Oh yeah.” but if we look deeper we can open up many more aspects of the practice.This is a fairly short Sutta and at first glance may seem. ok. 50 .

to the Palace of Migara’s Mother. Sire. Then King Pasenadi went by elephant as far as the elephant could go. After wandering for alms in Savatthi. On that occasion. King Pasenadi of Kosala pays homage with his head at the Venerable Ananda’s feet. perhaps the Venerable Ananda would wait a moment.’” Venerable Ananda consented in silence.’ Then say this.Bahitika Sutta The Cloak Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi. After paying 51 . he went to the Eastern Park. and he says this. is it not?” “Yes. When it was morning. saying. “Venerable Sir. “Come. King Pasenadi of Kosala pays homage with his head at the Venerable Ananda’s feet. that is the Venerable Ananda. and taking his meal. he stood at one side and said to Venerable Ananda. Sire. He saw Venerable Ananda coming in the distance and asked the minister Sirivaddha. ‘Venerable Sir. ‘Venerable Sir. went into Savatthi for alms. and then he dismounted and went to Venerable Ananda on foot. ‘Venerable Sir.” the man replied. King Pasenadi of Kosala had mounted the elephant Ekapundarika and was riding out from Savatthi at midday. out of compassion. and after paying homage to him. the Venerable Ananda dressed. if the Venerable Ananda has no urgent business. “That is the Venerable Ananda. and taking his bowl and outer robe. perhaps the Venerable Ananda would wait a moment. if the Venerable Ananda has no urgent business. Anathapindika’s Monastery. good man. for the day’s abiding. returning. out of compassion. in Jeta’s Grove. He went to Venerable Ananda. go to the Venerable Ananda and pay homage in my name with your head at his feet.” Then King Pasenadi of Kosala told a man.’” “Yes.

Venerable Ananda. Venerable Sir.” “It is wonderful. the Blessed One would not behave with speech in such a way that he could be censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners.homage to him. great king. the Blessed One would not behave with the body in such a way that he could be censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners. would the Blessed One behave with the body in such a way that he could be censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners?” “No. Venerable Ananda. is an elephant rug.” “There is no need. great king. he stood at one side and said to Venerable Ananda. great king.” “Would the Blessed One. Venerable Sir. Then King Pasenadi went by elephant as far as the elephant could go. behave with the mind in such a way that he could be censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners?” “No. “If. We do not recognize anything of value in the praise and blame of others 52 . behave with speech in such a way that he could be censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners?” “No. “Here. the Venerable Ananda has no urgent business. Venerable Sir. the Blessed One would not behave with the mind in such a way that he could be censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners. “Venerable Ananda.” Venerable Ananda consented in silence. it would be good if he would go to the bank of the river Aciravati.” King Pasenadi of Kosala sat down on a seat made ready and said. He went to the bank of the river Aciravati and sat down at the root of a tree on a seat made ready. and then he dismounted and went to Venerable Ananda on foot. I am sitting on my own mat. out of compassion. Let the Venerable Ananda be seated on it. it is marvelous! For what we were unable to accomplish with a question has been accomplished by the Venerable Ananda with the answer to the question. great king. After paying homage to him. he stood at one side and said to Venerable Ananda. Sit down.” “Would the Blessed One.

great king. “Venerable Ananda. great king. that leads to one’s own affliction. or to the affliction of both. what kind of bodily behavior is censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners?” “Any bodily behavior that is unwholesome. intelligent.spoken by foolish ignorant persons. great king.” “Venerable Ananda. what kind of verbal behavior is censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners?” “Any verbal behavior that is unwholesome.” “Venerable Ananda. great king.” “Venerable Ananda. what kind of bodily behavior brings affliction?” “Any bodily behavior that has painful results. great king. and on account of which. unwholesome states increase and wholesome states diminish. and sagacious people who speak after having investigated and evaluated. who speak without having investigated and evaluated. what kind of bodily behavior has painful results?” “Any bodily behavior. great king. great king. what kind of verbal behavior is blameworthy?” “Any verbal behavior that brings affliction. great king. Such bodily behavior is censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners.” “Venerable Ananda. or to the affliction of others.” “Venerable Ananda. great king. what kind of verbal behavior is unwholesome?” “Any verbal behavior that is blameworthy.” “Venerable Ananda. but we recognize as valuable the praise and blame of others spoken by wise. what kind of bodily behavior is unwholesome?” “Any bodily behavior that is blameworthy.” “Venerable Ananda. what kind of bodily behavior is blameworthy?” “Any bodily behavior that brings affliction. what kind of verbal behavior brings affliction?” 53 .” “Venerable Ananda.

” “Venerable Ananda.” 54 . great king. what kind of verbal behavior has painful results?” “Any verbal behavior. great king. or to the affliction of others. great king.” “Venerable Ananda. and on account of which. Such mental behavior is censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners. or to the affliction of both. and on account of which.” “Venerable Ananda. great king. unwholesome states increase and wholesome states diminish. what kind of bodily behavior is uncensured by wise religious and meditation practitioners?” “Any bodily behavior that is wholesome. great king. that leads to one’s own affliction. great king.” “Venerable Ananda. or to the affliction of both. has abandoned all unwholesome states.” “Venerable Ananda. great king.” “Venerable Ananda. what kind of mental behavior has painful results?” “Any mental behavior. what kind of mental behavior is censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners?” “Any mental behavior that is unwholesome.” “Venerable Ananda. great king.” “Venerable Ananda. Such verbal behavior is censured by wise religious and meditation practitioners. great king. what kind of mental behavior is blameworthy?” “Any mental behavior that brings affliction. does the Blessed One praise only the abandoning of all unwholesome states?” “The Tathagata. great king. great king. that leads to one’s own affliction. or to the affliction of others. what kind of mental behavior brings affliction?” “Any mental behavior that has painful results. unwholesome states increase and wholesome states diminish. and. what kind of mental behavior is unwholesome?” “Any mental behavior that is blameworthy.“Any verbal behavior that has painful results. he possesses all wholesome states.

“Venerable Ananda, what kind of bodily behavior is wholesome?” “Any bodily behavior that is blameless, great king.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of bodily behavior is blameless?” “Any bodily behavior that does not bring affliction, great king.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of bodily behavior does not bring affliction?” “Any bodily behavior that does not have painful results, great king.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of bodily behavior does not have painful results?” “Any bodily behavior, great king, that does not lead to one’s own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both, and on account of which, unwholesome states diminish and wholesome states increase. Such bodily behavior, great king, is uncensured by wise religious and meditation practitioners.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of verbal behavior is uncensured by wise religious and meditation practitioners?” “Any verbal behavior that is wholesome, great king.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of verbal behavior is wholesome?” “Any verbal behavior that is blameless, great king.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of verbal behavior is blameless?” “Any verbal behavior that does not bring affliction, great king.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of verbal behavior does not bring affliction?” “Any verbal behavior that does not have painful results, great king.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of verbal behavior does not have painful results?”
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“Any verbal behavior, great king, that does not lead to one’s own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both, and on account of which, unwholesome states diminish and wholesome states increase. Such verbal behavior, great king, is uncensured by wise religious and meditation practitioners.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of mental behavior is uncensured by wise religious and meditation practitioners?” “Any mental behavior that is wholesome, great king.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of mental behavior is wholesome?” “Any mental behavior that is blameless, great king.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of mental behavior is blameless?” “Any mental behavior that does not bring affliction, great king.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of mental behavior does not bring affliction?” “Any mental behavior that does not have painful results, great king.” “Venerable Ananda, what kind of mental behavior does not have painful results?” “Any mental behavior, great king, that does not lead to one’s own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both, and on account of which, unwholesome states diminish and wholesome states increase. Such mental behavior, great king, is uncensured by wise religious and meditation practitioners.” “Now, Venerable Ananda, does the Blessed One praise only the cultivation of all wholesome states?” “The Tathagata, great king, has abandoned all unwholesome states, and, he possesses all wholesome states.” “It is wonderful, Venerable Sir, it is marvelous! How well this has been expressed by the Venerable Ananda! We are satisfied and pleased with what the Venerable Ananda has expressed so well.
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“Venerable Sir, we are so satisfied and pleased with what the Venerable Ananda has expressed so well, that if the elephanttreasure were allowed to him, we would give it to him; if the horsetreasure were allowed to him, we would give it to him; if the boon of a village were allowed to him, we would give it to him. But we know, Venerable Sir, that these are not allowable for the Venerable Ananda. But there is this cloak of mine, Venerable Sir, which was sent to me packed in a royal umbrella case by King Ajatasattu of Magadha, sixteen hands long and eight hands wide. Let the Venerable Ananda accept it out of compassion.” “It is not necessary, great king. My triple robe is complete.” “Venerable Sir, this river Aciravati has been seen by both the Venerable Ananda and by ourselves when a great cloud has rained heavily on the mountains; then this river Aciravati overflows both its banks. So too, Venerable Sir, the Venerable Ananda can make a triple robe for himself out of this cloak, and he can share out his old triple robe among his companions in the holy life. In this way, our offering will overflow. Venerable Sir, out of compassion, let the Venerable Ananda accept the cloak.” Venerable Ananda accepted the cloak. Then King Pasenadi of Kosala said, “And now, Venerable Sir, we depart. We are busy and have much to do.” “Now is the time, great king, to do as you think fit.” Then King Pasenadi of Kosala, having delighted and rejoiced in Venerable Ananda’s words, rose from his seat, and after paying homage to Venerable Ananda, keeping him on his right, departed. Soon after he had left, Venerable Ananda went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to him, he sat down at one side, related to him his entire conversation with King Pasenadi of Kosala, and presented the cloak to the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One addressed the disciples, “It is a gain, followers, for King Pasenadi of Kosala, it is a great gain for King Pasenadi of Kosala that he has had the opportunity of seeing and paying respect to Ananda.” Thus spoke the Blessed One. The disciples were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.
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Majjhima Nikaya 88

Comments by the editor Again, in this Sutta, we have a very clear and simple teaching which we can apply to ourselves in body, speech and mind. Are our actions wholesome, blameless, not bringing affliction, bringing pleasant results? Are our words wholesome, blameless, not bringing affliction, bringing pleasant results? Are our thoughts wholesome, blameless, not bringing affliction, bringing pleasant results? We are probably not perfect yet, but here is our direction again. Added to this clear and simple teaching, is an example for each of us to follow in regard to respect, gratitude, generosity and joy. Many people when helped by others, whether in action or words, will say, “Thank you” and walk away. Sadly some will not even do that. However the King did more than just thank Ananda. He showed his thankfulness by wishing to give Ananda a gift. Although Ananda at first declined, as he personally did not need the gift, the King was then able to show Ananda how this gift could help others as well – an overflow of generosity! And this is a way to have joy, knowing and being happy that our giving will indeed help others. We can take this lesson for ourselves so we can have more joy in our lives. If we can express our respect and gratitude through generous giving, perhaps we may see for ourselves that this may be a “great gain.”

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arise from attachment to those who are dear. pain.” “But Venerable Sir. his only child. who would ever think that sorrow. I went to the monk 59 . “Where have you gone. said to them. I keep going to the cemetery and crying out. my only little child? Where have you gone. rejecting the Blessed One’s words. sat to one side. Your faculties are not in a normal state.Piyajatika Sutta Dear Ones Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove. lamentation. got up from his seat and left. and on arrival. Anathapindika’s Monastery. As he was sitting there the Blessed One said to him. and on arrival. my only little child? Where have you gone. had died. not delighting in the Blessed One’s words. At that time a certain householder’s dear and beloved little son. grief. He kept going to the cemetery and crying out. having bowed down to him. lamentation. At that time a large number of gamblers were playing dice not far from the Blessed One. my only little child?” Then he went to the Blessed One. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. has died. “Just now. pain. how could my faculties be in a normal state? My dear and beloved little son. the father had no desire to work or to eat. my only little child?’” “So it is. friends. so it is – for sorrow. Because of his death. arise from attachment to those who are dear? Happiness and joy are born from attachment to those who are dear. your faculties are not those of one who is steady in their own mind. my only child. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. I have no desire to work or to eat. ‘Where have you gone. “Householder. The householder went to them. arise from attachment to those who are dear. householder.” So the householder.” “Venerable Sir. Because of his death. grief.

says. Gotama. ‘So it 60 . pain.’ “When this was said. sat to one side. “Where have you gone. sire. your faculties are not those of one who is steady in their own mind. my only little child?”’ “The monk Gotama then said. has said this. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. grief.’ “And I said. arise from attachment to those who are dear. who would ever think that sorrow. a pupil endorses it. arise from attachment to those who are dear? Happiness and joy are born from attachment to those who are dear.” “No matter what your teacher. no matter what their teacher says. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. householder. sire. has died. arise from attachment to those who are dear. I said to him. Happiness and joy are born from attachment to those who are dear. Mallika endorses it.” So the householder left.Gotama and. the monk Gotama said to me. arise from attachment to those who are dear. my only little child? Where have you gone. pain. ‘Venerable Sir. then so it is. lamentation. householder. ‘Householder. grief.’ So. having bowed down to him. I have no desire to work or to eat. on arrival. “I agree with the gamblers. so it is – for sorrow.’” “If that was said by the Blessed One. pain. ‘So it is.” Eventually. lamentation. ‘But Venerable Sir. ‘If that was said by the Blessed One. my only child. how could my faculties be in a normal state? My dear and beloved little son. arise from attachment to those who are dear. “Mallika. lamentation. not delighting in the monk Gotama’s words. rejecting his words. I keep going to the cemetery and crying out. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear.’ Just as. then so it is. grief.” “So it is. word of this conversation made its way into the king’s inner chambers. Your faculties are not in a normal state. Gotama. Then King Pasenadi of Kosala addressed Queen Mallika. “So it is. I got up from my seat and left. As I was sitting there. ‘Sorrow.” said the gamblers. your teacher. thinking. Because of his death.

’ And then say. ask whether he is free from illness and affliction. brahmin. did the Blessed One say. pain. showing reverence with your head to his feet in my name. crossroads to crossroads. strong. strong. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. “Sorrow. teacher. there was a woman whose mother died. are carefree. and asks whether you are free from illness and affliction. grief. ‘Have you seen my mother? Have you seen my mother?’ 61 . Mallika endorses it. Queen Mallika shows reverence with her head to your feet. arise from attachment to those who are dear”?’” “So it is. lamentation. ‘If that was said by the Blessed One. Sorrow. lamentation. Owing to her mother’s death she went mad. “Come.’ In the same way. and asks whether you are free from illness and affliction. then so it is. on arrival he exchanged courteous greetings with the Blessed One. saying.is.” the brahmin Nalijangha responded to Queen Mallika. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. strong. Gotama. “Master Gotama.’ Go away. For Tathagatas do not speak what is untrue. no matter what your teacher. madam. did the Blessed One say. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. remember it well and tell it to me. ‘Venerable Sir. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. And she says further. so it is. Go to the Blessed One. grief. lamentation. and living in comfort. pain. brahmin. out of her mind. Mallika! Out of my sight!” Then Queen Mallika called for the brahmin Nalijangha. grief.” “Yes. After an exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies. arise from attachment to those who are dear”?’ Whatever the Blessed One says. ‘Venerable Sir. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One. says. and wandering from street to street. grief. she would say. is carefree. and living in comfort. Queen Mallika shows reverence with her head to your feet. lamentation. arise from attachment to those who are dear. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. are carefree. he sat to one side. “Sorrow. and living in comfort. so it is. Going to the Blessed One. pain. sire. ‘Master Gotama. pain. and on arrival. “And it can be understood from this how sorrow.

crossroads to crossroads. pain. there was a woman whose daughter died. out of her mind. ‘Have you seen my brother? Have you seen my brother?’ “And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. and wandering from street to street. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. grief. lamentation. grief. crossroads to crossroads. Owing to her brother’s death she went mad. she would say. out of her mind. Owing to her father’s death she went mad. and wandering from street to street. pain. ‘Have you seen my sister? Have you seen my sister?’ “And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. ‘Have you seen my daughter? Have you seen my daughter?’ 62 . she would say. there was a woman whose father died. Owing to her daughter’s death she went mad. crossroads to crossroads. she would say. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. lamentation. out of her mind. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. and wandering from street to street. she would say. and wandering from street to street. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. grief. Owing to her sister’s death she went mad. pain. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. out of her mind.“And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. out of her mind. there was a woman whose sister died. lamentation. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. grief. pain. pain. ‘Have you seen my son? Have you seen my son?’ “And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. grief. lamentation. and wandering from street to street. there was a woman whose son died. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. ‘Have you seen my father? Have you seen my father?’ “And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. she would say. lamentation. Owing to her son’s death she went mad. crossroads to crossroads. there was a woman whose brother died. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. crossroads to crossroads.

and wandering from street to street. out of his mind. lamentation. crossroads to crossroads. Owing to his sister’s death he went mad. grief. ‘Have you seen my husband? Have you seen my husband?’ “And it can also be understood from this how sorrow.“And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. there was a man whose father died. ‘Have you seen my brother? Have you seen my brother?’ “And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. Owing to his brother’s death he went mad. and wandering from street to street. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. crossroads to crossroads. Owing to her husband’s death she went mad. he would say. crossroads to crossroads. grief. there was a man whose sister died. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. Owing to his father’s death he went mad. and wandering from street to street. pain. out of his mind. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. pain. there was a man whose brother died. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. ‘Have you seen my mother? Have you seen my mother?’ “And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. ‘Have you seen my father? Have you seen my father?’ “And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. lamentation. he would say. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. lamentation. lamentation. out of his mind. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. grief. pain. crossroads to crossroads. and wandering from street to street. there was a man whose mother died. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. pain. out of his mind. grief. lamentation. ‘Have you seen my sister? Have you seen my sister?’ 63 . out of her mind. and wandering from street to street. she would say. he would say. there was a woman whose husband died. Owing to his mother’s death he went mad. pain. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. he would say. grief. crossroads to crossroads.

he would say. Owing to his son’s death he went mad.’ And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. there was a man whose son died. out of his mind. delighting in and approving of the Blessed One’s words. grief. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. he would say. lamentation. want to give me to another against my will. wanted to give her to another. there was a man whose wife died. and wandering from street to street. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. lamentation. grief. and wandering from street to street. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi.“And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. lamentation. got up from his seat and went to Queen Mallika. arise from attachment to those who are dear. and wandering from street to street. he would say. grief. crossroads to crossroads. lamentation. ‘Dead we will be together.’ whereupon he cut her in two and slashed himself open. On arrival. pain. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. ‘Have you seen my daughter? Have you seen my daughter?’ “And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. Her relatives. pain. against her will. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. there was a wife who went to her relatives’ home. 64 . ‘Have you seen my son? Have you seen my son?’ “And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. out of his mind. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. out of his mind. crossroads to crossroads. lamentation. having separated us.” Then the brahmin Nalijangha. ‘Have you seen my wife? Have you seen my wife?’ “And it can also be understood from this how sorrow. crossroads to crossroads. pain. having separated her from her husband. ‘These relatives of mine. grief. pain. pain. Owing to his daughter’s death he went mad. grief. thinking. arise from attachment to those who are dear: Once in this same Savatthi. there was a man whose daughter died. he told her all that had been said in his conversation with the Blessed One. So she said to her husband. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. Owing to his wife’s death he went mad.

it was in connection with this that the Blessed One – the One who knows and sees. sire. would sorrow. How could sorrow. sire. if adverse change and alteration took place in Princess Vajiri. grief. and despair arise in you?” “Mallika. sire.’ “Now what do you think. pain. Is [your son] General Vidudabha dear to you?” “Yes. grief. grief. if adverse change and alteration took place in General Vidudabha. Mallika. sire. Queen Vasabha is dear to me.” “What do you think. lamentation. Mallika. pain. any adverse change and alteration in Princess Vajiri would mean an aberration of my very life. pain. grief. lamentation.Then Queen Mallika went to King Pasenadi of Kosala and on arrival said to him. any adverse change and alteration in Queen Vasabha would mean an aberration of my very life. arise from attachment to those who are dear. accomplished and fully enlightened – said. pain. grief. lamentation. Princess Vajiri is dear to me. and despair not arise in me?” “Sire. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. sire.” “What do you think. How could sorrow. grief. lamentation. Mallika.” “What do you think. “What do you think. pain. arise from attachment to those who are dear.’ “Now what do you think. and despair not arise in me?” “Sire. pain. grief. pain. accomplished and fully enlightened – said. sire. and despair arise in you?” “Mallika. ‘Sorrow. ‘Sorrow. would sorrow. lamentation. would sorrow. lamentation. lamentation. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. Is Princess Vajiri dear to you?” “Yes. it was in connection with this that the Blessed One – the One who knows and sees. Is the noble Queen Vasabha dear to you?” “Yes. General Vidudabha is dear to me. and despair arise in you?” 65 . if adverse change and alteration took place in Queen Vasabha.

accomplished and fully enlightened – said. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. lamentation. lamentation. and despair not arise in me?” “Sire.’ “Now what do you think. and despair are born from 66 . How could sorrow. any adverse change and alteration in the Kasis and Kosalans would mean an aberration of my very life. and despair not arise in me?” “Sire. sire. pain. scents. grief. it was in connection with this that the Blessed One – the One who knows and sees. sire. sire. grief. accomplished and fully enlightened – said. Am I dear to you?” “Yes. lamentation. you are dear to me. it was in connection with this that the Blessed One – the One who knows and sees. grief. It is through the might of the Kasis and Kosalans that we use Kasi sandalwood and wear garlands. if adverse change and alteration took place in me. lamentation.“Mallika.” “What do you think. pain. Mallika. the Kasis and Kosalans are dear to me. arise from attachment to those who are dear. if adverse change and alteration took place in the Kasis and Kosalans.’ “Now what do you think. pain. How could sorrow.” “What do you think. pain. pain. lamentation. would sorrow. would sorrow. grief. ‘Sorrow. grief. any adverse change and alteration in General Vidudabha would mean an aberration of my very life. ‘Sorrow. and despair not arise in me?” “Sire. pain. pain. grief. grief. and despair arise in you?” “Mallika. and despair arise in you?” “Mallika. grief. pain. and despair are born from attachment to those who are dear. How could sorrow. it was in connection with this that the Blessed One – the One who knows and sees. lamentation. lamentation. and ointments. sire. any adverse change and alteration in you would mean an aberration of my very life. Are [your subjects] the Kasis and Kosalans dear to you?” “Yes. ‘Sorrow. accomplished and fully enlightened – said. Mallika. arise from attachment to those who are dear. lamentation.

It is astounding – how deeply the Blessed One sees. we can help protect ourselves from excessive “sorrow. with wisdom. Mallika.attachment to those who are dear. and exclaimed three times: “Homage to the Blessed One. Come Mallika. accomplished and fully enlightened! Homage to the Blessed One. we have an example of the wisdom of Queen Mallika in showing her husband just how clear and deep the Buddha’s words are. having pierced through.” Then King Pasenadi of Kosala. paid homage in the direction of the Blessed One. rising from his seat and arranging his upper robe over one shoulder. Even our next breath is uncertain – but death will definitely come. arise from attachment to those who are dear. 67 .’” “It is amazing. As well. accomplished and fully enlightened!” Majjhima Nikaya 87 Comments by the editor Here we have a warning on how attachment can produce pain. Can we use this understanding to remind ourselves to cultivate an inner peace and joy with less total dependence on others for our happiness? With the compassionate understanding arising from knowing the impermanent nature of things. as it were. let me wash (ceremonially). Death is a part of life – the only certainty that every living being will experience. with his hands palm-to-palm in front of his heart. accomplished and fully enlightened! Homage to the Blessed One.

Thus she was able to have the Buddha explain more deeply about his simple statement. if we wish to help others. pain. he saw the truth of the Buddha’s words. 68 . This is also an example which shows us how to investigate more deeply. she knew her husband did not have this confidence. in order to get more information enabling us to explain gems of wisdom to others. and trusted even his simple statements. Although Queen Mallika had total confidence in the Buddha.lamentation. She was able to illustrate this understanding with examples that the king could identify with easily. Then through his own understanding. grief and despair”? Death reflection is so valuable that I give an entire talk in our 20 day retreat explaining many ways in which it can help us. A fine example for each of us.

no mother. There he addressed the disciples thus. and there is Right View that is noble. I shall teach you the Noble Right Concentration with its supports and with its requisites.Mahacattarisaka Sutta The Great Forty Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove. Right View comes first. “And what is wrong view? ‘There is nothing given. who have realized for themselves by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world. Right Livelihood. no father. Listen and heed well to what I shall say. nothing sacrificed. Right Effort. Right Thought. Venerable Sir.” they replied. a factor of the path. nothing offered. supermundane. followers. Right Speech. no fruit or result of good and bad actions. taintless.” they replied.” “Venerable Sir. ripening on the side of attachment. no beings who are reborn spontaneously. “Here. no this world. partaking of merit. that is. Right View. no good and virtuous religious and meditation teachers in the world. is twofold: there is Right View that is affected by taints. And how does Right View come first? One understands wrong view as wrong view and Right View as Right View: this is one’s Right View. “Followers. “And what is Right View? Right view. and Right Mindfulness? Any unification of mind equipped with these seven factors is called the Noble Right Concentration with its supports and with its requisites.” “Yes. is the Noble Right Concentration with its supports and with its requisites. followers. I say. no other world. 69 . Right Action. Anathapindika’s Monastery. “Followers.’ This is wrong view. The Blessed One then spoke as follows: “What.

ripening on the side of attachment? Thoughts directed towards renunciation. there is mother and father. there are beings who are reborn spontaneously. This is Right View that is noble. mindfully one enters upon and abides in Right View: this is one’s Right Mindfulness. And how does Right View come first? One understands wrong thought as wrong thought and Right Thought as Right Thought: this is one’s Right View. [developed] Right View. taintless.’ This is Right View that is affected by taints. taintless. free from ill-will and free from 70 . “And what is Right Thought? Right Thought. the investigation-of-mental objects enlightenment factor. Right Effort. a factor of the path? The wisdom.“And what is Right View that is affected by taints. ripening on the side of attachment. there is fruit and result of good and bad actions. supermundane. ripening on the side of attachment. supermundane. Thus one has these three qualities which have parallel movement and parallel turnover with their [initial] Right View. there is this world and the other world. I say. “Here. and there is Right Thought that is noble. good and virtuous religious and meditation teachers. supermundane. followers. the faculty of wisdom. a factor of the path. ill-will and cruelty: this is wrong thought. who possesses the noble path and is developing the noble path. partaking of merit. partaking of merit. a factor of the path. Right View comes first. taintless. is twofold: there is Right Thought that is affected by taints. “And what is Right View that is noble. ripening on the side of attachment? ‘There is what is given and what is offered and what is sacrificed. “And what is Right Thought that is affected by taints. “One makes an effort to abandon wrong view and to enter upon and abide in Right View: this is one’s Right Effort. there are in the world. that is to say. the path factor of Right View in one whose mind is noble. and declare this world and the other world. partaking of merit. whose mind is taintless. partaking of merit. the power of wisdom. and Right Mindfulness. Mindfully one abandons wrong view. “And what is wrong thought? Thoughts directed towards sensual desire. who have realized for themselves by direct knowledge.

abstinence from them in one whose mind is noble. partaking of merit. taintless. and there is Right Speech that is noble. is twofold: there is Right Speech that is affected by taints. partaking of merit. intention. Thus one has these three qualities which have parallel movement and parallel turn-over with their Right Thought. ripening on the side of attachment. and verbal formation in one whose mind is noble. ripening on the side of attachment? Abstinence from false speech. “And what is wrong speech? False speech. This is Right Speech that is affected by taints. and gossip: this is wrong speech. followers. refraining. supermundane. “And what is Right Speech that is noble. “One makes an effort to abandon wrong thought and to enter upon and abide in Right Thought: this is one’s Right Effort. ripening on the side of attachment. “And what is Right Speech? Right speech. “Here.cruelty. and abstinence from gossip. This is Right Thought that is noble. “And what is Right Thought that is noble. mental fixity. that is to say. And how does Right View come first? One understands wrong speech as wrong speech and Right Speech as Right Speech: this is one’s Right View. I say. supermundane. taintless. harsh speech. 71 . a factor of the path? The thinking. a factor of the path? The desisting from the four kinds of verbal misconduct. a factor of the path. Right View. taintless. Right View comes first. supermundane. thought. Right Effort. whose mind is taintless. directing of mind. malicious speech. partaking of merit. ripening on the side of attachment. supermundane. mindfully one enters upon and abides in Right Thought: this is one’s Right Mindfulness. “And what is Right Speech that is affected by taints. whose mind is taintless. a factor of the path. and Right Mindfulness. mental absorption. Mindfully one abandons wrong thought. This is Right Thought that is affected by taints. who possesses the noble path and is developing the noble path. partaking of merit. abstinence from malicious speech. who possesses the noble path and is developing the noble path. the abstaining. taintless. abstinence from harsh speech.

Mindfully one abandons wrong action. mindfully one enters upon and abides in Right Speech: this is one’s Right Mindfulness. mindfully one enters upon and abides in Right Action: this is one’s Right Mindfulness. is twofold: there is Right Action that is affected by taints. followers. abstinence from taking what is not given. Mindfully one abandons wrong speech. and there is Right Action that is noble. that is to say. taintless. I say. and misconduct in sensual pleasures: this is wrong action. taking what is not given. a factor of the path. taintless. Thus one has these three qualities which have parallel movement and parallel turn72 . refraining. This is Right Action that is affected by taints. “And what is Right Action that is affected by taints. “One makes an effort to abandon wrong action and to enter upon and abide in Right Action: this is one’s Right Effort. and Right Mindfulness. “And what is Right Action? Right action. “And what is wrong action? Killing living beings. supermundane. ripening on the side of attachment. partaking of merit. ripening on the side of attachment? Abstinence from killing living beings. a factor of the path. supermundane. partaking of merit. a factor of the path? The desisting from the three kinds of bodily misconduct. taintless. taintless. This is Right Action that is noble. “And what is Right Action that is noble. partaking of merit. abstinence from them in one whose mind is noble. who possesses the noble path and is developing the noble path. a factor of the path. supermundane. the abstaining. Thus one has these three qualities which have parallel movement and parallel turn-over with their Right Speech. whose mind is taintless. ripening on the side of attachment. Right View. “Here. Right Effort. And how does Right View come first? One understands wrong action as wrong action and Right Action as Right Action: this is one’s Right View. and abstinence from misconduct in sensual pleasures. Right View comes first. supermundane.This is Right Speech that is noble. “One makes an effort to abandon wrong speech and to enter upon and abide in Right Speech: this is one’s Right Effort.

who possesses the noble path and is developing the noble path. supermundane. And how does Right View come first? One understands wrong livelihood as wrong livelihood and Right Livelihood as Right Livelihood: this is one’s Right View. Right View. mindfully one enters upon and abides in Right Livelihood: this is one’s Right Mindfulness. refraining. “One makes an effort to abandon wrong livelihood and to enter upon and abide in Right Livelihood: this is one’s Right Effort. and there is Right Livelihood that is noble. partaking of merit. “And what is wrong livelihood? Scheming. This is Right Livelihood that is noble. belittling. “And what is Right Livelihood? Right Livelihood. “Here. intoxicants. abstinence from it in one whose mind is noble. I say.over with their Right Action. taintless. Thus one has these three qualities which have parallel In AN 5:177/iii. This is Right Livelihood that is affected by taints. that is to say. Mindfully one abandons wrong livelihood. supermundane. Right Effort. and pursuing gain with gain: this is wrong livelihood (for ordained disciples)13. hinting. partaking of merit. a factor of the path? The desisting from wrong livelihood. 73 13 . supermundane. taintless. ripening on the side of attachment. beings. followers.208 the Buddha mentions five kinds of wrong livelihood for lay people: dealing in arms. “And what is Right Livelihood that is noble. a factor of the path. talking. a noble disciple abandons wrong livelihood and gains their living by Right Livelihood. meat. the abstaining. a factor of the path. ripening on the side of attachment? Here. is twofold: there is Right Livelihood that is affected by taints. and Right Mindfulness. and poisons. ripening on the side of attachment. whose mind is taintless. followers. Right View comes first. “And what is Right Livelihood that is affected by taints. partaking of merit. taintless.

and Right Mindfulness. the many unwholesome states that originate with wrong thought as condition are also abolished. the many unwholesome states that originate with wrong action as condition are also abolished. “In one of Right Livelihood. in one of Right Livelihood. “In one of Right Action. Right View comes first. “Here. Right Thought comes to be. the Arahant possesses ten factors. wrong livelihood is abolished. in one of Right Thought. followers. in one of Right Mindfulness. Right Deliverance comes to be. Right Livelihood comes to be. wrong action is abolished. “In one of Right Speech. Right Effort comes to be. And how does Right View come first? In one of Right View. Right Action comes to be. in one of Right Concentration. “In one of Right Thought. in one of Right Speech. Right Mindfulness comes to be. and the many wholesome states that originate with Right Action as condition come to fulfillment by development. Right Concentration comes to be. and the many wholesome states that originate with Right Speech as condition come to fulfillment by development. the many unwholesome states that originate with wrong livelihood as condition are also abolished. Right Speech comes to be.movement and parallel turn-over with their Right Livelihood. And how does Right View come first? In one of Right View. As well. Thus. As well. wrong thought is abolished. the many unwholesome states that originate with wrong speech as condition are also abolished. As well. As well. and the many wholesome states that originate with Right Thought as condition come to fulfillment by development. and the many wholesome states that originate with Right View as condition come to fulfillment by development. wrong view is abolished. Right View. Right Effort. followers. the many unwholesome states that originate with wrong view as condition are also abolished. and the many 74 . “Here. the path of the disciple in higher training possesses eight factors. followers. Right View comes first. As well. in one of Right Action. wrong speech is abolished. that is to say. in one of Right Knowledge. Right Knowledge comes to be. in one of Right Effort.

As well. As well. “In one of Right Knowledge. As well. then there are ten legitimate deductions from their assertions that would provide grounds for censuring them here and 75 . As well. the many unwholesome states that originate with wrong deliverance as condition are also abolished. the many unwholesome states that originate with wrong effort as condition are also abolished. “Thus. if any religious or meditation practitioners think that this Dhamma discourse on the Great Forty should be censured and rejected. wrong mindfulness is abolished. and the many wholesome states that originate with Right Mindfulness as condition come to fulfillment by development. This Dhamma discourse on the Great Forty has been set rolling and cannot be stopped by any meditator or priest or god or Mara or Brahma or anyone in the world. “In one of Right Deliverance. “In one of Right Concentration. the many unwholesome states that originate with wrong knowledge as condition are also abolished. followers. wrong effort is abolished. the many unwholesome states that originate with wrong concentration as condition are also abolished. there are twenty factors on the side of the wholesome. and twenty factors on the side of the unwholesome. “Followers. and the many wholesome states that originate with Right Knowledge as condition come to fulfillment by development. “In one of Right Effort.wholesome states that originate with Right Livelihood as condition come to fulfillment by development. and the many wholesome states that originate with Right Effort as condition come to fulfillment by development. the many unwholesome states that originate with wrong mindfulness as condition are also abolished. wrong concentration is abolished. and the many wholesome states that originate with Right Concentration as condition come to fulfillment by development. wrong deliverance is abolished. and the many wholesome states that originate with Right Deliverance as condition come to fulfillment by development. wrong knowledge is abolished. As well. “In one of Right Mindfulness.

If they censure Right Speech. even those teachers from Okkala. then they would honor and praise those religious or meditation practitioners who are of wrong knowledge. would not think that this Dhamma discourse on the Great Forty should be censured and rejected. then they would honor and praise those religious or meditation practitioners who are of wrong view. then they would honor and praise those religious or meditation practitioners who are of wrong mindfulness. and the doctrine of nihilism. then these are ten legitimate deductions from their assertions that would provide grounds for censuring them here and now. who hold the doctrine of non-causality. If they censure Right Knowledge. If they censure Right Action. then they would honor and praise those religious or meditation practitioners who are of wrong thought. then they would honor and praise those religious or meditation practitioners who are of wrong action. If they censure Right View. then they would honor and praise those religious or meditation practitioners who are of wrong effort. then they would honor and praise those religious or meditation practitioners who are of wrong concentration. If they censure Right Deliverance. If they censure Right Mindfulness. If they censure Right Thought. “Followers. Why is that? For fear of blame. If any religious or meditation practitioners think that this Dhamma discourse on the Great Forty should be censured and rejected. attack. then they would honor and praise those religious or meditation practitioners who are of wrong livelihood. Vassa and Bhanna. and confutation. The disciples were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words. the doctrine of non-doing. then they would honor and praise those religious or meditation practitioners who are of wrong deliverance. If they censure Right Effort. Majjhima Nikaya 117 76 . then they would honor and praise those religious or meditation practitioners who are of wrong speech. If they censure Right Concentration.now. If they censure Right Livelihood.” Thus spoke the Blessed One.

if only they could concentrate better? Unfortunately this is what some teachers imply in their teachings. “Right View comes first”! It certainly appears that in answer to the question.Comments by the editor “What. is the Noble Right Concentration with its supports and with its requisites? These are Right View. Right Livelihood. When I was young. My image of a good meditator was a Yogi in full lotus sitting on nails for hours! And what is your image of a good meditator? 77 . followers. Right Action. And it causes much pain for their students. How often are meditators trying so hard to get concentrated? Yet why? What is their intention? What are they going to use the concentration for? Do they have Right View behind their practice? Do they try so hard to have Right Speech? Do they try so hard to have Right Action? Do they try so hard to have Right Livelihood? Or somehow do they believe everything will come later. And another Sutta which I center a talk around during our 20 day retreats. Right View comes first. It is not possible to have Noble Right Concentration without the support of the entire Noble Eightfold Path. and fourteen times the Buddha said. “Here. the Buddha continued stating Right View comes first thirteen more times! The time needed to speak this Sutta is about fifteen minutes. followers.” And within the Mahacattarisaka Sutta. Right Thought. I thought meditation and concentration were basically the same thing. Right Effort. Any unification of mind equipped with these seven factors is called the Noble Right Concentration with its supports and with its requisites. and Right Mindfulness. followers. all eight factors of the Noble Eightfold Path need to be practiced together. “What. This is very important. is the Noble Right Concentration with its supports and with its requisites?” that Right View comes first! As well. Right Speech.

a practice in which all parts need to be guided by Right View. As well. And this mental development is a broad practice of which concentration is only one part.Theravadin Buddhism teaches something much broader than this. citta bhavana) is much more synonymous to meditation.” 78 . Here the words meditation and concentration are not the same. Within this practice mental development (in Pali. “Right View comes first.

Canki Sutta With Canki Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One while wandering in the country of the Kosala people with a large community of disciples. himself. and headed northwards to the Gods’ Grove. “The monk Gotama. At that time the brahmin Canki had retired to the upper story of his palace for his midday rest. a crown property abounding in living beings. with five hundred disciples. blessed. its Maras. a royal endowment. realized with direct knowledge. There the Blessed One stayed in the Gods’ Grove. a brahmin village of the Kosala people. has been wandering in the country of the Videhans with a large community of disciples. came to Opasada. woodlands. and grain. sublime. with the right meaning and phrasing. enlightened. this generation with its recluses and brahmins. incomparable leader of persons to be tamed. the Sala-tree Grove to the north of Opasada. good in the middle. knower of the worlds. with its kings and its people. On that occasion the brahmin Canki was ruling over Opasada. The brahmin householders of Opasada heard. the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan clan. which he has. He declares this world with its gods. teacher of gods and humans. Then he saw the brahmin householders of Opasada setting forth from Opasada in groups and bands. and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure. rich in grasslands. and its Brahmas. waterways. fully enlightened. ‘The Blessed One is accomplished. and good in the end.’ Now it is good to see such Arahants.” Then the brahmin householders of Opasada set forth from Opasada in groups and bands. and heading northwards to the Gods’ Grove. the Sala-tree 79 . perfect in true knowledge and conduct. the Sala-tree Grove. He teaches the Dhamma that is good in the beginning. A good report of Master Gotama has been spread to this effect. a sacred grant given to him by King Pasenadi of Kosala.

Master Canki.” the minister replied. He declares this world with its gods. fully enlightened. It is not proper. Master Canki. and its Brahmas. the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan clan. the Sala-tree Grove?” “Sir. do not go to see the monk Gotama. its Maras. there is the monk Gotama. “The brahmin Canki. is going to see the monk Gotama. sir. ‘The Blessed One is accomplished. with its kings and its people. are well born on both sides. for you to go to see the monk Gotama. A good report of Master Gotama has been spread to this effect. and he went to the brahmin householders of Opasada and gave them the message. is it true that you are going to see the monk Gotama?” “So it is. The brahmin Canki will also go to see the monk Gotama. perfect in true knowledge and conduct. with five hundred disciples. realized with direct knowledge.Grove. and heading northwards to the Gods’ Grove. incomparable leader of persons to be tamed. “Sir. sublime. When he saw them. with the right meaning and phrasing. They heard. good in the middle. sirs. I am going to see the monk Gotama. this generation with its recluses and brahmins. the brahmin Canki says this. who has been wandering in the country of the Videhans with a large community of disciples. enlightened. blessed. Now on that occasion five hundred brahmins from various states were staying at Opasada for some business or other.” Then they went to the brahmin Canki and asked him. sirs. They are going to see that Master Gotama. “Good minister.”’” “Yes. rather. Since this is so. go to the brahmin householders of Opasada and tell them. unassailable and impeccable in respect of birth. and good in the end. and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure. sir.” “Then. it is said. himself. ‘Sirs. “Please wait.” “Sir. it is proper for the monk Gotama to come to see you. he asked his minister. of pure maternal and paternal descent seven generations back. it is not proper for you to go to 80 . why are the brahmin householders of Opasada setting forth from Opasada in groups and bands. He teaches the Dhamma that is good in the beginning. which he has. good minister. knower of the worlds.’ Now it is good to see such Arahants. teacher of gods and humans. For you.

it is proper for the monk Gotama to come to see you. sir. it is proper for the monk Gotama to come to see you. Master Canki. you are fully versed in natural philosophy and in the marks of a Great Man. flawless. it is proper for the monk Gotama to come to see you. respected. rather. Since this is so. phonology. Master Canki. Since this is so. it is proper for the monk Gotama to come to see you. Since this is so. Since this is so. venerated. venerated. sir. and etymology. with great wealth and great possessions. a royal endowment. Master Canki. You. you speak words that are courteous. Master Canki. are handsome. You. sir. sir. revered. it is proper for the monk Gotama to come to see you. rather. sir. a crown property abounding in living beings. rather. liturgy. You. and you teach the recitation of the hymns to three hundred brahmin students. rather. Since this is so. Master Canki. Master Canki. and esteemed by King Pasenadi of Kosala. rather. it is proper for the monk Gotama to come to see you. skilled in philology and grammar.see the monk Gotama. rather. sir. are a master of the Three Vedas14 with their vocabularies. You. are a good speaker with a good delivery. rule over Opasada. You. it is proper for the monk Gotama to come to see you. teach the teachers of many. it is not proper for you to go to see the monk Gotama. sir. woodlands. it is not proper for you to go to see the monk Gotama. it is not proper for you to go to see the monk Gotama. possessing mature virtue. You. sir. rather. distinct. are rich. it is not proper for you to go to see the monk Gotama. and communicate the meaning. respected. mature in virtue. sir. and the histories as a fifth. You. with sublime beauty and sublime presence. Since this is so. Since this is so. and graceful. and grain. it is not proper for you to go to see the monk Gotama. waterways. it is proper for the monk Gotama to come to see you. rather. revered. 14 The Three Vedas: Brahmin scriptures 81 . You. Since this is so. and esteemed by the brahmin Pokkharasati. are honored. rather. You. it is proper for the monk Gotama to come to see you. are virtuous. possessing supreme beauty of complexion. it is not proper for you to go to see the monk Gotama. are honored. rich in grasslands. it is not proper for you to go to see the monk Gotama. remarkable to behold. Master Canki. it is not proper for you to go to see the monk Gotama. Master Canki. comely.

it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. rather. a black-haired young man endowed with the blessing of youth. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. sirs. it is proper for the monk Gotama to come to see you. Sirs. sirs. with wholesome virtue. Sirs. Sirs. sirs. rather. Sirs. the monk Gotama went forth from the home life into homelessness while still young. of pure maternal and paternal descent seven generations back. rather. the monk Gotama is well born on both sides. Since this is so. the monk Gotama went forth abandoning much gold and bullion stored away in vaults and depositories. and communicate the meaning. the monk Gotama shaved off his hair and beard. rather. with sublime beauty and sublime presence. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. and why it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. rather. sirs. the brahmin Canki told those brahmins. Since this is so. with noble virtue. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. “Now. in the prime of life. rather. and went forth from the home life into homelessness though his mother and father wished otherwise and wept with tearful faces. sirs. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. Since this is so. sirs. Sirs. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. Master Canki. sirs. Since that is so. distinct. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. Sirs. Since this is so. the monk Gotama is a good speaker with a good delivery. it is not proper for you to go to see the monk Gotama. hear from me why it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. sirs. Sirs. flawless. put on the yellow robe. the monk Gotama is a 82 . he speaks words that are courteous. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. rather. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. Sirs. Since this is so. unassailable and impeccable in respect of birth. and graceful. possessing supreme beauty of complexion. remarkable to behold. the monk Gotama is handsome. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama.” When this was said. possessing wholesome virtue. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. the monk Gotama is virtuous. comely. Since this is so.a sacred grant given to you by King Pasenadi of Kosala. rather. Since this is so.

sirs. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. Since this is so. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. sirs. Since this is so. sirs. sirs. rather. rather. enlightened. Since this is so. rather. many thousands of deities have gone for refuge for life to the monk Gotama. knower of the worlds. rather. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama.teacher of the teachers of many. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. rather. the monk Gotama went forth from an aristocratic family. Sirs. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. Sirs. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. Since this is so. the doctrine of the moral efficacy of deeds. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. sirs. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. sirs. sirs. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. people come from remote kingdoms and remote districts to question the monk Gotama. Sirs. Since this is so. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. rather. rather. Sirs. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. Sirs. rather. Sirs. King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha and his wife and children have gone for refuge for life to the monk Gotama. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. sirs. Sirs. from one of the original noble families. Sirs. the monk Gotama is free from sensual lust and without personal vanity. blessed. Sirs. a good report of the monk Gotama has been spread to this effect. perfect in true knowledge and conduct. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. Since this is so. fully enlightened. from a family of great wealth and great possessions. rather. teacher of gods and humans. Sirs. the monk Gotama holds the doctrine of the moral efficacy of action. the monk Gotama possesses the thirty-two marks of a Great Man. the monk Gotama went forth from a rich family. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. Since this is so. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. he does not seek any harm for the line of brahmins. King Pasenadi of Kosala and his wife and 83 . ‘The Blessed One is accomplished. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. Since this is so. rather. Since this is so. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. sirs. sirs. incomparable leader of persons to be tamed.’ Since this is so. sublime. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me.

it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. he was a master of the Three Vedas with their vocabularies. respected. The Blessed One was seated finishing some amiable talk with some very senior brahmins. this much is the praise of Master Gotama that I have learned. phonology. Sirs. and etymology. rather. Since this is so. the brahmin Pokkharasati and his wife and children have gone for refuge for life to the monk Gotama. and as our guest he should be honored. the monk Gotama has arrived at Opasada and is living at Opasada in the Gods’ Grove. and venerated by us. Since Master Gotama possesses each one of these factors. he was fully versed in natural philosophy and in the marks of a Great Man. sirs. Since this is so.” 84 . it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. skilled in philology and grammar. went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. rather. and guests should be honored. but the praise of Master Gotama is not limited to that. for the praise of Master Gotama is immeasurable. While the very senior brahmins were conversing with the Blessed One. and the histories as a fifth. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. Now any recluses or brahmins that come to our town are our guests. Therefore.children have gone for refuge for life to the monk Gotama. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. sirs. the Salatree Grove to the north of Opasada. sixteen years old. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished. shaven-headed. he often broke in and interrupted their talk. Since the monk Gotama has arrived at Opasada. revered. sirs. it is not proper for Master Gotama to come to see me. it is not proper for him to come to see me. revered. Sirs. Young. Sitting in the assembly. rather. “Sirs. it is proper for me to go to see Master Gotama. was a brahmin student named Kapathika. and venerated by us. let all of us go to see the monk Gotama.” Then the brahmin Canki together with a large company of brahmins. respected. liturgy. rather. he sat down at one side. Then the Blessed One rebuked the brahmin student Kapathika thus. he is our guest. Let the venerable Bharadvaja wait until the talk is finished. Since this is so. sirs. “Let not the venerable Bharadvaja break in and interrupt the talk of the very senior brahmins while they are conversing.

Vamaka. only this is true. I shall ask him a question. Bharadvaja. only this is true.’ What does Master Gotama say about this?” “How then. The brahmin student Kapathika is a clansman. “The monk Gotama has turned towards me. Angirasa. ‘I know this. the brahmin Canki said to the Blessed One. Bharadvaja. and Bhagu – did even these ancient brahmin seers say 85 .When this was said. I see this. among the brahmins. Master Gotama. “Let not Master Gotama rebuke the brahmin student Kapathika. ‘I know this. is there even a single brahmin who says thus. Suppose I ask him a question. Vamadeva.” Then he said to the Blessed One. Kassapa. Bharadvaja. he is very learned. he is wise. “Surely. repeating what was spoken and reciting what was recited – that is. whose ancient hymns that were formerly chanted. in regard to the ancient brahmanic hymns that have come down through oral transmission and in the scriptural collections. anything else is wrong’?” “No. he has a good delivery.” Then the brahmin student Kapathika thought. is there even a single teacher or a single teacher’s teacher back to the seventh generation of teachers who says thus. which the brahmins nowadays still chant and repeat. anything else is wrong. among the brahmins. ‘Only this is true.” Then. the composers of the hymns. the brahmin student Kapathika must be accomplished in the scriptures of the Three Vedas. Atthaka. the creators of the hymns. Then the brahmin student Kapathika thought. “When the monk Gotama catches my eye. Master Gotama. “Master Gotama. I see this.” “How then. uttered. he is capable of taking part in this discussion with Master Gotama. Yamataggi. and compiled. Vessamitta.” Then the Blessed One thought. the Blessed One turned his eye towards him.” “How then. Bharadvaja. Vasettha. since the brahmins honor him thus. the ancient brahmin seers. the brahmins come to the definite conclusion. knowing with his own mind the thought in the brahmin student Kapathika’s mind. anything else is wrong’?” “No.

Bharadvaja. anything else is wrong. Bharadvaja. the brahmins seem to be like a file of blind men. anything else is wrong. only this is true. and Bhagu – even these ancient brahmin seers did not say thus. and acceptance through reflection. reasoned consideration. repeating what was spoken and reciting what was recited – that is. Master Gotama. and false. and the last one does not see. Bharadvaja. the creators of the hymns. the composers of the hymns. Vamaka. who says thus. Kassapa. the first one does not see. we see this. that being so. and compiled. that may turn out in two different ways here and now. There are five things. only this is true. and unmistaken. the first one does not see. only this is true. the middle one does not see.’ And among the brahmins. So too. yet it may be factual. yet it may be empty. What do you think. hollow. in regard to their statement. there is not even a single brahmin who says thus. Again. Bharadvaja. approval. ‘I know this. ‘We know this.’ Suppose there were a file of blind men each in touch with the next. and the last one does not see. it seems that among the brahmins. 86 . something may be fully approved of. Vessamitta. What five? Faith. true. These five things may turn out in two different ways here and now. but something else may not be fully accepted out of faith. anything else is wrong. Master Gotama. Atthaka. Angirasa. yet it may be factual. first you took your stand on faith. only this is true. I see this. and unmistaken. true. Yamataggi. oral tradition.thus. Vasettha. the middle one does not see. yet it may be empty. ‘We know this. or a single teacher’s teacher back to the seventh generation of teachers. hollow. now you speak of oral tradition. ‘I know this. but something else may not be fully approved of. I see this. there is not even a single teacher. anything else is wrong’?” “No. does not the faith of the brahmins turn out to be groundless?” “The brahmins honor this not only out of faith. Vamadeva. we see this. whose ancient hymns that were formerly chanted. They also honor it as oral tradition. uttered.’ And the ancient brahmin seers. Bharadvaja.” “So. which the brahmins nowadays still chant and repeat. and false. Now something may be fully accepted out of faith.” “Bharadvaja.

’” “But. true. But as yet there is no discovery of truth. but they do not yet come to the definite conclusion. anything else is wrong. Bharadvaja. in what way is there the preservation of truth? How does one preserve truth? We ask Master Gotama about the preservation of truth. and unmistaken. Master Gotama. But as yet there is no discovery of truth. “If a person approves of something. there is the preservation of truth. in this way we describe the preservation of truth. but something else may not be of good oral tradition. but they do not yet come to the definite conclusion. ‘My faith is thus’. hollow.’ In this way. hollow. something may be well reasoned. there is the preservation of truth. anything else is wrong. anything else is wrong. they preserve truth when they say. they preserve truth when they say. ‘Only this is true. there is the preservation of truth. Bharadvaja. yet it may be factual. Bharadvaja. yet it may be empty. But as yet there is no discovery of truth. ‘Only this is true. yet it may be factual. Bharadvaja. Again. ‘Only this is true. Bharadvaja. and unmistaken.” “If a person has faith. but something else may not be well reasoned. something may be of good oral tradition. in this way they preserve truth. true.Again. in this way they preserve truth. “If they [reach a conclusion based on] reasoned consideration. Bharadvaja. ‘Only this is true. in this way 87 . there is the preservation of truth. in this way we describe the preservation of truth. Bharadvaja. true. but they do not yet come to the definite conclusion. but something else may not be well reflected upon.’ In this way. in this way they preserve truth. ‘My oral tradition is thus’. ‘My approval is thus’. something may be well reflected upon. they preserve truth when they say. they preserve truth when they say. Again. and false.’ In this way. and unmistaken. [Under these conditions] it is not proper for a wise man who preserves truth to come to the definite conclusion. yet it may be empty. yet it may be empty. but they do not yet come to the definite conclusion. and false.’ In this way. yet it may be factual. Bharadvaja. hollow. anything else is wrong. ‘My reasoned consideration is thus’. anything else is wrong. and false. ‘Only this is true. “If they receive an oral tradition. in this way we describe the preservation of truth.

while not knowing. subtle. in that way we recognize the preservation of truth. they next investigate them in regard to states based on aversion. in regard to states based on greed. peaceful and sublime. and in regard to states based on delusion.’ “When the villager has investigated the teacher and has seen that they are purified from states based on greed. while not knowing. This Dhamma cannot easily be taught by one affected by greed. “I see. ‘Are there in this venerable one any states based on greed such that. And the Dhamma that this venerable one teaches is profound. in this way they preserve truth. hard to see and hard to understand. a venerable teacher may be living in dependence on some village or town. Master Gotama. ‘Are there in this venerable one any states based on aversion such that. they preserve truth when they say.” or they might 88 .’ As the villager investigates them thus they come to know. but they do not yet come to the definite conclusion. with their mind obsessed by those states.’ In this way too.” “In that way. ‘Only this is true. they might say. ‘My acceptance through reflection is thus’. in this way we describe the preservation of truth. ‘There are no such states based on greed in this venerable one. in regard to states based on aversion. unattainable by mere reasoning. to be experienced by the wise. is there the discovery of truth? In what way does one discover truth? We ask Master Gotama about the discovery of truth. But as yet there is no discovery of truth. “I know. there is the preservation of truth. in that way one preserves truth.” or while not seeing.” “Here. But as yet there is no discovery of truth. they might say. there is the preservation of truth. The bodily behavior and the verbal behavior of this venerable one are not those of one affected by greed. “If they gain acceptance through reflection. they might say. in this way we describe the preservation of truth. “I know.” or while not seeing. Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja. with their mind obsessed by those states. But in what way.” or they might urge others to act in a way that would lead to their harm and suffering for a long time.they preserve truth. Then a villager goes to the teacher and investigates them in regard to three kinds of states. they might say. “I see. anything else is wrong. Master Gotama. Bharadvaja.

This Dhamma cannot easily be taught by one affected by hatred.’ As the villager investigates them thus they come to know. they control themselves. having applied their will. “I know. while not knowing. resolutely controlling themselves. peaceful and sublime. when they examine the meaning. The bodily behavior and the verbal behavior of this venerable one are not those of one affected by delusion. they give ear to the teacher. they apply their will. when they give ear to the teacher. having paid respect to the teacher. And the Dhamma that this venerable one teaches is profound. hard to see and hard to understand. This Dhamma cannot easily be taught by one affected by delusion. ‘Are there in this venerable one any states based on delusion such that. they might say. they next investigate them in regard to states based on delusion. they evaluate their own efforts. they realize with the body the ultimate truth and see it 89 . subtle.’ “When the villager has investigated the teacher and has seen that they are purified from states based on aversion. when zeal and energy have sprung up.” or they might urge others to act in a way that would lead to their harm and suffering for a long time. filled with faith they visit the teacher and pay respect to the teacher. The bodily behavior and the verbal behavior of this venerable one are not those of one affected by aversion. when they have gained a reflective acceptance of those teachings.urge others to act in a way that would lead to their harm and suffering for a long time. zeal and energy spring up. And the Dhamma that this venerable one teaches is profound. peaceful and sublime. to be experienced by the wise. unattainable by mere reasoning. having heard the Dhamma. ‘There are no such states based on delusion in this venerable one. to be experienced by the wise. ‘There are no such states based on aversion in this venerable one.’ “When the villager has investigated the teacher and has seen that they are purified from states based on delusion. then they place faith (confidence) in the teacher. they might say. they gain a reflective acceptance of those teachings.” or while not seeing. unattainable by mere reasoning. with their mind obsessed by those states. they memorize it and examine the meaning of the teachings they have memorized. they hear the Dhamma. hard to see and hard to understand. subtle. having evaluated their own efforts.’ As the villager investigates them thus they come to know. “I see.

there is the final arrival at truth.” “Evaluation of one’s efforts is most helpful for control.” “Control is most helpful for the final arrival at truth. there is the discovery of truth. in this way we describe the discovery of truth. in that way we recognize the final arrival at truth. It is because one evaluates one’s efforts that one makes an effort at self control. and cultivation of those same things.” “The final arrival at truth. in that way one discovers truth. It is because one makes an effort at self control that one finally arrives at truth. in this way we describe the final arrival at truth. in this way one finally arrives at truth. in that way we recognize the discovery of truth. That is why control is most helpful for the final arrival at truth. Master Gotama. If one makes no effort at self control. Master Gotama.” “But what. In this way. If one does not apply one’s will. But as yet there is no final arrival at truth. one will not make an effort at self control.by penetrating it with wisdom. there is the discovery of truth.” “In that way. Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja. in this way one discovers truth. Master Gotama. is there the final arrival at truth? In what way does one finally arrive at truth? We ask Master Gotama about the final arrival at truth. Bharadvaja. lies in the repetition.” “But what. But what. Master Gotama. one 90 . in that way one finally arrives at truth. Bharadvaja.” “In that way. But in what way. but because one applies one’s will. If one does not evaluate one’s efforts. Master Gotama. is most helpful for evaluation of one’s efforts? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for evaluation of one’s efforts. is most helpful for control? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for control. one will not evaluate one’s efforts. Master Gotama. Bharadvaja.” “Application of the will is most helpful for evaluation of one’s efforts. In this way. That is why evaluation of one’s efforts is most helpful for control. is most helpful for the final arrival at truth? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for the final arrival at truth. there is the final arrival at truth. one will not finally arrive at truth. development.

” “Zeal and energy are most helpful for application of the will.” “Memorizing the teachings is most helpful for examining the meaning. That is why a reflective acceptance of the teachings is most helpful for zeal and energy. If one does not memorize a teaching. but because one memorizes a teaching. is most helpful for examination of the meaning? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for examination of the meaning. Master Gotama. one will not examine its meaning. one gains a reflective acceptance of the teachings. zeal and energy spring up. That is why zeal and energy are most helpful for application of the will. one applies one’s will. zeal and energy will not spring up. Master Gotama.” “But what. is most helpful for application of the will? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for application of the will. Bharadvaja. If one does not gain a reflective acceptance of the teachings. That is why examination of the meaning is most helpful for a reflective acceptance of the teachings.evaluates one’s efforts.” “But what. If one does not arouse zeal and energy.” “But what. is most helpful for a reflective acceptance of the teachings? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for a reflective acceptance of the teachings. one will not gain a reflective acceptance of the teachings. That is why application of the will is most helpful for evaluation of one’s efforts. Bharadvaja. but because one arouses zeal and energy. Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja. Master Gotama.” “A reflective acceptance of the teachings is most helpful for zeal and energy.” “Examination of the meaning is most helpful for a reflective acceptance of the teachings. Master Gotama. 91 . one will not apply one’s will. If one does not examine the meaning.” “But what. but because one examines the meaning. but because one gains a reflective acceptance of the teachings. is most helpful for zeal and energy? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for zeal and energy.

” “But what.” “Giving ear is most helpful for hearing the Dhamma. That is why hearing the Dhamma is most helpful for memorizing the teachings.” “But what. is most helpful for paying respect? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for paying respect. Bharadvaja.” “But what.” “But what.” “Paying respect is most helpful for giving ear. one will not give ear. Bharadvaja. one gives ear. Bharadvaja. but because one visits [a teacher]. If one does not visit [a teacher]. If one does not hear the Dhamma. but because one pays respect. That is why paying respect is most helpful for giving ear. is most helpful for hearing the Dhamma? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for hearing the Dhamma. is most helpful for memorizing the teachings? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for memorizing the teachings. one hears the Dhamma. Bharadvaja. one pays respect to them. Master Gotama. is most helpful for visiting? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for visiting. one will not memorize the teachings.” “Faith is most helpful for visiting. Master Gotama. is most helpful for giving ear? We ask Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for giving ear. but because one gives ear.” “But what. That is why giving ear is most helpful for hearing the Dhamma. Master Gotama. one memorizes the teachings. If faith [in a teacher] does not arise. That is why memorizing the teachings is most helpful for examining the meaning. If one does not give ear. one will not visit the teacher.” “Visiting is most helpful for paying respect. one will not hear the Dhamma. If one does not pay respect. Master Gotama. Master Gotama.one examines its meaning. Bharadvaja. That is why visiting is most helpful for paying respect. one will not pay respect to them. but because one hears the Dhamma. but because 92 . “Hearing the Dhamma is most helpful for memorizing the teachings.

faith [in a teacher] arises.” “We asked Master Gotama about the preservation of truth. we approve of and accept that answer. these swarthy menial offspring of the Kinsman’s feet. Whatever we asked Master Gotama about. we approve of and accept that answer. we approve of and accept that answer. confidence in his disciples. we used to think. and Master Gotama answered about the final arrival at truth. as though he were turning upright what had been overturned. “Magnificent. Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways. and so we are satisfied. and reverence for his disciples. that he has answered us. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.” Majjhima Nikaya 95 93 . ‘Who are these bald-headed meditators who follow the monk Gotama. that they would understand the Dhamma?’ But Master Gotama has indeed inspired in me love for his disciples. we approve of and accept that answer. That is why faith is most helpful for visiting. and Master Gotama answered about the thing most helpful for the final arrival at truth. and so we are satisfied. showing the way to one who was lost. and so we are satisfied. We asked Master Gotama about the final arrival at truth. or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. we approve of and accept that answer. Master Gotama! Magnificent. Formerly. We asked Master Gotama about the discovery of truth. We asked Master Gotama about the thing most helpful for the final arrival at truth. and so we are satisfied. revealing what was hidden. and Master Gotama answered about the discovery of truth. one visits the teacher. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha. and Master Gotama answered about the preservation of truth. Master Gotama. and so we are satisfied.

we will visit them. Do not just believe and have faith blindly. “for the praise of Master Gotama is immeasurable. we will develop more zeal and energy which will help us in applying our will and efforts. There is another section of this Sutta that ties in with Right Speech in regard to “the preservation of truth.” Did you notice this part? How often do you say. The praise that Brahmin Canki "sings" to the five hundred other brahmins is in his own words still limited. this one shows a more detailed discussion/debate. yet he was wise enough to concede in the end the Buddha’s great wisdom and develop a love and respect for the Buddha and his disciples. but leading the talk to a deeper dimension and teaching for the young Bharadvaja.” Being longer than the previous Suttas. we will respect them. This time it is a young sixteen year old. from the beginning of the Sutta. we will listen to them and hear the Dhamma. The ending section is quite clear: When we have confidence/faith in a teacher. though. many teachers are simply claiming what is taught to be true.Comments by the editor This is another of the many Suttas in the scriptures where a believer of other teachings tries to trap the Buddha. As you can also see. “Such and such is true.” 94 . or have you heard someone say. and shows the skill of the Buddha in not only answering questions well. and the person stating it may not actually know for themselves that “Such and such is true. Then we must remember the teaching and examine it. It is helpful to note here. that we are encouraged to test our teachers first. With being mindful and evaluating our efforts.” Even in Buddhism. as well. speech and thoughts in order to purify the mind and arrive at truth. Yet here the Buddha is stating that this way of teaching does not “preserve truth. As we gain a reflective acceptance. is that the Buddha was not doubted by everyone of other beliefs.” And yet it is just something heard or read in a book. we will develop more control of our actions.

the Buddha is recorded to have said. “In the scriptures. the Buddha is recorded to have said. ‘Such and such is true. “In the scriptures.’”? Can we take this teaching and follow it more in our life in order to have better Right Speech and be able to “preserve truth”? Have you heard many teachers who qualify their words with. ‘Such and such is true.’”? Can we take this teaching and follow it more in our life in order to have better Right Speech and be able to “preserve truth”? 95 .Have you heard many teachers who qualify their words with.

not an unwise person. by close attention. and that. too. they are not virtuous. is after a long time. is after a long time. was this said? “In this case. by a wise person. ‘It is by association that another’s virtue can be understood. by a wise person. not shady. by close attention. is after a long time. not an unwise person. proper. they practice good morality.’ “Again in another case. by close attention. “It is by conversation that another’s wisdom can be understood. a person knows thus of another by associating with them. not a short time. inappropriate. This person is immoral. not an unwise person. by a wise person.’ In relationship to what. they are virtuous. ‘For a long time this person has done deeds which are unfitting. not without attention. not without attention. four qualities [of a person] can be understood by four conditions.’ 96 . Their deeds are consistent. not a short time. not without attention. Their deeds are not consistent. by a wise person. improper. “So it was said. not a short time. and that. by a wise person. not an unwise person. a person knows thus of another by associating with them. by close attention. “It is by dealing [with a person] that their integrity can be understood. and that is after a long time. This person is moral. shady. appropriate. by close attention. not a short time. not without attention. too. they do not practice good morality. followers. ‘For a long time this person has done deeds which are fitting. “It is in times of distress that another’s courage can be understood. not a short time. not without attention. not an unwise person. What are the four qualities and four conditions? “It is by association that another’s virtue can be understood. too. and that.Thana Sutta Four Qualities of a Person “Followers. and that is after a long time.

by a wise person. they are not dishonest. followers. not an unwise person. not an unwise person. is after a long time. and that. behaves in one way. ‘This person. not without attention. not a short time.’ In relationship to what. and that. and that is after a long time. not a short time. does not reflect: “‘Thus is the nature of living in the world. when with three.’ “Again in another case. in yet another way. not a short time. too. too. ‘It is by dealing [with a person] that their integrity can be understood. not without attention. when with one person. loss of wealth or loss of health. a person knows thus of another in times of distress. is after a long time. not without attention. Their early behavior is not different to their later behavior. by a wise person. not without attention. by close attention. in another way. again otherwise when with many. is after a long time. Their early behavior is different to their later behavior. three or many. by a wise person. suffering the loss of relatives. by close attention. it is by association that another’s virtue can be understood. a person knows thus of another by dealing with them. ‘This person when with one person behaves just as they do with two. ‘This certain person. not a short time. not an unwise person.“Indeed. a person knows thus of another by dealing with them. the eight worldly conditions follow the course of the 97 . they are dishonest. not an unwise person. Thus is the nature of being a personality. followers. This person is not honest in their behavior. What was said was in relationship to this. This person is honest in their behavior. followers. ‘It is in times of distress that another’s courage can be understood. was this said? “In this case. When living in the world and being a personality. it is by dealing [with a person] that their integrity can be understood. by close attention.’ In relationship to what. What was said was in relationship to this. by a wise person. too.’ “Indeed. followers. was this said? “In this case. “And it was said. by close attention. “And it was said. and that. when with two people.

by close attention. 98 . ‘It is by conversation that another’s wisdom can be understood. pleasure and pain. statements which are subtle and intelligible to the wise. a person knows thus of another by conversing with them. they do not beat their breast. they are distressed. ‘This certain person. they are not competent. fame and obscurity. they are weak in wisdom.’ What is the cause of that? ‘This person does not make statements which are profound. praise and blame. by a wise person. judging by their conversation. and beyond the sphere of mere reasoning. fame and obscurity.’ So suffering the loss of relatives. by close attention. not a short time. followers. calming. they have sorrow. illustrate it. loss of wealth or loss of health. they are not a wise person. a person knows thus of another in times of distress. and they do not become distraught.world and the course of the world follows the eight worldly conditions: gain and loss. not an unwise person. they beat their breast. to explain its meaning. What was said was in relationship to this. is after a long time. praise and blame. not a short time. they lament. and they become distraught. by a wise person. too.’ In relationship to what. it is in times of distress that another’s courage can be understood. judging by their intention. sublime. “Again in another case. they do not lament. was this said? “In this case. they are not distressed. “And it was said. When living in the world and being a personality. not an unwise person. too. not without attention. they do not have sorrow. pleasure and pain. the eight worldly conditions follow the course of the world and the course of the world follows the eight worldly conditions: gain and loss. loss of wealth or loss of health. “Indeed. suffering the loss of relatives. As to the Dhamma that this person talks. Thus is the nature of being a personality. not without attention. either in brief or in detail. loss of wealth or loss of health.’ So suffering the loss of relatives. ‘Judging by this person’s approach to a question. reflects: “‘Thus is the nature of living in the world. followers. is after a long time. and that. and that.

This person is weak in wisdom. this is a small fish. and beyond the sphere of mere reasoning.’ “Again in another case. sublime. illustrate it.’ In the same way. ‘Judging by the rise of this fish. they are not a wise person. clarify it. either in brief or in detail. statements which are subtle and intelligible to the wise. judging by their conversation. this is a big fish. judging by their conversation. ‘Judging by the rise of this fish. analyze it or make it plain. expound it. were to see a small fish rising. they are a wise person. to explain its meaning.expound it. calming. clarify it. they are a wise person. they are not competent. they are a wise person. they are not a wise person. they are not a wise person. they would think. a person knows thus of another by conversing with them. were to see a big fish rising. illustrate it. they would think. they are weak in wisdom. analyze it or make it plain. and beyond the sphere of mere reasoning. This person is weak in wisdom. analyze it or make it plain. reveal it.’ “Just as if a person with good eyesight. calming.’ What is the cause of that? ‘This person does not make statements which are profound. ‘Judging by this person’s approach to a question. judging by their conversation. expound it. standing on the bank of a pool of water. judging by the size of the ripple it makes. clarify it. sublime. judging by their intention. This person is not weak in wisdom. reveal it. judging by its speed. a person knows thus of another by conversing with them. they are competent. 99 . reveal it. ‘Judging by this person’s approach to a question. they are not weak in wisdom. judging by its speed. to explain its meaning. judging by their intention. either in brief or in detail. As to the Dhamma that this person talks. As to the Dhamma that this person talks. judging by their intention. judging by the size of the ripple it makes.’ What is the cause of that? ‘This person makes statements which are profound. this is not a small fish. a person knows thus of another by conversing with them.’ “Just as if a person with good eyesight. ‘Judging by this person’s approach to a question. they are not weak in wisdom.’ In the same way.’ What is the cause of that? ‘This person makes statements which are profound. standing on the bank of a pool of water. statements which are subtle and intelligible to the wise. this is not a big fish.

not without attention. not an unwise person. followers. 100 . clarify it. As well (and if you did not notice – repeated twelve times!). Here we are given four areas in which we need to develop: virtue. they are competent. “Thus. and developing our own wisdom more. these four qualities [of a person] can be understood by these four conditions. courage and wisdom. and beyond the sphere of mere reasoning. We are also given advice as to how we might be able to judge others in relation to these four qualities. by close attention. and that. we are advised not to judge others too quickly. reveal it. it is by conversation that another’s wisdom can be understood. is after a long time.calming. statements which are subtle and intelligible to the wise. This person is not weak in wisdom. analyze it or make it plain. What was said was in relationship to this.” Anguttara Nikaya IV. not a short time. illustrate it. expound it. paying close attention before judging.’ “Indeed. followers. to explain its meaning. they are a wise person. too. sublime. by a wise person.192 Comments by the editor Fairly simple and fairly direct. integrity. either in brief or in detail. As to the Dhamma that this person talks. so we can have clarity and understanding when we do judge others.

Out of compassion for you I have thought. not my heirs in Dhamma. I have eaten. and I told them. but there is this almsfood of mine left over to be thrown away. There he addressed the disciples thus. and some almsfood was left over to be thrown away. not as his heirs in Dhamma. you will be reproached thus. not as his heirs in material things. ‘The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in material things. followers. be my heirs in Dhamma.” “Venerable Sir. ‘How shall my disciples be my heirs in Dhamma. refused more food. Out of compassion for you I have thought. be my heirs in Dhamma. ‘The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in material things. not as his heirs in material things’. had enough. not my heirs in material things?’ If you are my heirs in material things. had what I needed. not my heirs in material things. then I shall throw it away where there is no greenery or drop it into water where there is no life. followers.” they replied. finished. finished. refused more food. you will not be reproached [as it will be said]. The Blessed One said: “Followers. not my heirs in material things. ‘Followers. and I will be reproached thus. had my fill. Then two disciples arrived hungry and weak. not my heirs in material things?’ “Now.’ “If you are my heirs in Dhamma.Dhammadayada Sutta Heirs in Dhamma Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove. If you do not eat it. Anathapindika’s Monastery. had enough. ‘The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in Dhamma. “Followers. and I will not be reproached [as it will be said]. had what I needed. ‘The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in Dhamma. suppose that I had eaten. not my heirs in material things.’ Therefore. Eat if you like. ‘How shall my disciples be my heirs in Dhamma. had my fill.’ 101 . not as his heirs in Dhamma’.

not my heirs in material things. be my heirs in Dhamma. But this has been said by the Blessed One. Soon after he had left. Suppose that instead of eating this almsfood I pass the night and day hungry and weak. to their having few wishes. “Friends. ‘The Blessed One has eaten. the Sublime One rose from his seat and went into his dwelling. had enough. and arousal of energy. if we do not eat it. finished. ‘The Blessed One has eaten. not train in seclusion? And in what ways do disciples of the Teacher. not my heirs in material things?’” That is what the Blessed One said. Now although that disciple. if we do not eat it. yet the first disciple is more to be respected. Suppose that I eat this almsfood and pass the night and day neither hungry nor weak. by eating that almsfood passed the night and day neither hungry nor weak. had enough. had what he needed.” Now this almsfood is one of the material things. had his fill. Having said this. had what he needed. finished. “Followers.” “Friend. easy support.” they replied.’ And instead of eating the almsfood that disciple passed the night and day hungry and weak. refused more food. and commended by me. Why is that? Because that will be conducive. Venerable Sariputta said: “Friends.’ And after eating the almsfood that disciple passed the night and day neither hungry nor weak.“Then one disciple thought. train in seclusion?” 102 . in what ways do disciples of the Teacher. the Blessed One will throw it away where there is no greenery or drop it into water where there is no life. who lives secluded. refused more food. but there is this almsfood of the Blessed One left over to be thrown away. who lives secluded. not my heirs in material things. the Venerable Sariputta addressed the fellow disciples thus. for a long time. had his fill. to their contentment. Therefore. the Blessed One will throw it away where there is no greenery or drop it into water where there is no life. followers. effacement. ‘How shall my disciples be my heirs in Dhamma. but there is this almsfood of the Blessed One left over to be thrown away. be my heirs in Dhamma. “Then the second disciple thought. Out of compassion for you I have thought.

“Indeed. who lives secluded.” “Then. They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon. leaders in backsliding and neglectful of seclusion. they are luxurious and careless. not train in seclusion? Here. As disciples of the Teacher. they are to be blamed for this first reason. friends. As disciples of the Teacher. they are to be blamed for this first reason. leaders in backsliding. who lives secluded. and neglectful of seclusion. leaders in backsliding and neglectful of seclusion. they are to be blamed for this second reason. friend. leaders in backsliding and neglectful of seclusion. they do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon. they do not train in seclusion.” “Yes. who lives secluded. “In this the middle disciples are to be blamed for three reasons. they are to be blamed for this second reason. As disciples of the Teacher.” they replied. They are luxurious and careless. The middle disciples are to be blamed for these three reasons. The elder disciples are to be blamed for these three reasons. The new disciples are to be blamed for these three reasons. in what ways do disciples of the Teacher. It would be good if Venerable Sariputta would explain the meaning of this statement. disciples of the Teacher. “In this the new disciples are to be blamed for three reasons. “In this the elder disciples are to be blamed for three reasons. They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon. they are to be blamed for this first reason. They are luxurious and careless. Venerable Sariputta then spoke as follows: “Friends. who lives secluded. Having heard it from him we will remember it. do not train in seclusion. they are to be blamed for this second reason. who lives secluded. 103 . they are to be blamed for this third reason. they do not train in seclusion. they are to be blamed for this third reason. friend. they do not train in seclusion. we would come from far away to learn from the Venerable Sariputta the meaning of this statement. They are luxurious and careless. They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon. listen and heed well to what I shall say. they are to be blamed for this third reason.

train in seclusion? Here. disciples of the Teacher. As disciples of the Teacher. they are to be commended for this first reason. The middle disciples are to be commended for these three reasons. “Friends. train in seclusion. they are to be commended for this first reason. train in seclusion. to direct knowledge. they avoid backsliding. who lives secluded. who lives secluded. they are not luxurious and careless. and are leaders in seclusion. the evil herein is greed and hate. They are not luxurious and careless. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon. do not train in seclusion. giving vision. The elder disciples are to be commended for these three reasons. they avoid backsliding. “In this the elder disciples are to be commended for three reasons. and are leaders in seclusion. leading to peace. they train in seclusion. they train in seclusion. they avoid backsliding. giving knowledge. who lives secluded.“It is in this way that disciples of the Teacher. who lives secluded. who lives secluded. As disciples of the Teacher. they avoid backsliding. in what ways do disciples of the Teacher. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon. who lives secluded. they are to be commended for this first reason. “In this the middle disciples are to be commended for three reasons. and are leaders in seclusion. they train in seclusion. The new disciples are to be commended for these three reasons. There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of greed and hate. they are to be commended for this second reason. they are to be commended for this third reason. “In this the new disciples are to be commended for three reasons. they abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon. As disciples of the Teacher. They are not luxurious and careless. they are to be commended for this second reason. They are not luxurious and careless. “It is in these ways that disciples of the Teacher. and are leaders in seclusion. they are to be commended for this second reason. who lives secluded. to 104 . they are to be commended for this third reason. “Friends. they are to be commended for this third reason.

to direct knowledge. to enlightenment. to direct knowledge. Right Thought. giving knowledge. the evil herein is contempt and a domineering attitude. to Nibbana. to enlightenment. to direct knowledge. to direct knowledge. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path. to Nibbana. to enlightenment. Right Livelihood. Right View. giving vision. leading to peace. Right Effort. “Friends. giving knowledge. to enlightenment.enlightenment. Right View. to enlightenment. to enlightenment. Right Action. Right Livelihood. that is. Right Speech. to direct knowledge. Right Speech. Right Livelihood. Right Thought. to Nibbana. leading to peace. giving knowledge. Right Thought. giving knowledge. Right Thought. leading to peace. Right Action. to Nibbana. that is. There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of envy and avarice. to enlightenment. Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. “Friends. This is the Middle Way giving vision. leading to peace. Right Action. to Nibbana15. giving knowledge. to Nibbana. Right Effort. to direct knowledge. Right View. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path. to direct knowledge. Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. that is. “Friends. leading to peace. Right Speech. leading to peace. Right Livelihood. to Nibbana. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path. Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. giving knowledge. 15 Nibbana: enlightenment 105 . There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of contempt and a domineering attitude. Right View. This is the Middle Way giving vision. Right Speech. to Nibbana. There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of anger and revenge. This is the Middle Way giving vision. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path. leading to peace. Right Effort. Right Effort. giving knowledge. the evil herein is anger and revenge. giving vision. giving vision. that is. Right Action. This is the Middle Way giving vision. the evil herein is envy and avarice.

Right Speech. that is. Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. the evil herein is vanity and negligence. giving vision. the evil herein is conceit and arrogance. Right Effort. giving knowledge. Right Effort. giving knowledge. to Nibbana. to Nibbana. to enlightenment. leading to peace. Right Speech. to Nibbana. to enlightenment. to enlightenment. to enlightenment. Right View. giving knowledge. Right Effort. to direct knowledge. giving knowledge. leading to peace. giving vision. Right Effort. Right Speech. Right View. to direct knowledge. leading to peace. There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of deceit and fraud. to Nibbana. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path. giving knowledge. Right Livelihood. “Friends. to enlightenment. Right View. leading to peace. to enlightenment. Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. leading to peace. Right Thought. to direct knowledge. leading to peace. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path. to direct knowledge. Right Action. to direct knowledge. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path.” 106 . Right Thought. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path. “Friends. giving vision. There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of stubbornness and presumption. “Friends. There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of vanity and negligence. Right Thought. to Nibbana. giving knowledge. Right Speech. Right Livelihood. This is the Middle Way giving vision. Right Action. Right Action. that is. to Nibbana. to enlightenment.“Friends. Right Livelihood. to direct knowledge. Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. to enlightenment. leading to peace. Right Livelihood. Right Thought. to Nibbana. to Nibbana. There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of conceit and arrogance. This is the Middle Way giving vision. Right View. giving knowledge. to direct knowledge. Right Action. that is. that is. This is the Middle Way giving vision. Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. giving vision. leading to peace. the evil herein is stubbornness and presumption. giving knowledge. This is the Middle Way giving vision. the evil herein is deceit and fraud. to direct knowledge.

together – as mentioned earlier in the Mahacattarisaka Sutta.. out of compassion for ourselves and others. very important. and was continually taught over and over in various skillful ways. The other one was the Venerable Maha Moggallana. The Noble Eightfold Path was taught by the Buddha in his first teaching after his enlightenment. 107 . Important. The fellow disciples were satisfied and delighted in Venerable Sariputta’s words. Majjhima Nikaya 3 Note The Venerable Sariputta was considered one of the two top disciples of the Buddha.” Eight times the Venerable Sariputta emphasized the Noble Eightfold Path. Comments by the editor “There is a Middle Way.That is what Venerable Sariputta said. It is the basis of the entire practice – as a group.. Let us try to be heirs in the Dhamma and practice this Noble Eightfold Path.

The Blessed One spoke as follows: “This is the only way. for the attainment of Nibbana. to the foot of a tree or to an empty place. clearly comprehending and mindful. namely the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. they know. ardent. followers. clearly comprehending and mindful. having overcome. There he addressed the disciples thus. ardent. for reaching the right path. clearly comprehending and mindful. with their legs crossed. in this world. they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects. in this world. at Kammasadamma. in this world.Satipatthana Sutta Four Foundations of Mindfulness Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying among the Kurus. ardent. covetousness and grief. having overcome.” “Venerable Sir. for the destruction of sufferings and grief. “And how does a follower live contemplating the body in the body? “Herein. followers. having overcome. Breathing in a long breath. having overcome. they live contemplating mental states in mental states. they live contemplating feelings in feelings16. covetousness and grief. 108 16 . clearly comprehending and mindful. a follower having gone to the forest. in this world.” they replied. ardent. ‘I am breathing in a long Feelings here is used for the Pali word Vedana. “Ever mindful they breathe in. “Followers. covetousness and grief. sits down. for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation. for the purification of beings. covetousness and grief. keeps their body erect and their mindfulness alert. and mindful they breathe out. a market town of the Kuru people. What are the four? “Herein (in this teaching) a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. This is an immediate feeling which arises whenever our senses come in contact with an object.

breathing in a short breath. a follower knows when they are going.’ thus they train themselves. I shall breathe in. “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. clinging to nothing in the world. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally. They live contemplating origination factors in the body.’ ‘Experiencing the whole (breath-) body. breathing out a short breath. ‘I am breathing in a short breath’. breathing out a long breath. I shall breathe out. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought.’ thus they train themselves. a follower. I shall breathe out. ‘I am breathing in a short breath’.’ thus they train themselves. I shall breathe in. I shall breathe in. ‘Experiencing the whole (breath-) body.’ or making a short turn. breathing in a short breath. ‘I am going’. they know when they are sitting. knows. ‘I am making a long turn.’ just so. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. ‘Calming the activity of the (breath-) body. breathing in a long breath. knows. followers. ‘Calming the activity of the (breath-) body. knows. ‘Calming the activity of the (breath-) body. ‘I am breathing in a long breath’. knows.’ thus they train themselves. ‘I am breathing out a long breath’. and they live detached. I shall breathe out. ‘Experiencing the whole (breath-) body.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. making a long turn. ‘Calming the activity of the (breath-) body. I shall breathe in. they know. “Thus. ‘I am making a short turn. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. ‘I am breathing out a short breath. ‘I am breathing out a short breath.’ thus they train themselves. ‘I am sitting’.’ ‘Experiencing the whole (breath-) body. knows.’ thus they train themselves. ‘The body exists. they know. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. “And further. I shall breathe out. “Just as a skilful turner or their apprentice. ‘I am standing’. ‘I am breathing out a long breath’. they know when they are 109 . a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. knows. breathing out a short breath. they know. breathing out a long breath.’ thus they train themselves. they know when they are standing.breath’.’ thus they train themselves.

applies clear comprehension.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. in waking. ‘The body exists. in falling asleep. They live contemplating origination factors in the body. in standing. “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. in looking straight on and looking away. ‘The body exists. a follower reflects on this very body covered by the skin and full of various kinds of matter. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. in going forward and back. in wearing robes and carrying the bowl. in bending and in stretching. also. drinking. in sitting. ‘I am lying down’ or just as their body is disposed so they know it. in eating. also. from the soles up. applies clear comprehension. in speaking and in keeping silence. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. a follower. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. they apply clear comprehension. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally. in urinating and defecating. “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. applies clear comprehension. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. “Thus. “Thus. applies clear comprehension. applies clear comprehension. “And further. chewing and savoring. 110 . in walking.lying down. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. They live contemplating origination factors in the body. clinging to nothing in the world. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. clinging to nothing in the world. “And further. and they live detached. applies clear comprehension. and they live detached.

this is cow-pea. “And further. and urine. heart. and husked rice. bones. kidneys. skin. fat. ‘There are in this body hair of the head.’ “Just as if a clever cow-butcher or their apprentice. midriff.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. the element of fire. nails.’ Just so. spleen. lungs. a follower reflects on this very body. mucus. sesame. feces. sinews. should be sitting at 111 . small intestines. ‘There are in this body hair of the head. this is green gram. heart. liver. this is paddy. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. blood. flesh. and urine. spleen. tears. stomach contents. ‘This is hill paddy. hair of the body. phlegm. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally. flesh. however it be placed or disposed.’ “Just as if there were a doubled-mouthed provision bag full of various kinds of grain such as hill paddy. grease. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. sweat. mucus. and they live detached. bile. thinking thus. fat. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. saliva. this is sesame. kidneys. ‘The body exists. and from the top of the head-hair down. large intestines. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. nails. and a person with sound eyes. They live contemplating origination factors in the body. also. stomach contents. small intestines. and the element of wind. green gram. the element of water. teeth. cow-peas. midriff. by way of the material elements. marrow. were to take stock of the contents thus.’ “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. marrow. having opened that bag. thinking thus. feces. pus. bile. this is husked rice. synovial fluid.and from the top of the head-hair down. tears. sweat. hair of the body. grease. saliva. lungs. blood. phlegm. from the soles up. having slaughtered a cow and divided it into portions. ‘There are in this body the element of earth. bones. “Thus. pus. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. skin. sinews. synovial fluid. paddy. clinging to nothing in the world. teeth. large intestines. a follower reflects on this very body covered by the skin and full of various kinds of matter. liver.

or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. ‘The body exists. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. they then apply this perception to their own body thus. blue and festering. also. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. “Thus. They live contemplating origination factors in the body. such it will become and will not escape it. ‘The body exists. They live contemplating origination factors in the body. the element of water.’ “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. being eaten by crows. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. and the element of wind. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. ‘Verily. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. “And further. however it be placed or disposed.the junction of four high roads. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. ‘There are in this body the element of earth. a follower reflects on this very body. clinging to nothing in the world.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. they then apply this perception to their 112 . if one sees a body dead one. swollen. and they live detached. “Thus. by way of the material elements. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. “And further. in the same way.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. the element of fire. hawks. also. my own body is of the same nature. also. vultures. thrown in the charnel ground.’ “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. jackals or by different kinds of worms. and they live detached. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally. two or three days. if one sees a body thrown in the charnel ground. clinging to nothing in the world. dogs. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally.

clinging to nothing in the world. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. held together by the tendons. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. ‘Verily. “And further.’ “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. they then apply this perception to their own body thus. such it will become and will not escape it. “And further. also. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. my own body is of the same nature. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally.’ 113 . or they live contemplating the body in the body externally. if one sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton blood-besmeared and without flesh. They live contemplating origination factors in the body.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. ‘The body exists. also. if one sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton with some flesh and blood attached to it. my own body is of the same nature. They live contemplating origination factors in the body. “Thus. such it will become and will not escape it. held together by the tendons. such it will become and will not escape it. ‘Verily. ‘The body exists.own body thus. “Thus. they then apply this perception to their own body thus. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. and they live detached. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally. also. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. also. ‘Verily. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. clinging to nothing in the world.’ “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. also. my own body is of the same nature. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. and they live detached.

a thigh bone. spine and skull. ‘The body exists. “Thus. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. ‘Verily.’ “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. the pelvis. They live contemplating origination factors in the body. there a bone of the foot. “And further. my own body is of the same nature. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally.“Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. held together by the tendons. and they live detached. “And further. also. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally.’ “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. a shin bone. clinging to nothing in the world. also. They live contemplating origination factors in the body. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. scattered in all directions – here a bone of the hand. if one sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to disconnected bones. if one sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton without flesh and blood. such it will become and will not escape it. also. they then apply this perception to their own body thus. also. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. and they live detached. they then apply this perception to their own body thus. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. ‘The body exists. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. my own body is of the same nature. clinging to nothing in the world. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. “Thus. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. or they live contemplating the body in the body 114 . such it will become and will not escape it.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. ‘Verily.

also. also. and they live detached. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. and they live detached.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. They live contemplating origination factors in the body. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. “Thus. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. if one sees a body thrown in the charnel ground reduced to bones. such it will become and will not escape it. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally. clinging to nothing in the world. my own body is of the same nature. more than a year old. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. also.’ “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. ‘Verily.externally. clinging to nothing in the world. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally.’ “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. ‘The body exists. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. my own body is of the same nature. “Thus. ‘Verily. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. “And further. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally. ‘The body exists. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. also. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in 115 .’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. they then apply this perception to their own body thus. lying in a heap. they then apply this perception to their own body thus. They live contemplating origination factors in the body. “And further. They live contemplating origination factors in the body. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. reduced to bleached bones of conchlike color. such it will become and will not escape it. if one sees a body thrown in the charnel ground.

knows. “Thus. They live contemplating origination factors in the body.’ “Thus they live contemplating the body in the body internally. ‘The body exists. ‘I experience a neither pleasant nor painful feeling. and they live detached. they then apply this perception to their own body thus.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. and they live detached. when 116 . a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. when experiencing a pleasant spiritual feeling. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. also. knows. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. clinging to nothing in the world. knows. “Thus. clinging to nothing in the world. when experiencing a painful worldly feeling. a follower when experiencing a pleasant feeling knows. my own body is of the same nature. ‘Verily. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought.’ When experiencing a pleasant worldly feeling. or they live contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. “And how does a follower live contemplating feelings in feelings? “Herein. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in the body. also. when experiencing a neither pleasant nor painful feeling. knows. a follower lives contemplating the body in the body. ‘I experience a pleasant feeling’. ‘I experience a painful feeling’. or they live contemplating the body in the body externally. “And further. ‘I experience a pleasant spiritual feeling’. knows. reduced to bones gone rotten and become dust. if one sees a body thrown in the charnel ground. ‘I experience a painful worldly feeling’.the body. when experiencing a painful spiritual feeling.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. knows. ‘I experience a painful spiritual feeling’. also. ‘The body exists. ‘I experience a pleasant worldly feeling’. followers. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in the body. when experiencing a painful feeling. such it will become and will not escape it.

a follower lives contemplating feelings in feelings. or they live contemplating feelings in feelings internally and externally. “Thus.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. the concentrated mental state as the concentrated mental state. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in feelings. the shrunken mental state as the shrunken mental state. the mental state with no other mental state superior to it as the mental state with no other mental state superior to it. the distracted mental state as the distracted mental state. ‘I experience a neither pleasant nor painful worldly feeling’. the mental state without hate as the mental state without hate. or they live contemplating mental states in mental states 117 . the mental state with ignorance as the mental state with ignorance. “And how does a follower live contemplating mental states in mental states? “Herein. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in feelings. the mental state without ignorance as the mental state without ignorance. knows. and the unfreed mental state as the unfreed mental state. the freed mental state as the freed mental state. followers. the mental state with some other mental state superior to it as the mental state with some other mental state superior to it. or they live contemplating feelings in feelings externally. ‘Feelings exist. the mental state with hate as the mental state with hate. a follower knows the mental state with lust as the mental state with lust.’ “Thus they live contemplating feelings in feelings internally. the mental state without lust as the mental state without lust. the undeveloped mental state as the undeveloped mental state. followers.experiencing a neither pleasant nor painful worldly feeling. ‘I experience a neither pleasant nor painful spiritual feeling. the unconcentrated mental state as the unconcentrated mental state. “Thus they live contemplating mental states in mental states internally. and when experiencing a neither pleasant nor painful spiritual feeling. knows. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. They live contemplating origination factors in feelings. clinging to nothing in the world. the developed mental state as the developed mental state. and they live detached.

they know. “When sloth and torpor is present. ‘There is no anger in me. 118 .’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. They live contemplating origination factors in mental states. a follower lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Five Hindrances. and they know how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned anger comes be. they know how the abandoning of the arisen sloth and torpor comes to be. when sense desire is present. or they live contemplating mental states in mental states internally and externally. and they live detached. they know how the abandoning of the arisen anger comes to be. “When anger is present. ‘There is sloth and torpor in me. they know how the abandoning of the arisen sense desire comes to be. they know.’ or when sloth and torpor is absent. clinging to nothing in the world. and they know how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sense desire comes to be. and they know how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sloth and torpor comes to be. they know. “And how does a follower live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Five Hindrances? “Herein.’ or when sense desire is absent. followers. they know.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen anger comes to be.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen sloth and torpor comes to be. they know. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in mental states. ‘There is no sense desire in me. “Thus.externally. “And how does a follower live contemplating mental objects in mental objects? “Herein.’ or when anger is absent. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. ‘There is anger in me. ‘Mental states exist. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in mental states. ‘There is sense desire in me.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen sense desire comes to be. a follower lives contemplating mental states in mental states. they know. ‘There is no sloth and torpor in me.

Thus is perception. they know. and they know how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned doubt comes to be. followers.’ or when doubt is absent. they know how the abandoning of the arisen doubt comes to be. ‘There is no doubt in me. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen doubt comes to be. they know. they know. thus is the arising of perception. and thus is the disappearance of material form. ‘There is doubt in me. they know. a follower lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Five Hindrances.’ or when restlessness and worry is absent. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in mental objects. they know how the abandoning of the arisen restlessness and worry comes to be. They live contemplating origination factors in mental objects. and thus is the disappearance of perception. ‘Thus is material form. and thus is the disappearance of mental formations. or they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally. thus is the arising of feeling. Thus are mental formations. “When doubt is present. clinging to nothing in the world. “Thus they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally. Thus is feeling. and they live detached. ‘Mental objects exist.“When restlessness and worry is present. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in mental objects. ‘There is no restlessness and worry in me.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen restlessness and worry comes to be. “Thus. Thus is 119 . a follower lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Five Aggregates of Clinging. they think. “And further. ‘There is restlessness and worry in me. thus is the arising of material form. or they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. and they know how the nonarising in the future of the abandoned restlessness and worry comes to be. thus is the arising of mental formations. and thus is the disappearance of feeling.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. “And how does a follower live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the Five Aggregates of Clinging? “Herein.

“And further. “Thus also. and thus is the disappearance of consciousness.’ “Thus they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally. and they know how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. They live contemplating origination factors in mental objects. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. or they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. ‘The ear and sounds and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the ear and sounds). they know. thus is the arising of consciousness. they know how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be. “They know. ‘The nose and odors and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the nose and odors). or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in mental objects. ‘Mental objects exist. they know how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in mental objects.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be.consciousness. a follower lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects in The Five Aggregates of Clinging.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be. and they know how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. or they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally. and they live detached. 120 . they know how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. “And how does a follower live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Six Internal and the Six External Sense Bases? “Herein. clinging to nothing in the world. “They know. a follower lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Six Internal and the Six External Sense Bases. and they know how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. ‘The eye and visual forms and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the eye and forms).’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be.

“They know. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in mental objects. They know how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be. they know how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be. ‘The tongue and flavors and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the tongue and flavors). ‘Mental objects exist. or they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be.“They know. ‘The mind and mental objects and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the mind and mental objects). they know how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be. “Thus also. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought.’ or when the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is 121 . ‘The body and tactual objects and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the body and tactual objects). “And how does a follower live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Seven Factors of Enlightenment? “Herein. a follower lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Six Internal and the Six External Sense Bases. and they live detached. they know how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be. they know. clinging to nothing in the world. when the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is present. and they know how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. and they know how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. “Thus they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally. They live contemplating origination factors in mental objects. ‘The enlightenment factor of mindfulness is present in me. “They know. and they know how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in mental objects. or they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. a follower lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Seven Factors of Enlightenment. “And further.

“When the enlightenment factor of tranquillity is present. they know. ‘The enlightenment factor of tranquillity is absent in me. ‘The enlightenment factor of energy is present in me. they know.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of energy comes to be. “When the enlightenment factor of joy is present.absent. “When the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects is present.’ They know how the arising of the nonarisen enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects comes to be.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of tranquillity comes to be.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of mindfulness comes to be. they know. and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment factor of joy comes to be. and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment factor of tranquillity comes to be. “When the enlightenment factor of energy is present. and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment factor of energy comes to be. ‘The enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects is absent in me. they know. 122 . ‘The enlightenment factor of joy is present in me. they know. they know.’ or when the enlightenment factor of tranquillity is absent. ‘The enlightenment factor of mindfulness is absent in me. and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment factor of mindfulness comes to be. they know.’ or when the enlightenment factor of joy is absent. ‘The enlightenment factor of joy is absent in me. and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects comes to be. ‘The enlightenment factor of energy is absent in me.’ or when the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects is absent.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of joy comes to be. they know. ‘The enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects is present in me. ‘The enlightenment factor of tranquillity is present in me. they know.’ or when the enlightenment factor of energy is absent.

“Thus they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally. a follower lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Seven Factors of Enlightenment.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. they know. or they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally. according to reality’.’ or when the enlightenment factor of concentration is absent. ‘This is the cessation of Dukkha. clinging to nothing in the world. they know.’ or when the enlightenment factor of equanimity is absent.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity comes to be. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in mental objects. according to reality’. they know. ‘The enlightenment factor of concentration is absent in me. “And how does a follower live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Four Noble Truths? Herein. ‘The enlightenment factor of equanimity is absent in me. “When the enlightenment factor of equanimity is present. they know. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. ‘The enlightenment factor of equanimity is present in me. “Thus also. ‘This is Dukkha17. and 17 Dukkha: unsatisfactoriness 123 . ‘This is the origin of Dukkha. they know. They live contemplating origination factors in mental objects. a follower lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Four Noble Truths. ‘Mental objects exist. they know. and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity comes to be. or they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. “And further. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in mental objects. and they live detached. and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration comes to be. according to reality’.’ They know how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of concentration comes to be. ‘The enlightenment factor of concentration is present in me. they know.When the enlightenment factor of concentration is present.

Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for five years. let alone six years. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). Non-returning: In Pali.’ “Thus they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally. clinging to nothing in the world. or they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally. and they live detached. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship18). here and now.” This state is the third level of enlightenment. Theravadin Buddhism teaches that there are four levels. a follower lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of The Four Noble Truths. They live contemplating origination factors in mental objects. ‘This is the path leading to the cessation of Dukkha. “Thus also. or they live contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). In this state there is no longer any sensual desire or aversion. “O. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. “O. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. 124 . the state of Non-returning. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. or they live contemplating origination and dissolution factors in mental objects. let alone five years.they know.’ to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. “O. 18 19 Arahantship: The state of full enlightenment. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. the state of Non-returning. Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for four years. “Anagami. Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for six years. here and now. here and now. “Verily. let alone seven years. ‘Mental objects exist. the state of Non-returning19. yet still degrees of conceit and ignorance. Or their mindfulness is established with the thought. according to reality. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. or they live contemplating dissolution factors in mental objects. whoever practices these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for seven years.

Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for two years. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. let alone six months. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. “O. let alone five months. here and now. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. here and now. or if some remainder of clinging is still present.then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. here and now. the state of Non-returning. “O. Highest 125 . Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for six months. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for seven months. Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for one year. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). let alone three years. here and now. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. “O. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. “O. the state of Non-returning. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for five months. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for three years. “O. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. here and now. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. the state of Non-returning. let alone one year. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. the state of Non-returning. let alone seven months. here and now. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). let alone four years. Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for four months. “O. let alone two years. here and now. the state of Non-returning. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. the state of Non-returning. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. the state of Non-returning. “O. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship).

Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). here and now. for reaching the right path. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. “O. here and now. for the destruction of sufferings and grief. followers. the state of Non-returning. for the purification of beings. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for half a month. Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for two months. 126 . or if some remainder of clinging is still present. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. for the attainment of Nibbana. let alone two months. let alone half a month. let alone four months. Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for one month. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). “O.Knowledge (Arahantship). the state of Non-returning. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for one week. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship).’” Thus spoke the Blessed One. “O. for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. “O. The disciples were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words. the state of Non-returning. namely the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. Should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for three months. here and now. here and now. the state of Non-returning. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). here and now. Highest Knowledge (Arahantship). then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. here and now. “Because of this was it said: ‘This is the only way. the state of Non-returning. or if some remainder of clinging is still present. the state of Non-returning. “O. then one of these two fruits may be expected by them. let alone one month. let alone three months.

This is the same with sense desire. And with your energy. not just being objectively mindful.Majjhima Nikaya 10 Comments by the editor The Satipatthana Sutta is considered within Theravadin Buddhism to be one of the most important Suttas. know when it is absent. It is often used as a basis of the Vipassana side of Theravadin Buddhism. know when it is absent. This word Vipassana is not well understood by many western Buddhists (and non-Buddhists). know how it 127 . yet there is much more. Nine times the Buddha teaches us to reflect on death internally and externally on seeing an external object . feelings or thoughts. Frequently there is the thought that “Vipassana Meditation” is just trying to be very mindful of our bodily actions. (In contrast to the Samata side. Did you notice? Nine times.) Vipassana means Insight or Wisdom. Yonisomanasikara. we give an entire talk about the Satipatthana Sutta. And there are other parts as well where he is encouraging the use of reflection. which aims at primarily developing only strong concentration. most importantly. etc. or in Pali.in this case a corpse. or being objectively mindful of our sensations. doubt. know how it passes and. This is included in the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. know how your anger will not arise in the future. With your anger. deep understanding which will help us to purify our mind and eventually lead to enlightenment. It is clear he is encouraging us to use wise reflection. here in the Satipatthana Sutta. There is also Wise Reflection. In our 10-day retreats. know how it arises. know if it is present. know when it is present.

This is the same with joy. I might also mention. This is very valuable to understand because it can help you to have a balanced practice... I personally felt it was so important that within a short time I memorized it completely.arises and know how its perfection can come in the future. tranquillity. We certainly need to use wise reflection with our mindfulness. 128 . Perhaps you would like to try doing similarly. that after hearing this teaching for the first time. etc.

’ ‘After death a Tathagata exists.’ that ‘The world is not eternal.’ ‘The soul and the body are the same. as Venerable Malunkyaputta was alone in seclusion.’ that ‘The soul is one thing and the body another.’ that ‘After death a Tathagata exists.’ that ‘The world is not eternal.’ ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist’ – I do not approve.’ then I will live the holy life under him. having bowed down. As he was sitting there he said to 129 . discarded by the Blessed One – ‘The world is eternal. I will go ask the Blessed One about them. set aside.’ that ‘After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist.’ that ‘The world is not finite.’ ‘After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist.’ that ‘The world is finite. Anathapindika’s Monastery.’ ‘The soul is one thing and the body another. he sat to one side. when it was evening. I am not satisfied that the Blessed One has not explained them to me.Culamalunkya Sutta The Shorter Discourse to Malunkyaputta Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove. Venerable Malunkyaputta arose from seclusion and went to the Blessed One.” Then.’ or that ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist. If he does not explain to me that ‘The world is eternal.’ that ‘After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist. On arrival.’ ‘The world is finite. this train of thought arose in his awareness: “These positions that are unexplained.’ then I will disrobe from the monkhood and return to the lay life.’ that ‘The soul and the body are the same.’ ‘The world is not eternal.’ ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist.’ that ‘The soul and the body are the same.’ that ‘The world is not finite.’ that ‘After death a Tathagata exists.’ or that ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.’ that ‘The world is finite.’ ‘The world is not finite. If he explains to me that ‘The world is eternal. Then.’ that ‘The soul is one thing and the body another.’ that ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist.’ that ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist.

” that “After death a Tathagata does not exist. then. I am not satisfied that the Blessed One has not explained them to me.’ But if he does not know or see whether the world is finite or not finite.” that “The world is not eternal.’ But if he does not know or see whether the world is eternal or not eternal.” then I will live the holy life under him. I will go ask the Blessed One about them.” “After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist.’ If he knows that ‘The world is not eternal. If he does not explain to me that “The world is eternal.’ then may he explain to me that ‘The world is finite. in one who is unknowing and unseeing.” “After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist” – I do not approve.” that “The soul and the body are the same. just now.” that “The world is not finite.the Blessed One.” that “The soul is one thing and the body another.” “After death a Tathagata does not exist. as I was alone in seclusion. if the Blessed One knows that ‘The world is finite.” then I will disrobe from the monkhood and return to the lay life. I do not see.’ “Venerable Sir.” that “After death a Tathagata does not exist.” that “The world is finite. set aside.’ then may he explain to me that ‘The world is not eternal.” or that “After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.” that “The soul and the body are the same.” that “After death a Tathagata exists.” “After death a Tathagata exists. the straightforward thing to do is to admit.” that “The soul is one thing and the body another.” that “After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist. this train of thought arose in my awareness: ‘These positions that are unexplained.” that “The world is finite.” that “After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist.” “The soul and the body are the same. if the Blessed One knows that ‘The world is eternal. discarded by the Blessed One – “The world is eternal. “Venerable Sir.” “The world is not finite.” “The soul is one thing and the body another. ‘I do not know.’ “Venerable Sir. in one who is unknowing and 130 .” “The world is finite.” that “After death a Tathagata exists. then.” that “The world is not finite.’ then may he explain to me that ‘The world is not finite.’ then may he explain to me that ‘The world is eternal. If he explains to me that “The world is eternal.” or that “After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.” “The world is not eternal.” that “The world is not eternal.’ If he knows that ‘The world is not finite.

’ “Venerable Sir. then. I do not see. ‘I do not know. or neither exists nor does not exist.’ If he knows that ‘The soul is one thing and the body another. if the Blessed One knows that ‘The soul and the body are the same. the straightforward thing to do is to admit.’ If he knows that ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist.’ But if he does not know or see whether after death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist. did I ever say to you. ‘I do not know. ‘Come. the straightforward thing to do is to admit.’ If he knows that ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.’” “Malunkyaputta. ‘I do not know.” or “The world is not eternal.” or “After death a Tathagata does not exist.” or “The soul and the body are the same. then.” or “The world is finite.’ then may he explain to me that ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist. in one who is unknowing and unseeing. if the Blessed One knows that ‘After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist. ‘I do not know. I do not see. live the holy life under me.’ “Venerable Sir.” or “The world is not finite.’ then may he explain to me that ‘The soul is one thing and the body another.’ But if he does not know or see whether the soul and the body are the same or that the soul is one thing and the body another.” or “After death a Tathagata both exists 131 . and I will explain to you that “The world is eternal.’ then may he explain to me that ‘After death a Tathagata exists.’ then may he explain to me that ‘After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist. the straightforward thing to do is to admit. the straightforward thing to do is to admit. Malunkyaputta. I do not see.’ then may he explain to me that ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.’ “Venerable Sir. if the Blessed One knows that ‘After death a Tathagata exists.’ But if he does not know or see whether after death a Tathagata exists or does not exist.’ then may he explain to me that ‘The soul and the body are the same. then.” or “The soul is one thing and the body another.” or “After death a Tathagata exists. in one who is unknowing and unseeing.unseeing. I do not see. in one who is unknowing and unseeing.

”’ nor did you say.” or “After death a Tathagata does not exist.” “And did you ever say to me. ‘I will not live the holy life under the Blessed One as long as he does not explain to me that “The world is eternal.” or “After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist”’?” “No.” or “The world is not finite.” or “The soul and the body are the same.and does not exist.” or “After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.” or “The world is not eternal. Venerable Sir. if anyone were to say.” or “The world is not finite. I will live the holy life under the Blessed One and [in return] the Tathagata will explain to me that “The world is eternal.” or “The soul is one thing and the body another. who are you to be claiming grievances and making demands of anyone? “Malunkyaputta. Malunkyaputta.”’ “Then that being the case. ‘Venerable Sir.” or “The world is not eternal.” or “After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist. and I will explain to you that “The world is eternal. live the holy life under me.” or “The world is finite. ‘Come.” or “After death a Tathagata exists. that neither did I say.” or “After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist.” or “The world is finite. I will live the holy life under the Blessed One and [in return] the Tathagata will explain to me that “The world is eternal.” or “The soul and the body are the same. ‘Venerable Sir.” or “The soul is one thing and the body another.” or “After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist.” or “After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist”’?” “No.” or “The soul and the body are the same.” or “After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist.” or “The soul is one thing and the body another.” or “After death a Tathagata exists.” or “The world is not finite. Venerable Sir.” or “The world is not finite.” or “The world is not eternal.” or “The world is finite.” “So it is agreed.” or “After death a Tathagata does not exist.” or “The soul and the body are the same.” or “The world is not eternal. Malunkyaputta.” or “After death a Tathagata exists.” or “The soul is one thing and the body 132 .” or “The world is finite. foolish man.” or “After death a Tathagata does not exist.

a stork.’ They would say.’ They would say. ‘I will not have this arrow removed until I know whether they were tall. or a worker. or another bird. if anyone were to say.’ They would say. a water buffalo. ‘I will not have this arrow removed until I know whether the shaft with which I was wounded was wild or cultivated.’ They would say. a priest. or golden-colored.” or “After death a Tathagata exists.” or “The 133 . “In the same way. medium height.” or “After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.” or “After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist.’ That person would die and those things would still remain unknown to them. ‘I will not have this arrow removed until I know whether the shaft with which I was wounded was that of a common arrow. bamboo threads.’ They would say. ‘I will not have this arrow removed until I know whether they were dark. ‘I will not have this arrow removed until I know the given name and clan name of the person who wounded me.” or “The world is not eternal. or bark. Their friends and companions. ‘I will not have this arrow removed until I know whether the feathers of the shaft with which I was wounded were those of a vulture. a curved arrow. a peacock. a merchant. a barbed. ‘I will not have this arrow removed until I know whether the person who wounded me was a noble warrior. ‘I will not have this arrow removed until I know their home village.’ They would say. a hawk.’ They would say. ‘I will not live the holy life under the Blessed One as long as he does not explain to me that “The world is eternal. ‘I will not have this arrow removed until I know whether the bowstring with which I was wounded was fiber.’ They would say.”’ that person would die and those things would still remain undeclared and unexplained by the Tathagata. sinew. ‘I will not have this arrow removed until I know whether the shaft with which I was wounded was bound with the sinew of an ox. or city. or a monkey.another. “It is as if a person were wounded by an arrow thickly smeared with poison. or an oleander arrow.” or “After death a Tathagata does not exist. and the person would say. a lion. hemp. ruddy-brown. a calf-toothed. town. or short.’ They would say. kinsmen and relatives provide them with a surgeon.’ They would say. ‘I will not have this arrow removed until I know whether the bow with which I was wounded was a long bow or a crossbow.

there is aging.” or “After death a Tathagata exists.’ there is the living of the holy life. ‘The world is not eternal. “Malunkyaputta.’ and when there is the view. and there is sorrow. it is not the case that when there is the view. ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist.” or “The soul is one thing and the body another. ‘The world is eternal.’ there is the living of the holy life. grief and despair. pain. whose ending I make known right in the here and now. there is aging. and there is sorrow. pain. lamentation. When there is the view. And it is not the case that when there is the view.’ there is the living of the holy life. ‘After death a Tathagata exists. pain. ‘The soul and the body are the same. lamentation. ‘The soul and the body are the same. “It is not the case that when there is the view. ‘The world is eternal. there is aging. there is death.”’ that person would die and those things would still remain undeclared and unexplained by the Tathagata.” or “The world is not finite.’ there is the living of the holy life.’ there is the living of the holy life.’ there is the living of the holy life.’ there is the living of the holy life.’ and when there is the view. whose ending I make known right in the here and now. “It is not the case that when there is the view. and there is sorrow. And it is not the case that when there is the view.’ there is the living of the holy life. there is death. “It is not the case that when there is the view.’ still there is birth. ‘The world is not finite.’ still there is birth. ‘After death a Tathagata both exists and 134 . And it is not the case that when there is the view. ‘The world is not finite. there is death. And it is not the case that when there is the view. ‘The world is finite. ‘The world is finite. When there is the view.” or “After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist.” or “After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.” or “The soul and the body are the same. lamentation. ‘The soul is one thing and the body another. When there is the view.world is finite. grief and despair. grief and despair. ‘The world is not eternal.’ and when there is the view. And it is not the case that when there is the view. whose ending I make known right in the here and now.’ still there is birth. ‘The soul is one thing and the body another.” or “After death a Tathagata does not exist.

“So. When there is the view. grief and despair. there is death. ‘After death a Tathagata exists’ and when there is the view.’ is declared and explained by me. nor to purification from lust. nor to quietude. ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.’ still there is birth.’ is declared and explained by me.’ is undeclared and unexplained by me.’ is declared and explained by me. nor to real knowledge. ‘After death a Tathagata exists. ‘This is the cessation of Dukkha. nor to insight into the higher stages of the path. “And why are these things undeclared and unexplained by me? Because they are not calculated to profit. ‘The world is not eternal. ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist’ and when there is the view.does not exist. remember what is undeclared and unexplained by me as undeclared and unexplained. and what is declared and explained by me as declared and explained. ‘This is the origination of Dukkha. whose ending I make known right in the here and now. Malunkyaputta.’ is undeclared and unexplained by me. ‘After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist. nor to detachment. ‘The world is not finite.’ is undeclared and unexplained by me. That is why they are undeclared and unexplained by me.’ there is the living of the holy life.’ there is the living of the holy life. ‘The world is finite. ‘This is the path of 135 . nor to Enlightenment.’ is undeclared and unexplained by me. And what is undeclared and unexplained by me? ‘The world is eternal. nor to tranquillisation of the heart. And it is not the case that when there is the view.’ is undeclared and unexplained by me.’ is undeclared and unexplained by me. ‘The soul and the body are the same. there is aging.’ is undeclared and unexplained by me. pain. do not contribute even to the elements of right conduct. ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist. ‘The soul is one thing and the body another. “And what is declared and explained by me? ‘This is Dukkha. ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist. ‘After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist’ and when there is the view. lamentation. ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.’ is undeclared and unexplained by me.’ is undeclared and unexplained by me. and there is sorrow.’ is undeclared and unexplained by me.

contribute to the beginnings of right conduct. Venerable Malunkyaputta was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words. to quietude. remember what is undeclared and unexplained by me as undeclared and unexplained.practice leading to the cessation of Dukkha.. pain. to insight into the higher stages of the path and to Enlightenment.. What he is basically saying is that these types of questions are simply not important compared to knowing how to overcome sorrow.” Thus spoke the Blessed One. That is why they are declared and explained by me. and what is declared and explained by me as declared and explained. 136 ... Malunkyaputta.? Who. And why are these things declared and explained by me? Because they are calculated to profit.. lamentation. Majjhima Nikaya 63 Comments by the editor Here we have the Buddha’s famous poisoned arrow story. Our work is to get the poisoned arrow out. but.. grief.? Where.’ is declared and explained by me. where did we come from? What is God? When was the beginning of time? What. “So. to real knowledge. to purification from lust. which is used on a few occasions in the scriptures and by possibly nearly every Theravadin Buddhist teacher who knows it! How important it is!! But. despair and all forms of Dukkha right here and now.. to tranquillisation of the heart.. to detachment.? The Buddha actually does not state here that he does not know the answers to these types of questions.

or for the sake of a resting place. followers? That the monk Gotama teaches the Dhamma for the sake of robes? Or that the monk Gotama teaches the Dhamma for the sake of almsfood? Or that the monk Gotama teaches the Dhamma for the sake of a resting place? Or that the monk Gotama teaches the Dhamma for the sake of some better state of being?” “We do not think thus about the Blessed One. followers. the Seven Factors of Enlightenment. ‘The monk Gotama teaches the Dhamma for the sake of robes.Kinti Sutta What Do You Think About Me? Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Kusinara.’ Then what do you think about me?” “Venerable Sir. ‘The Blessed One is compassionate and seeks our welfare.” “Venerable Sir. he teaches the Dhamma out of compassion.’” “So. we think thus about the Blessed One. you do not think thus about me. or that the monk Gotama teaches the Dhamma for the sake of almsfood. the 137 . ‘The monk Gotama teaches the Dhamma for the sake of robes.’” “So. the Five Faculties. he teaches the Dhamma out of compassion. the Four Foundations of Mindfulness.that is.” they replied. you think thus about me. in the Grove of Offerings. the Four Bases of Spiritual Powers. There he addressed the disciples thus. ‘The Blessed One is compassionate and seeks our welfare.’ “These things that I have taught you after directly knowing them myself . or for the sake of some better state of being. or for the sake of almsfood. or that the monk Gotama teaches the Dhamma for the sake of a resting place. the Four Great Efforts. or that the monk Gotama teaches the Dhamma for the sake of some better state of being. The Blessed One said: “What do you think about me. “Followers. the Five Powers.

let the venerable ones not fall into a dispute. with mutual appreciation and without disputing. let the venerable ones not fall into a dispute. ‘These venerable ones differ about both the meaning and the phrasing.in these things you should all train in concord. The venerable ones should know that it is for this reason that there is difference about the meaning and difference about the phrasing. The venerable ones should know that it is for this reason that there is difference about the meaning but agreement about the phrasing.’ So what has been wrongly grasped should be borne in mind as wrongly grasped. let the venerable ones not fall into a dispute.” The rules and guidelines set down by the Buddha for his monks and nuns.’ Then whomever you think is the most reasonable of those who side together on the opposite part should be approached and addressed thus.’ then whomever you think is the more reasonable should be approached and addressed thus. Bearing in mind what has been wrongly grasped as wrongly grasped. 138 20 . The venerable ones should know that it is for this reason that there is difference about the meaning and difference about the phrasing. “Now if you should think thus.Noble Eightfold Path . ‘The venerable ones differ about the meaning but agree about the phrasing. “While you are training in concord. some followers might differ about the higher Dhamma. ‘These venerable ones differ about the meaning but agree about the phrasing. ‘The venerable ones differ about both the meaning and the phrasing.’ then whomever you think is the more reasonable should be approached and addressed thus. “Now if you should think thus. “Vinaya. with mutual appreciation and without disputing. ‘The venerable ones differ about the meaning but agree about the phrasing. what is Dhamma and what is Discipline20 should be expounded. ‘The venerable ones differ about both the meaning and the phrasing.’ Then whomever you think is the most reasonable of those who side together on the opposite part should be approached and addressed thus. The venerable ones should know that it is for this reason that there is difference about the meaning but Discipline: In Pali.

Let the venerable ones not fall into a dispute over a mere trifle.’ Then whomever you think is the most reasonable of those who side together on the opposite part should be approached and addressed thus. “Now if you should think thus.’ then whomever you think is the more reasonable should be approached and addressed thus.’ So what has been wrongly grasped should be borne in mind as wrongly grasped and what has been rightly grasped should be borne in mind as rightly grasped. ‘These venerable ones agree about both the meaning and the phrasing. ‘The venerable ones agree about the meaning but differ about the phrasing.agreement about the phrasing. ‘The venerable ones agree about the meaning but differ about the phrasing. Bearing in mind what has been wrongly grasped as wrongly grasped. But the phrasing is a mere trifle.’ So what has been rightly grasped should be borne in mind as rightly grasped and what has been wrongly grasped should be borne in mind as wrongly grasped. what is Dhamma and what is Discipline should be expounded. The venerable ones should know that it is for this reason that there is agreement about the meaning and agreement about the phrasing. Let the venerable ones not fall into a dispute over a mere trifle. ‘These venerable ones agree about the meaning but differ about the phrasing. and bearing in mind what has been wrongly grasped as wrongly grasped. ‘The venerable ones agree about both the meaning and the phrasing. and bearing in mind what has been rightly grasped as rightly grasped.’ then whomever you think is the more reasonable should be approached and addressed thus. The venerable ones should know that it is for this reason that there is agreement about the meaning but difference about the phrasing. But the phrasing is a mere trifle. what is Dhamma and what is Discipline should be expounded. Bearing in mind what has been rightly grasped as rightly grasped. The venerable ones should know that it is for this reason that there is agreement about the meaning but difference about the phrasing. let the venerable ones not fall into a dispute. “Now if you should think thus.’ Then whomever you think is the most reasonable of those who side together on the opposite part should be approached and addressed 139 . let the venerable ones not fall into a dispute.

They are not firmly attached to their view and they let go of views easily. ‘I shall not be troubled and the other person will not be hurt. and I can make that person emerge from the unwholesome and establish them in the wholesome. Though they are firmly attached to their view and they let go of views with difficulty. ‘I shall be troubled. for the other person is not given to anger and revenge. it is possible that the situation can be examined in this way. “While you are training in concord.’ So what has been rightly grasped should be borne in mind as rightly grasped. let the venerable ones not fall into a dispute. It is a mere trifle that the other person will be hurt. “Or it may occur to you. but the other person will not be hurt. The venerable ones should know that it is for this reason that there is agreement about the meaning and agreement about the phrasing. and I can make that person emerge from the unwholesome and establish them in the wholesome. it is proper to speak. but it is a much greater thing that I can make that person emerge from the unwholesome and establish them in the wholesome.thus.’ If such thoughts occur to you. rather.’ If such thoughts occur to you. but it is a much greater thing that I can make that person emerge from the unwholesome and establish them in the wholesome. yet I can make that person emerge from the unwholesome and establish them in the wholesome. you should not hurry to speak to them. it is proper to speak. it is proper to speak. ‘The venerable ones agree about both the meaning and the phrasing. they are not firmly attached to their view and they let go of views easily. 140 . It is a mere trifle that I shall be troubled. However. “Now. but the other person will be hurt. “Or it may occur to you.’ If such thoughts occur to you. with mutual appreciation and without disputing. for the other person is given to anger and revenge. followers. what is Dhamma and what is Discipline should be expounded. for the other person is not given to anger and revenge. ‘I shall not be troubled. Bearing in mind what has been rightly grasped as rightly grasped. someone might commit an offence or a transgression.

‘While we were training in concord. It is a mere trifle that I shall be troubled and the other person hurt. can one realize Nibbana?’ “Answering rightly. and I cannot make that person emerge from the unwholesome and establish them in the wholesome. bitterness. yet I can make that person emerge from the unwholesome and establish them in the wholesome. And they are firmly attached to their view and they let go of views with difficulty. domineering views. Then whomever you think is the most reasonable of those who side together on the one part should be approached and addressed thus.’ If such thoughts occur to you. friend. with mutual appreciation and without disputing. there might arise mutual verbal friction. one should not underrate equanimity towards such a person. without abandoning these things. there arose mutual verbal friction. bitterness. and dejection. and dejection. he would censure that. it is proper to speak. ‘Friend. for the other person is given to anger and revenge.] ‘And.’ “[Then you should say. would he censure that?’ “Answering rightly. mental annoyance. domineering views. without abandoning these things. ‘While we were training in concord. “While you are training in concord. friend. friend. but it is a much greater thing that I can make that person emerge from the unwholesome and establish them in the wholesome. one cannot realize Nibbana. domineering views. bitterness. And they are firmly attached to their view and they let go of views with difficulty. they would answer thus. mental annoyance.’ If such thoughts occur to you. If the Blessed One knew.“Or it may occur to you. If the Blessed One knew. there arose mutual verbal friction. with mutual appreciation and without disputing. and dejection. ‘I shall be troubled and the other person will be hurt. ‘I shall be troubled and the other person will be hurt. they would answer thus. with mutual appreciation and without disputing. mental annoyance.’ “Then whomever you think is the most reasonable of those who side together on the opposite part should be approached and 141 . Or it may occur to you. for the other person is given to anger and revenge.

‘Was it the venerable one who made those others emerge from the unwholesome and established them in the wholesome?’ Answering rightly.’ “If others should ask you thus.’ Answering thus. and they emerged from the unwholesome and became established in the wholesome.” Thus spoke the Blessed One. ‘Friend. you answer in accordance with the Dhamma in such a way that nothing which provides grounds for censure can be legitimately deduced from this assertion. ‘While we were training in concord. without abandoning these things. you neither exalt yourself nor disparage others. domineering views. The disciples were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words. friends. friend. If the Blessed One knew. mental annoyance. with mutual appreciation and without disputing. ‘While we were training in concord. without abandoning these things. with mutual appreciation and without disputing. Having heard that Dhamma. friend. they would answer thus. They heard that Dhamma. can one realize Nibbana?’ “Answering rightly. I spoke to those others. domineering views. would he censure that?’ “Answering rightly. bitterness. bitterness. friend. If the Blessed One knew. I went to the Blessed One. mental annoyance.] ‘And. you should answer thus.addressed thus.’ “[Then you should say. Majjhima Nikaya 103 Comments by the editor 142 . and dejection. he would censure that. there arose mutual verbal friction. and dejection. they would answer thus. ‘Here. there arose mutual verbal friction. The Blessed One taught me the Dhamma. one cannot realize Nibbana.

we may be able to show more compassion to ourselves and to others. Here is a teaching which helps guard the ego from getting all puffed up when one is able to help others..A mere trifle. even if it inconveniences ourselves.. etc. This Sutta is also of much value in the Buddha’s final paragraph. mine. By viewing more of our inconveniences and annoyances.” 143 . a mere trifle. as just mere trifles. How often do people argue about mere trifles? How often do people get caught up with aversion to words others use.” It is conditioned and arises dependent on others and on hearing the Dhamma.. then perhaps we may see that again (though possibly used in different ways) it is just a mere trifle. We acknowledge how it came to arise and we “give credit where credit is due. etc. rather than looking at the meaning of the words? And how often are people able or even willing to help others when it may mean some inconvenience for themselves or even for both? When we are able to help others. It is very helpful to see that our wisdom is not really “ours..

with proper wisdom thus. The Venerable Sariputta saw him sitting there and addressed him thus.” Then Venerable Rahula considered thus. “Rahula. Anathapindika’s Monastery. The Venerable Rahula also dressed. 144 21 . went into Savatthi for almsfood. or present.” “Only material form. internal or external. all material form should be seen as it actually is. future. any kind of material form whatsoever. Sublime One?” “Material form. folded his legs crosswise.” The word “atta” is used in the Pali text. far or near. gross or subtle. followed close behind the Blessed One. the Blessed One dressed. this word is interpreted to mean a permanent. when it was morning.Maharahulovada Sutta The Greater Discourse of Advice to Rahula Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove. and taking his bowl and outer robe. Blessed One? Only material form. this I am not. develop mindfulness of breathing. and taking his bowl and outer robe. perception. “Rahula. set his body erect. and consciousness. Then. When mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated. Rahula. it is of great fruit and great benefit. and established mindfulness in front of him. everlasting self or soul. “Who would go into the town for almsfood today. when personally admonished by the Blessed One?” Thus he turned back and sat down at the root of a tree. ‘This is not mine. this is not my self21. and feeling. whether past. Then the Blessed One looked back and addressed Venerable Rahula thus. In general. inferior or superior. mental formations.

this is called the internal water element. when it was evening. What is the internal fire element? Whatever internally. and clung-to. fiery. belonging to oneself. urine. hair of the body. is water. how is mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated. sinews. that is. large intestines. saliva. tears. ‘This is not mine. Rahula. After paying homage to him. one becomes disenchanted with the earth element and makes the mind dispassionate towards the earth element. watery. Now both the internal earth element and the external earth element are simply earth element. and clung-to. is water. small intestines. hair of the head. stomach contents. that by which one is warmed.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom. Now both the internal water element and the external water element are simply water element. mucus. belonging to oneself. heart. or whatever else internally. midriff. Venerable Rahula rose from meditation and went to the Blessed One. sweat. teeth. pus. Rahula. or whatever else internally. “What. synovial fluid. spleen. watery. phlegm. this is called the internal earth element. that is. one becomes disenchanted with the water element and makes the mind dispassionate towards the water element. bones. ‘This is not mine. and clung-to. and 145 . is solid. is the earth element? The earth element may be either internal or external. fat. “Venerable Sir. this I am not. is solid. solidified. What is the internal water element? Whatever internally. and clung-to. liver. this is not my self. flesh. and is consumed. is fire. belonging to oneself. Rahula. he sat down to one side and asked the Blessed One. lungs. solidified. blood. that is. so that it is of great fruit and great benefit?” “What. is the fire element? The fire element may be either internal or external. nails. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus. this I am not. belonging to oneself. kidneys. this is not my self. skin. belonging to oneself.Then. ages. What is the internal earth element? Whatever internally. “What. bile. is the water element? The water element may be either internal or external. and clungto. feces. grease. marrow. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus.

’ When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom. belonging to oneself. What is the internal space element? Whatever internally. Now both the internal space element and the external space element are simply space element. and clung-to. one becomes disenchanted with the space element and makes the mind dispassionate towards the space element. and clung-to. up-going winds. ‘This is not mine. Rahula. down-going winds. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus. and where it collects. is the air element? The air element may be either internal or external.that by which what is eaten. and tasted gets completely digested. consumed. the door of the mouth. fiery. that is. is the space element? The space element may be either internal or external. this I am not. is air. and whereby it is excreted from below. drunk. and clung-to. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus. winds that course through the limbs. belonging to oneself. and clung-to. the inbreath and the out-breath. that is. airy. spatial. this I am not. is air. this is not my self. winds in the bowels. belonging to oneself. airy. spatial. consumed. this is not my self. and clung-to. one becomes disenchanted with the fire element and makes the mind dispassionate towards the fire element. this is not my self. What is the internal air element? Whatever internally. or whatever else internally. the holes of the ears. one becomes disenchanted with the air element and makes the mind dispassionate towards the air element. ‘This is not mine.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom. this is called the internal air element. and that [aperture] whereby what is eaten. 146 . is space. is fire. drunk. Now both the internal air element and the external air element are simply air element. belonging to oneself. and tasted gets swallowed. Now both the internal fire element and the external fire element are simply fire element. the nostrils. this is called the internal fire element. is space. Rahula. belonging to oneself. “What. or whatever else internally. this I am not. or whatever else internally. “What. winds in the belly. this is called the internal space element. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine.

worried or disgusted because of that. on excrement. develop meditation that is like water. develop meditation that is like fire.“Rahula. arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. and blood in fire. pus. excrement. arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. and the fire is not troubled. so too. so too. for when you develop meditation that is like water. for when you develop meditation that is like fire. Just as people throw clean things and dirty things. arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. develop meditation that is like air. Just as people burn clean things and dirty things. arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. worried or disgusted because of that. Rahula. urine. pus. spittle. develop meditation that is like the earth. for when you develop meditation that is like the earth. develop meditation that is like fire. arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. and the water is not troubled. Just as the air blows on clean things and dirty things. for when you develop meditation that is like the earth. Rahula. arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. Rahula. “Rahula. excrement. so too. worried or disgusted because of that. worried or disgusted because of that. and blood in water. “Rahula. develop meditation that is like the earth. for when you develop meditation that is like water. pus. for when you develop meditation that is like air. so too. spittle. for when you develop meditation that is like air. excrement. develop meditation that is like air. Rahula. and the air is not troubled. spittle. for when you develop meditation that is like fire. urine. spittle. urine. pus. Just as people wash clean things and dirty things. “Rahula. develop meditation that is like water. 147 . urine. and blood on the earth. and blood. and the earth is not troubled.

they know. for when you develop meditation on asubha. so too. 148 22 . for when you develop meditation on sympathetic joy. any aversion will be abandoned. any cruelty will be abandoned. ‘I am breathing in a long The word “asubha” is used in the Pali text. Breathing in a long breath. as it appears that there is not total agreement as to whether it means the 32 parts of the body contemplation. arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. When mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated. for when you develop meditation on equanimity. to the foot of a tree or to an empty place. I have left it untranslated. any ill-will will be abandoned. Rahula. develop meditation on mindfulness of breathing. develop meditation on Metta. with their legs crossed. develop meditation on compassion. having gone to the forest. “Rahula. for when you develop meditation on the perception of impermanence. any discontent will be abandoned. for when you develop meditation on compassion. so that it is of great fruit and great benefit? “Here. keeps their body erect and their mindfulness alert. develop meditation that is like space. sits down. or. the conceit ‘I am’ will be abandoned. for when you develop meditation on Metta. for when you develop meditation that is like space. develop meditation on asubha22. the 32 parts of the body and corpse contemplations. develop meditation on the perception of impermanence. “Ever mindful they breathe in. for when you develop meditation that is like space. develop meditation on sympathetic joy. Just as space is not established anywhere. and mindful they breathe out. develop meditation on equanimity. “Rahula. “Rahula. Rahula. it is of great fruit and great benefit. arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. a meditator. “Rahula. any lust will be abandoned. “Rahula.“Rahula. “Rahula. “Rahula. develop meditation that is like space. And how is mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated.

’ thus they train themselves. I shall breathe in.’ thus they train themselves. I shall breathe in. ‘Experiencing the mind. I shall breathe out. ‘Contemplating fading away. I shall breathe out.’ thus they train themselves.’ thus they train themselves.’ thus they train themselves. I shall breathe in. I shall breathe out. “‘Contemplating impermanence. I shall breathe in. ‘Contemplating fading away. I shall breathe in. they know.’ thus they train themselves. ‘I am breathing out a long breath’. ‘I am breathing out a short breath.’ 149 .’ thus they train themselves.’ thus they train themselves. ‘Calming the activity of the (breath-) body. I shall breathe in. ‘Experiencing pleasure.’ thus they train themselves.’ thus they train themselves. ‘I am breathing in a short breath’. I shall breathe in. I shall breathe out.’ thus they train themselves. ‘Contemplating relinquishment. I shall breathe out. I shall breathe out. I shall breathe in.’ thus they train themselves. ‘Liberating the mind. ‘Contemplating cessation.’ thus they train themselves.breath’. I shall breathe out.’ thus they train themselves. I shall breathe out. ‘Concentrating the mind.’ thus they train themselves. breathing out a short breath.’ thus they train themselves. I shall breathe in.’ ‘Experiencing the whole (breath-) body.’ thus they train themselves. I shall breathe out. I shall breathe in. ‘Experiencing pleasure. I shall breathe out.’ thus they train themselves. ‘Tranquilizing the mental formation. they know. ‘Gladdening the mind.’ thus they train themselves. ‘Experiencing rapture. they know.’ thus they train themselves. breathing out a long breath. “‘Experiencing rapture. ‘Tranquilizing the mental formation. ‘Contemplating impermanence. ‘Gladdening the mind. ‘Experiencing the mental formation. ‘Calming the activity of the (breath-) body. ‘Contemplating cessation. I shall breathe out.’ thus they train themselves. “‘Experiencing the mind. I shall breathe in. I shall breathe in.’ thus they train themselves. I shall breathe in. I shall breathe out. I shall breathe out. ‘Experiencing the whole (breath-) body. ‘Concentrating the mind.’ thus they train themselves.’ thus they train themselves.’ thus they train themselves.’ thus they train themselves. I shall breathe in. ‘Experiencing the mental formation. breathing in a short breath. ‘Liberating the mind.

he was having thoughts about how handsome the Buddha was. was also very handsome. While walking behind the Buddha to go for morning almsfood. ‘Contemplating relinquishment. so that it is of great fruit and great benefit. The Buddha recognized these thoughts and thus gave Venerable Rahula a teaching which Venerable Rahula understood was in admonishment for his inappropriate thoughts as a monk. that is how mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated. “Rahula. Comments by the editor This is a very interesting Sutta which again points at the importance of wise reflection! Venerable Rahula went to the Buddha in the evening seemingly a little confused. and was training him in mindfulness of the breathing. When he asked the Buddha about mindfulness of the breathing. Venerable Rahula was eighteen years old at this time. it appears 150 . and that he. He had been given special teachings from the Buddha. Venerable Rahula was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.thus they train themselves. yet Venerable Sariputta had told him to practice mindfulness of the breathing. Majjhima Nikaya 62 Note According to commentaries. I shall breathe out.’ thus they train themselves. even the final in-breaths and out-breaths are known as they cease.” Thus spoke the Blessed One. as his son. Venerable Sariputta was Venerable Rahula’s personal teacher. When mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated in this way. not unknown.

Reflect.that the Buddha ignored the question and instead taught more to Venerable Rahula concerning his shorter teaching from the morning. this is not my self.” He then added more teachings before giving the standard (as in other Suttas) four paragraphs concerning mindfulness of breathing. Compassion. Sympathetic Joy and Equanimity. you may have noticed the “Four Brahma Viharas” of Metta. Perhaps you might remember that the Buddha used these when talking with the Kalama people. this I am not. They are a regular topic in many Suttas and part of the basis of practice. see for yourself that the elements are “not mine. Among the added teachings. 151 .

But for a person who reflects wisely. “Followers. “Followers. there are anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by endurance. “Followers. and in addition. “Followers. there are anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by restraint. What must a person know and see in order that the getting rid of anxieties and troubles should be possible? These are wise reflection and unwise reflection. There he addressed the disciples thus. The Blessed One then spoke as follows: “Followers. those which have already arisen disappear.Sabbasava Sutta Getting Rid of All Anxieties and Troubles Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in Jeta’s grove. those which have already arisen increase. anxieties and troubles which have not yet arisen do not arise. not for one who does not know and does not see. there are anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by dispersal. there are anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by avoidance. I say that the getting rid of anxieties and troubles is possible for one who knows and sees. Anathapindika’s monastery.” “Yes.” they said in response to the Blessed One.” “Venerable Sir. there are anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by insight. there are anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by use. and there are anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by development.” they replied. Venerable Sir. I will teach you a discourse on getting rid of all anxieties and troubles. and in addition. Listen and heed well to what I shall say. what are the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by insight? 152 . For a person who reflects unwisely there arise anxieties and troubles which have not yet arisen.

reflecting on certain things. but on which they do not reflect. then these are the things that should be reflected on. who is untrained in the Teachings of good people. and do not reflect on things that should be reflected on. in a person. reflecting on certain things. but on which they reflect. “What are the things that should not be reflected on. does not know what things should be reflected on and what things should not be reflected on. the defilement of the desire for existence and for becoming which has already arisen in them disappears. the defilement of sense-pleasure which has not yet arisen arises. the defilement of sense-pleasure which has already arisen in them disappears. who does not see good people. or the defilement of ignorance which has not yet arisen does not arise. but on which they reflect? If. or the defilement of the desire for existence and for becoming which has not yet arisen arises. and in addition. Not knowing what things should be reflected on and what things should not be reflected on. the defilement of sense-pleasure which has already arisen in them increases. and they do not reflect on things that should be reflected on. the defilement of the desire for existence and for becoming which has already arisen in them increases. the defilement of ignorance which has already arisen in them disappears. and in addition. “For those who reflect on things that should not be reflected on. the defilement of sense-pleasure which has not yet arisen does not arise. they reflect on things that should not be reflected on. and in addition. then these are the things that should not be reflected on. “What are the things that should be reflected on. who is untrained in the Teachings of the Noble Ones. or the defilement of the desire for existence and for becoming which has not yet arisen does not arise. who is unversed in the Teachings of good people. the uninstructed ordinary person.“Followers. and. in addition. in a person. defilements which have not yet arisen arise. the defilement of ignorance which has already arisen in them increases. and in addition. who is unversed in the Teachings of the Noble Ones. and in addition. and in addition. who does not see the Noble Ones. 153 . or the defilement of ignorance which has not yet arisen arises. but on which they do not reflect? If.

which speaks and feels. this view arises in them as true and real. now at the present time. By Self I perceive Self. which experiences the fruits of good and 154 . one of the six false views arises in them: I have a Self. Or a wrong view arises in them as follows. ‘This my Self.defilements which have already arisen increase. this view arises in them as true and real. By Self I perceive Non-Self. they are doubtful about themselves: Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? Where has this person come from? Where will this person go? “When they reflect unwisely in these ways. this view arises in them as true and real. did I become what in the past? Shall I exist in the future? Shall I not exist in the future? What shall I be in the future? How shall I be in the future? Having been what. Then they reflect unwisely in these ways: Did I exist in the past? Did I not exist in the past? What was I in the past? How was I in the past? Having been what. I have no Self. this view arises in them as true and real. this view arises in them as true and real. shall I become what in the future? Or. By Non-Self I perceive Self.

grief. knows what things should be reflected on and what things should not be reflected on. remaining the same for ever and ever. “What are the things that should not be reflected on and on which they do not reflect? If. Knowing what things should be reflected on and what things should not be reflected on. in a person. this Self is permanent. who sees good people. and on which they reflect? If. a jungle of views. scuffling in views. the fetters of views. the defilement of sense-pleasure which has already arisen in them increases. pain. who is versed in the Teachings of the Noble Ones. “What are the things that should be reflected on. is what is called becoming enmeshed in views. followers. everlasting. reflecting on certain things. or the defilement of ignorance which has not yet arisen arises. the uninstructed ordinary person fettered by the fetters of views. and on which they do not reflect. “And.bad actions now here and now there. or the defilement of the desire for existence and for becoming which has not yet arisen does not 155 . and despair. the defilement of sense-pleasure which has already arisen in them disappears. in a person. lamentation. who is versed in the Teachings of good people. the defilement of sense-pleasure which has not yet arisen arises. unchanging. then these are the things that should not be reflected on. or the defilement of the desire for existence and for becoming which has not yet arisen arises. aging and death. reflecting on certain things. the agitation of views. from sorrow. I say that they do not liberate themselves from Dukkha. and in addition. the instructed noble disciple. followers. who is well trained in the Teachings of the Noble Ones. the defilement of the desire for existence and for becoming which has already arisen in them increases. the defilement of sense-pleasure which has not yet arisen does not arise. does not liberate themselves from birth. Followers. and in addition. and in addition. a wilderness of views. the defilement of ignorance which has already arisen in them increases. they do not reflect on things that should not be reflected on and they reflect on things that should be reflected on. stable.’ “This. and in addition. who is well trained in the Teachings of good people. who sees the Noble Ones.

those troubles. what are the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by restraint? “Here. Now. ‘This is the cause of Dukkha. then these are the things that should be reflected on.the false view of self. Now. the defilement of the desire for existence and for becoming which has already arisen in them disappears. and in addition. if there are any troubles. the defilement of ignorance which has already arisen in them disappears. distresses and vexations are not for them when they live restraining their nose in this manner. ‘This is the Path leading to the ending of Dukkha. Now. the three Fetters . if there are any troubles. distresses and vexations for them when they live without restraining their nose. ‘This is Dukkha. distresses and vexations for them when they live without restraining their eyes. a follower. distresses and vexations are not for them when they live restraining their ears in this manner.’ They reflect wisely. doubt. distresses and vexations for them when they live without restraining their tongue. and in addition. “Reflecting wisely. 156 . or the defilement of ignorance which has not yet arisen does not arise.’ They reflect wisely. Now. reflecting wisely. if there are any troubles.’ And they reflect wisely. they live with their tongue restrained. they live with their nose restrained. “Reflecting wisely. “Followers.’ When they reflect wisely in this manner. if there are any troubles. lives with their eyes restrained. and do reflect on things that should be reflected on. and in addition. “For those who do not reflect on things that should not be reflected on. and attachment to rites and rituals fall away from them.arise. defilements which have already arisen disappear. “Reflecting wisely. those troubles. distresses and vexations are not for them when they live restraining their eyes in this manner. These are called the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by insight. defilements which have not yet arisen do not arise. ‘This is the ending of Dukkha. distresses and vexations for them when they live without restraining their ears. those troubles. Then they reflect wisely. those troubles. and on which they reflect. they live with their ears restrained.

distresses and vexations are not for them when they live restraining their tongue in this manner. “Reflecting wisely, they live with their body restrained. Now, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for them when they live without restraining their body, those troubles, distresses and vexations are not for them when they live restraining their body in this manner. “Reflecting wisely, they live with their mind restrained. Now, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for a person when they live without restraining their mind, those troubles, distresses and vexations are not for them when they live restraining their mind in this manner. “These are called the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by restraint. “Followers, what are the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by use? “Here, a follower, reflecting wisely, makes use of their clothes - only to keep off cold, to keep off heat, to keep off gadflies, mosquitoes, winds, the sun, and creeping creatures, and to cover themselves decently. Reflecting wisely, they make use of food neither for pleasures nor for excess, neither for beauty nor for adornment, but only to support and sustain the body, to keep it from dis-ease and to foster the holy life, thinking, ‘In this way I put out the feeling of hunger which is present, and will not produce a new feeling, and my life will be maintained in blamelessness and convenience.’ Reflecting wisely, they make use of lodging - only to keep off cold, to keep off heat, to keep off gadflies, mosquitoes, winds, the sun, and creeping creatures, to dispel the risks of the seasons and to enjoy seclusion. Reflecting wisely, they make use of medicines and medical requisites - only to alleviate pains and illnesses which they may have, and to maintain their health. Now, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for a person when they do not use any of these, those troubles, distresses and vexations are not for them when they use these in this manner. “These are called the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by use.
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“Followers, what are the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by endurance? “Here, a follower, reflecting wisely, puts up with cold and heat, hunger and thirst, with gadflies, mosquitoes, winds, the sun and creeping creatures, abusive and hurtful language. They develop the ability to endure bodily feelings which are painful, acute, sharp, severe, unpleasant, disagreeable, and deadly. Now, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for a person when they do not endure any of these, those troubles, distresses and vexations are not for them when they endure these in this manner. “These are called the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by endurance. “Followers, what are the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by avoidance? “Here, a follower, reflecting wisely, avoids a savage elephant, a savage horse, a savage bull, a savage dog, a snake, the stump of a tree, a thorny hedge, a pit hole, a precipice, a refuse-pool or a dirty pool. Reflecting wisely, they also avoid sitting in such unseemly places, and frequenting such unseemly resorts, and associating with such bad friends that would lead the discreet among their companions in the holy life to conclude that they had gone astray. Now, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for a person when they do not avoid any of these, those troubles, distresses and vexations are not for them when they avoid these in this manner. “These are called the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by avoidance. “Followers, what are the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by dispersal? “Here, a follower, reflecting wisely, does not tolerate, they reject, discard, destroy, disperse thoughts of sense-pleasure which have arisen in them; they do not tolerate, they reject, discard, destroy, disperse thoughts of ill-will which have arisen in them; they do not tolerate, they reject, discard, destroy, disperse thoughts of violence which have arisen in them; and they do not tolerate, they reject, discard, destroy, disperse whatever evil and unwholesome thoughts which have arisen in them. Now, if there
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are any troubles, distresses, and vexations for a person when they do not disperse any of these, those troubles, distresses and vexations are not for them when they disperse these in this manner. “These are called the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by dispersal. “Followers, what are the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by development? “Here, a follower, reflecting wisely, develops Mindfulness, a Factor of Enlightenment associated with detachment, with dispassion, with cessation, maturing into renunciation; reflecting wisely, they develop the Investigation of Mental Objects, a Factor of Enlightenment associated with detachment, with dispassion, with cessation, maturing into renunciation; reflecting wisely, they develop Energy, a Factor of Enlightenment associated with detachment, with dispassion, with cessation, maturing into renunciation; reflecting wisely, they develop Joy, a Factor of Enlightenment associated with detachment, with dispassion, with cessation, maturing into renunciation; reflecting wisely, they develop Tranquillity, a Factor of Enlightenment associated with detachment, with dispassion, with cessation, maturing into renunciation; reflecting wisely, they develop Concentration, a Factor of Enlightenment associated with detachment, with dispassion, with cessation, maturing into renunciation; and reflecting wisely, they develop Equanimity, a Factor of Enlightenment associated with detachment, with dispassion, with cessation, maturing into renunciation. Now, if there are any troubles, distresses and vexations for a person when they do not develop any of these, those troubles, distresses and vexations are not for them when they develop these in this manner. “These are called the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by development. “Followers, a follower in whom: the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by insight have been got rid of by insight; the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by restraint have been got rid of by restraint;
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the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by use have been got rid of by use; the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by endurance have been got rid of by endurance; the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by avoidance have been got rid of by avoidance; the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by dispersal have been got rid of by dispersal; and the anxieties and troubles to be got rid of by development have been got rid of by development; Then, it is this follower who is said to have restrained all anxieties and troubles; they have cut off craving, struck off their fetters, and by fathoming false pride, they have put an end to suffering.” Thus spoke the Blessed One. The disciples were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words. Majjhima Nikaya 2

Note There is disagreement among translators regarding the word “asava” as used in the Pali text of this Sutta. As to my general agreement with Venerable Dr. Rahula’s translation of “asava” compared to other translations, I add his footnote: “The term asava in this Sutta has wider senses than its usual psychological and ethical meanings such as ‘influx,’ ‘outflow,’ ‘defilement,’ ‘impurity’. It is here used figuratively and embraces both psychological cares and physical troubles and difficulties as can be seen in the sequel.” Comments by the editor
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go deeper into understanding it. Because this type of Sutta calls us to reread it again and again. we are being taught in the teachings of the Buddha to examine our actions.” “wrong” thoughts.” Again and again. Hidden in this teaching is also the “Four Great Efforts” which serve as a substantial basis for The Getting Rid of All Anxieties and Troubles: The effort to let go. all of the anxieties and troubles we have to work with. The effort to prevent. How can we develop Right Understanding. This Sutta is not as simple.” I mentioned earlier how simple the first Sutta was. and in addition. Right Speech or Right anything if we do not reflect on what we are doing? Is it beneficial? Is it not? For me? For others? Now? Or in the future? I do not think I have to encourage you to reread this Sutta. speech and thoughts. those already arisen disappear. Right Thought. This Sutta also encourages us to learn more. This is so we can go deeper. And the effort to maintain. “Advice to Rahula at Ambalatthika.” “The Six Sense Doors. It can be interesting to compare this teaching with the first Sutta in this book. this Sutta covers. “wrong” questions and more.Does this Sutta cover enough for you? Deep and broad. Mentioned here are the “Four Requisites.” “The Seven Factors of Enlightenment. in general. 161 . The effort to develop. which is why it is near the end of this book! Yet again it is teaching us to reflect wisely – “for a person who reflects wisely. anxieties and troubles which have not yet arisen do not arise.

But these beings who were ill-conducted in body. revilers of noble ones. on the dissolution of the body. after death. have reappeared in the animal world. I see beings passing away and reappearing. after 162 . not revilers of noble ones. Anathapindika’s Monastery. suppose there were two houses with doors. saw people going in and coming out and passing to and fro.” they replied. The Blessed One spoke as follows: “Followers. fair and ugly. standing there between them. fortunate and unfortunate. speech. giving effect to wrong views in their actions. have reappeared among human beings. with the divine eye. I understand how beings pass on according to their actions thus: ‘These worthy beings who were well-conducted in body. giving effect to wrong views in their actions. wrong in their views. inferior and superior. on the dissolution of the body. giving effect to wrong views in their actions. after death. “Followers. and mind. revilers of noble ones. speech. Or these worthy beings who were well-conducted in body. and mind. giving effect to right views in their actions. even in the heavenly world. wrong in their views. giving effect to right views in their actions. have reappeared in a happy destination. which is purified and surpasses the human eye. and mind. Or these beings who were ill-conducted in body. So too. on the dissolution of the body. Or these beings who were ill-conducted in body. and mind. speech. There he addressed the disciples thus. speech. not revilers of noble ones. revilers of noble ones. speech. on the dissolution of the body.” “Venerable Sir. right in their views.Devaduta Sutta The Divine Messengers Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove. and mind. on the dissolution of the body. and a person with good sight. right in their views. after death. have reappeared in the realm of ghosts. wrong in their views. after death.

ninety. ill-treated brahmins. or by gods: this evil action was done by you. ‘I did not. yourself. and you. after pressing and questioning and cross-questioning them about the first divine messenger. speech. ‘Good person. or a hundred years. have you never seen in the world a man – or a woman – at eighty. have reappeared in a state of deprivation. speech. Venerable Sir. yourself will experience its result. youth gone. and mind”?’ They reply. ‘Good person. this person has ill-treated their mother. they have had no respect for the elders of their clan. ‘I did not. did it never occur to you – an intelligent and mature person – “I. ill-treated their father. I am not exempt from birth. ‘Good person. ‘Sire. did you not see the second divine messenger’s appearance in the world?’ They reply. in perdition. King Yama presses and questions and cross-questions them about the second divine messenger.’ Then King Yama says. and mind. ‘Good person.’ “Then King Yama says. doubled up. Venerable Sir. as crooked as a roof bracket.death. ill-treated recluses. have you never seen in the world a young tender infant lying prone. frail. did you not see the first divine messenger’s appearance in the world?’ They reply. ‘Good person. Let the king order their punishment.’ Then King Yama says. But this evil action of yours was not done by your mother or your father. or by your kinsmen and relatives. teeth 23 King Yama: the “king” of hell 163 . I was negligent.’ “Then. fouled in their own excrement and urine?’ They reply. too. saying. Certainly you will be dealt with according to your negligence. supported by a walking stick. or by recluses and brahmins. ‘I was unable. ‘Good person. through negligence you have failed to do good by body. surely I had better do good by body. even in hell.’ “Then King Yama presses and questions and cross-questions this person about the first divine messenger. tottering. am subject to birth. Venerable Sir. or by your friends and companions. in an unhappy destination.’ Then King Yama says. or by your brother or your sister. ‘I have. aged.’ “Now the wardens of hell seize such [an ill-conducted] being by the arms and present them to King Yama23. Venerable Sir.

and gravely ill. or by your friends and companions. speech. I am not exempt from sickness. am subject to aging. and you. am subject to sickness. ‘I was unable. ‘Good person.’ “Then King Yama says.’ Then King Yama says.’ “Then.’ 164 . have you never seen in the world a man – or a woman – afflicted. ‘Good person. But this evil action of yours was not done by your mother or your father. lifted up by some and set down by others?’ They reply. Venerable Sir. ‘I have. suffering. Certainly you will be dealt with according to your negligence. or by your brother or your sister. speech. ‘Good person. yourself. yourself will experience its result. lying fouled in their own excrement and urine. yourself will experience its result. gray-haired. through negligence you have failed to do good by body. surely I had better do good by body. and with limbs all blotchy?’ They reply. and mind”?’ They reply. I am not exempt from aging. speech. Certainly you will be dealt with according to your negligence. ‘I did not. too. Venerable Sir. too.’ Then King Yama says. or by your friends and companions. wrinkled.’ Then King Yama says.’ “Then King Yama says. or by gods: this evil action was done by you. and mind”?’ They reply. ‘Good person. through negligence you have failed to do good by body. did it never occur to you – an intelligent and mature person – “I. and mind. bald. did it never occur to you – an intelligent and mature person – “I. yourself. Venerable Sir. ‘I have. speech. or by your kinsmen and relatives. did you not see the third divine messenger’s appearance in the world?’ They reply. ‘I was unable. But this evil action of yours was not done by your mother or your father. or by your brother or your sister. or by recluses and brahmins. or by recluses and brahmins. and mind. I was negligent. or by gods: this evil action was done by you. scanty-haired. or by your kinsmen and relatives. surely I had better do good by body. and you. Venerable Sir. after pressing and questioning and cross-questioning them about the second divine messenger. I was negligent. Venerable Sir. ‘Good person. King Yama presses and questions and cross-questions them about the third divine messenger. ‘Good person.broken.

and having their head cut off with a sword?’ They reply. ‘Good person. beaten with canes. ‘Good person.’ to the ‘fiery wreath.’ “Then King Yama says. ‘I did not. did it never occur to you – an intelligent and mature person – “Those who do evil actions have such tortures of various kinds inflicted on them here and now. when a robber is caught. King Yama presses and questions and cross-questions them about the fifth divine messenger. their feet cut off. or by gods: this evil action was done by you. ‘Good person. have you 165 . having their hands cut off. their hands and feet cut off. and having them impaled alive on stakes. ‘I did not. their ears cut off. Venerable Sir.’ to the ‘antelope. speech.’ to the ‘Rahu’s mouth. yourself will experience its result.’ to the ‘flaming hand. or by your brother or your sister. speech. But this evil action of yours was not done by your mother or your father. King Yama presses and questions and cross-questions them about the fourth divine messenger. Certainly you will be dealt with according to your negligence. after pressing and questioning and cross-questioning them about the fourth divine messenger.’ to the ‘meat hooks. have you never seen in the world.’ to the ‘lye pickling.’ to the ‘polished-shell shave. Venerable Sir. and having them thrown to be devoured by dogs. Venerable Sir.’ Then King Yama says. through negligence you have failed to do good by body.’ Then King Yama says. ‘Good person. having them subjected to the ‘porridge pot. and having them splashed with boiling oil. ‘Good person. or by recluses and brahmins. ‘I have.’ Then King Yama says. yourself. kings have many kinds of tortures inflicted on them: having them flogged with whips. and mind”?’ They reply.’ to the ‘blades of grass. ‘Good person. or by your kinsmen and relatives.’ to the ‘pivoting pin. and you. beaten with clubs. so what in the hereafter? Surely I had better do good by body. ‘I was unable. or by your friends and companions.’ to the ‘bark dress. after pressing and questioning and cross-questioning them about the third divine messenger. did you not see the fourth divine messenger’s appearance in the world?’ They reply. their ears and nose cut off.’ “Then.’ to the ‘rolledup palliasse’. Venerable Sir.“Then. and mind. I was negligent. did you not see the fifth divine messenger’s appearance in the world?’ They reply. their nose cut off.’ to the ‘coins.

“Next the wardens of hell harness them to a chariot and drive them back and forth across burning ground. piercing feelings. yourself. “Next the wardens of hell throw them down and pare them with axes. they do not die. and mind. they drive a red-hot iron stake through the other foot. I was negligent. they drive a redhot iron stake through one foot. and mind”?’ They reply. speech. through negligence you have failed to do good by body. I am not exempt from death. ‘Good person. twodays dead. or by your kinsmen and relatives. they do not die. too.’ Then King Yama says. yourself will experience its result. and they drive a red-hot iron stake through their belly. Yet so 166 . three-days dead. after pressing and questioning and cross-questioning them about the fifth divine messenger. they do not die. There this person feels painful. piercing feelings. or by your brother or your sister. blazing and glowing. Venerable Sir. did it never occur to you – an intelligent and mature person – “I. they drive a red-hot iron stake through the other hand. There they feel painful. am subject to death. bloated.never seen in the world a man – or a woman – one-day dead. speech. piercing feelings. Certainly you will be dealt with according to your negligence. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results.’ Then King Yama says. “Now the wardens of hell torture them with the five-fold transfixing. There they feel painful. ‘I was unable. racking. Venerable Sir.’ “Then. or by your friends and companions. But this evil action of yours was not done by your mother or your father. or by recluses and brahmins. racking. and oozing with matter?’ They reply. ‘I have. They drive a red-hot iron stake through one hand. King Yama is silent. There they feel painful. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. “Next the wardens of hell set them with their feet up and their head down and pare them with adzes. piercing feelings. livid. and you. racking. or by gods: this evil action was done by you. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. ‘Good person. racking. surely I had better do good by body.

“Next the wardens of hell throw them into the Great Hell. racking. The range is a full hundred leagues Which it covers all-pervasively. The flames that surge out from its western wall dash against its eastern wall. followers: It has four corners and is built With four doors. and glowing. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. “Next the wardens of hell make them climb up and down a great mound of burning coals. they do not die. one set in each side. blazing and glowing. piercing feelings. They are cooked there in a swirl of froth. Now as to that Great Hell. piercing feelings. The flames that dash out from the bottom dash against the top. down and across. burning. Walled up with iron all around And shut in with an iron roof. The flames that surge out from its southern wall dash against its northern wall. racking. they do not die. at the end of a long period. followers. there comes an occasion when the Great Hell’s eastern door is 167 . “Now the flames that surge out from the Great Hell’s eastern wall dash against its western wall. “Some time or other. There they feel painful. There they feel painful. blazing. And the flames that surge out from the top dash against the bottom. “Next the wardens of hell take them feet up and head down and plunge them into a red-hot metal cauldron. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. they are swept up. The flames that surge out from its northern wall dash against its southern wall. And as they are being cooked there in a swirl of froth. racking. piercing feelings. they do not die. Its floor as well is made of iron And heated till it glows with fire.long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. they do not die. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. There they feel painful.

When at long last they reach the door. As their foot touches the floor. There they feel painful. and it is the same when their foot is uplifted. their sinews burn. it is then shut. “Some time or other. their inner skin burns.opened. it is then shut. their inner skin burns. their outer skin burns. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. “Some time or other. at the end of a long period. “Some time or other. it is then shut. their flesh burns. their outer skin burns. As their foot touches the floor. piercing feelings. there comes an occasion when the Great Hell’s western door is opened. their sinews burn. and it is the same when their foot is uplifted. racking. their outer skin burns. they do not die. their outer skin burns. racking. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. When at long last they reach the door. racking. their inner skin burns. They run quickly toward it. They come out by that door. their flesh burns. at the end of a long period. and it is the same when their foot is uplifted. As their foot touches the floor. their flesh burns. it is then shut. their sinews burn. there comes an occasion when the Great Hell’s southern door is opened. As their foot touches the floor. When at long last they reach the door. their bones turn to smoke. and it is the same when their foot is uplifted. piercing feelings. They run quickly toward it. As their foot touches the floor. they do not die. their bones turn to smoke. They run quickly toward it. They run quickly toward it. their bones turn to smoke. at the end of a long period. there comes an occasion when the Great Hell’s northern door is opened. at the end of a long period. their sinews burn. There they feel painful. and it is the same when their foot is uplifted. their flesh burns. their inner skin burns. their bones turn to smoke. piercing feelings. “Some time or other. they do not die. They run quickly toward it. they do not die. There they feel painful. their inner skin burns. racking. there comes an occasion when the Great Hell’s eastern door is opened again. their outer skin burns. When at long last they reach the door. their sinews burn. piercing feelings. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. their flesh burns. 168 . their bones turn to smoke. There they feel painful.

There they feel painful. what do you want?’ They reply. needlemouthed creatures bore through their outer skin and bore through their inner skin and bore through their flesh and bore through their sinews and bore through their bones and devour their marrow. “Next the wardens of hell pull them out with a hook. racking. burning. piercing feelings. a league high. They fall into that. bristling with thorns sixteen finger-breadths long. they do not die. burning. they are made to climb up and down those trees. In the Hell of Hot Embers.“Immediately next to the Great Hell is the vast Hell of Excrement. they do not die. There they feel painful. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. racking. stirred by the wind. racking. they do not die. piercing feelings. burning. In the Hell of Excrement. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. they do not die. “Immediately next to the Hell of Hot Embers is the vast Wood of Simbali Trees. In the River of Caustic Water. piercing feelings. they do not die. They fall into that. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. they ask them. ‘Good person. “Immediately next to the Wood of Sword-Leaf Trees is a great River of Caustic Water.’ Then the wardens of hell pry open their mouth with red-hot iron tongs. “Immediately next to the Wood of Simbali Trees is a vast Wood of Sword-Leaf Trees. blazing. piercing feelings. cut off their hands and cut off their feet and cut off their hands and feet. piercing feelings. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. and glowing. ‘I am hungry. the leaves. It burns 169 . they feel painful. blazing. and glowing. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. In the Wood of Simbali Trees. and glowing. Venerable Sirs. they are swept upstream and they are swept downstream and they are swept upstream and downstream. They go into that. There they feel painful. They fall into that. racking. and the wardens throw into their mouth a red-hot metal ball. blazing. racking. “Immediately next to the Hell of Excrement is the vast Hell of Hot Embers. There they feel painful. and setting them on the ground. In the Wood of Sword-Leaf Trees. They go into that. they cut off their ears and cut off their nose and cut off their ears and nose.

Good people here in this life are warned. what do you want?’ They reply. I tell you this as something that I have actually known. They do not dwell in ignorance 170 . “Then the wardens of hell throw them back again into the Great Hell.’ “Followers. blazing. I tell you this not as something I heard from another. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. burning. that I might attain the human state. it burns their throat. racking. piercing feelings. it burns their mouth. Oh. that a Tathagata. accomplished and fully enlightened. that the Blessed One might teach me the Dhamma. “It has happened that King Yama thought. And people may sorrow long indeed Once gone down to the lower world.’ Then the wardens of hell pry open their mouth with red-hot iron tongs. When he had said that. ‘Good person. and discovered by myself. blazing. ‘I am thirsty.” That is what the Blessed One said. it burns their stomach. piercing feelings. it burns their stomach. and the wardens pour into their mouth molten copper. There they feel painful. seen. It burns their lips. that I might wait on that Blessed One. unwholesome actions do indeed have all these many kinds of tortures inflicted on them. There they feel painful. Yet so long as their evil actions have not exhausted their results. But when by the divine messengers. they do not die. they do not die. the Blessed One said further: “Though warned by the divine messengers. “Next the wardens of hell ask. burning. might appear in the world. and it passes out below carrying with it their large and small intestines. and glowing. and glowing. it burns their mouth. Full many are the negligent.their lips. and it passes out below carrying with it their large and small intestines. racking. Venerable Sirs. and that I might come to understand that Blessed One’s Dhamma. ‘Those in the world who do evil. it burns their throat.

” 171 . should they exist. “very interesting to think about”! Again. we do not have to believe in Hell realms in order to practice. Clinging they look upon with fear For it produces birth and death.But practice well the noble Dhamma. And by not clinging they are freed In the destruction of birth and death. They have escaped all suffering. as with rebirth. but to consider them as possibilities sure can help! Let us do as much goodness and purifying as we can so we can be happier and more peaceful now. for they are safe And reach Nibbana here and now.” Majjhima Nikaya 130 Comments by the editor Well. They dwell in bliss. as I said in the introduction. They are beyond all fear and hate. Let us heed the teachings of our “divine messengers. and to protect us in the future from such realms.

when it was morning. thinking. After his meal he addressed the Venerable Rahula thus: “Take your sitting cloth with you. When he had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from his almsround. Suppose I were to lead him on further to full enlightenment.Cularahulovada Sutta The Shorter Discourse of Advice to Rahula Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove. let us go to the Blind Men’s Grove to pass the day. what do you think. the Blessed One dressed. went into Savatthi for alms. he followed close behind the Blessed One. Anathapindika’s Monastery.” Venerable Rahula replied. Rahula. and taking his sitting cloth with him. Then.” Then. “Today the Blessed One will lead the Venerable Rahula further to full enlightenment. the thought arose in his mind thus. They are said to be usually invisible to humans. Venerable Sir. while the Blessed One was alone in meditation. and taking his bowl and outer robe. he took his meal. Venerable Sir.” Deity: A being who lives in the “heaven” realms.” Then the Blessed One went into the Blind Men’s Grove and sat down at the root of a certain tree where a seat had been made ready. On that occasion many thousands of deities24 followed the Blessed One. are the eyes permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. 172 24 . Venerable Rahula paid homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one side.” “Yes. “The states that ripen in deliverance have ripened in Rahula. The Blessed One then said to Venerable Rahula: “Rahula.

Venerable Sir. ‘This is mine. fit to be regarded thus.” “Is that. are forms permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. 173 26 25 . The word “atta” is used in the Pali text. this is my Self26‘?” “No. which is impermanent. this I am. this is my Self’?” “No. Venerable Sir. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. which is impermanent.” “Is that. this I am. ‘This is mine. which is impermanent. Dukkha.” “Is that. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha.” “Rahula. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Venerable Sir.” “Is that. which is impermanent. is eye-consciousness permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. Venerable Sir. what do you think. Venerable Sir. everlasting self or soul.“Is that.” “Rahula. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha25?” “Dukkha. this I am. what do you think.” “Rahula. ‘This is mine. this is my Self’?” “No. what do you think. which is impermanent. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir. and subject to change. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. In general. Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir. this word is interpreted to mean a permanent. is eye-contact permanent or impermanent?’ Sukkha: Often translated as happiness or pleasant and considered the opposite of Dukkha.” “Is that.

Venerable Sir. which is impermanent.” “Rahula. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. this I am. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. this is my Self’?” “No. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir.“Impermanent. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Venerable Sir. ‘This is mine. are sounds permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. ‘This is mine. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” 174 . and any consciousness that arise with eyecontact as condition.” “Is that. this is my Self’?” “No.” “Is that. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir.” “Is that. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. Venerable Sir. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Venerable Sir.” “Is that. what do you think. this is my Self’?” “No. any perception. what do you think.” “Is that. Venerable Sir. this I am.” “Rahula. are any feeling. ‘This is mine.” “Rahula. this I am. Venerable Sir. are the ears permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent.” “Is that. which is impermanent.” “Is that. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. what do you think. which is impermanent. any mental formation. which is impermanent.

“Dukkha.” “Is that. Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir. ‘This is mine. this I am.” “Rahula. which is impermanent. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. ‘This is mine.” “Is that. what do you think. Venerable Sir. is ear-consciousness permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent.” “Is that. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. what do you think. is ear-contact permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent.” “Rahula. which is impermanent. are any feeling. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Venerable Sir. what do you think. ‘This is mine. and any consciousness that arise with earcontact as condition. this is my Self’?” “No.” “Is that. any perception. this is my Self’?” “No. which is impermanent. any mental formation. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir.” “Is that. Venerable Sir. this is my Self’?” “No. Venerable Sir.” “Rahula.” 175 . permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. Venerable Sir. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. which is impermanent. this I am. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. this I am.” “Is that. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha.

what do you think. ‘This is mine. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha.” “Is that. Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir.” “Is that.” “Rahula. which is impermanent.” “Is that.” “Rahula. is the nose permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. this I am. Venerable Sir. is nose-consciousness permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. Venerable Sir. this is my Self’?” “No. this is my Self’?” “No. Venerable Sir. ‘This is mine. ‘This is mine. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. which is impermanent. this I am. Venerable Sir.“Is that. are odors permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. which is impermanent. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Venerable Sir.” “Is that. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. what do you think. this I am.” 176 . ‘This is mine. this I am.” “Is that. what do you think.” “Rahula. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. this is my Self’?” “No. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha.” “Is that. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. which is impermanent. this is my Self’?” “No. Venerable Sir.

Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir. this I am. which is impermanent. ‘This is mine. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. this is my Self’?” “No. this is my Self’?” “No. ‘This is mine. Venerable Sir.” “Is that. ‘This is mine.” “Is that. is nose-contact permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. which is impermanent.” “Rahula. what do you think.” “Rahula. is the tongue permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. what do you think. are any feeling.” “Is that. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Venerable Sir. any mental formation. what do you think. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir.” 177 .“Rahula. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Venerable Sir. any perception. what do you think.” “Is that. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha.” “Is that. this I am. this I am. this is my Self’?” “No. Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir. permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. which is impermanent.” “Rahula.” “Is that. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. are flavors permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. and any consciousness that arise with nosecontact as condition.

which is impermanent. ‘This is mine. is tongue-contact permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. what do you think. which is impermanent. are any feeling. this is my Self’?” “No. permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent.” “Is that. Venerable Sir.” “Rahula. Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. ‘This is mine. any perception. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. Venerable Sir. is tongue-consciousness permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. what do you think. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. any mental formation. this is my Self’?” “No. Venerable Sir.“Is that.” “Is that. which is impermanent.” 178 . this I am. and any consciousness that arise with tongue-contact as condition.” “Is that. Venerable Sir. this I am. this is my Self’?” “No. what do you think. Venerable Sir.” “Is that. which is impermanent. which is impermanent. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. ‘This is mine.” “Is that. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha.” “Rahula. Venerable Sir. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. which is impermanent.” “Rahula. Venerable Sir.” “Is that. this I am.

Venerable Sir. are bodily feelings permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent.” “Is that.” “Rahula. this is my Self’?” “No. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir.” “Is that. which is impermanent. what do you think. Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir. this I am. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. this I am.” “Rahula. is body-consciousness permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. ‘This is mine.” “Rahula.“Is that. which is impermanent. is the body permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. Venerable Sir. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus.” “Is that. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha.” “Impermanent.” “Is that. ‘This is mine. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus.” “Is that. this is my Self’?” “No. this I am. what do you think. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. ‘This is mine. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. this I am. this is my Self’?” “No. which is impermanent.” “Is that. ‘This is mine. what do you think. this is my Self’?” 179 .

Venerable Sir. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus.” “Is that. any perception. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir.” “Rahula. what do you think. are mind-objects permanent or impermanent?” 180 . which is impermanent. this is my Self’?” “No.” “Is that. is the mind permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. ‘This is mine. Venerable Sir. ‘This is mine. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir.” “Is that.“No. which is impermanent. this I am. any mental formation. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha.” “Is that. permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. ‘This is mine. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. Venerable Sir.” “Rahula.” “Is that. this I am. what do you think. which is impermanent.” “Rahula. what do you think.” “Is that. Venerable Sir. this is my Self’?” “No.” “Rahula. which is impermanent. this is my Self’?” “No. what do you think. this I am. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Venerable Sir. and any consciousness that arise with bodycontact as condition. are any feeling. Venerable Sir. is body-contact permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent.

‘This is mine. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus.” “Rahula. Venerable Sir.” “Is that. which is impermanent.” “Is that. what do you think. Venerable Sir. any mental formation.” “Is that.” “Is that. Venerable Sir. this is my Self’?” “No. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. ‘This is mine.“Impermanent. this I am. which is impermanent. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha.” “Is that. is mind-contact permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” 181 . Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. are any feeling. any perception. is mind-consciousness permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. Venerable Sir. and any consciousness that arise with mindcontact as condition.” “Rahula. this is my Self’?” “No. Venerable Sir. this I am. ‘This is mine. this I am.” “Is that. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent. which is impermanent. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha.” “Rahula. what do you think. Venerable Sir. permanent or impermanent?” “Impermanent. what do you think.” “Is that. this is my Self’?” “No. of the nature of Dukkha or Sukkha?” “Dukkha. Venerable Sir. which is impermanent.

Rahula. any mental formation. disenchanted with bodycontact. disenchanted with ear-consciousness. any mental formation. any perception. and disenchanted with any feeling. and any consciousness that arise with bodycontact as condition. Rahula. disenchanted with flavors.“Dukkha. any perception. a well-taught noble disciple becomes disenchanted with the tongue. “Seeing thus. a well-taught noble disciple becomes disenchanted with the eye. Venerable Sir. Rahula. a well-taught noble disciple becomes disenchanted with the ears. Dukkha and subject to change fit to be regarded thus. Rahula. disenchanted with eye-consciousness. “Seeing thus. and disenchanted with any feeling.” “Seeing thus. disenchanted with nose-consciousness. and any consciousness that arise with nose-contact as condition. disenchanted with forms. any mental formation. disenchanted with eye-contact. a well-taught noble disciple becomes disenchanted with the nose. and disenchanted with any feeling. and disenchanted with any feeling. disenchanted with sounds. and disenchanted with any feeling. any mental formation. ‘This is mine. any perception. disenchanted with body-consciousness. and any consciousness that arise with eye-contact as condition. this I am. and any consciousness that arise with tongue-contact as condition. which is impermanent. disenchanted with nose-contact. any perception. disenchanted with tongue-contact. 182 . any mental formation.” “Is that. disenchanted with earcontact. Venerable Sir. any perception. disenchanted with odors. disenchanted with bodily feelings. “Seeing thus. this is my Self’?” “No. a well-taught noble disciple becomes disenchanted with the body. “Seeing thus. and any consciousness that arise with ear-contact as condition. Rahula. disenchanted with tongue-consciousness.

they become dispassionate.” Majjhima Nikaya 147 Comments by the editor Well. Rahula. when he was eighteen getting deeper teachings and now with him getting teachings that helped him to be fully purified. disenchanted with mind-consciousness.’ Thus spoke the Blessed One. the Buddha’s son. through not clinging.’ They understand. And in those many thousands of deities. what had to be done has been done. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge. 183 . some of you may have been waiting for this one. Venerable Rahula’s mind was fully enlightened. there is no more coming to any state of being. said to be twenty years old at this time. Now while this discourse was being spoken. there arose the spotless immaculate vision of the Dhamma. Do you feel part of his life? After all you were with him when he was seven getting very early teachings. Venerable Rahula was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words. disenchanted with mindcontact. “All that is subject to arising is subject to cessation. the holy life has been lived. and disenchanted with any feeling. and any consciousness that arise with mindcontact as condition. finally someone gets fully enlightened! And thousands of others become partly enlightened. ‘It is liberated. Here is the Venerable Rahula. Through dispassion [their mind] is liberated. a well-taught noble disciple becomes disenchanted with the mind. any perception. disenchanted with mind-objects.“Seeing thus. any mental formation. “Being disenchanted. ‘Birth is destroyed. that is the goal of Theravadin Buddhism. After all.

each of us will see things as they are in line with reality. this I am. Perhaps one day. Up to that point he is asking Venerable Rahula over and over about what he thinks. and become children of the Buddha. himself. This Sutta illustrates a question/answer format. Only at the end does the Buddha make statements. is a proper answer. in line with reality.You might notice also that the Buddha questions Venerable Rahula about whether he can consider things as “This is mine. 184 . this is my Self.” These are similar teachings to what the Buddha taught him when he was eighteen.

wise. he knew “the proper time for” his teachings. There are stories of the Buddha’s past lives and future predictions.” they can often give us more clarity on the words we read. Just like reading a travel guide book is not the same as the actual journey. but it is important to realize that a travel book is not the same as an experienced human guide. I have tried to point out some of the general teachings and/or some minor parts (though significant in their own). If we do have a good Kalyanamitta. the Theravadin Buddhist Scriptures. but to help you view the Sutta. In “Twenty Suttas” you have been exposed to a fairly broad range of the Buddha’s teachings. of course. a “good. And. Studying the scriptures can be a journey into deeper learning. When we read the scriptures. deeper understanding. this is an introduction to the Pali Canon. Brahmin Canki and more have greeted you in these “Twenty Suttas”. Prince Abhaya. so too. Venerable Rahula. just as mathematics has many levels.Final Comments The Buddha. The scriptures can be an aid. But do keep in mind. more personal guidance for our own specific problems. Welcome. there are many in which more people became enlightened. Keep in mind. like the travel book. There are hundreds of more Suttas waiting to be read. Many of the awaiting Suttas will be similar in style to these twenty. we do not have the Buddha telling us which one is most appropriate to read next! In my short comments at the end of each Sutta. scriptural study is not the same as experiential understanding. As the Buddha is recorded in Prince Abhaya’s Sutta. and helpful tips which the books do not cover. Buddhist teachings have many levels. Try not to overwhelm yourself with information which may not be appropriate or beneficial. Queen Mallika. My purpose was not to try to explain the Sutta. As well. spiritual friend. This is important 185 . as I mentioned in the introduction. be aware that there may be many Suttas which are hard to understand. There will also be many Suttas with more information regarding both the meditation practice and Buddhist theory.

This is because it was not the purpose of this book to explain the teachings in depth.” Well. green gram. why. As well. did I change these words to a neutral phrase. we can expect some “mishaps” along the way. From my own experience. But by reading Suttas again and again. You may have also noticed that I frequently mentioned parts of the teachings. and getting advice on how to view certain parts.” “loathsome. “various kinds of matter”? There are a number of different reasons. yet did not explain them fully. scholars and experienced meditators tend to feel this is true. if at all – teachings such as. To illustrate this. if ever. I personally got into an interesting debate over this point with another experienced meditator some years ago. 186 . and in this way it may help you in further readings. “The Four Great Efforts. by pointing them out in some Suttas. “a follower reflects on this very body enveloped by the skin and full of various kinds of matter. After over 2. It occurs in the Satipatthana Sutta.for further study. “various kinds of matter” are not the words of any translator I have ever read.” “The Brahma Viharas. It can also be helpful to know that there may be some mistakes in some Suttas and/or in the translations of the Suttas. but usually just in minor instances. Other words used for this are: “manifold impurity. passing these teachings from one generation to the next. Historians. So. I felt this would help you to have more ideas of other topics to investigate and learn more about later. What is the analogy that is used by the Buddha to explain the way we are to reflect on this very body? “Just as if there were a doubled-mouthed provision bag full of various kinds of grain such as hill paddy. In the section concerning the thirty-two parts of the body. I would like to give you a couple of examples. if all of the translators agreed in general.” etc.” and others.” “The Two Virtues that Protect the World. paddy. Regarding the first example. Yet by mentioning these various teachings. in my first reading rarely.500 years. I have written. did I see all that was contained within the Sutta. over and over.” “unclean. I have seen my understanding grow. this may help you to see them more often in other Suttas.

this is cow-pea. Thus. Although it may help some people in this way. and husked rice. Wisdom.? Is it “loathsome” to look at? Are we “repulsed”? No. ‘This is hill paddy. This is significant as the eyes are one of the major parts of the body that cause attraction. this is husked rice. “Sila. One of his books is so respected that it is almost like a “Bible” for Thais to help them understand the teachings. ‘This is hill paddy. Phra Prayut Pahyutto. Often it is being translated into “Morality. sesame. this is sesame. can be very misleading and could bring about confusion and many wrong views in many meditators. The Pali phrase. sesame. this is green gram. This phrase refers to the Noble Eightfold Path being divided into three sections. Panna” is another area of the scriptures where translators do not agree. named. having taught in University in the United States. we just see things for exactly what they are. green gram. etc. etc.’” If we look inside this provision bag. having opened that bag. this is paddy. Concentration. It can also be of value to note that “eyes” are not listed. this is cow-pea. this is husked rice. do we see “impure” paddy. “Mental Discipline” for the translation of Samadhi here. green gram. though. ordained monks and nuns lessen their sensual desires towards others’ bodies. The confusion over using the word Concentration for translating Samadhi seems to come from translating the eighth part 187 . developing aversion is not in line with the Buddha’s analogy. We just see these things for exactly what they are. this is green gram. this is sesame. trying to help.’ If we are simply being objective. we are not repulsed with aversion and likewise we are not caught up with desire towards the paddy. A very famous Thai Scholar Monk.cow-peas. that there may well be an error in many recordings of this Sutta. were to take stock of the contents thus. in particular. Samadhi. has used the phrase. The thirty-two parts of the body reflection is often used to try to bring up aversion towards the body. He is recognized as one of the top scholars (if not the top scholar) alive today in Thailand. It is helpful to mention that Phra Prayut Pahyutto speaks very good English.” Using the word Concentration. it appears to some. and a person with sound eyes. this is paddy.

it is recorded that whenever a Sutta begins in this way. Mindfulness and Concentration does not seem to be correct. But since this “Samadhi” includes Right Effort (Samma Vayamo). passing these teachings from one generation to the next.” This is usually translated as “Right Concentration. As well.” most translators again use the word Concentration. to use the word Concentration again to include Effort. This is exemplified in the “Bahitika Sutta. I mentioned these possible “mishaps” to help you with reading the Suttas. himself. After over 2. he would memorize each teaching he heard.” though there is not total agreement on whether the Abhidhamma is original teachings from the Buddha. It deals with many philosophical and psychological aspects of the teachings. as I have written above.” though. 188 .” Again. it is very helpful to note that in saying “Thus have I heard”. As personal attendant to the Buddha for many years. Thus I personally agree with Phra Prayut Pahyutto’s usage of the phrase “Mental Discipline. I would also like to mention a few words about “Thus have I heard. The Suttas are just part of the Theravadin Buddhist Scriptures.” Thus because the word Samadhi is used again in “Sila.” You may have noticed that this sentence started most of these Suttas. Panna. As I understand. There are two other sections. he follows the Buddha’s advice to young Bharadvaja on how to preserve truth. Samadhi. Even “Thus have I heard. Right Mindfulness (Samma Sati) and Right Concentration. To say “Thus have I heard” when someone is telling their own stories is not normal English. there may be mistakes and it is important to look more deeply into the meaning of the teachings and not just at the written words.500 years. it was the Venerable Ananda who first spoke it at the gathering of 500 Arahants who came together and organized the scriptures soon after the Buddha died. We can be very thankful to Venerable Ananda and his wonderful memory. One is the “Vinaya” which has to do with the original monks’ and nuns’ rules. The other is the “Abhidhamma.” which is a story about the Venerable Ananda. “Samma Samadhi.of the Noble Eightfold Path. may not be the correct translation all the times.

As I mentioned in the introduction.” said to have been written by enlightened disciples. as I mentioned earlier. before diving into all of the others. of books about Buddhism which are available. we now have modern commentary type writings in which many scholars have been attempting to interpret the scriptures. The two Thai versions of the Scriptures we have here contain 79 and 100 books! Though. If anyone finds something which they think needs correction. The scriptures themselves can include dozens of books. some hundreds of years after the Buddha’s death. yet many people can forget about doing the actual work. though many of these writings can be quite misleading and confusing. we need to know how to apply our intellectual learning. instead just reading about it! In order to find deeper happiness. Books can be fascinating and absorbing. teachings which can help us find deeper peace.Besides the Pali Canon with three sections. please write me about it. I would like to again mention that Twenty Suttas is not a direct translation of the Pali Canon. It is a wonderful collection of many. I wish to apologize if any of my editing and comments are in any way detrimental to the actual meaning and intention of the Suttas.. there are also “The Commentaries. experiential level. contentment and compassionate understanding of life. if not thousands. As well. 189 . So. there are hundreds. Best wishes to all of you in continuing on with your mental development/meditation practice and your study of the Theravadin Buddhist Pali Canon. with many philosophical and psychological aspects.. yet some can also be similar to the Abhidhamma. very valuable teachings. I also wish to advise you to develop a balanced meditation practice on a practical. These are often valuable in elaborating on some of the basic teachings. I would first advise you to read two different biographies of the Buddha. I have compared other scholars’ works in order to prepare this book with the intention of helping new and experienced meditators with their desire to read the scriptures.

Woodward. “Dictionary of Buddhism. “Thus Have I Heard: The Long Discourses of the Buddha. London. I. B. Rhys Davids. London. Bangkok. Horner.” Vol.” Phra Khantipalo. Pali Text Society. “Kalama Sutta. Kandy. 1982. Mahamakut Rajavidyalaya Press. Pali Text Society.” Venerable Dr. Woodward. 1990. 1982. “A Treasury of the Buddha’s Words. B. London. I. Mahamakut Rajavidyalaya Press. Rahula.” Vol. II. 1976. F.” Phra Prayut Pahyutto. I. Kandy. Buddhist Publication Society. Bangkok.” Vol. Horner. I. Bangkok 2528/1985.” Part II. 1967. 1987. II. Dahn Sutta Printing. Pali Text Society. Pali Text Society. London. London. Buddhist Publication Society.” Maurice Walshe. F. L. “The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha. “Gradual Sayings.” Nyanasatta Thera.” Vol. I. L. Bangkok.” Vol. 1986. Buddhist Publication Society. Pali Text Society. London. 1982. “What the Buddha Taught. “A Criterion of True Religion. Wisdom Publications. III. Sri Lanka. London. Pali Text Society. Sri Lanka. Horner. 1975. 1977. B.” Soma Thera. Sri Lanka. “The Foundations of Mindfulness: Satipatthana Sutta. Haw Trai Foundation.Bibliography “The Middle Length Sayings.” Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi. “The Middle Length Sayings.” Venerable Nyanamoli Thera and Phra Khantipalo. 1995. 1981. “The Book of the Kindred Sayings. 1989. Kandy. 190 . “The Middle Length Sayings. W. Mrs. “Gradual Sayings.

Kandy.0. which contains translations from many translators including: I. 1998. German Translations of the Pali Canon. 1984. “Sri Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tripitaka Series. Nyanaponika Thera. Buddhist Publication Society. Buddhist Publication Society. 1957.“Anguttara Nikaya part I. Thai Buddhist Scriptures. Bhikkhu Nanamoli. last modified on 20-12-1995.” Phra Khantipalo. Colombo.” CDROM v1.” Nyanaponika Thera. Sri Lanka.1993. Kandy. “The Buddha’s Words on Kamma: Four Discourses from the Middle Length Collection. Dhammapukdee Publishing House. Bangkok. International Buddhist Research and Information Center. Sri Lanka. The Department of Religion.” internet file published under the patronage of the Sri Lanka Government. Horner. Sri Lanka.com> 191 . Phra Khantipalo. “A Handful of Leaves: Readings in Theravada Buddhism. Bangkok. <www. Thai Buddhist Scriptures.B. Bhikkhu Bodhi. Thanissaro Bhikkhu and others. 1981.palikanon.

free of all greed. Faith: see Saddha. to be the highest gods. Deity: A being who lives in the “heaven” realms. seemingly. There is disagreement as to a single English word to use in translation. Non-returning: In Pali “Anagami.” This state is the third level of enlightenment. aversion and ignorance of reality. They are usually invisible to humans.Glossary Arahant: A fully enlightened being. the “Brahmas” are considered. Bhikkhu: Generally today it is used as a title for a monk. fame & obscurity. Discipline: In Pali “Vinaya. Arahantship: The state of full enlightenment.” The rules and guidelines set down by the Buddha for his monks and nuns. King Yama: The “king” of hell. in general. Theravadin Buddhism teaches that there are 192 . The other three are Compassion. Dhamma: When spelled with a capital “D. Metta: One of the four “Sublime States”. Brahma: Within the Buddhist view of the Universe. Dukkha: Unsatisfactoriness. Nibbana: Enlightenment. Noble Ones: All people who have obtained partial or full enlightenment. gain & loss. One interpretation is: Compassion and Lovingkindness supported and balanced by Equanimity. Sympathetic Joy and Equanimity. Eight worldly conditions: Praise & blame. at times to signify someone who is being controlled by their own ignorance and causing harm to others.” it means the Truth and/or the teachings which will lead one to realize the truth. pleasure & pain. Or. Mara: A name used to signify the personification of our ignorance.

and especially those who are in a position to teach others. Uposatha: Moon days. not a blind faith. Sukkha: Often translated as happiness or pleasant. 193 . Recluses and brahmins: In general. Theravadin: “Teachings of the Elders. Sangha: This word is used in three ways. In this state there is no longer any sensual desire or aversion. The highest Sangha is all those who have attained partial or full enlightenment.” Saddha: This Pali word is translated into confidence or faith. Sri Lanka. in which one believes because one has already tested the methods and has seen that they work. Burma. nuns and novices. full moon. this term refers to “higher” spiritual practitioners. but a confidence based faith.” the tradition of Buddhism found predominantly in Thailand. Sutta: A discourse or teaching from the Scriptures. Cambodia and Laos. The third is all Buddhist practitioners. Tathagata: A term used to represent the Buddha. I used the words. were the acknowledged spiritual caste at that time in India. first quarter and last quarter. in particular. new moon. and is considered the opposite of Dukkha. Brahmins. “monks and other religious teachers” instead of “recluses and brahmins.four levels of enlightenment. The second is all ordained monks. yet still degrees of conceit and ignorance. In many Suttas.

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