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Motivation refers to the process in which person efforts are energized, directed and sustained towards achievement of a goal. Generally motivation involves any effort towards organizational goal since it focuses on work related behavior. Again motivation can be defined as the drive or the stimulant to act towards a certain goal. In an office scenario motor is a desire for employees to act in a rational way which seeks to satistify their needs in order to improve organizational performance. An employee's performance envirorunent. Ability is obtained through training, consultation, directions or instructions. In the same manner environmental adjustments should be made to allow an employee to perform higher if these is a product oftbree elements i.e Motivation, ability and work
elements are lacking then motivation becomes low and performance deteriorates. Therefore motivation basically emphasizes 3 key elements: energy, direction and persistence (putting effort to achieve those goals) The energy element is a measure of intensity or drive. A motivativated employee puts more
effort and works hard. However, quality effort must be considered as well as its intensity drive. This is because high level of effort does not lead to favorable job performance unless the effort is channeled in a direction that's benefits the organization. Effort that is directed towards and consistent with organizational goals is the effort required from employees.
Finally, motivation includes a persistence element by this we mean employees must persist in putting forth effort to achievement of organizational
Types of motivation.
The main types of motivation are : 1) Intrinsic (internal within the organization) Intrinsic are self regulated factors that influence people to behave in a certain ways for example self control, self responsibility among others. Motivation goes hand in hand with Reward, below are some of the internal Rewards that managers need to implement to motivate employees;
There are also a host of external things that managers may serve as incentives for employees to increase their productivity.Healthy Relationships.Where employees are encouraged to develop skills that enable them perform and act above standards.Where employees are encouraged to participate in the organization in various ways such as expressing their views and opinions and sharing in decision making. 2) Extrinsic(externalother factors)these is what the management does to employees to motivate them for example reward and punishments. health insurance.where the employees feel they make a difference at work Competence . bonuses. sick leave.in which employees are able to develop sense of connection with others in the work place Meaningful work . this includes • • Money . • • • • Flexible schedules Job responsibilities and duties Promotions Changes in satus . Progress .also in different forms e.conveyed either in change injob titles or in new and different responsibilities • • • • • • Supervision of others Praise and Feedback A good boss A strong leader Other inspirational people A nurturing Organizational culture to .g. facilitating their ability and make head ways towards completing their assigned tasks and celebrate when progress is made towards completing important milestones within a project. stock options etc Benefits . retirements accounts etc.When Managers find ways to hold employees accountable.in form of pay. Choice .
Some examples of the content theories are those contributed by people like Abraham Maslow. ClaytonAlderfer. self control (autonomy in their j ob) and to in decision making of the organization.Theories of Motivation Theories of motivation are divided into two major categories namely: Humanistic theories and contemporary theories. to be allowed to have self direction. Douglas McGregor. (a) Content Theories As the name implies the content theories of motivation focuses on "what "motivates a person. They emphasize the goals by which the individuals motivated. content theories. Frederick Herzberg and David McClelland. Humanistic theories were developed at the Western Electric Company where it was emphasized the need for social environment at workplace were necessary. namely. This can be divided into three classes. it was argued that the basic requirements of employees were: To feel useful and important to an organization. Some of the best . (a) Process Theories The process theories look at the entire process of motivation and focuses on how" a person is motivated. process theories and reinforcement theories. Contemporary theories. 1) Process theories 2) content theories 3) reinforcement theories Motivation theories are broadly classified under three headings. In other words Mayo emphasized in teamwork as the key to successful performance. He felt that manager's socialization was more important determinant in organizational performance.
2) Practicing managers continue to apply these theories to explain employee motivation Issues.known process theories are those contributed by Victor Vroom. drink. 3) Herzberg Two Factor Theory. among the early theories 1) The Abraham Maslow Hierarchy Of Needs. called operant conditioning. Social Needs . Skinner's operant conditioning. The reinforcement theories.Entails The Following: Physiological Needs: A persons needs for food. John Adams and Edwin Lock. Leyman Porter and Ed Lawler. this is employees need to be secure and healthy among others. These theories are important due to: 1) They represent foundations from which contemporary motivations theories were developed. also called behavior modification. emphasize the fact that a person's present behaviour is influenced by past actions. Maslow Hierachy Of Needs . (b) Reinforcement Theories The best known of the reinforcement theories of motivation is that contributed by Burrhus Frederic Skinner. shelter. sexual satisfaction and other physical needs Safety Needs: A persons needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm. 2) Mcgregors Theories Of X &Y.
they don't lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. concludes Frederick Herzberg'S two-factor theory. accept and check out responsibility and consider work to be a natural activity. Theory Y: Positive View assumes that exercise self-direction. . Douglas analyzed Maslow needs from the higher to the lower need.(v Frederick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory motivation. but if absent. but "respect for me as a person" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage oflife. also known as intrinsic/extrinsic that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction./:" 15Yd!. responsibe and challenging jobs & group relationship would maximize employee relationship. Douglas Macgregor believe that theory Y captured the true nature of worker and showed guide the management practice. attention. autonomy and achievement and external factors such as status. belongingness. dislike work and want to avoid responsibility and need to be closely controlled I-H-0rwork effectively. Douglas Mcgregors Theory X & y Theory X: Negative view of people that assume workers have very little ambition.A person needs for affection..r ecognitionand Self-Actualiusation Needs: A person's needs to become what he or she is capable of becoming. Employees need to be appreciated Esteem Needs: A person needs for internal factors such as self-respect. The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime. He distinguished between: .s4. acceptance and friendship. Theory X assumed the lower order of needs dominated individuals while Y assumed that the higher level needs dominated Therefore Y was more preferred than X and proposed that in decision making.
but absence can cause health deterioration. relatedness correspondence to social needs) .Advancement and Growth amongst others. Motivation/Intrinsic Factors Presence of motivation factor causes job satisfaction. recognition. Alderfer's ERG theory Growth) theory is built upon Maslow's Clayton Alderfer's ERG (Existence. challenging work.Ex-trinsicIHygiene Factors He argued that the absence of these factors cause dissatisfaction.• • Motivators. "Herzberg's theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systems and in studies of user satisfaction. result in demotivation.g. into three categories. • hierarchy of needs theory. good working relationship.g. like hygiene. To begin his theory. and Hygiene factors. Recognition. salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present. (e. these include: Achievemant. Fredrick Hertnzberg argued that people are satisfied or di-satisfied by two different independent factors: 1. 2. the presence will not make you healthier. (In terms of Maslow's model. pay and security and finally company policies and proper leadership. Relatedness. (In terms of Maslow's model. interpersonal relationship. The name Hygiene factors is used because. Responsibility . if absent. The theory is sometimes called the "Motivator-Hygiene Theory" and/or "The Dual Structure Theory.He came up with the proposal that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction while ex-trinsic factors are associated with job satisfaction. (e. Alderfer collapses Maslow's five levels of needs Existence needs are desires for physiological and material well-being. status. but. job security. existence needs include physiological and safety needs) • Relatedness needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships. responsibility) which give positive satisfaction. good working environment. they include: supervision.
What he means by this term is that an already satisfied lower level need can become reactivated and influence behavior when a higher level need cannot be satisfied. though. growth needs include esteem and self-realization needs) This approach proposes that unsatisfied needs motivate behavior.• Growth needs are desires for continued psychological growth and development. but that they are actually learned through life experiences. managers should provide opportunities for workers to capitalize on the importance of higher level needs McClelland's acquired needs theory David McClelland's acquired needs theory recognizes that everyone prioritizes needs differently. McClelland identifies three specific needs: • • Need for achievement is the drive to excel. high achievers often exhibit the following behaviors: • • Seek personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems Want rapid feedback on their performances so that they can tell easily whether they are improving or not • Set moderately challenging goals and perform best when they perceive their probability of success as 50-50 . Higher level needs. they become less important. a person may move down the hierarchy. (In terms of Maslow's model. High achievers differentiate themselves from others by their desires to do things better. become more important as they are satisfied. close interpersonal relationships and conflict McClelland associates each need with a distinct set of work preferences. As a result. and that as lower level needs are satisfied. feedback. Need for power is the desire to cause others to behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. which Alderfer calls the frustration-regression principle. In addition. He also believes that individuals are not born with these needs. and an intermediate degree of risk. is the desire for friendly. • Need for affiliation avoidance. and managers can help tailor the environment to meet these needs. and if these needs are not met. These individuals are strongly motivated by job situations with personal responsibility.
social approval. PROCESS THEORIES Victor H. The theory is basically describing an individual's perception of the relationship between efforts required. Vroom . People needing affiliation display the following behaviors: . and satisfying interpersonal relationships. is based ont he assumption that an individual's behaviour or level of motivation is determined not necessarily by reality but is determined by the perception that individual holds on the future i.Expectancy Theory Victor Vroom's expectancy theory (1964). a high need to achieve does not necessarily lead to being a good manager. Individuals with a high need of power often demonstrate the following behaviors: • . the best managers are high in their needs for power and low in their needs for affiliation. . People with high achievement needs are usually interested in how well they do personally and not in influencing others to do well. the expectation at the end of the road. • Enjoy being in charge Want to influence others Prefer to be placed into competitive and status-oriented situations Tend to be more concerned with prestige and gaining influence over others than with effective performance People with the need for affiliation seek companionship..e.. a very well respected theory. .An individual with a high need of power is likely to follow a path of continued promotion over time. On the other hand. • • • • Take a special interest in work that provides companionship and social approval Strive for friendship Prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones Desire relationships involving a high degree of mutual understanding May not make the best managers because their desire for social approval and friendship may complicate managerial decision making Interestingly enough. especially in large organizations. expected level of performance and the expected level of rewards..
e. He published in 1963. These he called Expectancy. of themselves i.Vroom claims that there are three things that exist in the proper explanation theory. b) Distort their perceptions c) Distort their perceptions used to think. that a person's level of motivation will be influenced by the to hispeers at work. Lawler butthe fundamental John Stacey Adams . thinking others do not work as hard as they . d) Change their outcomes at work. thinking they work harder than usual. perception of the describes the level of an individual's desired outcome. Vroom's expectancy theory could also be used to counter claims that certain races or ethnic than others as their level of performance at scholar work could be groups are less intelligent immensely employment expectations influenced by their expectation that it would lead to a desired result.Adams perception explained on how fairly he has been treated or will be treated compared ifhe feels that he is having a bad deal would be demotivated compared to others. The Expectancy principles theory of Victor Vroom was later modified by Porter and remains the same.e. Lawler and Porter's motivation Expectancy theory opened the way for other theories of based on expectation. that a particular effort would result in a particular b) Instrumentality performance is the level of the individual's perception that effective would lead to the desired rewards. a) Expectancy Instrumentality and Valence. that the desired rewards are available c) Valence is the extent of the perception in the first place. a manager's role in these circumstances of staff. namely would be an effective management of Thus. Adams believed that such persons are likely to behave in any six ways as indicated below:a) Change their inputs at work.Equity Theory Vroom. One of such theories is the Equity Theory by John Adams. of others i.
Operant conditioning is a form of psychological learning during which an individual modifies the occurrence and form of its own behavior due to the association of the behavior with a . a person who has clear goals in mind is much more likely to be motivated to accomplishing these goals. As a result. F.Operant Conditioning B. f) Changing the object of comparison i. From past experience. REINFORCEMENT THEORIES Burrhus Frederick Skinner . Remember that. this is different from Vroom's expectancy theory. Thus. Locke .Goal Theory Another theory similar to that of Vroom is the goal theory (1984) by Locke which says that a person's intentions or goals in life would determine his level of motivation. Locke's theory is concerned with a person's goals which is much more positive than expectations. by saying something like "I am certainly better than Peter even though I may not be as good as John". Skirmer's operant conditioning theory (1938) of motivation is that the consequences of our past actions influence our future actions in a cyclical learning process. people know that certain actions can lead to pleasant consequences and others to unpleasant consequences. many people are most likely to avoid behaviour that results to unpleasant consequences. though similar. Thus. people's present behaviour is as a result ofthe experience people have gained from the consequences of their past actions. Edwin A. While Vroom talks about a person's expectations.e.e) Wanting to leave the job. based on this theory.
Reinforcement and punishment. but rather: positive refers to addition. reinforcement. or negative (withdrawn following a response). and negative refers to subtraction. Four Elements of operant conditioning Here the terms positive and negative are not used in their popular sense. It is important to note that actors are not spoken of as being reinforced. or extinguished.. What is added or subtracted may be either reinforcement or punishment. Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning (also called respondent conditioning) in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary behavior" or operant behavior. while classical conditioning deals with the conditioning of reflexive (reflex) behaviors which are elicited by antecedent conditions. producing neither favorable nor unfavorable consequences) it will occur with less frequency. punished. it leads to a decline in that behavior. or extinguished. with the addition of a fifth procedure known as extinction (i. When a behavior is inconsequential (i. Hence positive punishment is sometimes a confusing term.e. no change in consequences following a response). The four procedures are: . are either positive (delivered following a response). and extinction are not terms whose use is restricted to the laboratory. Extinction is the lack of any consequence following a behavior. Naturally occurring consequences can also be said to reinforce. punishment. as it denotes the "addition" of a stimulus or increase in the intensity of a stimulus that is aversive (such as spanking or an electric shock). When a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced with either positive or negative reinforcement. it is the actions that are reinforced.e.stimulus. punish. or extinguish behavior and are not always delivered by people. the core tools of operant conditioning. punished. • • • Reinforcemen] Punishment is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with greater frequency. This creates a total of four basic consequences. is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with less frequency. Operant behavior "operates" on the environment and is maintained by its consequences. Additionally.
Negative reinforcement (Escape): occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus. 4. performing the behavior of shielding one's eyes when in the sunlight (or going outdoors) will help avoid the aversive stimulation of having light in one's eyes. Positive reinforcement (Reinforcement): occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a stimulus that is appetitive or rewarding. which serves to decrease the rate of the target behavior. such as introducing a shock or loud noise.l. In the Skinner box experiment. In the Skinner box experiment. a stimulus such as food or sugar solution can be delivered when the rat engages in a target behavior. such as pressing a lever. Negative punishment (Penalty) (also called "Punishment by contingent withdrawal"): occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of a stimulus. 2. Eventually the rat would cease pushing the lever. resulting in a decrease in that behavior. As no measured behavior is identified as being . such as pressing a lever. For example. In the Skinner box experiment. Positive punishment (Punishment) (also called "Punishment by contingent stimulation"): occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a stimulus. • Avoidance learning is a type of learning in which a certain behavior results in the cessation of an aversive stimulus. such as taking away a child's toy following an undesired behavior. upon which the loud noise is removed. The idea is that the target behavior decreases because it is no longer necessary to receive the reinforcement. • Extinction occurs when a behavior (response) that had previously been reinforced is no longer effective. • Non contingent reinforcement refers to delivery of reinforcing stimuli regardless of the organism's (aberrant) behavior. OTHERS. negative reinforcement can be a loud noise continuously sounding inside the rat's cage until it engages in the target behavior. resulting in a decrease in that behavior. this is the rat pushing the lever and being rewarded with a food pellet several times. This typically entails time-based delivery of stimuli identified as maintaining aberrant behavior. and then pushing the lever again and never receiving a food pellet again. 3. thereby increasing that behavior's frequency. increasing the frequency of that behavior.
Motivation as the key to performance improvement There is an old saying you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink. thus. STRATEGIES OF MOTIVATION • Positive reinforcement / high expectations • Effective discipline and punishment • Treating people fairly • • Satisfying employees needs Setting work related goals . for motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. either by themselves or through external stimulus. As a guideline. Ability in turn depends on education. there are broadly seven strategies for motivation. Are they born with the self-motivation or drive? Yes and no. This is essential for any business to survive and succeed. they can be motivated. They will do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the 'ivory tower' they must be motivated or driven to it. If no. Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation.so with people. On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly. • Chaining is an instructional procedure which involves reinforcing individual responses occurring in a sequence to form a complex behavior. There are many options and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start. there is controversy surrounding the use of the term noncontingent "reinforcement" • Shaping is a form of operant conditioning in which the increasingly accurate approximations of a desired response are reinforced. experience and training and its improvement is a slow and long process.strengthened. it will drink only if it's thirsty .
The motivational system must be tailored to the situation and to the organization. . recognition. empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money. Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. SUMMARY APPLICATION OF MOTIVATION IN MANAGEMENT At lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. McGregor places money in his Theory X category and feels it is a poor motivator. in effect. Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and shows other needs are better motivators to staff. Motivation is. though the mix in the final 'recipe' will vary from workplace situation to situation. praise. Naturally. money is a motivator. however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation). as both Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor's theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership) demonstrate. such as physiological needs. Essentially. there is a gap between an individual's actual state and some desired state and the manager tries to reduce this gap. a means to reduce and manipulate this gap r It is inducing others in a specific way towards goals specifically stated by the motivator. respect. Praise and recognition are placed in the Theory Y category and are considered stronger motivators than money.• • Restructuring jobs Base rewards onjob performance These are the basic strategies. At higher levels of the hierarchy. • Motivated employees are more quality oriented. these goals as also the motivation system must conform to the corporate policy of the organization.
grow. and clear identification of behavior deemed worthy of recognition • • • • Allowing employees to participate Linking rewards to performance Rewarding of nominators Visibility of the recognition process . Robbins and Judge examine recognition programs as motivators. Nonetheless. and motivated accordingly. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy. An effective leader must understand how to manage all characters. • Recognition of employees' individual differences. His model has been judged as placing undue reliance on social contacts at work situations for motivating employees. Elton Mayo found that the social contacts a worker has at the workplace are very important and that boredom and repetitiveness of tasks lead to reduced motivation. The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. indifferent. Steinmetz also discusses three common character types of subordinates: ascendant. and more importantly the manager must utilize avenues that allow room for employees to work. Motivation is a powerful tool in the work environment that can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production. In Essentials of Organizational Behavior.• Motivated workers are more productive. and naturally staff are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. and identify five principles that contribute to the success of an employee incentive program. and find answers independently. employees were given freedom to make decisions on the job and greater attention was paid to informal work groups. managed. Mayo named the model the Hawthorne effect. Mayo believed that workers could be motivated by acknowledging their social needs and making them feel important. and must be treated. As a result. and ambivalent who all react and interact uniquely.
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