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Thermo

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03/31/2012

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# Thermo (heat) dynamics(motion) Thermodynamics is the science of energy and entropy Thermodynamics is the branch of science which

deals with work and heat and their mutual transformation and the properties of the substances which are related to work and heat transfer. Types of thermodynamic systems: 1. A fixed(control closemass system: mass remains fixed e.g compressible fluid within a piston cylinder COntrol surface: 2. Through control surface mass cannot pass only energy 3. System: 4. Surronding things external to the system 5. System + surrounding = universe 6. Putting thermal energy pressure will increase and the piston moves and has fixed boundary 7. Can be further divided into 8. Open system (control volume) : e.g 9. 10. Mass and energy can cross the control surface/system boundary 11. Isolated system : 12. Neither mass or energy can cross system boundary 13. E.g thermoflask Thermodynamic [properties: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Macroscopic characteristics or attributes which defines the state of the substance These properties are observable and measurable at macroscopic level Pressure measured by pressure gauge Temperature Volume

It can be further divided inyo two : 1. Extensive property 2. That depends on mass volume or extent of the system like total energy content of the system, total mass of the system aarea is exten 3. Intensive Property not dependent on mass volume or extent of the system like temperature pressure etc 4. From some extensive property we can derive intensive specific property

3. Thermal equilibrium: Inside the system there will not be any temperature gradient . MechanicaL equilibrum There will be not be any resultant force or pressure gradient Chemical equilibrium Onside the system there will be not any chemical reaction or any transfer of mass If these all three conditions are satisfied laws of thermodynamics can be applied for that system According to the concept of thjerno we can divide energy into two forms Stored energy PE KE IE Energy in transit when interaction b/w system and system can have only two forms Work and heat Work: is energy transferred without transfer of mass where the sole effect external to the system could be raising of a weight Heat: Heat is energy transferred without transfer of mass due to temperature difference b/w system and surroundin Sign convention Heat transfer Work transfer .5. Like volume taking specific volume vol per uniy mass Concept of equilibrium: Classic thermodynamics is based on the concept of equilibrium We apply the lawa of thermodynamic when the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium It has got 3 components 1. No heat transformation By defining one temperature we can have the property or the state of the system defined 2. 5. 4.

Heat transfer to the system positive From the system negative Work done by rge system positive Work done on the system is negative .

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