Variables is anything that have varying values.

The vales can differ at various times for the same object or person or at the same time for different objects or persons.


Dependent variable Independe nt variable Moderatin g variable Intervenin g variable .

since sales is the main focus of interest to the manager . Since the sales of the product can vary can be low.  The dependent variable is the variable of primary interest to the researcher . it is the dependent variables. it is possible to find answer or solution to the problem. do not with the expectations. . medium or high – it is a variable. Researchers are most interested in relationships among variables. The dependent variables here is sales. The analysis of dependent variable . For example. a manager is concerned that the sales of a new product introduced after test marketing it.

and with each unit of increase in independent . there is an increase or decrease in the dependent variable also . That is .the dependent variables is also present. when the independent variable is present . . There the success of the new product is the independent variables and stock market price the dependent variable. a successful new product development has an influence on stock market price of the company. For example.  An independent variables is one that affects the dependent variable in either a positive or negative way.

 In each relationship there is at least one independent variable and a dependent variable . The moderating variable is one that have a strong contingent effect on the independent variablesdependent variables relationship. .

Here . For example. the commission compensation system will lead to higher sales productivity by increasing overall compensation. . commission compensation system is independent variables. higher sales productivity is dependent variables while overall compensation increase is intervening variables.  An intervening variables is one that surfaces between the time the independent variables start operating to influence the dependent variable and the time their impact is felt on it.

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