DSO 1 – Third Session

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Goal-Setting Theory
Specific goals lead to increased performance. Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher output than easy goals.

Goal-Setting Theory
Holding ability and acceptance constant; the more difficult the goals, the higher the level of performance Goals can be a major source of work motivation.

Reinforcement Theory Behavior is environmentally caused. . Consequences immediately following response increase the probability of repeated behavior. Reinforcers control behaviors.

.Reinforcement Theory Concentrates solely on what happens when person takes some action People will exert more effort on tasks that are reinforced.

Job Design Theory The way the elements in a job are organized can act to increase or decrease effort .

Job Characteristics Model (JCM) Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback .

Social Information Processing Model Employees adopt attitudes and behaviors in response to the social cues provided by others with whom they have contact. .

outcome Then they compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others. .Equity Theory Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it input (outcome).

a state of equity exists.Equity Theory If they perceive their ratio to be equal to that of relevant others. .

When inequities occur. . inequity exists. either under-reward or over-reward.Equity Theory If the ratios are unequal. employees will attempt to correct them.

they may make one or more of five choices: 1) Distort either their own or others’ inputs or outcomes 2) Behave in some way so as to induce others to change their inputs or outcomes 3) Behave in some way so as to change their own inputs or outcomes 4) Choose a different comparison referent 5) Quit their job .Equity Theory When employees envision an inequity.

Expectations First break all the rules – expectations Talentmap – expectations Goal Theory – expectations Darryl Connor – expectations .

Expectancy Theory Strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on Strength of expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome Attractiveness of that outcome to the individual .

Expectancy Theory 1) 2) 3) Attractiveness Performance-reward linkage Effort-performance linkage .

Individual Effort Individual Performance Simplified Expectancy Model Organizational Rewards Individual Goals .

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Picture 2 .

Scoring for Needs Read the paragraphs you wrote. Try to rate each one in one of three areas: Is the primary theme of that paragraph one of using personal effort to accomplish a very special outcome? – If yes – Need for Achievement Is the primary theme one of getting others to do things. sending them off or having them provide support? If yes – then Need for Power Is the primary theme one of being with and around people. Engaging people in activities? – If yes – Need for Affiliation .

Measuring Psychological Qualities Can’t be measured directly Create “underlying construct” Develop a tool to measure it Evaluate reliability and validity of measure .

the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships .the need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise Need for affiliation (nAff) .McClelland's Theory of Needs Need for achievement (nAch) .drive to excel Need for power (nPow) .

• High achievers are not necessarily good managers. . feedback. and intermediate responsibility feedback degree of risk.McClelland's Theory of Needs • High achievers prefer jobs with personal responsibility. • Affiliation and power closely related to managerial success • Employees can be trained to stimulate their achievement need.

Compensation and Motivation What’s the relationship? How can it best be managed? .

Relationships Wheatley – relationships CCL Derailers – relationships First break all the rules – relationships TalentMap data – relationships .

Best Practices Dependent on two factors What your organization values What type of behavior you want Dependent on Relationships and Clear Expectations Requires active people management .

Conflict .

something that the first party cares about. interests. principles or feelings Process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected. or is about to negatively affect. .Conflict: Any situation in which people have incompatible goals.

View synonymous with violence.Transitions in Conflict Thought The Traditional View: Conflict is bad. selfcritical. destruction. keeps the group alive. and creative . accept it The Integrationist View: Conflict should be encouraged. and irrationality The Human Relations View: Conflict is natural and inevitable.

Functional vs. Dysfunctional Conflict Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships Process conflict relates to how the work gets done .

Conflict Process .

Caryl Rusbult.g. Amason. John Gottman) Conflict in organizations as studied by investigators who have gone beyond the typical “style”-based approach (e. general interest publications (e.. Sessa) Conflict as treated by popular. Getting to Yes) .g.g. Feeney and Davidson..Conflict Model Developed for the Conflict Dynamics Profile Interpersonal conflict as studied by social psychologists (e.

The goal of successful conflict management is not its elimination. it cannot. Examine the way conflicts unfold over time. but to reduce its harmful effects and maximize its useful ones. and how they might be changed. Start with the assumption that conflict is inevitable.CDP Approach Focus explicitly on specific behavioral responses to conflict. completely avoided. nor should it be. .

to group functioning .Cognitive Conflict (Task-Oriented) Focuses on ideas. not personalities Can occur during times of creativity and productivity Affect is neutral. or positive Unrelated. or positively related.

Emotional Conflict (Personal) Focuses on people. not ideas Can occur at any time Affect is negative Negatively related to group functioning Can escalate rapidly .

frustration) • Tension increases • Group functioning decreases Conflict De-escalates Conflict Escalates .Path of Conflict Precipitating Event and/or Hot Buttons Initiate Conflict Constructive Responses Behaviors that keep conflict to a minimum Destructive Responses Behaviors that escalate or prolong conflict Task-focused Conflict (Cognitive) • Focus on task and problem solving • Positive affect • Tension decreases • Group functioning improves Person-focused Conflict (Emotional) • Focus on personalities • Negative emotions (anger.

creative problem solving and focus on exchange of ideas. expression of positive emotions and optimism. . and not provoking the other person.Constructive Responses Behaviors that research demonstrates to be highly effective in keeping the harmful effects of conflict to a minimum Constructive responses emphasize: task-completion and focus on problem-solving.

Typical Outcomes of Constructive Responses Win-win solutions Open and honest communication of feelings Both parties’ needs are met Non-judgmental actions Not sticking adamantly to one position Actively resolving conflict (not allowing conflict to continue) Thoughtful responses (not impulsive) Team performance improves .

and avoiding conflict rather than facing it. lack of respect for the other person. . trying to win — no matter what.Destructive Responses Behaviors that research has demonstrated to escalate or prolong conflict Destructive responses emphasize: negative expression of emotions.

Typical Outcomes of Destructive Responses Feelings of anger and frustration Judgmental actions Getting even and keeping score Other party does not have needs met Closed channels of communication Refusing to deal with issues Decreased self-confidence Tasks not completed Team performance decreases .

. taking action. or making an effort. Outcome can be either constructive or destructive. Active behaviors involve overt responses. Passive Passive behaviors involve withholding a response. or not making an effort.Active and Passive Responses to Conflict Active Research further demonstrates the usefulness of classifying conflict-related responses into two additional categories. not taking action. Outcome can be either constructive or destructive.

Conflict Response Categories Constructive Perspective Taking Creating Solutions Expressing Emotions Reaching Out Destructive Winning at All Costs Displaying Anger Demeaning Others Retaliating Avoiding Yielding Hiding Emotions Self-criticizing Passive Active Reflective Thinking Delay Responding Adapting .

Hot Buttons 36 items tapping the nine situations/people causing the greatest degree of irritation to the individual • • • • • Unreliable Unappreciative Micro-managing Abrasive Hostile • • • • Overly analytical Aloof Self-centered Untrustworthy .

Brainstorm every possible solution. and agendas. Explain how you feel and why — choose words carefully. Creating Solutions Identify each other’s motives. Ask open-ended questions and listen! Rephrase what you think has been said. Select the two or three solutions that best meet the other person’s needs. Encourage the other person to express their feelings. . Identify points of mutual agreement and interdependence. Examine the flaws/weaknesses of your own position. Reaching Out Express your sincere desire to understand. Accept responsibility for your contribution to the conflict. Don’t let hot buttons interfere with the process.Active Constructive Responses Perspective Taking Mentally put yourself in the other’s place and work to understand their point of view. Express yourself in ways that cast no blame. reaction to the conflict. motivation. goals. Ask what you can do to make amends. Expressing Emotions Be sure the emotions are worth expressing and provide useful information.

Solicit input from others. Replace stressful thoughts with calm. Delay Responding Call for time out when tensions interfere with problem solving. Re-focus. Find the best in people and in the situation. Time out ≠ avoidance. not back. reflect. Be optimistic — things will work out —keep trying. Consider the impact of differences in style and opinions. Carefully review alternatives. Direct your thoughts to adapting and accepting. and return to constructive conflict. .Passive Constructive Responses Reflective Thinking Note your initial reaction to a conflict — analyze why it occurred. Adapting Look forward. reassuring ones.

Return to conflict Article – Wiess. Want Collaboration?: Accept – and – Actively Manage – Conflict. March 2005. Jeff and Hughes. Harvard Business Review. Very culturally oriented – High individualism . pp92-101. Jonathan.

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