I{o TeParau Tia, lt{oTeParuu Mau, I{o Te TiamaFaa

For justice, truth und independence

Report of the Pacific 8thNuclearFree and Independent (NFIP) Conference
Arue, Thhiti,TeAo Maohi (FrenchPolynesia) er 20-24Septemb 1999

(PCRC) Centre R.esource PacificConcerns Fiji Suva, Islands

CentreInc. (PCRC),2000 Resource @ PacificConcems

Centre, Resource PacificConcerns 83 Amy Street,Toorak, PrivateMail Bag, Suva, FIJIISLANDS Phone: (679) 304649 Fax: (679)304755 Email: pcrc@is.com.fi Web: www.pcrc.org.fi Nic Maclellan,Kekuni Blaisdell,PriscillaSettee Photos: Layout:Nic Maclellan Xie, Xivine StudioLtd. Cover design:Susanna Printedby OceaniaPrint, Suva,Fiji Islands

USP Library Cataloguing-in-PublicationData conference PacificO\rFIP) NuclearFreeand Independent (8th : 1999:Arue, Tahiti) Pacific(lrIFIP) Reportofthe 8sNuclearFreeandIndependent Polynesia), Maohi (French Arue, Tahiti,Te Ao Conference, Fiji Nic Maclellan' Suva, by 1999/ edited 20-24September, Centre,2000. Resource : PacificConcems pp172: lc m . ISBN 982-9018-024 l. Nuclearweapon-free-zones Oceania Congresses Nic I. Maclellan, 2. Nuclearweapons Oceania Testing III. Title Centre Resource II. PacificConcems - No TeParau Tia, l'{o TeParau Mau, No Te Tiamaraa and Independence - For Justice, Peace 2000 JX1974.7.O3N83 321.1747

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Bth Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Thhiti

5 Foreword Hilda Lini (PCRC,Fiji) Motarilavoa

1) Opening Ceremony
7 Wecall this land k Ao Maohi speech Welcoming B speech 9 Welcoming I0 Self-determination in Timor Lorosae 11 By the waters of Matavai Bay OscarTemaru (Tavini Huiraatira, Te Ao Maohi) TeisinaFuko (PCRC / NFIP ExecutiveBoard) GeorgHenriksen(IWGIA, Denmark) Ceu Brites (EastTimor Relief Association) Lopeti Senituli(PCRC,Fiji)

2) The Struggle of the Maohi PeoPle in for Self-Determinationand Independence a Nuclear Free Country
11 and introduction Welcome Panel on Te Ao Maohi (French Polynesia) Independence for Te Ao Maohi Oppositionto nuclear testing Civil society and the struggle for independence Relistingwith the UN DecolonisationCommittee A nuclear free and independent Maohi people Upholding the treaty Closing speech Oscar Temaru (Tavini Huiraatira)

15 IB 20 22 23 26 26

James Salmon(Tavini Huiraatira) Marie ThereseDanielsson Gabriel Tetiarahi(Hiti Tau) Charlie Ching (Te TaataTahiti Tiama) Ihorai (EvangelicalChurch) Jacques Joinville Pomare(PomareParty) (Aia Api) Emile Vernaudon

3) The Struggle for Self-Determination
and Independence in the Pacific in the New Millennium 28 Keynoteaddress " "Whatfuture for the UnitedNationsdecolonisation process? Affairs,US Virgin Islands) for Corbin(Ministerfor State External - Dr. Carlyle
Panel on decolonisation Votingfor Independencein Timor Lorosae Human rights violations in WestPapua Guam and self-determination Rapanui Sovereigntyin Ka Pae'aina Bougainville and self-determination Learning from history in Kanalqt Report from the workshop on decolonisation

39 40 45 47 48 50 52 56 60

Ceu Brites (ETRA, Timor Lorosae) Rex Rumakiek (OPM, West Papua) Rufo Lujan (OPIR, Guam) Hugo Teave(Te Koro Hu'a, Rapanui) Kihei SoliNiheu (Ka Pakaukau) Ruby Mirinka (BOCHBIP) Louis Kotra Uregei (USTKE)

Keynote address "A PermanentForum for IndigenousPeoples in the United Nations" Greenland) - Dr. Hjalmar Dahl (Inuit CircumpolarConference,

Panel on indigenous rights struggles 64 The new Ainu Act - its real effect and meaning 66 Low, land and culture in Australia 68 The Tangata Whenua in Aotearoa

Mitsunori Keira (Yay Yukar no Mori, Japan) Kathy Malera Bandjalan, Mary Munro andKyra Kum-Sing(Aboriginal Australia) Aotearoa) MarciaCassidv(FreedomRoadworks,
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8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacfic Conference, Arue, Tahiti

68 He Korero no Aotearoa 71 Bio-colonialism and genetic rerearch 73 74 Economic opportunities for communities Sovereigntyfor First Nations peoples

Hilda Halkyard-Harawira (Te Kawariki) Deb Harry (IndigenousPeople's Coalition on Paiutenation,USA) Biocolonialism, (Dakota nation, Canada) Lois Standing (Creenation; Canada) Priscilla Settee

4\ Conservingthe Environment for our Children
76 Keynote Address ,.Intellectual Property Rights, Genetically Modified Organisms and our biological resources" - Clark Peteru (Lawyer and activist, Samoa) Panel on environment Global warming and climate change Biodiversity conservation in the Pacific islands Transhipment of plutonium Fijib Christmasisland nuclear veterans Mahendra Kumar (SPRER Samoa) Sam Sesega(SPREP, Samoa) Hidemichi Kano (Gensuikin,Japan) LosenaTubanavau-Salabula(PCRC,Fiji)

82 86 92 93

5) The New Arms Race in the Pacific
95 Keynote address "The NewArms Racein the Pacific" coalition) FreePhilippines Nuclear (Secretary-General, - corazonFabros
Panel on demilitarisation and disarmament 100 Internal militarisation in the South Pacific 101 Kwajalein missile tests 103 Legacies of French nuclear testing 106 Call for Peace Karibae John Kawowo (Melsol, PNG) Nic Maclellan(PCRC,Fiji) Hiro Tefaarere(Tavini Huiraatira) Pa TepaeruAriki (Cook Islands)

6) Human Rights and Good Governance
109 Keynote address 'Human Rights and Good Governance - Collective Human Rightsfor Pacific Peoples" - Motarilavoa Hilda Lini (former Minister of Justice,vanuatu) Panel on human rights and good governance SophiaGegeyo(PNGCouncilofChurches) Il5 papua New Guineo-o1tq the Sandline crisis CharlesKelly (SICA' SolomonIslands) I 16 Crisis in the Solomon Islands IIB Human Rights and Good Governance in Tbnga 'AkilisiPohiva(TongaHumanRightsand DemocracYMovement) des Droits de l'Homme Stanley Cross (zr'gzre l2l Human rights in Te Ao Maohi de Polvndsie) Panel on health and human rights 123 Womenbhealth and the environment 127 Health of indigenous communities 128 Radiation and health in French Polynesia 129 Living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific

PatrinaDumaru (Fij i Women's Rights Movement) Dr. Kekuni Blaisdell (KanakaMaoli Tribunal Komike, Ka Pae'aina) Jacqui Drollet (Ia Mana Te Nunaa) Maire Bopp du Pont (Radio Tefana)

' : l3I

Globalisationand its Impact on Pacific Economies
Keynote address "Globalisation and the impact on Small Island Developing States" - FataKorosetaTo'o (Samoa)

I , ! .

Panel on sustainablehuman development I34 Economicoptionsafter nuclear testing ISO The future i7 th, Lomd Convention peoples 140 Globalisationand indigenous

(TaviniHuiraatira, Ao Maohi) Te Nelson Ortas FeiloakitauKohoTevi(PcRc,FijD (Te Cyril Chapman WhareAhwin, Aotearoa)



NFIP Conferenceresolutions
Environment and Decolonisation self-determination Demilitarisation PCRC / NFIP activities Human rights and good governance Sustainablehumandevelopment

143 Theme one: 148 Themetwo: 156 Theme three: 157 Themefour: 159 Theme five: 161 Themesix: 163 Finalresolutions


PCRC / NFIP Executive Board to and observers the 8'hNFIP Conference Delegates Pacific Peoples Charter for a Nuclear Free and Independent

165 Appendix one: 166 Appendixtwo: three: 169 Appendix



8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahili

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Ir{oTePurau Tia, l{o TePurua Maa, l{o Te Tiamuraa
- For justice, truth and independence
Warmest greetings from the Pacific Concems Resource ofthe Nuclear Free Centre(PCRC). PCRC is the secretariat Pacific movement,basedin Suva, Fiji and Independent Islands. and From20-24 September1999, over ll0 delegates observers from 28 countries and territories around the Pacific came together for the 8'h Nuclear Free and IndependentPacifrc Conference in Arue, Tahiti, Te Ao Maohi (French Polynesia). The official delegateswere joined by international observers, secretariat staff and scores of visitors and supporters from around Tahiti, in the shadow of Mount Erima. on the shores of Matavai Bay. Pacific(NFIP) the Since1975, NuclearFreeandlndependent in conference, bringing together movement has met peoples' representativesfrom around the Pacific region: indigenouspeople's organisations;church, trade union and peace activists; environmentalists; and movements for sovereignty and self-determination. The first Nuclear Free Pacific conferencewas held at the University ofthe SouthPacific (USP) in Suva,Fiji in 1975. Further NFIP conferenceshave followed in: Pohnpei, FederatedStatesof Micronesia (1978); KaPae'aina I Hawai'i (1980); Port Vila, Vanuatu(1983); Manila, the Aotearoa/ New Zealand Philippines(1987); Pawarenga, (1990);Suva, (1996);andArue,Tahiti(1999). Fiji decisionmakingbody The NFIP Conferenceis the supreme NFIP movement and its secretariat,the Pacific of the ConcernsResourceCentre(PCRC). The main objective of the NFIP Conferencesis to serveas the premier forum for discussionamongst NFIP members concerningtheir humanrights,justice, peace strugglefor self-determination, and liberation, and to formulate policies and action programsfor PCRC and the movement. For the first time ever, the conferencewas held in one of the French occupied territories in the Pacific. Becauseof its long-standing campaign against nuclear testing in the Pacific, the NFIP movementwas neverwelcomedin Te Ao Maohi (French Polynesia) by the French authorities. We are thankful to our local hosts Tqvini Huiraatira no TbAo Maohi, who organised the conference with the support and involvement of other groups, such as church, NGO and trade union organisations in Tahiti. Mauruuru to Oscar Temaru,Nui Ben Teriitehau and all the people who made the conferencesuch a success. We give special thanks to the Evangelical Church Egllse Evangdlique de Polyndsie Frangaise (EEPF) for use of their facilities at Arue, and to President Jacqueslhorai, Pastor Ralph Teinaore, Pastor Godfrey Marcus and his parishionersin Arue for their hospitality. The theme of the conferencewas No TeParau Tia, No Te Parau Mau, No Te Tiamaraa - for justice, truth and independence. The end ofthirty years ofFrench nuclear testing in 1996 has not ended the nuclear legaciesfor the Maohi people. A major theme of the conferencewas the struggle of the Maohi people for self-determination and independence a nuclearfree country.This book collects in the testimony of Maohi leaders and activists with their vision for an independent nation. It also includes presentationsfrom around the Pacific region on five key themes: a) b) c) d) e) The strugglefor self-determinationand independence in the Pacific into the new millennium Conserving our environment for our children Opposition to the new arrnsrace in the Pacific Human rights and good governancein the Pacific and its impacton Pacific economies Globalisation

Throughoutthe conference, many participantspaid tribute to Lopeti Senituli, the outgoing Director of the Pacifrc ofthe conference ConcernsResourceCentre.The success and the vitality of the NFIP Movement are a tribute to his are work as PCRC Director since 1987. Congratulations dueto the staffof PCRC andthe local organisingcommittee for bringing the movement together in such a beautiful environment. Atthe dawnofthe new Millennium, the 8SNFIP Conference Basedon the has set new directionsand new challenges. mandatefrom this important regional gathering,the NFIP Movement is proud to continue the stmggle for a nuclear free and independentPacific.

Motarilavoa Hilda Lini Director. Pacific Concems Resource Centre

t, ii

Opening ceremony

We call this land 'oTeAo Maohi"
Te TaviniHuiraatira, Ao Maohi Temaru, Oscar
can PacificConference TheNuclearFreeandIndependent finallytakeplacein Tahiti.We callthis landTe Ao Maohi' the The official nameof our countryis FrenchPolynesia' the namethat perfectlydescribes reality of our colonial may havehadproblemswith entry members Some history. GastonFlosse President and formalities thiswasexpected. usedhis relationswith FrenchPresidentChirac to try to from taking place. prevent Conference this As we seetoday,we have invited all the membersof the andall the official Flosse includingPresident Government, not here.They have members this country.But they're of not received ordersfrom the President to come and not to participate this Conference. in was made possible of The organisation this Conference our of because thecollectiveeffortsofNui Ben Teriitehau, to say a special thanks to But vice-president. we want LopetiSenituli.We would like to ask him to standup so he can thateverybody seehim, because hasdone a lot for years. our countryfor many of I'd like to thankthemembers our party TtwiniHuiraatira I I haven'tmentioned. applaud andofcourseall thosethat you for your continuedsupport' your work. Thank I must also thank the EvangelicalChurch of French Ihorai for their Mr. Jacques and Polynesia it's President, to unfold herein Arue, in courage allowing this Conference on this very historical site. Equally important,we must for alsothankourselves our decisionto take part in what the is perhaps last importantmeeting on the eve of the NewMillennium. the Weareunitedheretoday underone banner, bannerof Pacific. I hope this the Nuclear Free and Independent to will Conference permiteveryone openlyandfreely debate on the issues the agenda. claimthatwe comeliom onecommonbond theories Some but culturally we are as diverse as the colours of the and depths.If I with its many colours,its shades rainbow, bond, it would be the love that a hadto choose comlnon we and our tupun(ts(ancestors)have for our land. For manyyearsthe NFIP movementwas unableto hold a ofits standin oppositionto in conference Tahiti because testing, The permanenthalt of colonialismand nuclear the changed testingin 1996hassomewhat nuclear French regardto NFIP. We have come a of attitude Francewith held in Suva, the longway since foundingNFIPConference Fiji, in 1975.However,regional and NFIP oppositionto nuclearthreatshas not diminished. Along with TaviniHuiraatira no TeAo Maohi (the parly sinceit's creationin President for which I hadbeenelected 1977),the Maohi peoplehave a continuouscommitment it's to makeFrancefully recognise responsibilityfor over 30 yearsof nucleartestingand 150 yearsof colonialism. There have been grave effects on our environment,our Franceis indebted andour economy. healthandour society - politically, morally and and must be held accountable hnancially. but My peoplearefacedwith many challenges the balance is gainandsocialadvancement a central economic between A key objective is finding an effective point in ourprogram. economy less dependent meansto achievea sustainable on the developmentof our own on others and based resources.On the other hand, we must also develop a guaranteeing individuallibertiesandfr eedom Constitution We mustdistributeour wealthandresources to all citizens. equitably to all sectorsof our society, with all people sharingthe benefitsas well as the cost of development. of Opponentsof this vision call it a dream. But because government' s pol i ti cal short-si ght edness, our developmenthas failed even after 150 years of French col oni al i sm and U S $1.2 bi l l i on per year i n Fr ench Even so, through tourism alone our economy assistance. generated nearly half the amount provided by Francein 1998. Our exclusiveeconomic zone(EEZ) is larger than Europe. has of France, because Tahiti andNew Caledonia, thethird on this planet.We havemany economicassets largest EEZ such as: black pearls;fisheriesand marine resources, cobalt and preciousmetals; suchas phosphate, industries as noni fruit, vanilla bean and exotic cut agriculturesuch flowers, etc. Banking and all the financial sectors are positivetrendsthat as a whole will replacethe generating in Frenchsubsidies coming years. that It is for this reason,like many of my predecessors, I sovereign in haveconfidence our futureasan independent state. Howeverwhile our economygrows, it is only performing at half its capacity.Political intimidation by pro-colonial (who fear the results of a referendumon conservatives has questionof independence) hinderedthe Maohi this in ffeely and spontaneously favour peoplefrom expressing
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Arue, Tahiti 8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Con;t'erence'

35%o In and of independence sovereignty' recent-elections' platform votedin favourofthe political ofthe ;lectorate by presented our parfy,the Tavini Huiraatira' *a ia"u, massive in only improve thefuture,despite Thistrendlan our against movement' utilised resources

SioneTeisinaFuko Chairperson,

is Mr' On a sadnote,thelocalPresident, Flosse, currently by underinvestigation the Frenchcourts,facing many of corruption, using his influence10 grant charges favourabletreatmentaswellasfalsedeclarationofpersonal results the That'sa sadnote.Fornrnately, election wealth. in our local havegivenus a clearlydefinedpolarisation or politics.Eitheryou supportindependence you don't'

Board / PCRC NFIPExecutive

with thefull support that It is imperative theMaohipeople to continue inform members and ofthe NFIP movement its populationthat thinking and educatethe Polynesian herewereMaohi People irrJ.p.nd"n"" is a noblecourse' W:--Yu understand UV*"tt,ty or Maohi by adoption' with closedborders' is that independence not separation andtakingcontrolof all it On the contrary, is liberation TeisinaFuko, and in of ofour development, partnership co-operation sectors Chairperson the PCRC / NFIP ExecutiveBoard to according the UnitedNations states with all sovereign Mayorof Faa'a; Temaru, Oscar Honourable philosophY. of Church ofthe Evangelical Ihorai,President Mr. Jacques to I reiteratemy call to the NFIP movement openly FrenchPolYnesia; with the Maohi people'who Pastor GodfreyMarcusandreligiousleaders; tireir solidarity demonstrate and andnev:r givenup their Dearcolleagues friends,ladiesandgentlemen; havediedandstruggled for years We askthat Te Ao Maohi be tigttt to self-determination. to your welcome to on re]instated the United Nationslist of countries be It is a privilegeandan honourto reply on Your supportfor our brothers andto yourwordsofkindness' behalfofthe Executive immediately. de-colonised Centre(PCRC) Resource to that effect'We the Maohi Boardtf the PacificConcerns in Kanakyis demonstration Pacific (NFIP) inspiration' and the Nuclear Free and Independent that same peopleshare Movement. and influence the TheNFIP movement with its authority, the in Thereis a saying from my homeland' friendlyislesof diversityof its' representativescanplay a vital role he NFIP Tonga, The8d' cry whichis Koeme'afakavale angakq koemasiva' people's for freedom' the sfreading Maohi as our Beciuseofmy poverty, amembarrassed I knowI cannot I to ionf"r"i". will alsobe an opportunity decideon is Evenifa person of and ofthe Pacific'which can repayyourkindness generosity' aspeoples and issues concerns even intentions' events gooi clturacter, evenif oneis full of good to bepresented importantregionalandinternational one on one sacrifices, cando nothingunless has UnitedNationsConference small ifone makes soonto be held:the - thewelcoming 1999;the South thehumble heartof a Polynesian gracious statesin September islandsdeveloping United heartthat we havewitnessed heretoday' I in October 999; theSpecial meeting PacificForum devotedto the Eradicationof Nations Conference out I wantto acknowledge give my thanksto thosewho and with thetaskof speaking We Colonialism. entrustyou the about concerns have supported financially in holding this 8s NFIP us andcountries leaders to yourrespected and Confere-nce, todaywith suchsuccess' which hasopened fu.ing oui."gion. The questfor freedomis.a long we can My thanksto John Doom of the World Council of but diffi;lt road with many obstacles together Work Pacihc' Churches, of and GeorgHendriksen the International Free lndependent for our reach dream aNuclear BarthofFES and Afflairs, Bernhard Groupfor Indigenous as confidentthat we shall do what is who arewith ui today, well asotherfriendsofthe NFIP I thankyou all. I am the Movement. n"..rrury, so that our childrenmay live freely'From I would like to wish you againour bottomoi my heart, Ihorai' to land' I wouldalsolike to express thanks Mr' Jacques my our to welcome Tahiti, ourtupunas'land, ancestors ofFrenchPolynesia' Church ofthe Evangelical President andmaYGodblessYouall' to for havingallowedour delegates usethis beautifuland qndleader uniquesiteat Arue,Tahiti. the Mayor of Faa'a inTahiti' Oscar Temaruis
no Te oj tn" pro-independence party Tovini Huirqatira Ao Maohi
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Arue' Tahiti 8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference'

party Tavini I would also like to thank with all my heartthe together Huiraatira,led by the Honourable OscarTemaru' members and *irf, Nui Ben Teriitehau and all the other who have worked so hard to welcome this 8h supporters I also want tliip Conferenceto your land' Te Ao Maohi' having worked io rt *t t-op"ti Senituli and all his stafffor look forward to hard to make this conferencehappen' We and exchange io tf,. oppottunity to shareour experiences our ideasanda successfuland fruitful meeting' people have Sincewe arrived in this country, the Maohi fears from our brows' removedthe stress,the doubts and replacingthem with a beautiful smile for our soul' One stayed Legendhas it that three canoescame from afar' the Cook Islands and Te in ionga and Samoa,another to as Aotearoa' Ao Miohi, while the last voyaged as far warriors are here in the ofthose Today,the descendants land of Te Ao Maohi. sea' God' the We are the rightful owners of this land and are our inheritance' and we our I-*i, m" Sea-and People us' Let us will not allow any intruders to take them from soul' Let our canoes sail bind our hearts, in mind and Millennium' to iog.ttt.t towards the dawn of the new i to outou ta'e Rahi mai . .*lpto." new horizons Mauruuru teie mahana.Au ofa atu' the PCRC / Sione Teisina Fuko is the Chairperson of and a former Member of NFIP Executive Board, Parliament in the Kingdom of Tonga'

Welcoming address

areto be Firstly, I would like to tell you how privileged we the part ;i such an important event' As a member of Group for ielegation from the International Work you Indifenous Affairs [WGIA), I want to congratulate so impressed for n"*ing organisedthis gathering' We are the last as to how you have organised things down- to so far aheld' detail, allowing people to travel here from you who I know that there are some people amongst merit our organisers haven't sleptfor the lastweek.These the Pacific sincere thanks: NFIP and its secretariat, Church ConcemsResourceCentre @CRC); the Evangelical andhis party lauttal Mr' OscarTemaru of FrenchPolynesia; Huiraatira no TeAo Maohi and all the local volunteers' and the Let me just say two words about our organisation is an international nonreasonihut *. are here. IWGIA Denmark' governmentorganisationbasedin Copenhagen' the fate and strugglesof Since 1968,*Jhuu, documented on human indigenouspeoplesaroundthe world' Our work peoples, on.land rights as righis, the tightt orinaigenous task' *Itt * the right to self-determinationis a vital pressing for a In recent years, IWGIA has been active in withinthe United Peoples p.**rntporum for Indigenous is to Nations system.Another major objective of IWGIA betweenindigenouspeoples promote and strengthenlinks between in various parts of the world, to shareinformation the co-operationofNFIP / inagrnout communities.With pCnC, we hope to publish a documentwith the outcomes ofthis conference. range of The peoples of Pacif,rcnations representa wide still colonised; those who are situationi' those who are who putting through a phaseof decolonisation and those trying to reconcile their definition but are ind-ependent are of nationhood with customary rights' have seen For 3l years,sincethe creationof IWGIA' we growth of the indigenous peoples' an imiressive an movement on the international stage' This represents as this is an innovative movement important contribution, which want for which could becomethe spearhead groups and create institutions which will to liberate themselves This promotejust and peacefulrelationsbetweenpeoples' the aims and aspirationsof this i, on. ofth" reasonsthat Pacific' conferenceare important, not only for you in the On behalf of IWGIA' I wish all but for the whole world. a time to possible success delegatesat this conference' at challengesin the years to come' when we face numerous Work Georg Henriksen is Chairperson of the Internationql Affairs (WGIA) in Denmark' Groipfor Indigenous
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GeorqHenriksen Affairs (IWGIA) of the InternationalWork Griup for Indigenous

Arue' Tahiti 8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference'

Self-determinationin Timor Lorosae
CeuBrites TimorLorosae Association, TimorRelief East
Firstly, in the name of PCRC and the NFIP Movement, I would like to say Mauruuru and thank you to Tavini and the people who have welcomed us as part of this vast today. I would also like to thank my dear congregation Board,who have ofthe PCRC/ NFIP Executive colleagues given me the opportunityto speakheretoday asa Timorese' thanksto our hosts my i would alsolike to express deepest for their generoussupport, especially Mr' Oscar Temaru and Mr. Nui Ben Teriitehau, which is truly appreciatedin this difficulttime. Dear bothers and sisters, it is with great sadnessthat I speakheretoday at the openingofthe 8s NuclearFreeand of The frrst conference Pacific Conference. lndependent year'my the NFIP Movementwas held in 1975.The same countryEastTimor was invadedby Ildonesia' I was obliged to flee my native land as a refugee. After 24 years of suffering, on 30 August the people of of Because that, the East Timor voted for independence. most atroclous whole world has witnessedone of the of massacres the current era. In the press,this massacre has beencalled the Holocaustof our region' The Indonesian military has destroyed all infrastructure, as their way of showing their responseto the people's This has involved not simply the vote for independence' of massacre innocentcivilians, but alsothe total destruction of of infrastructure, the towns and the villages,as well as of the forced resettlement the populationto other partsof campsthat werebuilt before into concentration lndonesia, We the vote on independence. still do not know the fate of manyyoungmen agedbetween14 and 18,who havebeen from their families by the Indonesianmilitary' separated All these atrocities were committed by the Indonesian govemmentthanksto the financial,military and ideological ofpeople have powers.Thousands supportofthe Western lost their life and others are dying as we meet here today' The peacekeepingforces will not enter East Timor until Monday or Tuesday next week. The Indonesianshave said that they will withdraw their troops when the arrive.But how can we believetheir lies? peacekeepers My friends, brothers and sisters, let us gather our forces to bring peaceonce and for all to the people of East Timor' Let us call on the international community and your respective governmentsto respect the decision of the people of East Timor, when they voted last 30 August in favour of independence. We askyou to supportthe United Nations in this period of transition, so that we can build a new nation. We hope that for you will heedthe call by the UN Commissioner Human international Rights, Ms. Mary Robinson, to set up an War CrimesTribunal for EastTimor. Sucha body would no doubt place pressureon the Indonesian armed forces to halt their butchery. We also salute the efforts of Tavini Huiraatira to collect funds locally and to provide humanitarian support for the men, women and children of EastTimor' We hope that this will give us more power' to reinforce NFIP Conference 8'h our courageand our hope in thesedifficult times' Ceu Brites is a member of the East Timor Relief Association (ETRA), amember andservedas the PCRC / NFIP of Executive Board from I 996-I 999. NFI P t he A fter she confe r ence, returned from exile to Timor, to help with the reconstruction of the new nation of Timor Loro sae, and t o support further involvementof women in rebuilding of civil society.

Ce u Br ite so fT im o r L o r o sa e wi thTavi ni H ui raati raV i cePresi dentN ui BenTeri i tehau Page I0 Arue' Thhiti 8th Nuclear Free and Independenr Pacrfic Conference'

By the waters of Matavai Bay, in the shadowof Mount Erima
LopetiSenituli, Director, Pacific Concerns Resource Centre
This is an historic occasion. It is historic becauseit is the first time that a conference of the Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific CNFIP)movement is being held here on the sacredland of the Maohi people. This is a unique occasion. It is unique becausethis conference has drawn together the widest range of progressive forces from the Pacihc. It brings togetherthe church and the ecumenical movement; the armies of liberation; feminists and women's right activists; in summarythe pilgrims forjustice and liberation. This is an occasionfor celebration: t t I . to celebrate the end of French nuclear testing at Moruroa and Fangataufa to celebratetheend ofall nucleartestingin ourPacific to celebratethe exerciseby the people of East Timor of their right to self-determination to celebratethe end of the war in Bougainville LopetiSenituli (right)with Vito Maamaatua, Director the radiostation ReoTefana of Te This is the theme of our Conferenceand our vision for the newmillennium. We have an exciting progranrme ahead of us. We shall addressconservingour environment for our children. We shall discussthe legacy of 50 years of American, British andFrenchnucleartestingin our Pacific from1946to 1996. We shall address new affnsrace in the Pacific. We shall the discussthe developmentof new generationof ,,StarWars" technology at Kwajalein in the Marshall Islands and the ethnic cleansingin the Solomon Islands. We shall address the struggle for Human Rights and Good Governancein Tonga, in Samoa, in Papua New Guinea. Above all, we shall discussGlobalisationand its impact on the peoples and economiesof the Pacific. For our discussionsto be successful,we are dependent on you all - the sons and daughters of the greatest navigators the world has ever known. Our ancestors stopped in Tonga and Samoa,while yours kept piercing the skies in searchof new horizons. We need your love. We needyour solidarity. We needyour patience.In return, we have nothing ofvalue that can ever repay you all or words that can fully convey our gratitude. All we have to offer are our barehandsin solidarity and we hope you will help us up should we stumble. Mauruuru, Vinaka Vakalevu,Malo Aupito. Lopeti Senituli served as Director of the Pacific Concerns ResourceCentrefrom I 987-2000.
Page I I

This is an occasionto celebrate God's liberating love as we preparefor the new millennium. This is an occasionto re-chargeour batteries.It is therefore appropriatethat we are gatheredhere by the water of Matavai Bay like the people of Israel who gatheredby the river of oppressed Babylon. As we gatherhere by the waters of Matavai Bay and in the auraof the tomb of Te Arii Pomare and in the shadow of Mount Erima, we must rememberour dead.Wsremember: . . . . . . . . . . Pouvanaaa Oopa Eloi Machoro Jean-MarieTjibaou QueenLiliukalani TheodoreMiriung EvaRickard Eddie Mabo DarleneKeju BishopPatelisioFinau FatherWalterHadye Lini

Mourning our dead is an empowering experience.This is an empoweringoccasions,for the salt is our tears and the sweatfrom brows adds our to the blood of our ancestors andrejuvenates land which is in turn gives us strength. the No TeParau Tia -For Justice No TePorau Mau - For Truth No Te Tiamaraa - Andfor Independence Wakeup, Stand up, Work, Work

9th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacifc Conference, Arue, Tahiti





8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Page 13

ThemeOne:The Struggle ofthe Maohi People Self-Determination for andIndependence a NuclearFreeCountry in

Welcome and Introduction
Oscar Temaru TaviniHuiraatira, TeAo Maohi
Good morning distinguished guests, friends and family. I use the word 'family' becauseas I look out at the assembly, can't help but imagine I the seedlingsof a future ,,United Nations Assembly of Small Island Nations". This would be an assemblyof open debate under democratic principles. following the philosophyof the United Nations Charter, an assemblythat managesits own destiny,so that we may all live freely in peace and harmony with nature. These next days will focus on important issuesthat will change the whole region on the eve of the new millennium. I stand before you once more, to convey the messageof my peopleheld captive for 150years.As I havesaidbefore, like many of my predecessors who have died. have been torfured, humiliated, and continuously ignored by those responsiblefor this mire: we must regainour independence immediately! A human being is born free without chains. The keys to detach these chains are in your hands. I ask againthat our counfiy be reinstatedon the United Nations list ofcountries to be decolonised beforethe year2000. The Tavini Huiraatira has been actively planning this day of redemption for twenty years now. As in any government,we needcompetentpeoplethat can efficiently managethe every day rituals of sellgovernment. Equally important,thesepeople must also havea realistic foresight t hat will p ro mo te s o c i a l , p o l i ti c a l and economi c development. During the course of our conference you will meet a few members of our movement, who are knowledgeablein many fields. The topics thatthesepeople will shareare diverse and appropriatefor this conference. We must not forget the history of our past. To know where you are going necessitatesthat you know your roots. I will invite Mr. Narii JamesSalmon Taneto sharewith you the history of our party Tavini Huiraatira sinceits creation under.colonialrule. Mr. Salmon, who works as a Civil Engineer in Public works, roads and bridges, has been a memberof our local Territorial Assembly for fifteen years now, and serves as General Secretary of the Tavini Huiraatira. On the subject of economics and finance we will hear from Mr. Nelson Heremoana Ortas Tane, a business major, and a memberof our party. They will share with you a wide view of the presenteconomicsituation
Page 14

and the possibilities for our future sovereign state. On the issuesof civil rights and environmental concerns we shall hearfrom anothermember of our local Territorial AssemblyMr. Hirohiti Tefaarere Tane,who formanyyears was General Secretary of French polynesia's most innovative workers' union called A Tia I Mua (Stand tall and proud). Hiro also servedfor nearly 15 years as police investigatorforthe French government.He was subjected to violent treatment, in violation of his human rights, by the French occupying forces during France's resumption of nuclear tests at Moruroa and Fangataufa. Hiro will be joined by our Tuahine, Marie_Therese Danielsson.Marie Therese,along with her late, great husband, the humanitarian and peace activist Bengt DanielssonTane, have devoted much of their lives to serving the Maohi people and mankind. This couple has unselfishly and courageouslyserved humanity so that we could one day live in peace.They've documentedyearsof research that is considereda referenceby world_renowned scientistsfrom many fields. Many of their books such as,,Moruroa Mon Amour,, and "Poisoned Relgn" exposed what the French government did not want known. These books *.." onci banned in French Pollmesia. Bengt DanielssonTane lost his title of Consul for Swedenbecause ofFrench diplomatic pressure. I cannotthank you enough.MauruuruMarie-Therese and may God blessyou. I trust that you these people will allow you to better understandthe crimes committed against Te Ao Maohi. Oscar Temaru seryes as Mayor of Faa,a, the largest municipality in Tahiti. previously, he worked as a Customs officer in the local admninistration, and worked at Moruroa Atoll, site of the French nuclear testing centrc. He is qn electedmember of the Territoriql Assembly and President of the pro-independence party Tavini Huiraatira no TeAo Maohi.

8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti


Independence and sovereigntyfor Te Ao Maohi
James Salmon TaviniHuiraatirano TeAo Maohi
The independence movementin Te Ao Maohi was formed in thefirst half of 1977 ,under the name Front deLibdration de la Polyndsle (FlP-Polynesian Liberation Front), in reaction to draft laws that aimed to overwhelm pro_ independence aspirations,or relegatethem to the distant stagnation,if not the retreat, of Tavini's vote _ almost all the local commentators, Stateauthoritiesand eventhe the Res ignementsG6ndraux (SpecialBranch police). e

)ems orial ,ears nost t tall )lice

,by tion

'ese reat rngt ;t o has we sof red

urd in of re. nd



ns at 'e. td ni

In contrastto theseexpectations,Tavini won l1 of the 4l seatsin the Assembly. Maohi nationalism could count on one quarter ofthe elected representatives, and more than In 1983, against expectations, FLp won the municipal doubled the votes garnered all the in comparison to the 12 per elections inthe commun(local municipality) ofFaa'a. This cent won in 1991. The stupefactionand confusion shown period was marked by successof other independence by the governing majority can only be imagined, in spite claims. Until then,we had never succeeded winning any of the formidable campaigr in of denigration led by Gaston official positionsin the local structures. The importanceof Flosseand his disciples.Such an attack was never seen Faa'ais shownby the fact that up until today, it is the only before in the country.It was conductedwith the complicity municipality of 48 othermunicipalitiesthat is controlled of the French out State, which lent a hand by opening the by pro-independence forces. French government TV service RFO to Flosse and his supporters. In the l ead up to the 1996 elect ions, Launching of the FLP independence leader Oscar Temaruwas publicly accused on severaloccasionsofhaving instigatedthe popular riots In 1984,the majority in the Territorial Assembly slipped that rocked Papeete September1995. in away from the United Front to the party iahoeraa Huiraatira,led by Gaston Flosse. It was at this time that More remarkableyet were the scoresobtainedbv Tavini in the new Flossegovernmentreplaced the first law known the 1997 electionsfor the French National Assembly,just as "Autonomy for financial and administrative a year later.GastonFlossewas forced to call on the suppon management" with an internal Statute of Autonomy. The and the votes of the parfy Ai,a Api to ensure that his Tenitorialelectionsof 1986,called at the expressdemand candidatefrom the Westcoast,Michel Buillard. could win of GastonFlosse a year before the end of his five-year the position of deputy to the National Assembly. Only term, saw a clear victory by Flosse. His party won an 3,000 votes separatedhim from Oscar Temaru's score. absolutemajority in the Territorial Assembly. These Tqvini Huiraatira had managedto gather 33 per cent of electionshowever also saw the emergen of Tavini the overall electorate. ce Huiraatira - FLP, winning two seats in the 4l-seat Assembly. This was a major milestone in the history of Te Impacts of Tavini's advance Ao Maohi, as it was the first time that a par"tyopening declaring itself in favour of independence could win seats The first impact coming from the rising Maohi nationalist in theAssembly.We canied the nationalist vision into the movementwas that in 1996 GastonFlosseput in place a heartof this body. new Autonomy statutefor the Territory. This brought two totally new elements the local political scene. to Confirming the pro-independence stand Firstly, the colonial government led by Flosse was given Fiveyearslater,at the time of the 1991 elections,Tavini legal authority to meddle in the internal affairs of each reconfirmed positionin the local political scene, its doubling municipality. The new law allowed him henceforth to its representation the Territorial Assembly. in allocatebillions of FrenchPacific francsfrom the Territorial Treasuryfor public works projects. One can easily seethe In spite of this new advance,the Maohi nationalist advantagefor Flosse, as this new power provided by movement was effectively conalled on the margins of France- allowed the Presidentto place pressureon local politicallife. While its electoral tally could be seen as mayors who have not acceptedhis policies. remarkable, nationalismwas seenas a minority causeand could be disregardedas such by the French authorities. On the other hand, we saw the use of the Territory's public The Frenchadministration could not only hope that the financial resourcesfor the benefit ofpeople in the private independence movementremained on the margins - they sector. French'Justice"andthe legal systemshoweditself knewthat they had to find all the necessaryresourcesto so complacent in monitoring this abuse of public frrnds, keepit thereand to limit its audience. that it seemed they'd adopteda policy of .,anythinggoes". In order to provide assistance victims of cyclones and to The1996Territorialelectionswere a majorturning point in natural disasters,the Flosse administration spent over 3.7 the annalsof the country. Everyone was predicting the billion French Pacific francs from the public purse. The


8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Conference.

distribution ofprefabricated housing, both to real victims ofthe disasrer and false vicrims .h"r;"lt Fi;sse, allowed his parfy Tahoeraato win a number ;;; vores, as if they'd been bought pure and simple. "f Flossehas not hesitatedto use and abusethe new powers provided under the new Autonomy Stut"t". it esetactics have.benefi him signifi cartly. ted. A, ;.;;] ust toot< trao at eventsin political life that occurred in l9dg, which show how colonial power can be used i" p"i tr*e on the independencemovemeat,s " advance. fn .f".iion, for the French Senate, local mediu the home,rvinning more than g0 per ".o;;J;;;iiorr".o.p"o cent oftfrouot" againsta candidate supported Uy tavini. In tfr. ,.*nd event, Flosse'sparfy won six out ofeight seatsin,;; elections for per cent ofthe vote, while Tavini held onto ,h";" had won in 1996.



' #;.i':iffilfT ;:tiff,l ffitl?;t#T,"j
consultativebody for the colonial gou._;"nr. In conclusion, one can only say that the .,polynesian,, French colony remainsun"hungei. rt i, wants to reclotheitself in a revised "rirr.-ce .otoniut iuri;;;;the new Millennium!

of the Country" Territorial ,,Deputies Councillors become will of the Country"(in France, member a ofparliamint is known as a deputy) Thedecisions oftheassembly beknown will as,.laws of the countDz,'

the1/es usLe Vet.(ISr.vI ree*arJ ju,iorl n ^So i *irf, zs

shown with official meetings U"t*".n inJ.-p"no"n". leadersand French Socialij p;t ;H.;;;;,from rhe governrnent is currentlyin power that in France. Tavinicanno longer ignored be asa playerin localpolitics. Tle cgytrr is polarised between,i#"rrgir,e French

was aporiticar *o:lffi"iTT,",fl rorce," fi1,Tj,T:il

The secondmajor impact of Thvini,s advancewas that, for the firsttime, the Frenth

though laston" *u, onl litroaucea the l"*,::"::ren in I996.Thenewlegislation we operate thefollowbases: on rorn.t ut..'ffi;#Tl Flosse, hopes p-rotect position a) Theentify who to knom as'r..*r, polynesia,, his a, 11r, iil,'--?,"' rccupylng hasnoreal power
on Polyresian land.

i::ij:::t-:I"-1.9.':yqlt'"o.f advance thenextTenitorial in "iections. impact has beenthe perceptible | lhird increase since James Salmon and*ro 1996 thenumber (reft) in ofEuropean immigrantsio it especially "**ulGffi from France, ".o**y, who have,tt."rtgrnr"'"ote in the next elections. theseconditions, Aims and objectives of Thvini In ttris"may l{uiraatira Uecome an electoral issue.One can seethe phenomenon of the "whitening"of the countryby France, All politicalactionby theparty in u rnu*a. Tavini is already inKanaky barcaoniffi"rJ,rr" *r,ua onthe.following principles: Huiraatira based seen (New four r*"r* . The truth,the have been made a minority wholetruth andnothingbut the in their o*n .oun rV, *fV truth . Justice making up 44 per cent of the electorate. and equity thesinequa no-nforall forms of development _. feace, . Fraternity, Finally,,the fourth impactcan beenseenwith the bedrockon wtrictrwe.J!-t plansby the iuilO ou. colonial power to introcluce nation. a new statute
for French existence in the eyes

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inrrench roryn"sia, i_".1:111j:*t.e rvra.orri orr;; ffi,#;;

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earnit thetitle of "occupationStarute tb.,n; n# ffi;li Thelegislation aimstoitrip awayat,h" t;"ht;."r1.'; " spirit of emancipation, suggesting by tha; il;; --::;-/ DItthey areachieving ttreiraecotoniraion: The name"overseas-Territory' (Tbrritoired,outre,,:? will be changed "ou..r"u, to count-,,-,1 -"-'*'y trays

In number of the provisions in this new statu*^ -L - r r

Ao Maohi,, b) itris spu"e asconsti;te;i'"n',-" t immemorial, the and collectiveheritageof the Maohi ltll1."" communiry c) France oniy established itselfhereaftera long series of armedaggression, u.trg on the ordersof :j^T* government, their which were marked bv tvgsr wourd -- --' today wvur(r b! uc classifiedasterrorism tb this day,there is but one victim: the Maohi people

people, which we nation-alists call ,,Te

of Tavin. onry porynesia one. **;iililT1fl"#::i:

. '

{f^r{^:y:1.,-^-' . . TheTerritorialAssemblywillbecomethe.,Assemblv --'J o)

assassiiation; ;;;';;il"*,.n

Page 16

8th Nuclear Free and Independentp*rt"

the wn ws of sa

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andfreedoms all people,but is free of all interference of held hostage e) The Maohi of Polynesiafurd themselves from externalpowers under the occupation ofthe French, as shown by the continuous presenceofFrance and its armed forces d) a Maohi Statewhich is sovereign,and in control of all the meansnecessaryfor its own development (land, seaand air) f) The occupation of a country (Te Ao Maohi) by a e) a Maohi State which is democratic, where authority derivesfrom the will ofthe Maohi people, and which foreign power (France) constitutesan act of war should be expressedthrough the holding of regular g) Francehas no intention ofputting an end to this state elections of affairs, in spite of criticism from the international community and in particular the structures of the 0 a Maohi state which has a republican structure, in separation ofexecutive, order to achievethe necessary United Nations legislativeandjudicial power. h) 157yearsof monitoredliberty,ofperverteddemocracy, of battereddigntf from the colonial power have only None of this can be achievedwithout action by people of servedto marginalise the Maohi people in its own to land. as the victim of all forms of discrimination and goodwill. If Francecontinues actwithout commonsense, without limiting its exactions,and continues its infamous segregation. policies that have lastedmore than a century and a half, it can only push the Maohi people to revolt. This will only TqviniHuiraatira has resolved: lead to bloodshed, in the shorl or longer term. So-called To claim the immediate and unconditional reparation "French" Polynesiacannot continue in its current manner, as if it was an associationof white-collar criminals using of that which Francehastaken without law or justice: methods only worthy of the Mafia. As we come to the the sovereignty of the Maohi people dawn ofthe year 2000, it is time to put an end to Polynesia as To affirm the claim for independence, the priority under French occupation. above all others . To reject as null and void all legislation, statutesor orders that do not aim for the immediate and The United Nations and its Committee of 24 (Special Committee on Decolonisation) will have failed in its task, unconditional sovereignty of the Maohi people. . To call for independence- a total, immediate and unless it acts to implement the provisions of General 43147of 22 November 1988,which unconditional Maohi independenceto avoid any AssemblyResolution last decadeof the Twentieth Century as the declared the manoeuwesor delaying tactics. Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism. Together we The final objective sought by Tavini Huiraatirq is the will succeed.Together we will win, without recourse to violence. creation a Maohi State: of a) a Maohi State which is endowed with its own Constitution,which can only be endorsedby a Thank you, Mauruuru and laorana. popular consultation such as a referendum,resulting in the future in a Stateunder the rule of law James Salmon works .as a Civil Engineer with the b) a Maohi Statewhich is the crucible in which the Maohi municipality of Fa'a in Tahiti. He has been a member of nationality can blossom and flourish, as they have the Territorial Assemblyfor /ifteen years, and serves es wantedtodo for 157 years the Secretary General of Tavini Huiraatira - Front de c) a Maohi Statewhich respectsthe fundamentalrights Liberation de la Polyndsie


lf li b


8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Page 17

Oppositionto nuclear testing
Marie-Thdrdse Danielsson

BetweenMarch andNovember1950,some500 million men and women around the world signed this appeal. The appealhad beendraftedby Frederic Juliot-Curie,president of the World Peace Council and also High Commissioner of the FrenchAtomic Energy Commission (Commissariat d I'Endrgie Atomique - CEA). Five weeks later, he was removed from this post. Pouvanaaa Oopa, understandingthe importance of this document,decidedto take the Appeal to Tahiti and present it to the local population. He began by having it signed first in Tahiti, then took advantageofthe first voyage of the boat Tuamotuto travel further afield. The boat, which had been bought by the Tuamotu Islands co-operative, allowed him to travel to the outermostislandsto explain to the islandersthe dangersof nuclear arms. My husbandBengt and myself had only beenonthe island of Raroia for a few months, and we had attended the meetingswith Pouvanaa where the StockholmAppeal was signedon this atoll. In 1958,Generalde Gaulleagreed hold a referendum to in all the French colonies,allowing voters the choice to vote Yes or No as to whether they wanted to stay within the French Community or become independent.Pouvanaa statedthat he supported a No vote, and was in favour of independence forhis country.Unfortunately, all meansfor him to use the radio to spreadhis messageor to travel to the five archipelagos were refused,and the Yesvote carried the day. A short time later, Pouvanaawas accusedof complicity in a caseofattempted arson, and he was sentenced eight to years jail followed by a l5-year banishmentfrom his counffy. He was sent to prison in France. It was by this means that they brushed aside the most embarrassing obstacle to General de Gaulle's project that was already underway- the plan to commencenucleartestingin French Polynesia. From the ti me the nucl ear tests w ere announced, Pouvanaa'ssupportersopposedthem with all their might: Henri Bouvier, Jean-BaptisteCeran Jeruselemy,Senator Daniel Millaud can give witnessto this struggle. One of thosewhoselife was turned upsidedown in 1962 was my husband,Bengt Danielsson.Becauseof his profession,he understood immediatelywas the decision to test nuclear weaponsin the islands would mean for their inhabitants. He foresawthe migration of people to the capital Papeete, creating an unbalancedsociety and a proletariat, caused by the transition from a subsistence economy to a market economy. The danger to health from the tests was also clear.From that time, Bengt devoteda greatpan of his time and energy to condemning the effects ofnuclear testing. We wrote a number of articles and books to let the world

Marie-Thdrdse Danielsson My advantagetoday is one of age. I anived in Tahiti with my husbandBengt Danielssonin 1949.We had come here to do an anthropological and sociological study for three months, on an atoll in the Tuamotu islands where Bengt had run aground on a raft two years before. The study however took 18 months, and as a result we decidedto stay on in the islandsof FrenchPolynesia. I won't give you a history ofnuclear testingin our islands. What I want to highlight to you today is thatthe ta'ata Maohi, from the very first, protested againstthe tests. It was Pouvanaa a Oopa, the Metua, who from the beginning campaigned against nuclear weapons, well before the decision was taken to conduct tests in our islands.Pouvanaahad been elected as a Deputy to the FrenchNational Assemblyin Parisin 23 October 1949 .ln themonthofMarch 1950,the World Peace Council,meeting in Stockholm Sweden, presentedan appeal to the world known as the StockholmAppeal: "We call for the complete abolition of atomic arms, a weapon of terror and mass destruction. We call for the establishment rigorous internationalsystemof control, ofa to ensure that this abolition is carried out. We consider that the first government to use atomic weapons against whatever country would be committing a crime against humanity and should be treated as a war crime. We call on all peopleof good will aroundthe world to sign this appeal. Stockholrn, March 1950." l9
Page 18

8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Ien 'he rnt ler ut /as

ris )nt ed of ch to

le ts

(from left): Maohi participants the conference at Pito, NelsonOrtas,RolandOldham Roti Make,Tamara Bopp du Pont,Monil Tetuanui, GabrielTetiarahi, Clement



knowwhat was happeninghere. Bengt paid dearly for his courage. was completely pushed out of the local He Most activities, losthis positionasConsulfor Sweden. and importantlyin 7972, he was removed from his post as director the new Museum of Tahiti, even though he had of put been in chargeof its establishmentand management. It wasonly their fear of politiciansfrom that time, suchas Francis that stoppedthe Frenchgoverrlmentfrom Sanford, deporting Bengt. Dwingthis period,therewere anti-nucleardemonstrations andalso actionsby political parties calling for greater autonomy. After the Territorial Assembly was occupied for 10months,the FrenchGovernmentwas forced to give a new autonomy statute to the territory in 1977, which gavemore power to the local administration. Francis Sanfordwas first President.Severalnew committeesor the politicalparties,suchasIa Mana TeNunaa, were formed. However,in order to maintain the capacity to keep conducting testseachyear, year after year, the French its Government to dominate the local political scenein had Tahiti.That is why for 35 years the anti-nuclearand proparties could never obtain the necessary autonomy support improve the situation in our country. Instead, to thissupportwas always given to the pro-Gaullist parry of President Flosse, which allowedhim to distribute Gaston amountsof manna, and also to gain votes at significant electiontime. In January 977,soonafter Pouvanaa I had died, a new antiparfy was created- Tavini Huiraatira, whose nuclear leader OscarTemaru.He was young, but he took up the is torch. needed He lots ofcourase to do so.

Thus, together with the longer establishedparties, Tavinl Huiraatira organised new demonstrations and marches around Tahiti, public meetings. Over 20 years, these activities followed each other, growing in numbers over time. With great courage,the Evangelical Church of French Polynesia took a positionin oppositionto the nucleartests. The churchhasnot ceased express to this opposition,and organiseda march around Papeeteto demandthe halting of the lastseries testsin 1995.That was theyearthat the of whole world realised,through the medium of television, that the Maohi people had had enough of nuclear tests conducted at their expense. Thanks to the support ofnumerous people from overseas - politicians,environmentalists, pacifists,ordinary citizens around the world - the French authorities decided to give way, and the last two tests scheduled for 1996 were abandoned. Now that nuclear testing has finished in our islands.It remainsto be seenwhat arethe consequences the future, in and what our destiny will be. That is what we must reflect on in the days to come, together with those that have suffered and are still suffering from these challenges. For decades, Marie-Therese Danielsson has struggled for a nuclearfree Pacific, workingwith disarmamentand women'sorganisationssuch as the Women's International Leaguefor Peace and Freedom. She is co-author with her lqte husband Bengt, of classic books about nuclear testing at Moruroa and Fangataufa such as "l\fioruroa Mon Amour" and "PoisonedReign."

civil societyand the struggle for independence
GabrielTetiarahi Hiti Tau,TeAo Maohi
Before sharing my thoughts with you on independenceand accession to sovereignfyfor my counffy, I,d like to saythanksto Lopeti that we are able to join our country delegation. Thanks alsoto Nui Ben Teriitehau,delegatefor our country colonised by France, for br inging to g e th e r h e re i n T a h i ti delegates from Kanaky, Wallis and Futunaand Te Ao Maohi - it,s a first in the history of the NFIP movement. I would like to saythat it is our privilege to have the opporfunity to speak here, GabrielTetiarahico-ordinator the NGO networkHiti Tau especially our political leaders not of to only Oscar Temaru and Tovini Huiraatira, but to all those We're on the way thereslowly. I'm afraid that we,re a bit who believethat the sole destinyof the Maohi peopleis to like the famousfable from La Fontaine:,,The Tortoiseand join the international community by gaining our political the Hare". The hares run, they talk, but there's only one independence. Charlie Ching,the pomareparty,Ia Mana To tortoise plugging away slowly towards independence_ TeNunaa,l say it's a destinythat we must build together. and that's GastonFlosse.I know that I,m saying things To take up what Marie-Thdrdse Danielssonjust said, we are shocking to many of you, but it's my deepest lhat will talk this week about the challenge before the Maohi belief. After having beenthe greatestopponentofinternal people.What hindersthe Maohi peopleand the victims of autonomy,Flosse is now the greatestpartisan of political colonial history (the French and the polynesiansof independence. too is building the future ofthis country. He Chineseorigin) from achieving their common destiny? BecauseI've travelled a lot and I recognisemany faces here from around the pacific, I often hear that president Gaston Flosse of the anti-independenceparty Tahoeraa Huir aat ir a i s th e g re a te s t o b s ta c l e to pol i ti cal independence.I also hear that the French State, as the colonialpower, is perhaps main constraint. the But I think we aremistakensomewhere it is we ourselves, first of all, who are at fault in not leading our country to its political independence. I think that we, the political organisations othersocial and actors speaking about independence here today, are at fault. I'm sure that the person who will lead us to independence GastonFlosse.I may have surprisedmany is of you. I think that all political organisationstalk about independence, the Territorial Govemmentand Flosse,s but political majority who today lead the territory will take us towardsa new political life in the yearsto come. Bit by bit, we will be endowedwith a Constitution thatwill make the Maohi people a member of the international community. I think also that after a certain period, when Gaston Flosse no longer needs a policy of internal autonomy,that he will agreeto a program of development program for his political parry to achieveindependence. I'm surethat his ultimate goal will be to put a budget for an independentnation before the Territorial Assembly.
Page 20

There remains plenty for us to do together.For my part, I want to talk to you directly, speaking here before Oscar Temaruwith whom we havevoyagedduringthe pastyears. The achievementof political independenceis not the exclusivetask of pro-independence political parties.The construction ofa destiny for our country is not solely the responsibilityof political parties.I know it is difficult to hearthis, for thosewho've actedas sentinels political for moral and ethicalvalues. The C hurches must contri bute to the debat e on constructing our independentnation. The NGOs have alreadybegunto contributeto this dialoguewith political parties on building our cornmon destiny. Without doubt, the biggesteffort for political partieswhich claim to support independence to associateother communities,other is structures,in this reflection on our common destiny _ to give our childrena citizenship, nationality, identityin a an a new nation,which is the Maohi nation. For the moment, once again, the road is long. Too often, the question of representativity is an obstacle. political partieshave electedrepresentatives, because and ofthis people talk as ifthey are representative ofthe struggle for independence. The legitimacy of all civic movemenrs, includingthe churches, building independence given in is by their constituencies their members, by political and not parties.

8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

I believethat the Nuclear Free and Independent'Pacific (NFIP) movement has until now concentratedon the tests. If NFIP has always believed that only nuclear could halt the nuclear tests, it was an error. independence mustbe the beginningof a process ThisNFIP Conference and for all organisationswhich talk in the for this country name this country,whoever they are,whereverthey are, of to buildour pathtogetherto achievepolitical independence to and accession national sovereignty.It is not the role ofpolitical partiesto discussthis. It is the exclusive wholepeoplethat is affected. It is a whole generation of for children whom we're building a future. Is it only through the public institutions, the French that independencewill be gained? That's the structures, that choice the political partieshavemadefor the moment. (It's sadthat it's Flosse abouta boycottof elections? What and not those whotodaytalksofboycotting the elections, whoarechallengingFrancepolitically). is Today, it only through the comfort of the parliamentary that institutions we will accedeto political independence? that Flossecontrolsto I'm not sureofthis. The resources majority are the keys to the door gainhis parliamentary resources thattheLeft in Francehasalwaysgiven to Flosse. Thepoliticalclassin this country, including Flosse'sparty, oftenforgetswhen it is negotiating with the French Left thatformer Socialist Party President Mitterrand was the geatest nuclearcriminal this country has seen.They often

forget that even today, France doesnot acceptits political of responsibilityfor the consequences the nuclear tests on the environmentand the health ofthe local population. I want to know: what do Tavini Huiraatira, the Socialist Party and OverseasTerritories Minister Queyranne talk about every time they meet in Paris? Oscar Temaru and his supportershave enough authority and intelligence to involve other organisations in these discussionswith the French Left and the Government of the Left in France. There'sno possibleconfusionin my head: if the Noumea Accord has recognised the "colonial fact" in Kanaky, I why the questionof nuclearcolonialism don't understand cannot take pride of place in discussionsbetween Zavini Huiraqtira and the Left in France. To finish, I'm a bit afraid that the French saying is true: "While the dogs are barking, the caravanhas passedby". political I' m afraidthatwe areall barking- NGOs, churches, parties- but GastonFlosse'scaravanhas passed. This country will become independent.This is our challenge. Gabriel Tetiarahi is co-ordinator of Hili Tau, a network of Maohi non-governmentorganisations in TeAo Mqohi. He is the former Chairperson of the Pacific Islqnd A ssoci ati on of N on-Government Organisat ions (PIANGO).



t I I


(right) and Maohi participants relax after the NFIP Conference GabrielTetiarahi

8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacifc Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Page 2 I

Relistingwith the uN Decolonisation committee
CharlieChing Tb Thata Tahiti Tiama
When I began Te Taata Tahiti Tiamawiththe objective of independence, peoplethought I was mad. Someyearslater, lots of parties with the aim of independence have grown up like mushrooms,like Tavini Huiraatira,pomare partv. Ia Mana Te Nunaa and others. I,m very happy that they have flourished. I wish that all the population of Tahiti and the islands,men and women, would createpolitical parties for independence. Today,we know that independence not a dream, it's not is utopia, it's a reality. We have seenthat Tavini Huiraatira has gatheredthe greatestproportion ofthose who support independencein Tahiti, but not all! There are some who have remained outside Tavini. This is the work of all pro_ independence activists who began well before us. you know that in the history of this country, when the French wanted to take power there were lots of people who did not want to submit to its colonial rule. Many were killed. They died refusingto submit.Therewas a woman,a eueen, who refused to submit and was beheaded.you can find her skull nthe Musdede L'Homme in paris _ the only skull of a Tahitian in the Museum! I'll briefly speakaboutthe history of ZeTaataTahiti Tiama. When I beganmy electoralcampaign,therewere obstacles everywhere. couldn't go to the outer islands_ no tickets I were issuedto travel. I was obligedto usea falsenameto travel. The man who came with me was oblieed to book urder "Madame", aswe booked asMr. and MrJ! Wherever I went, the police followed. They wantedto know how Mr. Ching could go from place to place. In those days, we didn't have enough Te Taata Tahiti Tiama cards. The mayorswho we challengedmade reports,but I was pleased to seewhat they said. We wanted to speakwith truth and justice for independence. As Gabijust said, I would like for thereto be unity between pro-independence forces.I remember what the late Father WalterLini ofVanuatu told us independence parties:,.Unite yourselves.If you come to us for support, we will support you if you unite". He warned us against the spirit that said: "lt's 'me' not 'us"'. We must unite to gain the goal, which is independence. That is how we will win _ if we gather at the seashoreand push this colonial stateinto the ocean.One person cannot do it alone. But when there are one hundred,one thousand,two thousand.... In this conference, NFIp Movement will be askedto the support a resolution that French polynesia be taken to the United Nationsto be reinscribedon the UN Decolonisation Committeelist of countriesto be decolonised. Last year,I went to New York and found there were 17 countries on the list, but Tahiti wasn't on it. New Caledonia was on the list, becauseit had an agreementwith France.That,s why
Page 22 Charlie Ching (centre)

today the pro-independence forcesin Tahiti are demandins the reinscriptionof Tahiti on the list. At the presenttime, the French judges with their French law and Frenchjustice are chasing Tahitians offthe land. I'm talking here as someoneknowing the judicial code, because many families come to me asking for assistance to fill in forms or redraft their applicationsto lodge beforethe coufts. There is even an ordinance here that allows the FrenchHigh Commissionin polynesiato seizemoneyfrom the backaccount ofa person, orto seizeland in lieu ofthis. I have one casewhere land was bought by three Asians, and one part was resold to the Territory. I copied these papers to send to the Attorney General's office, to the EuropeanUnion, to the UN Human Rights Commission,to show how France treats us in our own home. That is why independence must come as quickly as possible,before ail Tahitians are pushed out onto the reef. pouvanaa always told us: "Rise up! Don't be stubborn.you'll eitherlive on the mountainsor the reef'. Maybe you haven't seenmuch of Tahiti yet. people always talk ofparadise, but have you seena paradisewhere there are handicappedpeople on the street,where people live in squattersettlements? this paradise?No! We need Is independence deal with theseproblems. We must return to this land to the people from which it has been stolen. This way,all Tahitians will havea home. Dear brothers and sisters, your presencehere is very important to us, and your support is important. you have supported us for many years and I hope that this conference will passa resolutionto go the Southpacific Forum and to the UN Committee of 24, so that Tahiti is reinscribedon the list on countriesto be decolonised. I wish you a pleasantstay in our country. We are all cousins, as it's written in the Bible that the three sons of Noah repopulatedthe world. Thank you for your attention. Charlie Ching is a relative of the Metua pouvanaa a Oopa, and one of the earliestpro-independence activists in Tahiti Nui. He was founder of the pro-independence party Te Taata Tahiti Tiama, and was jailed by French authorities in the 1970s.

8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

For a nucl enr free and independentMaohi people
Ihorai, Jacques FranQaise de EgliseEvangdlique Polyndsie President,
Dear friends, conference organisers and participants at this Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific (NFIP) Iaorana and mauruuru roa. Welcome and Conference. thankyou for giving me the time to speakto you, to share our vision for the Pacific as seenfrom French Polynesia. We seeka region free from all nuclear testing - whether French,American or from other countries - and from a formof politics that preventsus from determiningour own affairs. ing The Eglise Evang6lique de Polyn6sie Frangaise (EEPD against nuclear testing that the Evangelical Church ofFrench Polynesia I believe (EEPF)hasnever been consideredas a pro-independence force. That's not to say we haven't had close relations with the local political party Tavini Huiraatira, ever since the Churchcame out in opposition to the French nuclear testsat Moruroa and Fangataufa,and also expressedits to opposition the French Statewhich refusedto recognise forthe Maohi people' lhereoMaohias an official language How can people call me a racist (that is to say a person like non-Maohipeople)when all I've doneis whodoesn't my to defend mothertongue?How too canpeople consider me as a person who doesn't like the French, simply for havingraised my voice against the French nuclear tests' whichthey refusedto conduct in France?Where can one furdthisracism,within myself or my country,sinceall I've done is to worry about the fate of my people in the face of a project which, in the short or long term, threatensto harm our health and environment? How can they reproachme for having shown my desireto live in a nuclear-freecountry,especiallywhen they haven't judged it wise or humane to ask my opinion? I cannot accepta policy, wherever it comes from, which refusesto recognise the existenceof a people, at the same time as deciding to conduct an enterprise in the other person's home. I deplorethe attitude of the French Governmentfor having conducted its nuclear tests at Moruroa and Fangataufathat is to say in my home - without asking my opinion. This is a violation of our human rights. I thereforewant to think of the remarks of the Presidentof the FrenchRepublic. ln the courseof a meetingwith him in Paris,at I L30 in the morning of Thursday21 September 1995, the Presidentpromised us a future without danger for our health and our environment' "Monsieur Ie Prdsident," he told me, "the French State has taken all steps- which no other Statehas ever taken - to necessary guard againstthe releaseof harmful radioactive elements which could harm the health of the Polynesianpeople or their environment." I replied to him: "I hope you are right, Monsieur le


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7 I (hird from left), with NGO and church participants Jacqueslhorai, president of the Egtise Evangdlique de Polyndsie Frangaise 8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tdhiti

Page 23

Prd.sident,as the consequences will be tmly dramatic for my peopleifyou are mistaken."

It's not Francethat I am concernedwith, butthe policies of its government,which will not recognisemy right to exist as part of the Maohi people. My remarks cannot thus be challenged, becausefor more than 200 years the Maohi peoplehas remaineda hospitablepeople,open to others. To maintain the beliefs of the French over thirty years of This is the true wealth of our fenua, our land. It,s not the nuclear testing at Moruroa and Fangataufa, the direct tourism, the pearls, the nono _ it is the feelingsand love of consultationofmilitary archiveswas vital. So why should hospitality, which make foreigners feel thatihey can find the concerns of the Maohi people be satisfied with overseas what they have beenunableto find in their home. discussionamongstthe French? It is through our welcome that thepapaa, or foreigners, can understandthe importance of the land,, ourfenui, and, what it represents for us. It is important that they understandthatthefenua is not something separate from humanbeings.As Maohi, like otherpeopleof the pacific, we are tied to the land. The papaa must understand that the life and the survival of the Maohi people hasnot come from the billions of francs poured over us for all these years. It comesrather from the fenua _ landthat we must cultivate and protect, land that we must control. I say this because during our meeting with the French President, he was astonishedby the connection that we stressedbetween the fenua and our humanity, between thefenua andthe Maohi people. The Secretary_General of our Church, Pastor Ralph Teinaore,remindei the French President the history of creation,and more specifically of that man arose from the earth, fromthefenua. Thirty years on, it seemsthat the nuclear testsat Moruroa and Fangataufa are a closed book, for both the French Stateas well as the local governmentwhich supported the State in its work to fabricate theseweaponsoideath. But That is why the Synod of our Church asked the French Stateand the local political authorities_ more particularly the current Government- to guaranteethat: .

the issue is not over for us. We cannot forget about the base of Moruroa atoll, where there are stiii pits full of radioactivewastes.How can we speak of the ,,post_ nuclear" era when the nucleaminur" lies in wait underneathour feet? How can we turn this page in our history when it is blemishedby fear, by doubtjby Aangert



Access to the military archives covering thirfy years of nuclear testing also be given to independent researchers: A surveillanceand monitoring post be created at the tests sites on Moruroa and Fangataufa, staffed not by the military but by French technicians An epidemiologicalstudy be undertakenon the health of former workers of Moruroa and Fangataufa.

I would like to congratulateand give thanks to the pacific Conference ofChurches (pCC), the CEVAA andthe World Council of Churches(WCC) for their supportof the EEpF. I w^ouldalso like to expressmy deepestgratitude to the Reformed Churches of France, to DEFAP and to the Protestant Federation of France for their approaches to the French Prime Minister, so that ou. r"qurrt, could be heard.I am thinking especiallyofthe seminarheldin paris on 20 February 1999, which included the participation,

Pastorand MadameGodfrey Marcus of Arue parish in Tahiti hoststo the Sth NFIp Conferonce
Page 24

Soutthe ; full of : "postin wait ) in our langer? rearsof r direct should d with

amongst others,ofthe Presidentofthe WCC, Bishop Jabez Bryce,and our Vice PresidentPastorTaaroanuiMaraea. Finally,and in the name of the Synod of our Church, I would equally like to thank our friends John Doom and Bruno Banillot. With fmancialsupportfrom the WCC, they supported sociological study of former workers from the Moruroaand Fangataufa, which lead to the publication of the book Moruroa and Us. Together with the nongovernment network Hiti Tau, we would like to say mauruururoq to otr friends Bruno and John for their commitmentto the struggle for justice, peace and the integrityof creation in French Polynesia and the Pacific. To all thosepresentwho have supportedthe EEPF,please bearwitnessto my profound gratitude. Ifyou aretrying to be free of a political system, ofwhichever kind,which hindersyou from securingand directing your own destiny,you can get to hate the other side - to the pointwhereyou don't want anything to do with them. I thusfind myself today amongstmany countriesand even peoples the Pacific as an enemy. Even France will be of against since it has, for many years, taken charge of me our destiny. I wantto speakabout the Maohi people taking charge of its own destiny.And if I begin by the remarksyou've just heard,it's becausethe papaa would interpret this as an "anti-Westem" attitudeor reaction.I like the Maohi people, to which I am deeply attached,just as I like the French people. love both peoples,like all peoplesof the world, I because they come from the wisdom and love of God the Creator. This God is a God of freedom,who refusesto live with an oppressedpeople or a people that is prevented frommanaging own affairs. its It is in this light that we can understandthe Biblical story ofthe liberationof the people of Israel from Egypt and the meaning Easter.God, who is Love, wants us to be free. of Liberatedfrom fear and from death, the Church ofJesus Clrist - that is to say this community of women and men who acceptJesusChrist as Lord and Master - must carry wordsof liberation and hope to the people amongstwhom theylive.No churchin the world, in the Pacific or in French Polynesia the right to fail in this mission,orthey cannot has truly call themselvesa Church of JesusChrist. TheEgliseEvangdlique de Polyndsie Frangaise (EEPF), if it is really a Church of JesusChrist, must also carry this message liberation amongst the Maohi people. If it of refuses preachthe liberation, the tiamaraa, of its people, to it will be a Church that itself needsto hearthe Word. Thus, I cannotconceive ofa Church that would not support a people they take chargeof their own development.The as Eglise Evangilique de Polyndsie Frangaise (EEPF) is autonomous, that's to say no longer dependenton the Society ofEvangelicalMissions in Paris,which the CEVAA replaced.

For this reason,the EEPF must help its peopleto find their dignity again, and take chargeof their society,politically and economically. It would be a sin againstthe Lord our Father,who wishesus liberatedand free, ifthe Churchwas to hold its tongue faced with the question of the people's liberation. A people that is not free is a people that is suffering. And a people that is suffering is a people that has lost its reason to exist, and its dignity to exist as a people. No people in the world can be proud of itself, if it refusesto take its own affairs in hand. It is like the ownersof a housewho have neither the power nor the right to managethe property themselves. You know best where you are going when you steer the canoe yourself. You cannot govern therefore when you don't have the powersto do so. Is this man or woman really free ifthey cannotgovern their own affairs? And if a people is not free, can it be happy in its life and in its progression into the new world? My dearestwish is that my people, the Maohi people, finds its dignity again and determinesits own affairs. One day its must rediscover its right to exist as a people - why not before the Jubilee inthe vear 2047? I don't believe that the French Statecan refuseus the right to take chargeof ourselves,ifthat is the wish of the Maohi people.As proofofthis, I recall the remarksofthe President of the French Republic during our meeting in Paris on Thursday 2l July 1995. Even before I had the chanceto explain the objective ofour trip to Paris, the Presidentof the French Republic told me: "If it is the wish of all Polynesians gaintheir independence, to well, I'll give it to them. At the time, I told him that we had not cometo that meeting to demandindependence forthe Maohi people,but instead to call on him to rescindhis decisionto resumeFrench nuclear testing in Polynesia - a decision that he stated was irrevocable. The Maohi people must achieve its independence,its freedom to determine its own affairs. Local political leaders and the Churches of French Polynesiamust aid the Maohi people to reclaim its dignity and its future. This is my prayer. "Msuruuru roq" once more to the organisers of this conferencefor giving me the time to speak here. Thank you for allowing me to share the vision of the EEPF, in relation to nuclear issuesin the world, in the Pacific and especially in French Polynesia,but also my hopes for the liberation of my peopleto determineour own futwe, taking control politically and economically of our destiny. Jacqueslhorai is President ofthe Eglise Evangdlique de Polyndsie Franqaise (EEPF). The Evangelical Church is the largest denomination in Te Ao Mqohi (French Polynesia).
Page 25

French cularly

/ years rndent at the :d not health

acific ilorld ]EPF. :othe o the es to ld be Paris rtion,


8th Nuclear Free and Independen! Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Upholdingthe treaty
JoinvillePomare Pomare Parfy
Welcometo all you, delegatesfrom all over the world: the Pacific,Europe,United States and Asia. I am from the Royal family, the Pomare family who were the monarchs of this country. My ancestorswere the first who fought against the colonial systemin this country from I g42 to I gg0, In 1880, my ancestorssigned the Annexation Act with the French Government. But I have to tell you that in that Annexation Act, in that Treaty, it was stipulated that the FrenchGovernmentwill respectthe propertiesofthe Maohi people and also the rules that existed in this country from 1842 to the 1880s. But we all know that the French Govemment from that year till now never respectedall the provisions that were stipulated in the Annexation Act. That'swhy today we have so many problems.We are talking about land problems, our sovereigntyand independence. Ii has been explained to all ofyou, what has happened from that time up until now: we have beenthroughthe humiliation ofthe killing ofour people and have beenthrough different stafus for our country. We also know that everywhere throughout the world, the colonial systemalways goes that way. Today,we must talk about EastTimor. I also want to convey all my respect to all ofthe parents,families and all ofthe people who died in the struggle for their freedom, for their sovereignty, for the independence their country. of I don't want to tell you today what we have done. We have done a lot. We have beenthrough the fight to keep our land and through different sorts of demonstrations in this country. We all know what we have done. As Tamana has said, we have to find out ways on how to get united, to get our freedom and Independenceand also I eonvey this message the church people who are presenthere to ioday. We have to find out different ways, different means to set united with the Church people and to access the freedJm to and sovereignty of this country. My last messagewould be for all the Maohi people, the Church people, and different political organisationi to get united for our nation, for the Maohi Nition. To get this country free, we are also looking for your support from all ofyou, the delegates, from all over the pacific, to help us to get our country free and sovereign.To all delegates from all over the Pacific, I wish you a good stay in this country, in Tahiti. I wish you a very successfulConference.Thanks to all ofyou. Joinville Pomare is a descendant of the royal house of Pomare, which ruled in Tahiti at the timi of Franceis annexation. He has been active in community struggles over land and culture for the Maohi people.
Page 26

Closing speech on French Polynesia
Emile Vernaudon FrenchNationalAssemblv

polynesia the Deputyfor French in

Speakingin my own personalbapacity,first ofall I would like to give you my fraternal greetings and to thank you for the opportunity to speakto you today. During the week you have reflected on such fundamental issues as the right to self-determination for pacific countries, denuclearisation,human rights and other issues. Before completing the work o] th" S" NpIp Conference with the adoption of many resolutions and actionplans,I would like to assure you ofmy total support for the struggle in which you are engageO. We cannot forget the sad consequencesof the events that Frenchpolynesia lived through, following the month of June 1995 when the president of th" pr"n.it Republic JacquesChirac decided to resume nuclear tests at Fangataufa,which his predecessorFrangois Mitterrand had suspendedindefinitely. This unexplained,evenpigheaded,decision by president Chirac plunged the Maohi people into division and conflict. In spite of numeroussolemn appealsto him, he remaineddeafto our concerns. Today, who can guaranteeto us that the nuclear tests were safe? How can we be certain that the nuclear test sites will not releaseany radioactivity? How can we remain calm when we are powerless before natural disasters,which every day are more and more frequent, and more and more powerful? Today, these calamitiesrepresenta permanentthreat to our planet and our atolls. For this reason,a few weeksago in the Frenchparliament I took the oppornrnityto officially askaboutthe possibility of opening the archives of the French nuclear tests in FrenchPolynesia.The purposeofthis is so that the French governmentcan throw all possible light on a subject that has remainedtaboo for more than three decades.

There are three considerations that have led to this desire to lift the cover of ,,National security": r r a concern for the Republic,s honesty towards we Polynesians a concern for transparencywhich distineuishes moderndemocracies from totalitarianregime-s

9th Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

r the
would k you

rental rcific rther .iFIP and )port

ents rnth blic
i at

Fromleft: Akilisi Pohiva(Tonga), Hiro Tefaarere oscar Temaru and (TaviniHuiraatira), Motarilavoa Hilda Lini Emile Vernaudon (Deputyto the FrenchNationalassembtyy l"i""iri" pomare (pomarepartv) ,



theprecautionary principle relating to issuesofhealth andthe safetyofthe food chain.

"'nt nd he

All of us here really want to know the truth, the whole truth,aboutthesethings that happened in our history. I willnot fail to keepyou informed about the reply that the French State givesto my demand. Youhavealsoshownyour desire to intensiry the struggle against colonialismand for the independenceof French Polynesia. this end, I have had the opportunity to share To mypolitical visionon this issuewith the presidentof Tavini Huiraatira.salute I him for the openingof political dialogue withtheFrench Secretary Statefor Overseas of Territories, a dialogue that has been re-establishedin very difficult times. Dear friends, independence Frenchpolynesiais not a for matter menbut of divinewill. We arebut His instruments, for andthatis the reasonthat we must prepare ourselvesfor independence because will come upon us soonerthan it anyone thinkspossible.

in the French National Assembly. During my speech, I strongly denounced,at length, the abusesofihe current PresidentofFrench polynesia.This interventionhad the effect of making the highestauthoritiesofthe French State aware of the urgency of re-establishing justice in this country in order to maintaina lastingsocialpeace. Furthermore,all the legal and electoral reforms that I proposedto the national government could lead us in the short term - that's to say in 2O0l _to a radical change of the political face and the institutions of our country. lt is then that we can make a real contribution to the .,Ip,, of "NFIP" - the creation of an independentpacific. I want to say to you that France will not be opposed to independence the people demand it in a democratic if manner. The globalisation of the economy and international relationschallenges to learn how we can live tosether us in spite of our cultural ditTerences. SamuelHuntiigton, As an eminentprofessorfrom Harvard University, hasnoted: "From now on, people are regrouping because of their culturalaffurities.political barrierscount lessthanreligious, ethnic and intellectualones".



It is in this vein that I make my presentationtoday. My political activityis basedon a strategicvision that arises fromthe localpolitical context,which we denounce and deplore: do not want to live under the dictatorship of It is for "We this reasonthat I wish that all the countries of the thecurrent political system, put in place by one man,. Pacific representedhere today should draw together to copewith the challenges ofthe new millennium, in the face It isthislocalneo-colonialism I havedecidedto fight, of that turmoil, uncertainty and the unknown. I thank you for this political system which destroys the soul and the your attention. conscience ofthe Maohi peopleand which makesthe rich richer thepoor poorer. and Emile Vernaudon is a member of the French Nationql Assembly, representing French polynesia. He is leader of It isforthisreason that I havemadethe strugglein my own the political party Ai'a Api, and serves as Mavor of country priority. I madea forceful intervention last October Mahina a in Tahiti.
8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page 27

ThemeTwo; Thestruggle-forself-determination independence and in the Pacific in the newMillennium
Keynoteaddress decolonisation: on

What future for the united Nationsdecolonisation process?
Dr. Carlyle Corbin, VirginIslands US
I wish to begin by thanking my good fliend and brother purview of the international community. Lopeti Senituli and the membersof the pacific Concerns Resource Centre for the kind invitation to come ro Specifically, Article 73 of the UN Chartercommittedthe participatein theseproceedings, and to contributesome international community to the recognition that the t h o u g h ts o n th e fu tu re o f the U ni ted N ati ons interests of the inhabitants of those territories are decolonisation process.Perhapsit is because have had paramount. I The UN also accepted,,asa sacredtrust the considerableexperiencewith the United Nations in obligationto promoteto the utmost... well beingofthe the representing ofthe non-self-governing one beforethe LtN inhabitants." To that end, they accepteda series of DecolonisationCommittee over the last 20 years that I commitments,specified in the Article, including the have beenaskedto provide some insightson this subject political, economic,social and educational advancemenr from the perspective a representative a tenitory. as of of the peoples thoseterritories, development selfof the of govemmentandthe regulartransmission the Secretary_ to You can seethat I wear many hatsat diffbrent times. Today Generalfor informationpurposes...,' the hat I wear is my own, as a universitylecturerand what the LIN has deemedme over the last ten years or so - a The 'sacred trust' created the Charterin relationto non_ in regionalexpeft on decolonisation and self-determination self-governing territoriesis similar to that of ChapterXII issues. views do not necessarily My represent position which created International the the Trusteeship System, which of any government, organisation universitywith which hadthe identicalaims,according Article or to 76 ofthe Charter, I am associated, althoughmy views are derivedflom 20 of "promot(ing) the political, economic and educational yearsof experience representing govemment a non- advancement the in a of of inhabitants."It went further to refer to self-governing territory as well as the non-governmental the promotion of "progressivedevelopment toward self_ association which I founded,the tIN Associationof the government independence may or as be appropriate the to VirgurIslands. particularcircumstances eachterritory and its peoples of and the fieely expressed wishesofthe peoplesconcerned, The genesis of the United Nations mandate and as may be provided by the tems of the trusteeship agreement."S ubsequent resol uti onsof t he G ener al A ny d i s c u s s i o n o f th e fu tu re of the U N rol e i n Assembly specifying the UN's mandateto similarly decolonisationshould begin with a short review of the promote " sel f-determi nati on and / including legislativemandateof the tN in decolonisation, role independence" the broughtthe intentionsofChaptersXI and that the UN has played in the past, and the changing XII closerin their aims. dynamicsof the LIN processin a post Cold War era. Theseexpressions was formalisedby the enumeration in The genesisof the mandateof the relationshiobetween 1946of some72 territoriesscattered throughout world the t he U n i te d N a ti o n s (U N ) a n d th e non-sel f-governi ng underthe eightadministering powersofAustralia, Belgium, territories contained several is in articles ofthe UN Charter, Denmark,France,the Netherlands, New Zealand, United particularlyArticle 1, paragraphs and 55, which gives Kingdom and the United Statesthrough the 2 adoption of important references theprinciple self-determination LIN General to of Assembly Resolution ( I ) of I 946.This marked 66 of peoples:"while a further three chapters (Chapters the begi nni ng of a pl ethora of r esolut ions on XI, XII and XIII) are devotedto the questionof dependent decolonisation- often repetitive by necessity since the t er r i to ri e s ,to th e e s ta b l i s h me nt the Internati onal mechanisms of for implementation this day have never to Trusteeship Systemand to the creationof a supervisory real l y been devi sed,especi al l yfor t he sm all island body,the Trusteeship Council, which as a principle organ territories. ofthe LIN wasentrusted with the responsibilify with regard t o th o s e te rri to ri e s p l a c e d u n d er the Internati onal Sincethe inscriptionof territorieson the original list, the Trusteeship System." Indeed, adoption Chapter the L,rN role in decolonisation be dividedinto threeperiods: of Xl can of the Charter,entitled DeclarationRegarding Non-Self- l) theperiod between 1946and1960, GovemingTerritories wasa major landmark bringingthe 2) the peri od fol l ow i ng the adoption of t he 1960 in administration non-self-governing of territories Decolonisation withinthe Declaration, and
Page 28 Sth Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific ConJerence,Arue, Tahiti

et n

the UN 3) thepost-ColdWar period and implications for decolonisation Process' 1) The pre-Decolonisation 1946 - 1960 Declaration period

ittedthe that the ries are trustthe ngofthe eriesof ling the [cement t ofselficretary-

Thisfrrstperiodconsistedof 14 yearsbetweenthe original and the inscriptionof non-self-governing territories Declaration'These the 1960 Decolonisation of adoption the intuveningyearswere marked by progressin defining for parameters the UN role in decolonisation' operationa-i butalsoby a reluctanceon the part of most administering powen to adhereto the decisions taken by the General that: in Asembly.It wasnoted by the UN Secretariat 1990 the "In spiteof th(e) provision(s of the UN Charter) (toward selfprogt.tt of Non-Seif-Governing Territories in and) independence the period prior to the detJrmination o f th e (D e c o l o n i s a ti o n ) D ecl arati on adopt io n during the early yearsof the UN' many of was...slo*...and as the its efforts were directed at establishing its role of guardian colonial peoples'Only in the 1950s principle ptintiple become established,though againstthe Oia*re ofihe administeringPowers,that it was for the opposition a given tinlt.O Nutions to decide ultimately whether meaning wasor wasnot self-governingwithin the Tenitory XI ChaPter of the Charter'" of of its the to In anattempt address issueof implementation adopted resolutioni,the General Assembly in 1949 334 0V) which expressedits competenceto Resolution whetheror not a territory was considerednondetermine accordingto ChapterXI ofthe UN Charter' self-governing

\' \


N \
Dr' Carlyle uorDln Keynote speaker Dr. CarlyleCorbin

I to nonpterXII r, which Charter, cational referto rudselfteto the peoples Lcerned, ;teeship ieneral milarly lu d in g XI and

on depends or metropolitan anyothercountryessentially the time of the will the freelyexpressed of the peopleat takingof the decision.

ationin e world elgium, United rtionof marked Ins on ncethe ) never island

in the Consider(ing).'.that manner whichterritories 6. fully can XI refenedto in Chapter of the Charter become of th9--qttei4.grelr-t is Thiswasfollowed by the adoption in 1953 of Resolution self-governing prirnarily.through.selfinto it indelendenci,afttrougtr is recognised.that 742 NIII) entitled "Factors that should be taken can gov-einmeni also be achievedby 'assgclat-ro!-ld$ in decldingwhether a tenitory is or is not a territory aiilunt if stateor groupof state-s this is done$ecfuand havenot yet attaineda full measureof selfpeople another whose added)' (the referenceto 'full measure'will become on:ih" borr, i!:glt!g:9!Sti4l' "'(emphasis goua*t.nt" ".f models)' in i"mportant later interpretationsof dependency by This recognition the GeneralAssemblyof lglli-cal option was an important the as 742was perhaps mggliqliqrtant'resolution "association" a legitimate Resolution indicative of preEquisiteto the evolution of the "ftggiuisiocialicrn" to thatpoint as it approved a list offactors models conceftin Resolution whichis thecqglterpart 15,4-! -l-960 of of independglce or other-separate the attainment 4)' Declaration{ResofutionlsJ l-nd established bllic =qIgq-qgrds to the-!96QD,csalonisation of self-government, Important Evenln-theseearly years,the legitimacyof suchan relativeto the self-determinationprocess' to by was association to be determined its 4dherence of elements the resolution included: pqltr99l,9qllllitv*e.!d-lttl+tUe!,9911ent'
*...3. Recommend(ing) the"'list of factors should be that the GeneralAssembly and the Administering usedby as Members a guide in determiningwhether any tenitory in changes its constitutionalstatus,is or is no longer dueto ,tt. icope of Chapter XI of the Charter, in order *irt in may be taken by the GeneralAssembly on decision that...a of the continuationor cessation of the transmission requiredby ChapterXI of the Charter"' information

Assembly' bytheGeneral decisions of In recognition these and reactionto such and th-emetropolitanresponse in the decisions, ieriod of l9461hrough1959resulted selt -&orgggt g si gni fi cant deveI opment s. Elgl!1p!,ame' telitorie-sbecamgil4gp-eqd9-[i6ir1!elbi!-time-fr on of transmission information an additional Meanwhile, territorieswas discontinued 2l non-self-governing such in. resolutions, cases Assembly to pursuant G-eneral Antilles and the as PuertoRico, Greenland, Netherlands
Page 29

tist, the reriods: : 1 96 0

of Consider(ing)that the validity of any form 5. and a betweena non-self-govemingterritory association

Conference' Arue' Tahiti 8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific

Suriname, Alaska and Hawai,i; or by unilateral action in other casessuch as the French t.rit";, ; the pacific and the French departments in the Caribbeanand Indian Ocean, without the consent of the General Assembly. Additional unilateral action was taken inrespect of the removal of Malta from ,1" UN list by the Unii"O Xngao. (althoughit was re_inscribed gSSi;din in f tf,e ofm" United States which ceased "as" to.rporfon tt, funama Canal Zone.

A mosrimporrant provision Resolution of 1514(XV) is that"immediate steps shallbetaken._;;;rl. powers to thepeopres thoseterritories of "ll *ith"rt ;; conditions or reservations, accordance in with their freeiyexpressed will anddesire." This provisionseems ie ignorea to in most instances, appears and inconsistent wiitr unitaterat application ofadministeiing lower lawstomostterritories.

of the General Rssembly that fear which considereda Report of the Secre"ry_C."i*l on the progressof self-determination, in accordance with Chapter XI of the Charter, and concludea ,f," p."g."rs laa Alen short of the needsof the people of the teriitories. Thus, two major decisionswere taken by the tIN General Assembly.The first was the adoption oinesotution rsr+ (XV), which declared,inter alii,that,,all pffis have a right to self-determination (and) by virtue oi,hJr.igf,, ,1,.y (should) freely determine their potiticat stafusanOfteety pursuetheir economic,social and cultural a.*iopr"nt.,,
Page 30

the General-ass"mUty ieit in uaopt"O I 654(XVr)establishing sf..iuico.ritt., the TY*i": on D.ecolonisation The new inscriptionswere preceded (which bega; its uiort in t962) to by heightened political establish mechanism examine a to among theapplication the counli., T" I and 1,:::rt"r: .developing implementation of Ironts,and in particular, th. Oecl'aration. eO:, "rru* "r on issueof poiiti.ut ,"ff- a preliminary theDecolonisation Ur, list ofterritori", *ur r"t"ur.Jiii.i Of speciar wastheBadung note in"ua"a Conference some territories 1.r::1":1. 64 _reduced rn 1955, which included its nnut.o*rnu-ni-que fromtheoriginuilii.rrito.i", in strong listedin 1946.Accordingly, supportfor the self-determination berweei lsii;iis84, procesr.if,i, *u, some 25 Africannon-self-soverning followedby the First Conference territorl.r,foi,, ari*, t: ,f il;;pJ;nt Aftican Caribbean, Euripean one States in Ghana I 95g. held and eight pacific territories in achieved independencl. Additionally, some territories ten eitherbecame integrated associatid?***.""rn,r This Conference or declared a ,,definite that rfr" dateshouldbe same period. set"for theprocess decolonisatiorriol. of in each n-on-self-governing "orpleted territory,,io u"co.:oince the with By 1990, only l g remained, majority will of thepeople tnetenitori;, the of ofwhichweresmall of islandterritoriesin the theCharter ofthe UnitedNari""r.,,i;"""J;;ovisions Caribbean una"pu-.in", a;;# Conference differing unAr. constitutional of Independent arrangements, #*ni.h met_ AfricanStat.r,rn".rlnginiihilpia in r eoo, do theypresently "oi" reaffirmed declarations r"solitionr-o'irrrc meet_therequirements full the and 1or of self_ Badung government defined as and Ghanaconferences, coincided by Resolution l54l (XV). They and with the year of wereperceived generally notbeinginterested theindependence somel6 African as of _nor being states. prepared theywereinterested if - i" i"a"p."Oence.This rationale began beusedin ,.."nt yr*r-iTun to The Decolonisation Declaration un"_Or,o and parameters justify the present non_serf_gov.;1;;;;;;;ements for self-determination as -was somehow acceptable because there no perceived popularexpression the peopl. of Thesecond foiina"rp.ndence. periodto whichI refer_following theadoption Attempts rationalise-this to thinkingu..rtrrutl-a following of the Decolonisation Declaration ;;;;;.d _ by the the independence Namiuia,wr,En of independence li;;; ofthese16African,oresh i Sj6',lrur.r"ur"O most clearthat of the remaining territorieswere small island a newmomentum within the tIN system thepromotion developing in countries *ith p..rurulrv i*i"j ofself-determination. resources This found and capacity statehood fu;.rd;; ffi'#i, for Committee
dependencies, Vac-ao, and Timor).

Porfuguese territories oI9up. V..J., Cuin.ulro**u.r" Guineal, Tome rrincipe, Sao and S;";oJ;iu o. o1uau, on the approvalof thesetwo Angota (incrudine Cabinda), landmark M;;;;;;, cou unO l"_t]:yj"* resolutions,

Theother majordecision in.l960 wastheapproval the by General Assembly Resorutron (XV). While no territorieswere added of l54l Thisresolution in this period beforethe established defined options and establishment the Decolonisatio" the of oIi"j"p*O*ce, free a;;;in". in 1961, association and intesration the ttrree additional territories were inscribed as f"if"*irgilr" creation choices that weredeimedlegitimate fotitical status th.e committee (The Generai;il;i; unaJJnt.*utionut :f approved principles andconsistr with the relevant Resolution 1542 of 1960, for ent provisions *"rnpf., *i^if, listed the the of Charter.

Thisleads to thethirdperiod_ us The post-Cold War period and decolonisation disengagement The fact that Namibiawas the last African territory (excluding South Africa)roanaintull,.il;;;;*_ent _in this case, independence 1990_** u in ,iE"iricant ractor in policy assessment the part on of tIN membersrates. This process reviewwasseen of within the contextthat theendoftheColdWarhad signaled *;;;";;"togical
Conferen"r, ffi

8th Nuclear Free and Independentpacific

W) is

litions :essed red in ateral lories. ly the lution

Itatus ;ional ns of

St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia and to St. Vincent,) with similar features that of the New Zealandmodel, but without sufficient autonomy to meet the requirements of free associationin Resolution 1541. This was due to the power of the British Government to determineunilaterally mattersrelatedto defenseand externalaffairs, thus giving the cosmopole "unlimited freedom of action to legislate for the Associated Statesin a variety of cfucumstances." The real i ti es of pow er under t his arrangementmade it clear that such an Franqaise) associationcould not be consistentwith Ralph Teinaore (Eglise Evangdlique de Polyndsie 6 with Ceu Brites (East Timor Relief Association) theprinciple ofmutual consent.lna 197 integration,this Therewas an unfortunatetendency,all too often, study on the legal problems of Caribbean rivalries. point was further illustrated in n'6ting that: "It was clear to link decolonisationand self-determination with ofpowerbythe United ratherthan to assess that therewasno fnal abandonment considerations, East-West ideological from which derive the in thecircumstances theseterritoriesfrom a non-ideological Kingdom; the basic competence grantedto the Associated Statesremains in (e.g. perspective viewing theseconstitutionallydeveloping competencies tenitorieswithin the same context as other developing the hands of Great Britain and (she) could at any time, of withdrawthe delegation power'.." countries that emerged from a successful UN process). decolonisation Accordingto the samestudy,"the United Kingdom (could Theideaof self-determinationfor the remaining small island even within the scopeof thesedelegatedpowers) prevent the Associated States from actually exercising these tenitorieswas seen,therefore, with less urgency than in powers if it appearedthere was any conflict betweenthe Ideologicalrivalries had abated,and a prevailing thepast. view wasthat the people ofthe territories had expressed actions or proposals of the Associated Statesand the or no interestin independence an assumption which was intemationalcommitments,responsibilities policy of the States)will accept British Government...(theAssociated to translated mean that they were satisfiedwith somehow such the statusquo, and that, anyway, these territories were the decision of Her Majesty's Government in matters." too smallto be sustainablesovereign states. the Hence, debateon political alternativesfor thesesmall Accordingly, the General Assembly in Resolution 2357 islandtenitories shifted from independence,which had rejected the British argument that the West Indies beena prefened choice by many African, Caribbeanand AssociatedStatesconstitutedtrue free associationwithin the letter and spirit of Resolution I 541. As noted ina 1979 Pacificstates,to the options of free associationor as integration defined in Resolution 1541. This was an article on the issuein the Virginia Journal of International re posture on the surface, given the fact that L aw, thearrangements gardingthe separationof powers acceptable and authority betweenthe United Kingdom and the West associationand integration models existed in successful both the Caribbeanand Pacific where most of the small Indies Associated Stateswere more than sufficient to conclude that the statuswas not acceptableas a form of island territories remained' In the Caribbean, the An Net her la n d s ti l l e s (i n c l u d i n g Aru ba) achi eved true free association. in association 195I as one ofthe three countrieswithin the while Aruba in 1986achieved Another exampleofthe creationof a evenlessautonomous ofthe Netherlands, Kingdom associationthan that of the West Indies AssociatedStates its own statusapart. In the Pacific, the Cook Islands in 1965 and Niue in 1974 achieved free association was that of Puerto Rico. with New Zealand,and most recently, the anangements States Micronesia,Marshall IslandsandPalau The US controlled territory was originally conceivedas a of Federated with the United States. In some self-governingmodel of free associationas a result of in free association however, other political associationswere constitutional changes in 1952, initially sufficient to instances, which did not necessarilyconform to the required convince the General Assembly to approve Resolution created 748 of 1953removing the territory from the UN list. Since underResolution1541. levelof autonomy the de-inscription of Puerto Rico took place some seven with the collapse of the West Indies years prior to the definition offree associationapproved In the Caribbean, in Federation 1962, an associatedstate arrangementwas by the Assembly in 1960, it is arguedthat Puerto Rico for created five small islandterritories(Antigua, Dominica, should be re-inscribedsince the territory did not havetrue
8th Nuclear Free and lndependent Pacific Conference' Arue, Tahiti Page 3 I

nark rpted ilttee Z) to d the 963, uded cries ome t, 1 3 rries lries r the

mall tder 1et ielfhey )ing fhis It tO ia s ved rce. ing hat md ces

)ry in lor es.
lat :AI

autonomy.Attempts to initiate this re_inscription, however, have beenmet with repeateddefeat ou..,fr" y".s, based on political ratherthan legal considerations. But asrecently as 1996,eventhe US Colgress in legislation_ calling for a status referendum for puerto nico in l99g _ formally recognisedthe relevance ofthe International Decade for the EradicationofColonialism to puerto Ri.o in io nnaingr. The US Congress listed the options for the proposeO Puerto Rico referendumas identlal to thosein Resolution 1541 (XV). In the process, it declared the present commonwealth statusas non_self-governing, but did not advocatethe reJisting of puerto R[o. Evolution of decolonisation resolutions

smallislands scattered around pacific Ocean the the and Caribbean Thus,theperiod Sea. lgg0through tSSS founa disturbing trends emerging. a) One suchtrendwas the consolidation of individual resolutions oneomnibus into resolution almost that caused deletion ofany reference speciirc to lh:J"j:l in rnqlvrduat territories favourofa general "onaition, in setofprinciples applicable all territories. to Thiswi ,u"..rrfulty aefeated by someDecolonisation Committe".".b..r, and by statements one territorial government of whose representative addressed Committee this issue. the on

b) A second disturbing rrendduring tgg} _ lggswasthe tendency ignoreimplementatilnof to decoionisation This ongoing re-evaluationprocess by United Nations resolutions. waspointed It out that it is onethingto have member states of the LIN role in the self_determination excellent language a resolution, it i, quit" in and processhas resulted in the scaling another back of longstanding to actuallyhavesome of that language actedupon in commitments contained in previous General Assembly conformitywith the resolution, unOIrut many of the resolutions.Recommendations for,,a timetablefor the free prescriptions for a successful self-determination process exercise by the people of the territories of their right to already existin resolutions oftle Assembfy *Jii. various self-determination,"for example,were replaced with more plansof actionapproved over the years'(bu, generalisedrecommendations. iuu. gon" un-implemented).
One of the key administrative decisions with respect to resolutionson decolonisation a result as of the post Cold War review was to consolidate the individual resolutions on the small island territories into one omnibusresolution. This new procedurecameas a result of intensediscussions in an open-ended working group createdin I 990 to review the role and functioning ofihe Special Committee, streamlining and consolidating resolutions and other documents,and reviewing the method of work of the ggmmittee, its agendaand list of territories. Accordingly, th^is "review" precipitatedthe eliminationbeginning m 1995 of language-which had previously ,,.rit.ru(.d1it at it was the responsibilify of the administeringpower toireate suctr conditions in the territories as will their people to "*Ut. exercise freely and without interference their inalienable right to self-determinationand independence.,, This omission raised the question as to whether this was no longer a responsibility of the administering powers concerned. A shift in approach to decolonisation The year 1995 marked a fundamental change in the approach of the Special Committee in undertaking its m andat e. T h i s c h a n g e w a s e v i d e n t i n di pl omati c maneuvering beginning in 1990,paradoxicallythe same year that the General Assembly .o.r.rno.uted the Anniversary of the Decoionisation Declaration, ]nim.ef Notwithstanding the specific elements called for in the plan ofaction ofthe International Decadeforthe Eradication of Colonialism,the SpecialCommitteecame underheavy political and budgetaryassault.This was due to budgetary constraints within the IJN systemin general,and a growing view that decolonisationwas no longer an issue worthy of intenseconsideration- after all, *. *rrc only a bunch of
Page 32

It is importantto notethat implementing language has always beenleft out of decolonisation r"rltutioor, *tit. resolutions otherareas, in leading anabsence to offollow_ up' A case pointis theprovision in contained resorutions in adopted since l99l which,.request(s)ihe Speciat Committee...to recommend the deneraiessemUty to ttre m^ost suitable steps be takento enable populations to the of those territoriesto exercisetheir rigit to self_ determination independence to.efo-.t and and ttre.eon to the Assembly...at next session.,, records its UN showno reportsevermadeon such,,suitable steps,,. Ad-ditionally, provisions assistance territories on to in political education, dissemination informationon of decolonisation theterritories, educationai to and assistance hlve be_en un-implemented few left _and member states .all of the Committee question the fact that the recommendations had beenroutinely that adopted have beeness-entially ignored. general In t...i it ir'"rear that the level of discussion decolonisation on within the UN system had been effectively downgraded, and longstanding language resolutionJ in huu" U".n systematically removed- as if certainprovisionswhich appliedto the territoriessince 1946 wereno longer applicable. In short,the lack of implementation of theseapproved prescriptions serves impedethe process, to and creates certainvulnerabilities. statemeni one A of Caribbean representative the l99g seminar to ofthis Committee held in Nadi observed that:

":... it is clearthat we are no longer experiencing a decolonisatio r oces butratheru ai"otoniruiion np s, And the challenge whetherwe can avert "rrsri. is th; disaster

8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Conferencq Arue, Tahui

rdthe bund

idual tused rns in iples lated

10 s e

sthe rtion
lave rther nin 'the cess ious ,one

has like )wons rial the 0ns rlflt o no

Chamono delegates from Guam and the USA (from left)

NoritaCharfauros (NasionChamoru); Rufo Lujan (OPIR)and Joseph Leon (NativeAmericaCalting)

1n on rce tes he rve rat ]N nd en ch ;er

whichawaits while threatsof abolishingthe committee us, andunilateral removalofterritories from the UN list swirl around A proactiveapproachis the only way forward, us. rather thanthe defensiveposture that the Commiftee has takenin recentyears in its over-emphasison achieving consensus when that consensusdoes not accurately even reflect reality.Accordingly, a revised plan of action for the self-determination should be initiated, since the present one neverallowedto begin. But the revised plan must was bereflective the people of the territories themselves." of

effective means of promoting the progress of the peoplesof thoseterritories. The creationofmore opportunitiesforthe populations of the territories to speakfor themselvesand to make their views on the issuesat stake by inviting them to address SpecialCommittee. the The fostering of greater awarenessof the selfdetermination process in the territories and of worldwide information prograrnmesto enhancethe political educationofthe inhabitantsofthe remainins territories The transfer of all powers to the peoples of the respective territories without any conditions or reservationsuntil the peoples concerned had the opportuni ty to exerci se freel y thei r right s in accordance with the (Decolonisation) Declaration. Greatermembershipand participation of territories in subregional,regional and internationalorganisations. Observer status for the territories in the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the General Assembly. The protectionofrights ofindigenous peoplein nonself-govemingterritories to self-determination. . The emphasisthat proposals for new models in decolonisationshould comply with the principles containedin GeneralAssembly Resolution 1541(XV)
Page 33

Recommendations the people of
At thisjuncture, a number of these recommendationsof thevarious seminars UN from 1990through I 999 areworthy of mention,firstly, as their detail and specificity have replaced more generalisedand weaker resolutions of the the General Assembly of recent years, and secondly, because they represent,by and large, the views of the peoples the tenitoriesthemselves. of A fewexamples include: The importanceof a fair and unbiased political education the peoplesin the territories concerned, for and the intensification of the dissemination of information on decolonisation (from the United Nations)with a view to raising the awareness the of people abouttheir political rights andoptionsavailable to themin determiningtheir future status Theimportance direct and closerparticipationof of thetenitories in the work of the United Nations as an

ed es
ln ld

a s.

8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacrfic Conference, Arue, Tahiti

The establishment an expert group comprisedof of representatives the people of the territoriesto of represent interests articulate needs the and the oftheir territories and, to that end, to advise the (Special) Committeeandthe Secretary-General mechanisms on for a successful completionto the decolonisation process. The importanceof the completionof a Report of the Secretary-General the implementationof UN on resolutionson decolonisation.

Theserecommendations ofthe regionalseminars fbrm quite a comprehensi ve i cy statementwit h r espect pol t he successful completionof the decolonisation process. The fact that they emanateprimarily from the people of the territoriesthemselves especiallycritical. is In the 1998seminar Fiji, participants in acknowledged that: I Implementationofthe(Decolonisation)Declaration contained Resolution in l5l4 (XV) is not yet complete as long as there remainsnon-self_governingterritories that still haveto exercise their right to self_determination;

T h e c o n ti n u a ti o n o f th e S peci al C ommi ttee on 2. In the processof decol oni sat ion, her e is t no Decolonisation aftertheyear2000, in orderto provide alternative to the principle of self_determination, which is international oversight those for rema ing teriitories. also a fundamental human in right, in accordancewith the Charterofthe United Nations,and asenunciated in General The recognition of the right of the peoples of the A ssembl y resol uti ons;. .. territories complete jurisdictionoverthe disposition to of the land and ocean-based resources. 7. All availableoptionsfor self_determination valid are as long asthey are in accordance with the lleely expressed The reaffirmationofthe validity ofall availableoptions wishes of the peoplesconcernedand in conformity with for self-determination long asthey are in accordance the as clearly defined principles contained in General with the clearly expressed wishes of the peoples Assemblyresolutions (XV) t5l4 and l54l (XV); theissue concerned and in conformity with the clearlydefined of devolution of power to the electedgovemmentsof the principlescontained GeneralAssemblyresolutions terri tori es in i s a key el ement i n the t r ansit ion f r om 1514(XV) and 1541(XV) and the requirement a dependency of to full self-government; l e g i ti m a tec to f s e l f-d e te rm inati on. a T h e c o n c e rn re g a rd i n g di ffi cul ti es i n the implementation the relevantprovision of the plan of o f Ac ti o n o f th e In te rn a ti o nal D ecade for the Eradication Colonialism) of which callsfor periodic analyses ofthe progress and extentof implementation of the (Decolonisation)Declarationand calls upon the SpecialCommitteeto frnd alternative waysfor the implementation thatprovision. of The needfor an extensivestudy to be undertaken on the economic, social, andconstitutional conditions rn eachof the remaining territories. 8. The views ofthe peoplesofthe non_self_governing territories should be ascertained through legitimateacts of self-determination underthe superviiion of th" Unit.d N ati ons;... I 1. A report on the implementation decolonisation of resolutions sincethe approvalofthe International decade for the Eradicationof Colonialismshouldbe prepared by the UnitedNations; 12. The decolonisation period is not over but rather requiresuniqueremediesin protectingthe inalienable rights ofthe peopleofthe non-self-governing territoriesand, in particular, thosesmallislandtenitorieswhich requirespecial consideration a result of the lulnerabilities that as thev sharewith othersmall islanddevelopingcountries in tfreir regi ons; 13. While the international communitymust remain flexible in its approach assisting non_self_governing to the terri tori es i n thei r consti tuti onaladvancem ent . anv dependency model s w hi ch have not achieveda f uil measure self-government of basedon the principlesof equality, in conformity with the acceptible choices containedin GeneralAssemblyresolution154I (XV) should not be considered fully self-governing order to in avoi d l egi ti mi zi ng the current non_r "11_gover ning arrangements; 14. The United Nations,in cooperation with regional organisations, shouldfacilitatecompletionof the several studiesand analyses calledfor in the plan ofaction ofthe

Siene Manoufiua, from Wallis and Futuna. with Ra lp h T e in a o r eo f th e Eg lise E vangdl i que

Page 34

.lbhiti 8th Nuclear Free and Indepentlent pacific Conference, Arue,

quite t the The f the

that: rtron eas that

no iis the ral

:d th al

thischapter thehistoryofthe world of beclosed onceand forall." Recentdevelopments The seminar in theCaribbean held islandstate St.Lucia of inMay 1999re-inforced manyof th; ;;;r_;ndations called in earlier for seminars. themosti*fo.rtan,*p"., But ofthisyear's deliberations there_affirmation was thatfull political equality a criticalprerequisite,o,f,. was u*in .n, of trueinternalself-government. This was a themethat was echoed a number by ofthe LrNmemO..,tut.,present, alongwith representatives from ,"u"n oi'ii" rirt"A tenitories. ForeignMinisterof The the host y, fo. example, emphasised ..the "ount that: principle ofpoliticalequality should mustremain, and universal f*Ol tir"a.ftf,at most of thecurrent non-self-governing territories small are islands the Caribbean pacific in and doesnot meanthat thesame principles politicalequaliry of Oonoi'uppfy to them."

administer, and some wondered whether this was a deliberate way of keeping tfr" independent ,"afity oiif,, Orp"na.nt broker.The UnitedNatiois i;; Special arran€ementsaway from the UN member stateswho would Committee continue functioni" ""d must to rt i, until then be more inclined to concur thestatus all non-self-governing with the fallacy that these of ""p".ity territories dictates that

:lilt":XuTi:i:,,1il1 ,,H, tf:*;:* ;l*l

Intemational decade the Eradication Colonialism, for of perhaps lackof will on thepart a butnot yet undertaken, particurar of member in states the of the ieview of the C-ommittee. It wasregardea extraordinffiat impact the economicand social of as rln"" tfr. ;il;;;, on the leet approvalof th!-plan constitutional ;i;";t"";;"iils adyancement the non_seli_gou"rning of had ever been rcquested bythecommio". roirpr"."iltrres"..itirat tenitories, periodicanalyses ofthe progress uii.*r.n, of elements oftheplan,despite theimplementationthe(Oecolonisationj repeat.a .uri, ro. tr,eresearch of O".lurutionin to be carriedout. each tenitory andotherrelevant studies if,. l.onori", on social political and development these in rroi *i"r... It wasnotedthattherewaslittle wonder thattheUN member ..-aslong as there are territories 10. that are not independent, associated anirrr"gr"f freely or p* another cosmopolitan countries and the territories which they "f

HU:T:XT,-;::J:Hi :ii_dtljilT;:11ffi

a fallacythat wasclearlycorrected by the.scholarly presentations ."p."r"irutives of from Caribbean pacific territories and p..r';;t;;rrrninu.. As a resultof themomentum created thesuccessful by St. LuciaSeminar, Special the commiu". tootflr" il.uordinary stepof approving recommendations the andsending them to the General Assemblyfor consideration. ft.."tofo.., theserecommendations only were u"tno*f"Jg.d by the Special Committee not senton for widerconsideration but - a majorvictoryfor theself_determination effort

had gained, perhaps magicArv,t ril"asureof u ::Tr-""* sertgovernment _


The.resolution approved theSpecial by committee June in of this year also includei a numb"r of try'irouirion, includingthe imporrance the preservati;; of ir curturar identity, notedwith concern and tlat theplan of actionof the IDEC cannotbe concluded by the y.". ZOOO. fir. session heardpresentations from the .i""LJn.ua, of government Guam(whoseGovernor of called for an International Court of Justiceruling on decoilnisation) and PuertoRico (whoseGoverno-r .uU.j fo. the reThe minister wenton to notethat:,,Whiletheinternational inscription of thattenitory on the IIN tist). fhe Vtinister community remain.flexible its must in approach assisting for External to Affairsofthe USVirgin Islana.ln il, ,*,rrn.nt these territoriesas they progress, must we ensurethat to the Committeerepeated earlier calls for the theirpolitical status^options remainin implementation *irt ,t . ofthe planof action. regulmate "onforrniry choices equality of identified Resolution in 1541 so.as to legitimise, expediency, not for present un_equal A proposal^by representatives the ofchile to establish colonial arrangements a whichao notprouia.u full ,"uru.. conceptual framework thereviewof theconstitutional for of self-government." andjuridicalstafus ofthe territories alsoput fortn fo. *us consideration duringthe Special Committee Concerns i"Uur.. fn" were repeatedly expressed seminar document several by had disturbing p.ouirion, i*fuding the participants attemptswere biing that madewithin the view that optionsthat did not-piovide f". nif political Decolonisation Committee re_dlfio" it. presenr equality to could be considered acceptable the dependency by arrangements self_governing, though intemational as community. ThiswascounterJO a sctrot*ty iy the fact remains that unilateial "ven auth"orityof the paperin response the assertions to in the Chilepaperby administering powerto legislate thet".,itori", for *o in the delegation St. Lucia who outlined of it. i"girtutlu. manyinstances overrulelaws and to Aecisions the basisdatingbackto 1953for of the princifle ifl.,absolute tenitories remains. equality"-to remainparamount. replyto the contention In in theChilepaper that:,,itwastotallyururecessary It wasnotedwith concernin this year,s in certain seminar the circumstancesconsult inhabitants that to the important of u giuJnt.orto.y research calledfor in ttreptanof u.tJonof tfr" on their self-determination process,,, ir. f.u"iu International ,[, Decade the Eradication Cofoniufim for lf ambassador madeit clearthat suctr speciUli..*rrun.., hadneverbeencarriedout due to a lack ofn iaing, una shouldnot, and indeed, not do apptyto ,fr" ,r*ff irf_A


RapaNui delegates Hugo Teave and PapaTeave, with pa

Islands territories (in the Caribbeanand pacific),,since democratic be watc!9d carefully, since there are definitely rnember structures and administrative systems are the norm and stateswithin the Committee who wish to enO are routinely utilised in conductingpopular the [IN,s consultations.,, rol e i n the decol oni sati on process i f,.o ugf , , u"t , subterfuge. Regarding the reference in the Chile paper that a is only one of the optionsthat Jould provide Thus,while the conceptual lefereldum paperby Chile was prevented for political equality,the St. Lucia urnUurruOo.,his paper ifom being adoptedas SpeciatCo_mitt"" policy questionedwhether there was another by the appropriateway to timely response St. Lucia, the of ascertainthe views of a people other uu..uu o'ril" Special tiran a democratic Committee has gone on to adopt in informal elec t or al p ro c e s s . H e e x i re s s e d meetings c a u t i on over the (excludingthe territories'participation)u r"*flCuid"lin", suggestionin the Chile paper that possible a method to on consultationson addressthe decolonisationissue in euestionsoroecoronisation,, wirich the tenitories might call for eachnon-self_governing be the negotiationof an agreement territory toie consiOereO between main organs on a case the by casebasis.They proposethat of a.giventerritory and rhe administering;;;".. a conesponding The St. prograrnmeof work is be developed for each ienitor! Lucia ambassador respondedthat ,u.n Jonruftutions !o do with possiblegoals,activitiesand not constitute an act of self_determination dates,;J;"y include iy the people visiting missions theprogramme with who havecontinuallyexpressed Ueinffio.sea,Uy their wish to Le consulted necessity, by the govemment of the tenitoij formally on their political future.

Tepaeru Ariki, president the Houseof of Ariki in the Cook

The St. Lucia ambassadorexpressed further concern for provisions in the conceptualpaper that seemed advocate to a process wherethe administering powersand the Special Committeewould decide on the-status oithe tenitories

l|3l::T,1'1, erementm this equationwas the people of the territories, whose furure should not be left"to negotiatloi Uet*"rn the SpecialCommitteeand the aaminisfring p"*..r.
The St. Lucia paper served as an important reply to what ar: considering to be the first anempr to end the tIN Tan{ dec.o.lonisation processwithout ending i".olonirution _ ,h1t:T" through negotiations betwin elements the of :n SpecialCommitteeand the administ.ring po*... it is must
Page 36

or rheagenda. nored themissing He that

An importantomissionto theseguidelines is any reference r.Crrtments of politicatequality. anott J. ornirston lo tht rs rne needfor the requiredstudies containedin the plan of action to be implemented in order to provide the necessaryinformation for {.IN member statesto analyse the individual territorieson this so called.,cure_by_care basi s." In theory,suchguidelinesmay seem admirable,but without the requisite political eduiation ;; ;rritorial leadershipregardingthe parametres "r"n; of decolonisation, political equalityand the like, theseteuOers couiO be convinced to agree with a process "usity anati#a to the lnterest- the people they represent. of This has to be watched carefully,aswell.

8th Nuclear Freeand Independent fo",fi" Cor1"r*ffi,

T he c o n ti n u e d Com m i tte e

m a n d a te



S peci al

In view of these developments, and the continued,and oftendisturbing,transformationofthe SpecialCommittee, thefactis that the remaining non-self-governingterritories havenot achieved a full measure of setf_g-overnment pursuant the Charterand the relevantresolutions to ofthe General Assembly.It is thereforeobvious that the mandate forthecreation ofthe SpecialCommitteeon Decolonisation remains intact,but their capacity to carry out that mandate is in question. Expressions havebeenmade - mostly from the Committee detractors that the end of the International Decade for theEradication Colonialism (IDEC) should mean of the endof the Special Comminee. Resolution 43147of 22 November 1988declaringthe IDEC, however,did not refer totheendofthe work of the SpecialCommittee, some but haveinfenedthat the end of the decadeshould be the basis theabolishment the Committee. of of In thiscase, even the most basic of goals of the plan of action theIDEC havenot beenaccomplished with the of notable exception conductingthe regionalseminars of on dec olon i s a ti o n .h e n e c e s s a ryc o n d i ti ons of sel f_ T government simply do not exist to warrant the closure of theCommittee the de-listingofterritories,which is the and aimof some governments. Instead, indicatedearlier, a seconddecadeshould as be established the General Assembly to focus attention by onoptions equalityfor the small islandtenitories _ and of thistime, necessary the resources shouldbe madeavailable for it to be successful.

cri ti ci sm, and end the i ncreasi ng i sol a t ion of t he decolonisation issuewith the presentemphasis restricted to only oneUN committeewhich is underionstantpolitical and budgetary attack. My approach would be ihrougfr decentralising discussion the ihroughoutas manyUN and other international bodiesas is possible.Accordingly: l. In additionto discussions the SpecialCommittee in and the Fourth Committee where the debateon the small islandterritorieshave beenreducedto merely one or two days,the issueofdecolonisationshouldalsobe addressed in the Third Committeeof the GeneralAssembly underits agenda item of "The Right to Self_Determination,,, andon the agendaofthe relevantregional organisations suchas the South Pacific Forum and the Caribbean Community. Additionally, a joint meeting of both regional g.oup, on the futureself-determination ofterritories t the two regions shouldbe conducted. This can be achievedwith influence from the NGO sector. 2. The issueshould also be added to the agenda of the relevant UN bodies which addresshuman rlshts issues. consistentwith the recognition by the UNlecretary_ Generalof the right to self-determinationasa humanrights i ssue.


mber LIN'S s u ch

rnted / the ecial :ings lines hich ered iing

ude ,b y

nce ion lan the yse ase

)ut ial )n,

he be

However, the Committee is to be the mechanismwithin if theUnited Nationsto address decolonisation the process intothenextmillennium, it must review its own operations In this connection, renewedattentionshould be given to tobecome moreefficient,and more responsive, just to the role of the specialised not agencies, technicalorgans, the administering powers, but to the people of the regionaleconomiccommissions, and other bodiesof the tenitories. This can be done in large measureby insisting United Nations, as well as regional organisations, in on the requirements implementation oi irs own of implementation their respective of mandates assistthe to recommendations. territories in their socio-economicand constitutional developmentprocess. The Committee musttake a pro-active approachto counter thedis-information campaign that has been successfully 4. Further, the S peci al C ommi ttee should be waged e s ti o n i n g e c o n ti n u e d re l e vance of the encouragedto identify resources qu th to carry out the relevant decolonisation agenda item, and promoting the false political and economicstudiesand analyses containedin assertion the decolonisation that processis complete. the Plan of Action (of the InternationaiDecade for the Eradication of Colonialism), in conjunction with the It is interesting note that the people of the territories regionalorganisations to and expert,as a mafter ofurgency. themselves often influenced by this dis-information are This relevantresearchis essential determiningthe to future campaign, this can be seen in the notable absenceof and courseof decolonisation the small island teriitories. in representativesmany of the territories in international of deliberationstheir own political development. on 5. New [lN initiativesin governance shouldincludea componentthat addresses governanceissues the of the These political realitiesas they are, I would offer several non-selfgoverningterritories. recommendations designedto deflect the reactionary
8th Nuclear Free ond Indenendent parifir

3. More attentionshould now be placedon how the wider UN systemcan assistthe territoiies in their socio_ economicdeveiopment process,and the inclusion of the el ected governments of these terri tori es and non_ governmentalorganisationswithin theseterritories should be facilitated.This activity would be consistent with addressing the recommendations some administerine of powersthat the United Nations focus more on economii development issueswithin the territories, and is also consistentwith many territories who wish to be more economically prepared beforetheir political evolution.


Conclusion Dr. Carlyle Corbin serves as Minister of Statefor External To conclude, while the basis for the extension of the Afairs for the U.S. Virgin Islands. ne X iresently the mandate of the Decolonisation Committee is clear, its, Secretary-General of the Offshore Gorernorr, Forum, survival may be determined in large measure by its comprisedofthe electedgovernmentsofGuam, American willing n e s s to a d a p t th ro u g h s i me measure of Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana decentralising which would relievesomeofthe pressure Islands and the (t.5. Virgin Islands. it is currently under that has precluded it over the present decadefrom successfullycarrying out that mandate. is thefounding chairman of the l(orking Group of The Committee needsto engagethe wider ?:rbr! UN system in Non-Independent Caribbean Ciuntries est;bhshed in the implementation ofthe LrN_wide mandateon assistance I990 under the United Nations Economic Commission to the territories, needsto find ways to integrate the views for Latin America and the Caribbean. of the territories in its.work, and must aeietop a way of implementing its own longstandingrecommeniations Corbin is a visiting professor in internotional on relations. decolonisation. governdnce and internqtional trade at several Caribbean universities, the author of two books on political and The remaining small island non_self_governing territories constitutional advancement in the U.S. Wrgin Islands, are-ata critical stage in the history oitheir deielopment, and.is.presently completing a third book or"gou"rror", and a strong UN oversight ofthe process ofthe unique and dependencyin non-independent island countries. self-determination needsremainsesiecially important. We must all remain vigilant as new initiatives io eiminate the H_ehas participated in the proceedings of the United international oversight of the decolonisation processwill Nations Special Committee on DecoTonisation since most certainly come. I therefore urge that the pacific 1982, and has presented scholarly papers to (Jnited Concerns Resources Centre with its newly gained Nations decolonisation seminars in ie-Caribbean and consultativestatusin ECOSOC, and other regional bodies Paci/ic over the last decade in Barbados, Grenada, papua malnt{n awatchful eye on developments in dlcolonisation New Guinea, Trinidad and Tbbago, Antigua and Barbuda, at the United Nations. The future,of this process is in our Fiji and St.Lucia. hands.


I t


li tl

Page 38

8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Conference, erue, fahiti

ixternql ntly the Forum, neticon rariana

Ceu Brites East Timor ReliefAssociation, TimorLorosae

voting for independence Timor Lorosae in

'oup of hed in tission

n r cns, bbeqn I and ands, tance ies.
nited 'inge tited and tpuct ude,

I hope canhearme all like this. Maybe I should you be tall Front for an Integration Autonomy Indonesia is the other likeLopetilFirst of all, I'd like to thankyou.I am standing side-defendingintegrationwith Indonesia.Both parties herespeaking you on behalf of the nlwly independent to are the official organisationswhich work with TINAMET nation EastTimor. But we should not call it East of Timor to implementthe popular consultation. orTimorOriental.It shouldbe Timor Lorosae.Lorosae is ourdialectfor the sunrise,the nation ofthe sunrise. Our The first phasewas the registration of voters. The level of nation calledTimor-Lorosae. is popular registrationwas about430,000 people exceeding a lot ofexpectations.The secondphase-was the phasefor Manyhaveaskedwhy so much violence occurred in the the-election campaign. But I musi tell you that on our side lasttwo weeksafter the voting on 30 August 1999. The ofthe resistance we didn't do any electioncampaigning. answer simple. The IndonesianGovernment is signed the When people say ,,Campaign" sometimes we have the accord 5 May 1999 in New york, which sta]-ted of the impression that we have campaigns like out here, where process popular consultationwith the people of of East yor.g9 r-n:ars,askingpeople to vote for Independence _ Timor. Now let's remember that East Timlr was never a we didn't have that. All we had was our symbols that were part Indonesia. were illegally colonised of We for 450 years going to be the symbol on the voting ballot to showpeople underPortugal and 24 years under the Indonesian how they are supposed vote. That's what to we did. It was Govemment. a very quiet campaignapartfrom one day,25 August,when wejust held a march.That,sbecause people the demanded This process consultation August includedtwo of in main that we shouldhavea march.We only hadthe marctraround components. is the Indonesianpolice, which One are in the capitalof Dili, where40,000 pe-ople rurnedup but that charge the security for the vote and another of is United included only the capital and thi outskirts of Dili. It did Nations MissionEastTimor or UNAMET. The Indonesian not includethe whole l3 districtsof East Timor. Police in chargeof security but the main component are of thissecurity the IndonesianCriminal Law. UNiUgt is is The level of interestwas clearly relatedto independence onlyin charge ofthe electoralprocesssince it went to East support. Already were in the fitting mode by the time the Timorwith only an electoral mandate. Their mandate is official campaignstarted.The vote was held on 30 August only to processthe popular Consultation so that the after being postponedtwice for security reasons. On that Timorese vote. can day, the people of East Timor turned -enmasse to vote. Only 6%o not turn up to vote. Those who did did not show LINAMET developed code ofconduct for the popular a up to vote probably either lost their voter,s card, had health consultation recognisedthe National Council and of the problemsor were afraid due to the threatsofthe Indonesian Timorese Resistance (CNRT) as the representativebody militias.Many alsodied afterthey hadregistered, killed by forthe Timorese Independence Movement.UNIF or United the Indonesian Army. Ceu Brites is a member of the East Timor Relief Association (ETRA), a Ti morese non-gov er nm ent organisation that works for hu.m i ! ari an ret i effo r the peip t e an ofTimor Ceu seryed as o member of the PCRC / NFIP Executive Board from 1996-1999. After the NFIP conference in Arue, Tahiti, she returned from exile in Australia to live in Timo4 to helo with the reconstruction of the new nation of Timor Lorosae.
CeuBritestells the conference Timor,svote for of independence, with (from left) Kihei Soli Niheu,Moseswerror and Lopeti senituli
8th Nuclear Free and Indep"na"nt i@

RexRumakiek papua Organisasi Merdeka

rruman rights violationsin west papua

,rur., are governed the rule of law by enshrined a national in constitution. Basedon that constitution, ii"-rtut" u, th, highest.authority the land of i, .;;;"with the responsibility protectits citizens to anato governfor their common good.

The preamble ofthe Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights (l0.Dsssrnlsr l94g) states clearly that: .,Recognition of dignity of allmembe.'oirf," f,rrn"" l,heinher.enl family is the foundationoffreedom, justice and pea., init *o.td.,, " While it was assumed that all memberswill abideby this declaration,the Chartersetsout a warning in its last article (No.30):."Nothing in this Declarati;; il;;; t"terpreted as implying for any State, group o. prr*n any right to engagein any activity or to perform any act aimeOat the of any of the rights and freedoms ,O.r{u:lt1ln set forrh perhaps herein."

it was urrurn"o uriirio._ also ir,ui

ethnic cleansing.The demographic offti, genocide policy is balanceduy cotoni-saii"" "ff".t * "*rr"rgr"ri"".

RexRumakiek (westPapua)

i, yearsis


colonisation calledrransmigrasi_in *"0"r,

Dutch' then Japan and now by Indonesia'

minority our own land'westPapua on wasl'victim of colonial occupation external and oorinutlJ, irst bv the

ffiHJi:" ::'"',H',1"il*"'X?JT"Tffi:ffiT:J"#T::Jiiill*i andeightpo,iticarr#."$:
Indonesia objected shongly theDutch very to planand ;;#-rd 6rri" i"rla"',i""rJ*itory in an anempt to stop the..ru:i:: papuan
ofa west

n"r*.,i*pJp"ffi i#::*lfi :il:H#|ltrjy"ffi Hf,'d"fi ,iT*t.""1;1il;lnn:n;f
,rii. ir"il, remained. electit The

u,tr,. unit"a n;ri"^ ii,ra. 1960 Dutch w""r'i*' sin.."rs-tz,nh-i the ;;;;iffi speedthe up process ", ordecoronisation orwest i!!li:ll#inl,'";i1;nt'o

Formerly Dutchcolony' a w"u p"p*'*"r'annexed

westpapuaisthewesternparrorthe israndorNewGuinea. ;lffff{ ;!:fi:lt":n#:T.:iili"iii#jili,iii by un..fi,

the samesovereign right as the Indonesians. After the Dutchgranted.Indonesia independen"" its in f S+9,iiuio

i;"*i" ir wanted westPapua a territory'It claimed as ii ut"""t"li *fL nurt of the Dutch EastIndies' which is R;public of Indonesia'But the Dutch^disagr"J, "";;; ir"r,,'r"! *, ,n.
Sth Nuclear rr"

state. The Indonesian rhe orwest began tragedv Papua inte62.rheas same llilffi'"ft:li#'iiitfifn:ii*'ffi the occupation East ritor of q75)'

determined defend to westpapua, making breakout of the wara rear possib'ity. 196 tnoonesia By r in"reased armed its rnr-"i"rif engage out"rr ro.ces wesrpapua. in But ,n.;;r;; 're of randing a Rotittaof fastparror bf 1:.lt lled whenthe RoyalDutchNavy sunkthe

patrolboatkilling thecommander, corffnanding Commodore JosSoedarso.

To preventthis risky war that could have expanded the conflict Vietnamright into the Pacific, the United States in intervened persuadingthe Dutch to soften its position Despiteall the evidenceof grosshumanrights violations by in or der t o a l l o w fo r a p e a c e fu l s o l u ti o n. In hi s and non-compliance with the New york Agreementas confidential letter to the Dutch Prime Minister Dr. J. De reported by the United Nations SecretaryGeneral,s President John F. Kennedy wrote: "Such a conflict Quay, representative Ortiz Sanz,the Secretary Dr. Generalhimself wouldhave adverseconsequences out of all proportion failed to make a specific representationon behalf of the totheissues stake.This would be a war in which neither P apuan peopl e to the U N General A sse m bly. at theNetherlands the West could win in any real sense. Consequently, UN GeneralAssemblyonly accepted nor the a Whatever outcome of particular military encounters, resolutionby Indonesiaand the Netherlands end their the to theentire freeworld position in Asia would be seriously conflict. Our people'sright of self-determination not was damaged. Onlythe communistswould benefit from sucha given any consideration. was a clear travestyofnatural It conflict." justice to our peopleand a tragedyon the role playedby the UN SecretaryGeneral's office. How on earth it is Consequently, West Papua was sold down the drain, so possiblethat the rapist is allowed to be thejudge and the thatthe rest of the Pacific people could preserve the prosecutorover his victim? Before West papua, the freedom democracythat they all enjoy today. and Apartheidregimeof SouthAfrica conducteda similar sham act of self-determination the people of South West for Onl5August1962, Indonesia andthe Netherlands signed Africa, now Namibia, but the United Nations rej ectedthis. theUS-mediated "New York Agreement" for the transfer ofcontrol overWestPapuato Indonesia. The Indonesian Our people never accepted conduct and the result of the control only temporary pending a referendumin 1969 the 1969 Act of Free Choice. On I July l97l the West was where Papuan the people witrl decide whether they should Papuannational liberation movement Organisasipapua become of Indonesiaor separatethemselvesfrom it part Merdeka (OPM) denounced Act of Free Choice.The the (meaning, become independent an state).In 1969,instead OP M pl edged to conti nue the resi stance against of a referendum allow for all West Papuans casttheir to to Indonesian occupation. The ultimate goal of the OpM is votes, Indonesia conducteda consultation with carefully to establisha democraticand independent stateof West selected 1,025 representatives. Absurdly,they called this Papua. anActof FreeChoice.The govemmentmadeit abundantly clear the exercise that was only to confirm Indonesia's Patterns of human rights violations sovereignty over the territory. Our people called this fraudulentexerciseact ofno choice.The hand-picked, Most of the humanrights an violationsin the earlypart of the screened eventerrorised 1,025 people decidedthat occupation were directed against and educated elites and West Papua shouldbecomepart of Indonesia. politicianswhom the Dutch preparedto run an independent WestPapua. way of Presidential By DecreeQ.{o.8,1963) Thisiswhatoneofthe electors,a highly respected Church the government bannedall political partiesand removed leader, to say when interviewed by Dutch journalist, had all the freedoms includingfreedomof speech and freedom Link vanBruggen:"The man who totally deshoyed my of assemblyor freedom to organise.The destructionof self-respect BrigadierGeneralAli Murtopo, publicly democraticstructures was and the removal of electedleaders acknowledged being the chief brainwasher. as For two by all meanswere then extendedto includethe whole of hours, specialenvoy of PresidentSuhartospoke to this the WestPapuansociety.All theseviolationsoccurredin us.He beganby pointing out that Indonesia,as the a variety of forms or patterns.For example, detention strongest military power in South East Asia, is able to w i thout tri al , torture, rape, summary execut ions, shikefearinto any country. Jakartawas not interestedin destructionof property including churches,sterilisation, usPapuans, in Westlrian as a territory. If we wan to be disappearance but and institutional discrimination. These independent, said, laughing scornfully, we had better atrocitiesare conductedto be as honific he as possible,not ask Godifhe couldcreatean island in the Pacific for us to only to breakthe resistance alsoto eliminatethe people. but immigrate there.We could also write to the Americans. They alreadyset foot on the moon and perhapsthey Reporting on Indonesiain 1991, Amnesty had Intemational would good enoughto find a place for us there. This be (AI) stated:"There are currently about 130 political was all.General not Murtopo impressed upon us that I l5 prisoners from Irian Jaya serving sentencesup to life millionIndonesians fought for West Irian for years. imprisonment,the majority of whom were had convictedunder They mademany sacrificesin this struggle, and they had Indonesia'ssweepingAnti-SubversiveLaw of 1963. would thereforeallow their national aspirationsto be Amnesty Internationalbelievesthat at not least 80 of these crossed a handful of Papuans.Short shrift would be may be prisoners conscience by of [thatis] peopleimprisoned made ofthose who votedagainstIndonesia.Their accursed for their non-violent political activities or beliefs. They
8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti
Pctge 4I

tongueswould be torn out, their evil mouthsbe wretched open. U pon them w oul d fal l the vengeance t he of Indonesianpeople, among them GeneralMurtopo who would himself shootthe Papuans the spot.', on


imprisoned a police was officer;t.*;;oilirtributing
asylum at the papua New Grrincr. a^-.,,r^*^ ^ c_-

ir'*",ln"'*r'Jr; ;"."ffi|if$;, J,Til'l"'"". he berore oi"oi, 'Ti,"r:;J'ni:TJ":T::""ffi:.::'*
yearold OpM activist :"1t*:.:*Jio$ions.tla,r,"o""."ril;#;riffill; years, arso-l; A',n",tv in"" u..ouilI# ffirT i":lHn":"?lil: lllSrteo l:1.1lll !ye-witn.r, survlvors revealed for example, on,.i;,*
r (tUuVISI

a..'ttoptlnt,'b".uur. in west Papua'NGos never go public on suchmatters involving militarv'ActingJn the u"rr"ri ,tt.1ir;*ri* councilforoverseas 'ir.i. Aia ta-croe) t"r""t"i iir. * deta's -rampaign of the report' which re-vealed a systematic or terror againstthe traditional landown"',.-ir,. ,"pon athacted official response from both Australian.andthe Indonesian governments' Investigation rrr. r]-,oon.riun iv HumanRight commissionand i'itiit iv ,tri ourou,iun Ambassador confirmedthe existence iil or at.o"itier, involving 22 peoole massacred and another four disappeared' feared dead'If it was Btth"p'; ";;;;"

on August cathoric rgi-": rl*:,-ffj'il:llf$x*:yh'il,"lr*lli*Ti; 3 ree5' Bishop y afocities .*urnpr.r-u.. given to ilrustrate 'eil; are tie exrremenatureof the "iljj ; ,?T,ffi f 1*T*ili jf ##;L which ;;l;;, buto csary a,s es : unne iif"ei',1,-U1;i"Jf DistrictofFak Fak'Th*is u n"* is
Munninghoff Jayapura of ois"tostaa (r). Thecase fiveprisoners of of Teminabuan thesorong in ;i;*t;;.iheywereAdamKorem,JohanJelmau,christian r"..ibi"*irri., unJl-;;; A;r". on the night of l7 i"""ii'ino7,. the five prisonerswere taken out of Teminabuan prison and aiir"i i" the highway towards Ayamaru. fewmilesou*r,o*-near A a bridge, truck the *opp"a, ,L"y were orderedout and instructed stand to Theywe." tt eniactrine-gunned "drd;.idgedown. rJrn r"tr* ro.iledover ,rr"-irla'g". Though mortary wounaeJwith intestines his ffi;; outof his abdomen, he man'aged get backto tris to moiirer,s house wherehe {;ird:;"uehtorecountthestof andindicatedwhere

before arrest' their were sentencedterms to orbetrveen ir r#g*p,ri" a.r..ffi";"?i".""."us i andl2years" (AI:1991)' other htinanrigtrtvioiatiorl."-rirr.a

;ffi ii?_'Ti:iitii"#*;,T"Tril:**r"H:;}:tffi,uH,, asvrumatthepapuaNewGuineanilil;;;#flx :i""::""r::,: ;r":.-JilTi^i{|ifuTx":,:il:H.r"rr"hrur*il
arrocities and in theterritory.

fffi.fillT. Hl"4 lll'rui :i:i.1ffi ::HJ::T: r"",:,Tl umm ;;*Internatio"",, u.., arv *ffi*:*11,,..,s ,rru, oie-n"sry ,"o,.lijJ"ffi;'t5il:

included37 people sentenced to prison

West papuan delegates*.*


termsofup to.20

through surveiilance, threats, rapes, destruction of

H 3Y::1ft

publ first panerns(2). Another caseinvolved 1"1.ru09 icforthe time the22
constant intimidation
8th Nuclear Free and

Page 42

leaders promise lenien.y and of OV ,fr.rnifir".y.,il, rn,,rory

fj::::'-"::13,"-,":,;.d...a ;:il:ji

checking that unit wassentto pick him up for procedural him. murdered They then cut offhis headand carriedit in withthemto the local military headquarters Wardo, Biak. On the way, the headwas displayedin a South to of number villagesbeforeit was handed a Pastorin (AI Wardo beburied :1991,p22). to

by membersof his family were silencedby threats. (5). Rev. JohanesMamoribo, then Deputy Govemor.He felt unwell after an offrcial party and went for checkup at the military hospital in Jakartaon l8 March 1976.He died from an operation, which his wife discoveredonly after the body was sent home for burial.

(3). otherexample thecase five youngwomen The casesof ethnologist Arnold Ap Qa April 1984) and was of One Highlands. Theywere: OPM activist Melky Salosa(July 1990)presented another from Babuma villagein theCentral NerakMakna, Yabena Thago, mysterious practice in the history of genocide in West Banduk Tago, PaniPagawak, first, Papua.Both Ap and Salosawere framed, shot deadwhile Etina Thago ApisaThago. and Theywerepack-raped being shot dead in their garden.They were attempting to "escape from custody". If we list caseby before potato caseof leadersalone, the list will go on and on and on, let with sweet disemboweled theirvaginas and stuffed Themurderers werefrom anArmy alone similar deathsin the whole society over 35 years. leaves redberries. and (KODIM DistrictMilitary Command unitof theWamena These atrocities are very cornmon everywhere but under Wamena) thecommand Col.AlbertDieng. under of protest When Suharto forcedby popularstudents' was to hoped things down 26 May 1998, on manypeople that step would for But the change thebetter. in WestPapua killing In inspired thechanges Jakarta, by in continued. July 1998, people several young in townsanddistrictsdemonstrated flag, the andraisedthe West Papuanindependence MorningStar. Their demandwas nothing less than independence.always, militaryresponded As the ruthlessly manydeaths. But unlike the killings duringthe causing NGOsandIndonesia's Suharto thistimetheChurches, era, Human RightsCommission investigated thecases, all own in such the massacres Biak and Bela. The recently as HumanRightsStudyandAdvocacyInstitute established to isworking closelywith otherNGOsandthe Churches human compile documentation all thepastandpresent a of in rights abuses WestPapua. There are also many mysterious deaths and names: disappearances, to give only a few prominent
the Suharto regime there were no possible ways for the affected families to sharethe information. Attempting to describe the effects of these atrocities on the society, missionary pilot Theodore Fray was quoted as saying: "During my whole stay in West Irian/West Papua,I never met a single family which had not lost at leastone member because of torture or other acts of violence by the Indonesians.In my opinion, and based on my own experi ence...the Indonesi ans are bri n ging not development,but systematicextermination." Only under President Habibie and with the lifting of restrictions, the NGOs and Churches are able to record abusesand at the sametime educatepublic about human rights. Internationalised murder


ing ika led nd )ar nd



n 7 f s ( I

home night of5 July 1968andneverreturned. at (4).Permenas of Awom(foundingmember commander and followingan theOPMforcesin Manokwari)surrendered granted President in1967.He wasput by Suharto amnesty the Hyggene sailingfromManokwari onboard navalvessel one to Biak,a trip thatnormallytakessix hours, way.The boatreturned hourslaterwithoutPermenas. two Queries

ln 1997, OPM leaderKelly Kwalik took 24 peoplehostage but released most ofthem and kept six Europeansand four Indonesianswhile demanding negotiation for self(1).BaldusMofu, a formermember the New Guinea determination.Kwalik requested Red Crossto assistin of the Council and member of the Regional Peoples arranging meetings with the countries whose nationals Representatives Assembly(RPRA).He hasbeenjailed were held hostage including Great Britain. Instead of many timesand tortured.On 8 December 1979he was arranging direct negotiationsas requested,the Red Cross from afterhewas proceededto conduct the negotiation themselves.They abducted his homeat night,two months to released jail andbashed death. from failed to convince Kwalik. But the people and Kwalik (2).Penehas Torey,also formerlya member the New trusted that the Red Cross would still bring the real of Guinea Counciland memberof the RPRA.He was last mediators.Insteadof the mediators,a Red Crosshelicopter by seen beingtakenawayfrom his homein Jayapura the returned with British SAS hoops and mercenaries.What for regardingpublic happened next was beyond comprehension in the Red military 13April 1969, questioning on a on I I April in front of the UN Crosshistory.The village peoplewho gatheredtowelcome demonstration free Representative's to demand andfair elections. the Red Crosswere gunned down by the British SAS and offrce Hewasnever be seen to again. mercenaries from South Africa using the Red Cross (3).Another Council, helicopter. Our people are still demandingjustice and formermember theNew Guinea of He from his explanationfrom countriesconcerned. Godlief Mirino of Sorong. wasalsoabducted Which way forward? Amid all the expectations and hopes for a democratic Indonesia. the Churches add their voices to a chorus of demands for human justice to the West Papuan people. Many organisationsare speakingout, including the World
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8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Council of Churchesand a numberof US Congressmen. of our people whose blood was shed on their own land PresidentHabibie respondedby inviting representatives just because they are papuans.WE WANT iO from West Papua for a dialogue.fhe o-ffrciats LEAVE carefully THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA AND CREATE OUR selected 00 representatives I papuansociety from the West OWN." Because the EastTimorese of issue th" moment at to meet with the presidentin his palace on 26 F.b.uury a meetingwith the president is yet to be arranged the 1999.President but Habibie wantedto heardirect {iom these public is alreadyawareof the tapuan people,s leadersthe aspirationsand the wishes intention. of the papuan people.So, they did. With his seniorministers including the Defense Forces CommanderGeneral Final statement by Rex Rumakiek Wiranto in attendance, they told him that: ,,the papuanpeoplehave on behalf of the OpM Free papua Movement sufferedfor 35 years,they can not take it an; more they wanttheir independence.,' Shocked resilient, president It was a privilege but to know and to work with leaders the of Habibie told them to go back and discuss again with the movement independence for of Te Ao Maohi _a movement peopleand ponderthe implicationsof their iequest. that because ofnecessity have transformedinto political parties.I must admit that thereis a new spark,a voice that After they went back and with the assistance of the I havenot heardbefore,andthat is the voice ofthe church Chu rc h e s th e y c o n d u c te d S e m inars and meeti ngs in unisonwith the strugglefor independence. speech The throughoutthe country wherethe issues ofindependence by Jacques Ihorai this morning is inspiring inJeed. I am and autonomy were discussed.On 23_24 July 1999, standingon your sacredland, and I,d IikJ to convey to representatives from the whole country cametogetherin you in sincerity,that you have the wisdom of your great the capitalJayapura and concluded whole five months ancestors the and the capacity to unite your voices to win consultation. The conclusionwas the same:the papuan your independence.want you to know that I we arealways peoplewant their independence. in solidaritywith you. In September 1999,the 100 representatives returned to Jakartato meet the presidentas agreedon 26 February. The message they will bring to the president wasthe same and that is: "No development, other form no of social could healthe pain of 35 yearsof subjugation. .;ustice Only independence put to restthe soulsoftens will Jfthousands Rex Rumakiek is an activist in the West papua movement. He lives in exile in Australia, and has representated the Organisasi Papua Mercleka at international meetings. Rex is a long-time member of the NFIp movement,and was electedto the NFIp Executive Board at the g,hNFIp Conference..

Pctge 11

8th Nuclear Free and Inclependenl pM,

; 'AVE OUR ment rtthe lion.

GuamAn island seekingjustice, truth and self-determination

organisation ofPeople Indigenous for Rights (opIR), Guam
Theislandof Guahan(Guam) is the land of the Chamorros, i man'taotao tano. Chamorroshave lived on Guahanfor over3000yearsaccordingto archaeological data.

'the lent ical lhat rch :ch am to iat rin ys

ThePortuguese sailor Femao De Magalhaes, betterknown by his Spanishname of Magellan, ,,discovered"the Chamorros their island in I 521. The SpaniardLezaspi and claimedGuahan(and the other islands in what is now knownasthe MarianasIslands)for Spainin I 565. In I 66g, Padre Diego San Vitores initiatedthe colonisationof the island until the latterpart of 1898when it was cededto the UnitedStatesof America as part of the settlementending theSpanish-American War. The United Statesbecamethe colonialmasterof the Chamorrosand their island from 1898to 8 December1941,when Japanconquered the Chamorros their island. and Japan's imperialisticambitionsresultedin the Chamorros havingthem as another colonial master from December 1941 July i944. The Chamoros experienced to tremendous sufferingand were subjected to horrendous atrocities duringthe occupation by Japan. The Americans reconquered reoccupiedthe island in July 1944. The and reoccupation the Americans brought about irreversible by andirretrievable changes the Chamorrosand their island to thatarefelt even to this day. Guahanchangedfrom being a coalingstationfor the US Navy before World War II to a major military fortress after the reoccupation. post-war Rufo Lujan (Guam) military activities provided employment and other economic opportunities that brought changesto the own island.This military securityblanket was lifted by the Chamorros their culture. and then US PresidentJohn F. Kennedy in 1962. ln 1946,the United Statesplaced Guam on the United Nat ion' s l i s t o f N o n S e l f-g o v e rn i n g Terri tori es. Unfortunately, this was not publicly known by the Chamonos. was at this time in the Chamorros'history It that the most of their ancestrallands was lost through condemnation actionsby the government. The increased militaryactivities on Guahanin supportofthe Korean War in the I 940sand early I 950sbroughtmore changes the to Chamonos their homeland. and From I 898to 1950,the Chamorros werenot citizens the of United StatesofAmerica. They were citizensof Guamand the military government assigned Civilian Identification a numberto eachChamorroon the island.In August 1950, the Chamorros became"qualified" citizensof the United States enactment the OrganicAct of Guamof 1950_ by of "qualified" sincenot all provisionsofthe US Constitution apply to Guam. Thus Chamorroson Guahanhave less rights than those citizens residing in the individual states of the United States of America. Some Chamorros suspected that the United Statesonly grantedcitizenship to the Chamorros "legalise"the land condemnations to for military purposes that had occurred.

tt. '1e

d P

Fromafter the Second World War until late in 1962, the controland destiny of the Chamorrosand their island was totallycontrolled by the US Navy via a presidential Executive Order imposing a military security blanket on the island.This security blanket required permissionby The Organi c A ct of 1950 provi ded for som e local theUS Navy for anyoneto leave or come on the island, governanceautonomy.It established a Guam Legislature includingthe Chamorros. This security blanket had the and provided for a civilian Governor to be appointedby negative effect of preventing the island from being the President the United Statesof America. of However, economically developed;but, it had the positiveeffect of the Act provided that the US Congress has authority to the Chamorrosbeing the majority ethnic group on their repealor amendany law passed the Guam Legislature. by
8th Nuclear Free and lndependent Pacific

Two events of significance to the chamorros and their islandoccurredin 1968.The first was ,il;;;*e. of a US public law granting the people of Guam itre auttrorlty to elect their own Governor; this provided un unp."."O"nt"a opportunity to the chamorros for more political autonomy and self-govemance.The second .u*r *u, tt e policy decision by the government of Guam ro pron,* tourism purposes. However, the lT^::onortc..development Lnam or ro s d i d n o t g re a tl y b e n e fi t from touri sm oevelopment, as it is mostly non_Chamorros who are participants in this sector of the economy.

implement CLTA by appointing the the members the of Chamorro LandTrustCommission. In November 1994,threeChamorro of rightsactivists runningunderthe Democratic party banner'were elected to the GuamLegislature. Thesewere Senators Mark Charfauros, Angel Santos Hope Cristoba. and All three ^Guam havesincelost their seats the to irgirfurr. au" mainlyto opposition andtheselfish by ulteriir motives of theincumbent Democratic Govemor,


. , " J

The GuamLegislature passed law in 1996establishing a theCommission Decolonisation. of ffris Commission was tasked with preparing Chamorros u the fo. onfy vote on their self_determination. tn pr"pu.uiionfor the voting,the GuamElectionCommission,.iu, rnunautrA -iurnorro to establish Chamorro a Registryof those.iigil]. to vote. Also,thelaw furthermandatei fo._uriorioJu,r." rf," turt forces research educat. Ch"r";;;-;;;e to and th. political statusoptions_ independence; integrationwith a sovereign state;or, in free association ,uitt u-rour.rign state thattheywill bevotingon.The tu* ,rt t i Orcember tlll. a1 the voting aatetoi the Chamonor-to^.t Sturt^Cyl?v. theOrganization oor. u ofpeopleforlndigenous political status decolonise to Rights(OpI_R),a local non_government Guahan .*"."iring tfr.i. Uf organisation, right of self-determination because awareof Guam,spiacement ,i.-Unir"a 1,fr" Corrnirrion on on Decolonisation asked cuam has th9 Nations'list non_self t egirl;-;;;" change territories. Sin.. tt Opin nu, thevotingdateto sometime appeared in July2000because task before different forums within irre-ui-ano "n, the forces have notcompreted th"ir*ori *Jtr,.6i],n er..tion internationally advocating chamorroselideterm-iriation. for Commission not established has tt. Ct urno-rrJnegistry). The Commission Self_Determination on (CSD) was t *." appeared theCommine 24 established before bytheGuam eof at Legislature t9g6.il;p-",""r" ll ??tl -9pI-R in the UnitedNationsrequesting for rhe CSD was to advance resulr for assistanc" fraving in rhe trr. pr."[ilit. the Administering powir for Gluam wherebyth_e "r majority of voters on Guamadvocated **ir.in. right of a theChamorros self_determination. to change Guam,s ais?;;;_o turther political relationship *itf, ifr. U"it.O requested tIN _in the for recognition the Chamorros States. Oftheoptions of presented thevoters, astire to tn".u;*ity indigenous peopleof Guam,"ith rh"-s;; chosea Commonwealth .;t to self_ political ,t"t", ;i;;"'il,ii,.0 ^rinract determination. Sincethe Chamorror,ini,iuf States. CSDnegotiated The with the federaigou"rirn"n, theSpanish, with thenwith theAmericans, ona Commonwealth l"p"*r"La , agairt, status Guam. Co.imonweaftfr for ff,e theAmericans, haveU"* t .ut.J they thatthe CSDpursued niiti in;urti.", fi.a contained threekey p.;;i;;;;; ;" to anddenied ,if," theirrisht to self_determinution. became object of contention the Spanish with the Administering in theirquest power follows: for worlaexpansionism as *O..figiou, zealoty decimated Chamorros the point the to of extinction.The heavyhanded administration l) Local control of immigration; otthe irl""d;; rl. people by the Spanish militarv governors 2) Mutual consent on applicability broughtwide_spread of federal laws to changes the Chamoroway of to Guam; life, culturalbeliefsand ----'"' values, language genetic and 3) Chamorros only to vote on the makeup. future political The mid_7Os a time for coastal was states staketheir to claimon the world,soceans. United The State,eia.t"a the FisheryConservation Managem"nt and a.ioi,f later amendedand renamedthe -lvtagnusoi SZO, nlrf,rry Conservation Management and Act, claiming jurisdiction of Guahan,s watersin contravention its-UN to treaty obligations. Guahan, l9g4 and 1995, in passed locallaws asserting rights over the Fishery its conservation zone and the ExclusiveEconomicZone-to the watersarounO e island. American imperialistic ambitions to-Asia required fueling a station for her naval forces and Negotiation between the CSD and Guahanwas in the the Administering appropriate geographical Power has reachedan impasse;Chamorro location. rne ofGuahan rights activists fromSpain meant theChamorros "aptore that now considerthis to be a deadissue. haar'o t.J.n,t . *uy, In lg%l aChamorro oftheir newcolonial master. rights activist sued the Governor Under newa.*.i.* the *t", of Guam to imptement the Chamorros hadto contend the ChamorroLand TrustAct (CLTA), with a new iun'g-uag", tanO a taw tt at *as passed tenuresystem, governance, in 197.3and not implemented. The cultural valuei etc. The CLTA was patterned Americans practiced benign a after the Hawaiian Homes Act of 1921, neglect typ. aUS ieAeraltaw d.tuing the early to middle part of this ffiu._*", that granted certain rights to Hawaiians centuryand so over ceded lands allowedGuahan to be defensel"r, owned by the Hawaiian monarch, *;;;;;.J.ury or., eueen Liliuokalani. The to,Japanese expansionism World W* if.-alr. in SuperiorCourt of Guam orderedthe Cou"-o, Wo.fO oiCuam to WarTwo,theAmericans needed bases closeto Koreato
Page 46



8th Nuclear Free and na"p@

of the

Iivists lected Mark I three :e due vesof

frghtthe Korean War; and for basesin Japan,the United States signed a Treaty of Peace with Japan. The treaty absolved Japanof war reparationsdue to the Chamorros and for damages suffering incurred during World War Two (TheChamonoshave been seekingfor reparationsto this date).OPI-R, other Guam NGOs and quasi government as in agencies havesucceeded having Guamrecognized a special caseby the United Nations. Our fight is by no means over. We must be vigilant and follow through to insurethat the Chamorro rieht to self-determination happens. RufoLujan is a member of the Organisation of Peoplefor Indigenous Rights (OPIR) in Guqm, andwas electedas a memberof the NFIP Executive Board at the 8'h NFIP Conference.

The Rapa Nui people, now numbering about 3000, are respectable and worthy, socially well organised with their roots expressed Maori or Maohi culture.We are sirnple in and harmlesspeople who have survived 136 years of continuousoppression an implacableChile govemment, by which disregardsand deprivesus of our mostbasichuman rights in our homeland.This includedslaveryfrom 1862to 1864by Chile,SpainandPeru. It was 9 September 1888 when our King Atamu Tekena, Chief of the Ancient Council, signed an agreement with the government of Chile, for protection of the remaining 350 RapaNui islanders exchange sovereignty. in of Unforhrnately,this treaty was violated in l89lwhen Chile rented the island to a British company. The British imprisoned Rapa Nui natives in concentrationcamps, deprived the islandersof their lands, and submittedthem to slavery and other abusessuch as: burning homes and fields, beatingchildren and adults,forbidding their fishing, walking freely and contact with the outer world, for help and support to protest their stolen dignity. In 1914,Mr. Daniel Maria Chavez,Chief of the Ancient Council, organised strugglefor land claims,fair treafrnent, a justice and human rights. Chilean officials arrestedhim and tried him in a court on a ship. He died mysteriouslyon the ship en route to Valparaiso,Chile. Similarly, two years later,RapaNui King Riro died in Chile where he had gone to sign an agreementwith the Chile government. In 1933,the government Chile registered of RapaNui land under Article 590 of the Civil Code stipulating that any land without a registered ownerwithin the territorial borders of Chile belonged to the state. This is not withstanding the fact that our parentsand grandparents were living on their property as legitimate heirs. In I 979,the Chile government decreed new law No. 2885, a which empoweredthe Chilean president to provide titles and deeds, legitimating Stateinscriptionof 1933. the In I 9 89,theRapaNui AncientCouncilfi led a lawsuitagainst the State of Chile, charging land usurpation. As a result, the governmentof Chile createdthe indigenouslaw, which recognisesand favors the rights and worthinessofcultural valuesof the RapaNui people abiding underthe principles and recommendationsof the United Nations for natives and ethnicminorities acrossthe world. However,the Chile law is detrimental to our people since it legitimates the usurpation ofland underthe scopeofDecree 2885 andthe inscription of I 933 . In 1989 and 1990, for the aforementioned the reasons, Ancient Council called for a generalproteststrike to obtain a new dialogue and understandingwith the government of Chile, but so far without success.

shing n was r only rr the ;edto vote. : task itical ith a 'eigl nber

HugoTeaveandJuanChavezHaoa TeKoroHu'a, RapaNui
My nameis Juan Chavez Haoa, head of Te Koro Hu'a RapaNui and ex-member the Ancient Council of Rapa of Nui. I would like to bring your attentionto our plea for our rights to our land to survive and revive our fundamental ownculture.

rse a their on mge task ;tion lry). '4at dnB ,tof .her the elf,tith lh, ied ish fy he ple rad nd

ng he an ys rd
le lo ry d o

Hugo Teave (Rapanui)

The AncientCouncilmadean historicdecision raisethe to
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8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti


RapaNui flag to call the attentionofthe Chileanauthorities, shce our peoplewere tired of the continuous neglectand lack of commitment to past promises. We fight for the reestablishmentof our dignity with the belief that it is not possible to exercise our cultural needs without our own land. The RapaNui people strongly support all peoplesin their strugglesfor self-determination.At this critical time, we support all the Pacific brothers and sisters: Timorese, Kanaks,Maohi of Te Ao Maohi, Maori ofAotearoa. Timor Lorosae,Bougainvilleans, West papua,and Ka pae'aina (Flawai'i). We are seeking similar actions to the resolution going up to the NFIP Executive Board to include Kanaka Maoli decolonisation through re-inscription of Ka pae.aina on the tIN list ofnon selfgoverning territoriesas a regular agenda item to be coordinated with appropriate priority andtiming with the re-inscription of other pacific colonies. Based upon the facts mentioned above, we respectfully request your help and assistance obtainine a fair in approach to our case.Mauruurut Hugo Teave is a musician and sculptor from Rapanui (Easter Island). He is a member of the organisation Tb Koro Hu'a Rapa Nui, and worl<sto protect the island,s sacred sites and native plonts. He was elected to the PCRC / NFIP Executive Board at the 8,h NFI? Conference. Juan ChavezHaoa is head of TbKoro Hu'a Rapa Nui and aformer member of the Ancient Council of Rapa Nui.

Sovereignty and independence in Ka Pae'aina(Hawai'i)
Kihei SoliNiheu Ka Pakaukau
First of all I'd like to say,Mauruttru, to all the freedom fightersof Te Ao Maohi -,Mauruuru., The secondthins I'd like to say is that there are some things that *, ,urf always remember.As people of indigenous cultures, we have an opportunity and an expertise and a senseof humour. So with that in mind, I would like to expressmy decolonisedmind by sharing with you an experiencethat I've had with the people of Rapanui, one part of the Polynesiantriangle, and the Tangata ll/henua o Aotearoa. At this meeting we're discussingthe achievementsof our ancestors.We're discussing the achievementsof our presentleadershipand also we,re discussingthe future of our people. So it was time for Tangata l4/henua Aotearoatoexpress o their strong points. In the expressionoftheir shong points they mentiontheir greatleadersofthe past,the greatleaders of the seven tribes and of course of the great leaders of today. From Eva Rickard to Titifae Harawira to Tama lti, Sid Jackson and Moana Jackson,Mike Smith and of course Hilda Halkyard-Harawira.So with that in mind, I knew that I have no fear. Next camethe Kupunafrom Rapanui.In his expressionof achievement,he explained how the great stoni statuesof Rapanui were built and how they were moved to a certain part and ofcourse their cultures and their people. And then in this corner there's myself. So I'm wonderinq how I can expressmy achievementswhen my cousins; manawas so enormousthat it would be difficult. However, I am bei ng urged by my cousi ns to expr ess m y achievements. What I expressto them is that for our people, perhapsour greatest achievementhas being flying the rocket to the sun. They look at me as if: .,Gee, is that possible?" And then I reply saying:"Ourpeople are creativi, very creative. We can feed our people with our Kaimoana and with our 'Aina. As for technology,we are even more creative. We sendthe rocket at night time!"

Well so much for that, that,s why I'm not employed as a comic! What I'm here to talk about is colonisation. Colonisation the process is which we must recognise.We must admit that all of us at one time were colonised. The colonisation process involves perhaps three steps and not necessarilyin the order in which I am presentingthem to you.
Kihei Soli Niheu of Ka Pakaukau (left) with.FeiTevi (pCRC)
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8th Nuclear Free and Independent po"rrt" Coif"r"nuJrue,





Oneof these steps of Colonisation is the Cross. The m is s i o n a ri e s a m e to d o w e l l c a n d hi stori cutty ,t," missionaries have done well. They have managea to colonise theresources. all They havemanug"Jio ourminds by saying that our Gods "oronir" were nlt upp.op.iutr. Gods. alsohad family Gods. We


r:r9,!*e isonlyone Godwhen furt*JiuOrnuny in

of-a road to Sovereigntyand Independence. We had a refe.rendum whereperlaps more than g5,000 ballotswere mailed out for peopreto decide on tire questrli: ..should we have a Constitution Convention -io..ufur. a ou. policies of Sovereigntyand Independ.n..ii- ---

e freedom )ondthing t we must ltures,we sense of pressmy encethat rt of the otearoa. 3 ofour of our rtureof

rxpress points eaders tersof ti, sid ourse vthat

Knowing fu' well that the bourgeois Hawaiianswere making an attemptto control ou. Thesecond _iu.^"nt, we initiated a elementof colonisationis the Sword _ i m our movement of protest. As v4Jvthe ulrrs(r States case UnitedDlales Mili a result of those efforts, only luE Mllltary and more specifically the 32,000peoplevoted.Out ofthose United *ho vote{r6,Ooo p.opf. States Marines. 1g93, US l,iu.in., Ianded In the were againstplans to have a Constitution theirtroopson the shores Honolulu Conventionand of to supportthe 20,000 Kanaka Maoli were for it. With tf,ut business communify, especially those erl.i."I aescent. bourgeois tf," Kanaka Maoli went on unJ ruiJ,f,"y "*.ur. With hetpof rheUSMarines, *... the had a we "f ;r;in il; position mandate with our people to selectO"frgut., that arein today. we to a Native H aw ai i an C onsti tuti onC onventi on.-6n". 'lguin ou. movementdecided to boycott the Thethird andmost impoftant cause elections.so the resurts of colonisationis what wereas follows. we call Coca Cola. Coca Cola is just one multi_national corporation. have McDonalds, We we have Burger King, Of those people who voted to andofcoursewe have Jack_in-the_Box. have a Constitution So in cotonisation Convention, 5,000 were from America * rt we are reminded constantly by or" ofKanaka the printed media and Maoli ancestors.So what is happening televisionthat we must support io"toOuy in tfri, thise multi_national thing called Constirution conu"ntionii;;;;, corporations. They have been successful,as we a mandate continue but rather is the continuing to supportthese multi-nationals. effort to uy;;;."ntrol our Sovereigntymovement. Soin theprocess decolonisation of we must get rid of the multi-nalional corporations.We must a.uriop our own economic organisations because inOependenJe more is thanliberty.It is the decolonisation of our rinO. Throughthe efforts of two wahines Nalani Minton and Noenoe Silva,we havere-discou"r"Au toup oipup.., in the archivesof the ciw of Washington-oc.'ii" pup.., struggle instigated Al,nui Kalai;aina, *.y:llthe Hui Aloha 'Aina o Na Kane and. Atoha ,,eino Hui o No Wahine in the year 1898. Those papers reflect the Mana of our peopleagainstannexation. In 1898, our populationwas perhapsonly 40,000, down fromthe CaptainCook days of ovei t miliion of ou..u".. But in those papers we discovered there were 3g,000 signatures protesting the annexationof Ka pae,aina.And whatwe've been told for years and years and years that ourKupunadid not resist, that theyjust wastedaway.eut we give thanks to Nalani Minton unOWorno. Silua *ho havegiven us the lists of signatures. Wd;" - - Iook at thosepaperswe discover all our ancestorsAt the present time, our people in the sovereignty movement are perhapsin three categories.First of alr are supporters what we call ,,astate of within a state,,. Basically, these organisationswant to maintain the statusquo. you want to replacea white oppressor within a Kanaka Maoli oppressor. Organisations suchasthe Office ofthe Hawaiian Affairs are a part of this group. The ,..onJg.oup aff, yd:. 1" category,.nationwittr a nation,l Un lt'tt at means basically is that we want to attain the status by being recognised by the Federal Government, as in itre caseof Native American organisations. fhe goup that reflects this opinion is called-rKaZ ahui Hqwai,i. The third category is the Independence group _ those that fo:. total independence.At this tilne we have six ::" Hawaiian Kingdoms, we have o"";;;;;*ho call themselves lawful government the ofthe Hawaiian Nation. We have one sroup ca-lledthe N"ti";;i;;;ai,i ana tne smallest group is called Ka pakqukau. The purpose of Ka pakaukau primarily is to educate, agitate and decoloniseour minds. That is our role _ to question anybody whatever their role o. attituO" to state within a state,nation within a nation or even-foOlf,"na.n"..

:n of :s of lain


ins' ny

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Soyousee, decolonisation a process occurs is that daily. Wemustalwayschallenge auihority,especially those influenced theUnitedStates by ofamericatJiis poriticat We are not out to become leaders..It our responsibility premiers. are not out to is We to U"gin,n, f.o""r, of become regents do we express wish nor decolonising Universities, our the to become our Uigh sctroots of and an{ Queens. Ourpurpose to decolonise course Elementary our is schools. ourselves, fin8s our peoples our nations. and At thistime too, I'd like to sharewith you information Thereare some thinssI wouldlike to leavewith you regarding presentstatusof ou, .ouj the as to Sovereignty food for thought. TIe first one is: .,Neverimitate andIndependence. the pastcouple In the ofyears, an effort constitution of your oppressor". havediscovered was made the bourgeois we by Kanaka in Muotito guincontrol Hawai'ithat whenever imitate Conrtituttn you th" ofvour
Sth Nuclear fu" o Page 49

oppressoryou'll be worse off. It is all too often true that the dream of a slave is not freedom, but having a slave of their own.

Bougainvilleos struggle for self-determination
Bougainville Community-Based Integrated Humanitarianproj ect

T wo: " m i n i m i s e , d o n ' t ma x i mi s e central i sati onof Government". We have discovered in Hawai'i that when you have one leader, you have a big problem. I mean a really big problem becausethe oppressor only has to influence one person, and consequentlythe money goes to only that one person: We have discovered that ilyou have some sort of Confederacy, the people themselves The issueof the right to self-determinationwas the reason can havemore control over their leaders. for the ten years of war on Bougainville. Although the actual fighting stopped in 1997 with a peace process in Third: "inclusion and not exclusion". In the movementfor place,the people,sstruggleto be given thiirright to decide Sovereigntyand Independence,we must include all those their political future is far from over. who will be affected by the decision of all of us. It includes thosewho do not have the coco.It includespeoplewhose I stand today in this conference as a mother, and a genderpreference is different. It includes everybody. representativeofBougainvillean grassroots, to speakfor their justice and truth. We ask that the NFIp Conference An example of this perhaps is in my travels, I discovered can standup with us in our struggle for our right to decide that the Mqhus (men who live as women) have been our political future. discriminated againstbecause the colonisation of process of the United StatesGovernment. It was not until I came The situation as Bougainville is such that the two here to Te Ao Maohi in l98l that I changedmy attitudes Governments(Bougainville people's Congressand the when I went to Huahine. prior to Huahine I had this PapuaNew Guinea govemment) are not talking seriously conception of Mahus. My first three days I couldn't sleep about the issue of right to self-determination, in the two becauseI was afraid that I would be attacked.Here I am, yearssincethe commencement peaceprocess of in 1999. you know a macho. I got this macho thing becauseof colonisation. wasthen I realisedthat I waswrong.Being The people of Bougainville It have been waiting for what a leaderdoesnot precludeme from being an asshole. comes next. That is not the only problem, as there is also the delay in rebuilding of the infrastructure destroyed bv We must all remember that whether we have the coco,we ten years of war and delay in the restoration oi basic can make mistakes. It is up to you, people who have the essential services, such as medical supplies.A few NGO knowledge, to correct us so that we do not continue being groups have attempted to provide basic medicine, but that colonised. Onething I must sayis that I've beenassociated is not adequate cover the total to population of 160.000 with different Christianity groups and I learnt from some peopleon Bougainville. of those Reverends.One of the things that I learnt is that Judge he not'. Does that soundfamiliar? ,Judgehe not,. During the recentHealth Training Workshop which I have Judgeme not by how much we agreewith each other, but conducted, 32 health workers reported they do not have ratherjudge me by the way we handle our differences. medicinesin their clinics.Onemay saythereis no difference to PapuaNew Guinea'ssituation.Drug shortageis common Thosewho've beenmarried20,25,30,40 years,I salute in Papua New Guinea.But remember nougainville had been you. Becausea good marriage is the result of the way you crippled by ten yearsofwar and lack ofmidicine is causine handleyour differences.you know when to give. you know more deaths.We believe that the Government,s delav ii when to take. You know when to acceptyour mistakesand negotiating political the settlement the crisis will cause of admit your mistakes.So that is a lessonthat all of us can more deaths from lack ofmedicines,on top of20,000 deaths learn.In closing,I would like to say for thoseof you who during the armedconflict. are in the movement: be strong. Remember your Tupuna. Find strength from your people. Be patient. The road to Hence,in assessing situationon Bougainville in terms the Sovereigntyand Independence a long trip and it will not is of services from the grassroots level, we seethatthe failure occur overnight. Be persistent. Continue the struggle and the delay in addressing the right to self_determination forever and you must always resist, resist, and resist. is the very issue that is causing continued suffering and death on Bougainville. It is also causing further political Kihei Soli Niheu is on activist in the Kanaka Maoli divisions amongst th.e leaders, and ihe delay in the sovereignty movementin Ka pae,aina (Hawai'i) He was restoration, rehabilitationand the rebuilding of the whole a founding member of Kokua Hawai,i, protect ofBougainville. Kaho'olawe Ohana, Ka pakaukau and the University of Hawaii Ethnic Studiesprogram. Soli served as member Hence I would like to recommend that following this of the ltlFIP Executive Board between IggT_Ig9g. Conference,NFIP write to the Governmentof papuaNew
Page 50 8th Nuclear Free and Independent eo"i1i, Cor1"r"nu, Arue, Tahiti

Guineaand the Presidentof the Bougainville people's (BPC) to expressthe views of Bousainvillean Congess grass roots that: l) Thereis an immediate need to restore all servicessuch asmedicalservices,educationand other essentialservices inallparts Bougainville. of 2) To urge both Governments (BpC and the papua New Guinea govemment) immediatelyopendialogueto settle to theissueof self-determinationto allow people to decide theirpolitical future through referendum without further delay. Two years of waiting after peace initiatives is too long.Furtherdelayswill have dangerouseffect on the life ofpeople. 3) A referendumshould be carried out while the United Nation's representatives the peace-keeping and forces are stillonBougainvilleby end of this year.

shoul d be made from thi s conference to i nclude Bougainvilleon the United Nationslist of countries to be decolonised. Finally I wish to thank NGOs suchasthe World Council of Churches,especiallyMr. John Doom, for the greatsupport given to my organisationto provide basic services to the people of Bougainville during the war. Once again, I thank the host country, the organisersof this conference inviting me to this historical conference. for Let us wake up, standup together forjustice and freedom for our countrymen,women and children. Thank vou.

Ruby Mirinkaworked as a nursing sisterandnurse trainer throughout Papua New Guinea, before returning to her home in Bougainville in the late I9g0s. At the start of the Bougainville conflict, she established the Bougaiiville Community Base Integrated Humanitarian programme, 4) B ougainvi l l e ' s s tru g g l e s h o u l d b e s e en as an establishing health clinics and training programs for international issueof struggle and thus should be included people.living behind in the bush in the war-tirn island. in a regionally-based mechanism or body to monitor the Today she lives in Honiara, Solomon Islands and people's political struggle.Additionally, recommendations continues her workfor Bougainvilleb health care.

Bougainville delegates Ruby Mirinka and DoraTsiuh

8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Con\rnru,

.a*e, Tahiti

Page 5l



Learning from historv in the Kanak struggte independence ror
Union Syndicale des Travailleurs Kanak et Exploitds ()JSTKE),Kanaky

Beforestartingto address theme our on the struggle people charlieching andJoinvlle pomare. like self-determination thedawnofthe at I,d like to n"* vril"*iurn, -for fr* *ii".r, r'a to theirwork, because occasion firstliketo present respects this on my we forget to land'FromtheKanak ,rr. *".[ elderbrothers. think that on occasiJns delegation mvsel{ Victor Tutugoro I (Presid.n, or,r," uprra iil t;;;;, "i i, o* auty "ur t, andmember the FLNKS politicaiil;;t;J.iir-v to ."i.rf". of -i""" ,r,r,n. we oftenforget ffi #'took the ru"a, *r," Ndun66'whowilltakeupapositionwittrttrepi:ncinSuva shownus the pathto r"il"*. ii. rtruggle that continues the sumof a' the nextyear- wepresent humble is our respects those to present smallacts commifinent. of here,especially representatives the of the Maohi people. I'dalso liketo present thanks our to theEvangelical Church of-Frenchpolynesiafor allowing tfris coi-f"rence be to heldon a location that is very,>irUofi.. fiullows us to work in very comfortabteconOiionr. ifrc Evangelical Churchof Frenchpolynesia, like its in New Caledonia, a churchfully engaged "ouni..p* is ln ii. ,t uggr. fo. independence our countries, in anJ this is encouraging. I would alsolike to usethis opportunity to encourage you not to let up your efforts,.bicause you tuu" a message thatcanmobilise conscience the of o* p"opi". Thankyou for all your ef,forts come. to After 1985,joinedmostoftheanti_nuclear I demonstrations herein Tahitibeside ThviniHuiraatira. i-as wittr great i satisfaction we sawtheendof that thenuclea, testsin this country. have We doneagood job, butmanyhavesuffered the consequences thai ronl ,t of otgi". iri*t of Hiro Tefaarere, hade union leadei *n"Iii a us today, wholosthisjob because his opposiriorrro "."rgsr of ifr. tests. He isn't the only one,so can we salute all the brothers and sisters who suffered the struggle? in

Page 52

As for us in Kanaky, organised we somebig anti_nuclear demonstrations whenthe tests,.rr_rJir'igSS. On. of o1 delorytrations against Self-determination and the NFIP the nuclear*rr-i, Noumea Movement peoplg,which is .";;;;; g"th.T.d.10,000 for Kanaky andwhichshows sp-irit ours"fia.iryi". the of I have theluckto participate had your cause in manyNuclear Freeand here.But ifall thishasbeen pacific(NFrp)bonr"r.n..r, donr, t;;;;;kJto trrer.rplp n rtf in Vanuatu Movement. f"9:p^.:1*] The nuclear testshave in I 983,in Manilain 1987 in New are they and 2;;""d in 1990. foreverended? I Who cansay?Wernurir..uin vigilant. ""pp.a,-i", wasunableto attendrhe lastconference i, a;;" in 1996. My uncle yann CdldndUregei_ ;i;i; founding The struggles self-determination for members arenot over,evenif oftheNFIp movement "", with Oscar Temaru, Father thegreatpride. h_glol,,oauyoi."r"brating and Walter Lini andothers numerous mention :. luy. too _ asked to if the independence Timor. w. f,uu.XJstiuggreA of hecouldgo in my place. Althoughf *",,f,. ."p.esentative support in of Timor,bothin Kanakyandin otf,e, for RegionOneon theNFIp n*-"*tiu. irri"mational e;-ur{l wasn,r at fora. We havebeenable to Oottris the conference ,fi; ro'rfr" Nnp because askedrn. ," he my place. Movement. focusonourtheme To You must know that our involvement ofself_determination ".Al at in the NFIp the dawnof thenewMillennium, Movement f *uni to ,t os that we wasthanks him, so I thoughtiiupp.op.iut" to ye in o1ebig house, famity.Witn afiiis one thathetook my place.In retrospect fe-curiarities, it wasa gooddecision, thefamilyknows itself,it lives,ura,uppoiJit, members because todayhe is a very sick man.f *ouiJlif.. ro pass - that is the NFIp spirit. We uil you his salutations, he can no huu" oiio*, rt ut.gi"r, as longerup.ut una no u n...rrity to guardour linksand longertravel.Frommy unclewho .ono..tionr, fullfere.is h". ilggl;; with you andthat is theNFIp Movemenr. all these. decades, pleasereceivehis salutiiionsthrough my words. The struggle for self_determination in Kanakv As theinheritor ofthis commitment theNFIp Movement, to We kngw I havehadtheopportunity participate for lhe historyof Kanaky,because yearsand to at your siOe all yearsthe NFIp in Movement iistedfanury u, priority the struggles, has both herein te ao Maohi ;"il" Kanaky. number one.Delegates theNFIp conr"."ni", Following l9g3 NFIp conference, to the knowthe f fr"Oii" rity historyof our struggre, I'd ril.r to come Tahitithenextyearwhere but to t" f.i"iiy *t out the "pp".t I metOscJrTemaru. stepsso you can betterunderstand choices Thiselderbrother the gavemethedesire retumiere toloin we frave to made, in the latestsigningoiil. r.rou_.u s:ruCgle underwayagainstthe nucleartrrir. -culminating or"u, :_h-e Accordin 1998. Aboveall,.it,s.impoianii","y',fr", wasn'taloneat this time _ I,d like f*^f.y to acknowledge the hasneveraccepted colonisation. workof information awareness From last centuryuntil and raisingundertaken by themostrecent years, levelof viol"";" h;;;;;n a martea
Sth Nuclear Frr" ond

confrontationwith the colonial power. Our colonised peoplehave been dominated, but have never submitted. Wewerecolonisedby Francein 1853.The first revolt in (wherethe warrior chief Atai who led the revolt was 1878 was reflected more than a century later in the murdered) 1984 uprising,when our warrior chief Eloi Machoro was murdered the colonial power.ln 1917, anotherrevolt by also with the leader Chief Noel suffering the same occurred, Noel was murderedby the colonial power. During the fate. troubles that my generation lived through, the violent repression the colonial power was inevitable.Because of inescapable today,the stmgglefor independence itremains remains risky business. a

(Independence Front),basedon ajoint commonprogram for the 1979elections. JeanMarie ljibaou wasPresident of Union Caltidonienne at the time, with Eloi Machoro and YeiweneYeiweneas ioint GeneralSecretaries. 1982. In thanftsto an electoral aliiance with a centrist party, a new Council of Government was created with Jean Marie ljibaou as the leader.

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In August 1983, there was a meeting betweenthe proindependencecoalition, the anti-independence settler party RPCR and the French Government at Nainville Les Roches.This meeting saw the first agreement where all parties recognisedthe "innate and active right to selfdetermination"for the Kanak people.At the sametime, the Kanak peoplerecognised and acknowledged legitimacy the of the "victims of history" - that is to say,those people Wehadno rights. As Kanaks, the only right we had was to who were be dumpedonto tribal reserves. The calculation by the who arrived in our country over many decades, victims of the colonial process. powerat the time, in placingus in thesereseryes, themselves colonial would wipe us out. But our wasthatalcohol and disease people From the reserves developeda capacity I want to underline that the Kanaks at this time made a we resisted. generousgesture. They acceptedthat people of other preserving the namesand culture which for self-defence, ethnicitieswere victims of the colonial processand that arethe basis of our struggle today. I spell all this out our country was their country. But after the meeting at we're heretoday in the "country of human rights" because - France. only had the right to vote from the beginning Nainville,we wantedthe recognitionofthe colonialreality We and our innate and active right to self-determination ofthe1950s. Until then,Kanaksdidn't havethe right to go translatedinto legislation, with a timetable to achieve to school. Until then, we didn't have the right to walk in independence. Both demands were rejectedby the colonial town at night. It was only after the founding of the first power. political party that France beganto bow to the call Kanak for humanrights. The recognition of our rights was not dueto France,but to movements for emancipationat the The FLNKS and the Kanak resistance intemational level. ln 1984,the FrenchNational Assemblypassed Lemoine the Formyself,I was of the generationthat went to high school Statute.At that moment, the independence movement in 1962.It was the year that the first Kanak gained his deci ded to boycott the el ecti ons scheduledf or I 8 (EducationCertificate).Today,we don't have November 1984.We created independence baccalaurdat the movement enough cadre and people who are trained to run things, Front de Libdration Nationale Kanak et Socialiste and is onereasonthat explainsthe political decisions (FLNKS - Kanak SocialistNational LiberationFront). It this we havetaken. in the late 1960s,we had a political was the start of a period of opposition by Kanaks to a law movement reclaim our dignity and aflirm our Kanak that would deny their very existence.You will remember to identity. the colonial order, Kanaks were nothing, so it In the famousphoto of Eloi Machoro smashing ballot box a wasnecessary go beyond that and statewho we were. with an axeon electionday.On I December1984,we created to Atthesame time, our eldersin the frst politicalparty Union our ProvisionalGovemmentat La Conception.On the same CalLdonienne were calling for internal autonomy. The day, I rememberthat we learnt that there had been clashes Kanaks, who were in the majority in the Territorial in the north ofthe country and our first deaths. Assembly during the period until 1974, were calling for more a autonomy.Inl974, missionwentto Franceandmet A few dayslater on 5 December1984,the family of Jean with the then Prime Minister Jacques Chirac and then Marie Tjibaou was ambushed, with 10 peoplekilled. Jean President Valery Giscard D'Estaing. The mission stated Marie was supposed have beenwith the group retuming to majority wanted autonomy for the country. from Hienghene. January1985, following a trip to La thatademocratic In At thetime, the Presidentof the French Republic replied Foa while he was in charge of our forces in the central thatthe chancefor internal autonomy had passed: the region, Eloi Machoro was killed by the French colonial wereindependence to becomea department army.It was a period of greatturbulence.I rememberat the or onlyoptions ofFrance. time I was representingthe FLNKS in Australia, on a tour to raise awareness amongst political parties, churches, Returning our country, our elders decided in 1975 to to trade unions and NGOs. Following a meetingin Sydney, oificiallycall for independence.Things acceleratedafter we heardthe news about Eloi. I'll always rememberthe that. 1977,the biggest party Union Cql6doniennetook In words of one of our brothers when he saw the pain and In in upa position favour of independence. I 979, the prosadness my faceon hearingthe newsof Eloi's murderon parties created the Front Inddpendantiste an Australian namedJohn Garcia,who was our interpreter. independence
8th Nuclear Free and Independenl Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti Pase

Johnsaid:"Eloi wasjust oneman.He is gone but you are still here". Manv vears later, I still remember these *oiar. ff. was right when he said that. but he was also wrong, because people like Eloi are rare. People like Jean Marie 'ljibaou don't come along very often. We must protect and guard those who guide us in our struggle, becausethe struggle is difficult and long. I think of you who are here today in Te Ao Maohi, like Oscarand Charlie and all the others. You must organise to avoid things like that, becausewe are but small peoples. When our great leaderspass on it leaves a great gulf eventhough they are still with us as we continue the struggle. We always have Kanakparticipants (from left): Jimmy NAundd (PCRC), need of those who are no lonser with Louis Kotra Uregei(USTKE)and Victor Tutugoro(FLNKS) us . In 1988, we decided to oppose the pons Statute. The strongly. Therefore at that time, we negotiated an opposition included attacks on police posts in a number agreementbecauseour leaders stressedthe feeling that of places, and in particular on the island of Ouvea where we faced a number ofproblems (such asthe lack ofcadre). gendarmes were taken hostageby Kanak activists. you all In 1988,we negotiatedthe Matignon and Oudinot Accords remember attackon the cavesin Ouveain May 19gg, the following the eventsin Ouvea. Theseaccordswere based when l9 of our activists were killed by the Frenchmilitary on a "rebalancing" ofall sectors:rebalancing the training ofpeople; rebalancingthe natureofwork and employmenq During all this period ofthe troubles, it was a very difficult rebalancing in terms of accessto responsibility. time with the military occupation of my country. At the heightofthe militarisation, had 14,000 we Frenchtroops_ Another provision of the Accords was the development soldiers, CRS riot police, paramilitarygardes mobilesand ofpublic infrastructure.To explain this concern, I,d like to more - for a Kanak population ofjust 70,000 men, women cite you a personal anecdote from the period when we and children.One soldierfor every five Kanaks!This shows were in full debate- should we sign the Accords? Is this the degree of repression by France to halt the Kanak the time to negotiate?(A permanentdebatethat onel Each struggle. It gives a measureof what we represented.The time you go to negotiate you must have that debate Kanak independencemovement, in its commitment to amongstyourselves). The weekendbefore we decidedto independence, represents more than g5 per cent of the go to Francein August 1988 for the secondmeetingon the Kanak population.Iftomorrow, therewere a referendumof Accords, a relative of JeanMarie Tjibaou was to be buried just the colonisedpeople,we would seethe same resultas in his village of Tiendanite.Our delegation travelledway Timor. up there in the north to attend the ceremony, and as we passedalong the road to the village, our car crunched on But today,we face a Francethat considers- herein French the road. Coming back down the road, I said to a colleague: Polyresiaaswell as in New Caledonia that our countries "You know, people have real needs.Not everyone has are an extensionofFrance, that all citizensare equal and roads,not everyoneis housedin the sameway". We knew thus all citizens must participate in elections.This is a at that momentwhy JeanMarie Tjibaou was so strongly in negation of the colonial reality: le favour of public infrastructure. fait colonial as it's described the NoumeaAccord. Even if they recognised in the colonial reality in 19g3,they have not translated this The third fundamentalelement was that the Kanaks take into their laws. Today in elections,you'll always see an control of their economy. One of the points of the anti-independence majority, because have beenmade discussion,but not we included in the Matignon Accords a minority in our own countly. betweenthe different partners,was that the Kanaks should gain access the mining sector. to New Caledoniais one of This morning, we heard the report of James Salmon of the richestlandsin the world, with the third largestreseryes Tqvini Huiraatirawhenhe raisedthe issueof immigration ofnickel. Thus the airn ofour leaders,in order to benefit to Tahiti. We have seenan immigration of French citizens, people who were absent from the economy, was that the an immigration that's very insidious becauseunder the Accords would allow us to get a foot in the door in the FrenchConstitutionit's not,,foreign immigration".So we minerals sector.Coming after the Accords, Francebousht understandthe reasonswhy this repression occurred so the mining company SMSp for the Northern provinle.
Page 54


8th Nuclear Free and Independent po"ifr, Confriderue,


which is dominated by the Kanaks. At the time, this produced and exported less than 5 per cent of company thenickelfrom New Caledonia.Today,controlled by propeople, it exports amount to 70 per cent of independence themarket.They are trying to sign an agreementwith the Canadian transnationalcorporation Falconbridge for the construction a smelter in the north. We have also been of activefor tkee years trying to gain control of the nickel reserves the Koniambo Massif. of Thanks this choice made by our leaders,we had access to toa powerfulindustry.Previously,we had seenthe benefits of theminingindustry sentto Australia or to bank accounts in Switzerland. The new riches controlled by the Kanaks allowed to support the diversification of the economy us into the agricultural sector, acquaculture,workshops, construction purchase of hotels, both in the capital or Noumea in the north and islands.More and more todav. or weassert place in the economy. our The Noumea Accord Tenyearsafter the Matignon Accords, we had the choice to goto a referendumon self-determinationor to negotiate anewagreement. leadersrenegotiatedandwe cameto Our in signtheNoumeaAccord May 1998.This Accord forsees a periodof three mandatesof the new Congress(lasting a period l5 years)where we can follow up this processof of rebalancing. The anti-independence forces remain The opposed independence. challengeis that when there to isa referendum self-determinationat the end of the 15on yearperiod,our vision must be met by those who do not supportindependence.

majority in the new Congressand new anti-independence power arising from the Accord. Already, it's a power that won't share,breachingthe spirit and letter of the Accord, which has been recently denouncedby the FLNKS. These then are some of the political problems we have before us, as we face an arroganceofpower, because that power has been given for a certain time. Our desireis that this balanceofpower changesin the next elections, but it's tme that it is a very difficult challenge.Someonesaid to me that you must give us some guidance,because we don't know how to support your struggle. I hope that this information I've given you will allow you to understand our choices: . First, the survival of our people faced with a colonial military power (when you compare the balance between14,000troops and 70,000Kanaks,it's terrible for sucha small people). . Second,after survival, the next step was to make up for the delays that we are confronted with. . Then, to prepare our country for independence, with an economythat we must control ourselves, ensure to our sovereignty in our own land. Theseare the challengesfor the new Millennium. To face thesechallenges needyou. Don't think that the Kanaks we have finished their struggle - not at all. If you think that, you've forgottenall that we've done in the past.We need you. We needthe NFIP movement. If today there are new priorities, think that we have made choices as a small population. But in ten or fifteen years,what has happened in Timor could happen in our country. We call on your vigilance.

Homage to Lopeti Thereare important provisions in this Accord which I should underline.We have in the Noumea Accord a new I would like to furishby sayinga word aboutLopeti Senituli. concept ofNew Caledoniancitizenship.This citizenshipis I was in Suva two weeks ago when I learnt that Lopeti held by the native-born of the country and those who in arrived our country before 1993. Today,there is a debate would be leavingPCRC.I'd like to take a momentto saya overthe tenyearprovision for citizenship,which hasbeen few words. No doubt we'll have other chances do so, to challenged unconstitutional by the French Conseil but I would like to do it from this tribune. I'd like to say as thank you. For NFIP to be what it is today, there has been Constitutionnel. Our desire is that the electoral body work by many representatives should fixed up until the referendum.This accession to who were on the Executive be NewCaledonian citizenshipwill alsoallow us to limit access Board, but always there was Lopeti. I'd like to saythat we to employment, by bit. We are faced with a massive must never forget him, becausehe has worked so hard for bit all of us. When I get to Suva I rememberthe elders.With immigation, with those that come from France and from his wife Lupe, I was joking that Lopeti has agedwith the theotherFrenchterritories. movement.He grew old working for us. I'd like to say thanks again to Lopeti, and add that whatever the hour or Therewe have the new stakes in the gamble that we're day he can always count on his brothers inKanal<y.Merci. taking.We haveheard that a lot of people are sceptical of Accord. This scepticismcan't be wiped away, theNoumea because when you negotiate an agreementthere's always Louis Kotra Uregei is President of the Union Syndicale a different appreciation of its contents - the eternal des Travailleurs Kanak et Exploitds PSTKD, the largest question whether a glass is half full or half empty. We trode union confederation in KanalE Q,{ewCaledonia). of havesupporters the Accord, those who oppose it and He is aformer President ofthe South Pacific and Oceanic of Council of Trade Unions (SPOCTU) and served on the thosewho feel we must be vigilant, becausethe only guarantee the success for ofthese Accords is ourselves. NFIP Executive Board. Kotra Uregei was one of the signatories of the Matignon and Oudinot Accordsfor New We will guaranteethe Accord by our vigilance and our permanent mobilisation.There is an anti-independence Caledonia in 1988.
8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page 55

UN Decade on Decolonisation TheLINDecadeon Decolonisation fnscription in the list of the Committee will berunning the till end the 2000. Swenteen Se, of vear territories Aplan remain rherist, on incruding #il'JjJlli ;f: Guam, beginning ,;i;;;;ffitr?fi::,1.il,':: "i;;;;'"", orthe Dssa6e



no funding a'ocared was f";;;;;;rpose. However, nuru.rorpu"ificterrirories.l::Ir:.y;F _ have successfiriry _"s been u"*.rnr r,.ro



i,i[":l p"rr"r]"i,^w.rioi":j;:trj*#dfill

Governmentsthe have and in pacincnot due NGos given miru",lt:i;:tTfi attention the to


and ."o::Ti" on putting pressure Th"r..countries ;;."'j,:ffi:,nu::i,::*t"*#girful liliill"'if :ffi*;6Hi:"flJ#*::.d+# #i,11*"0,o p,""""i,r,J0"-i,,i"e but orthese territories estabrishment
Rorethe of commiftee
ofasecond J, u"n"""rrury. oecaoe ,, ,::if_rl1,rrd"$rrilf;ru::i;.-m#,g commiftee Ih:rNSpeciar on Decoronisation ff::Tfl'.T prays arore ;l''#tjH::1lr1F:;::::

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Decade therefore pu".to Rico tslands)and *"r*o opporrunities is not on thelisq evenir ,n..) !Yt:t'l


in keepingthe world's concerned ,uppo.t una it hasno governrnenrs uv mstruments implemeno,i*. "n";;i;;';;""i, for andNGos. eo, .*liipte ttrecaseof 'bu1 EastTimor was discussea r". t""* *irrr"ut any action Lobbying of the taken. committee composition of the committee }|il:ttt-ee meets New h.\.-a in these meetings


havea say in budeetw J ailocatio; Td;;;" rherefore blocktheproc"rr.il" isalsosuLject politicar to .l1ng:, r; ,n",,,"C* Rore of the South pacific Forum ".committee

iH3;i,:,1lffi *:.1,!li;;:,;[T;l,Jq:,"dtr*xru:::l*:;iit**t' i#Ji:l:i

active members inclu lvory coast,Antigua i, u g"n"rut andIndonesiu. n"eafor provision ,or, *3T9lttt1 aredeveloping members ofl information, countries. to tie committee_membe^ both unr=t1101.

anocuuaarein,ffi :,ffiL.;#f; :Hil",;:::3,II;";fffifi:"il:nffij;:lTfi jffi",;.lH:,:, :T

strong interests thr in

the commir;; *:fffi:X'i:T

in thepacific. Boiht

*oo,,*',i.-"],1..?, 't""''iio'i";ffflTii:,,iJil:1"iinffii#ififf ;;ifi'ilT1i"#1ll1;Xffn pruv from us the
Hil:::*ffiTJ ;;.;, roretrris in r-elaia"-'rru€rs "oura

was to pacinc ml;i$;$'fu#"Xt*fin;}i#* IT:l"'ysshiprransrerred Region the trom the Caribbean

;ffi,;"i,,-d,,*s ir,. ;:ffi:,*l1r:Tl,;tTj":];,"ti
Sth Nuclear n"

i,re longerperspective rl'r:J:r'q negarive rrH'ffffi',rT.i,"rx,"jl.{|1:;ffi*-LTil'ft*"J a rore as presented a paper' arguing the rhat [tii*i"* shourd ."p."iJnri,iu":.. ', oeregardedserf-governl"s listed as w^,lh ;;;;;Jhip ,ir" n3nr""t.;:;,;;n

a:*";liirT;:*:il'""jl:,":Hffi iit:*liffi }*=r*r.i,*,tff Ar rast the seminar
applyingfor observer_rruru, *irr,

.:,Tfllx*:',ffir#*#r ,,,.,,.n"#il,Tffj jJj j:ilij:f;, g:ili""ft::: ier,i #fl ffi :1Til1TT::TllJ"ff
with sma, states. currenr m:qil*:**:,g:l aried other isrand rhe situarion ," h""iri1i,"itlilrlH
IsLnd,tut.r,,tr,. Ira ro* l."*;* ofthree pacific new a growing of broc


windows opportunities countriesaspiring of for for independence, asFrench polynesia Westpapua. such and Abolition of the Committee n, tu a

Eradicationof Colonialism. r Passa resolution that observersfrom New Caledonia to the SpF should be Kanaks.

TheDecolonisation Committee beenunderserious o Support the has discussion of the situation of French attack theindependence since ofNamibia,whichimplicated Polyresia in the next SpF in Suva,and the inscription that the-remaining territorieson the list aresmallislands of French polynesia in the list of the Committee. which dominant nationsargueare neitherprepared nor interesledindependence. Committee in The suffers from a r R equest the church to support the i ssue of lack funding thebudget theCommittee of and of hasbeen independenceat the local, national, regional and static even or declining overtheyears. DuringtheDecade international level (pacific Conference oi Churches twosub-committees beenabolished have fo'r budgetary and World Council of Churches). reasons. wasthe Sub-Committee small One on tenitoriei, which played important an role in analysing drafting o Support the case and of West papua and the ..Team resolutions individual cases. on The iesol-utions the of Hundred" claim for independince, which will be Committee therefore specific have less reference, now. presented presidentHabibie in to February

Other instruments for achieving decolonisation Other mechanisms ofthe UN_system bemoreeffective mal than Committee Decolonisation.bne the on opiionin ttris tiglf be to explor_e opporrunities the providedby Tuy the Commission Humannigntr. UN on Suggestions action: for o State supportof the NFIp the conference the to continuation theCommittee. of o Promote establishment the of a second Decade the on


Ask Fijian delegation lobby their government to before the next SpF in Suva. Obtain financial support for the lobbying of pacific governmentsbefore they convene in the Spn R equest P C R C to establ i sh a w eb_sit e on decolonisation issues and approach supportive leadersthrough e-mail. Distribute the proceedingsofthe NFIp conferenceto the grass-rootsand translate it into local languages.




Sth Nuclear Frr" ond l, Page 57

participants A_bove: from Ainu Moshiri' Tonga, Te Ao ruaohiand the Fiji tslands Left: The Aotearoa delegation the Maori fly flag. Below: The delegations from Samoaand American Samoa


?li^'"I?:ffJ; i:ffi ::l;i;;"*;l':"'"J:l;:i,#'lfi
#ti<nrt;ilT:tion at therombeau Roi du -thetomb

orthe f'ffi iilHJ:: iPfi::'r::"'raiSecretarv


Below: lan Aujare (DSE, Solo



Keynoteaddress indigenous on rights:

A PermanentForum for rndigenous peopres within the United Nations
Hjalmar Dahl Inuit CircumpolarConference, Greenland
Firstofall' I wantto thanktheorganisers ofthe 8thNuclear Till theendof I ggg, I amworkingasTechnical Free Independent and Pacific Advisorfor cJnfere"tt fo.;i;*ing me tr,. e."ti. councir IndigenouJ peopresSecretariat to speaktoday,regardingIndigenous in feopt"s ana Iheir a;p;;;;" work within the UnitedNationssystem.
I will. concentratemy presentation today not only on the question of a permanent Forum for niigenous peoples within the United Natrons system. I will also touch on the main issuethe United Nations is dealing wiih in retation to indigenous peoples the proclss concernlng ttre lamely Draft Declaration on the Rights of fnaij*ou, peoples. The Arctic Council is a high level forum to provide a means for promoting co-operation,co_ordination and interaction amongthe Arctic States, with the inuotuemeniof the Arctic indigenous communities and other a."ii" irfr"Uitants on common Arctic issues, particular in issuesof sustainable developmentand environmentalprotection in the Arctic; overseeand co_ordinatethe programs establishedunder the Arctic Environmentalprotectlon SO"r.,gV, terms ofreference for and overseeand co_ordinatea"A"pt sustainable development program; and disseminate information, encourage educationandpromote interestin Arctic_related issues.

My name is Hjalmar Dahl and I am from Greenland.I have been working for the Inuit Circumpofu. Conf..rnce since l98l . Inuit CircumpolarConfe."n.. ltCC; i, * intemational non- gov ern me n ta l In u i t o rg a n i s a ti o n representi ng approximately 152,00.0Inuit people 'Greenland, from CanadianHigh Arctic, Alaska ani Cfr*",f.",,t. Russian Permanentpartrcipation Federation. of the Indigenous peoples of the Arctic.is createdto provide for activJp*i"io"ril,n and full consultationwith the Arctic indige""";;;;;;r"ntatives The principal goals of the Inuit circumpolar conference wirhin the Arctic council. Th;Indig;;iu, are: r.opt", organisations participating in the . to strengthenunity amongst Inuit a."ti.'Co*"ir are: the of the circumpolar Inuit Circumpolar Conference,the Suaii Coun"lf region; , tf,e RussianAssociation of Indigenou, p""pi., . to promoteInuit and otherIndigenous Jitr," Nortf, peoples,rights and the Aleut International Associution and interests an international oiaiurtu. on level; o to develop and encourage long_termpolicies which Theworkwithin theUnitedNations safeguard Arctic the system und o to seek full and active "nuironment: partnership in the political, f) The Draft Declaration economic, and social development on the Rights of of circumpolar regions. fndigenous peoples

whichreports the LIN Commission to on HumanRights, I canalso youthattheGreenland tell and HomeRuleparliament l'*]* fuftherreports makes recommendations the to in the.mid-980sadopted policy I andSocial a ,rt" c""r"iiiscoSoc) andtheLrN !l lcgnomic materials should prohibited thutcr.r"h";;;;';; "ri "r. "i;b* be for finaladoption uni oranyirru", ;;il; 9:.lTllottTbly Arctic should a nuclear zone. with human be rights. free
Page 60 ]th Nuclear Free and tn

shourd u" il3;:'","JJ;;;i;; "", p"'"i#THlF:H,:i':?il:,'i,ii,fi""".T,:;*:Til,;:x?

lwould alsolike to informthisimportant conference the principalsand elements a comprehe"r## that for Policv of the ICC mentions that the i""r, .r.."rp"r". homeland, includingits.landunoru.in, u.ia-q ilil., sea-bed and subsoil,shall ard must only b;;i f; purposesthat ate peaceful and safe. i.rting, manufacture, production acquisitio" "rr, or weapons within the Inuit circumpolar "f ""t';;.;;;; homelan; ;;;;;; prohibited. Nuclearexplosions ..pru;;fu1'l i",

to the work within the united Nations, *rf^1*t Peoples rruu.u* inuolvedeveryyearsince llltq:1":t ii tssz or tne uN working Group on l::,:::::t"" and Io]q:l"ut^P:p{-uji91s(wcrp). iire mainobjectives working c.oup wasto devetop a Draft ff*|,:tthe on theRightsof Indigenous peoples well as 3Y11,:"" asto review developments ih" tiuingconditions about of Indigenous peoples worldwide.


Up to date there have been no considerableachievements in regards to get the Draft Declaration on the Rights of IndigenousPeoplesbe adopted by the U N C ommi ssion on Human Rights and then by the GeneralAssembly. Indi genous P eoples' representativesfollowing the process in the United Nations are in favour of the draft as adopted by the Working Group on Indigenous Populations as expressi on of minim um standards on the rights of indigenouspeoples.They will not accept any attempts to weaken or changethe draft.

(centre)in discussion Hjalmar Dahl of Greenland with delegates from Aotearoa and Ka Pae'aina

The WGIP started the process to develop a Draft Declaration the Rights of Indigenous Peoplesback in on 1983. Since thatyear, the Working Group sessionshave placeevery year in Geneva,Switzerland,to consider taken regardingIndigenousPeoplesRights. The WGIP is issues theonlybody within the United Nations dealingwith issues Indigenous Peoples.The sessionsof the WGIP affecting areopenfor direct participation to anybody,regardlessof status within the United Nations. TheWGIP took I I yearsin drafting the Declaration on the Rightsof Indigenous Peoples, containing preambular paragraphs and 45 articles dealing with collective and individualrights as well as the political, cultural, social, economic rights of Indigenous Peoples. The WGIP adopted the draft declaration during its 1lth session in 1994 it was endorsedby the Sub-commission same and the year. The Sub-commissionsubmitted the Draft Declaration to the Commission on Human Rights in 1995 for its and adoption. The Commission on Human consideration an fughtsestablished Open.endedWorking Group in order to technicallyreconsiderthe draft. The new considerations ofthe Draft DeclarationstartedinNovember andDecember will take placebeforethe end of 1995 the fifth session and 1999. Duringthe 3rd sessionin 1997,the governmentsattending theworking group adopted two articles, which are: Article 5 with followingtext: "Ev'ery indigenous individual has the right to a nationality".

paragraph the Draft Declaration Themostimportant of is that the "indigenousPeopleshave the right to selfdetermination. virtueofthatright,theyfreelydetermine By their political statusand freely pursuetheir economic, socialandculturaldevelopment." Duringthe last session WGIP in July 1999,we the of peoples'representatives indigenous madeeffortsto put the issue "land" asa perTnanent within theagenda of item of theWGIP.Theland- andtheright to land- is themost important element existaspeoples. to Withouttherightto land,therewill beno meaning existence peoples. of as Ourpurpose beinginvolved theUnitedNations for in work is simplyto struggle recognition peoples for as with the right to self-determination. are on the samepath We struggling the right to landandindependence. for

2) The Permanent Forum issue Besidesl6 yearsconsiderations the Draft Declaration of on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, one of the main issues UnitedNationsare dealingwith is the possible establishment a Permanent of Forum for Indigenous Peoples within the UnitedNationssystem. The ideaof a Permanent Forumfor Indigenous Peoples within theUN system introduced was duringthe 1980s by groups participated theWorking peoples Indigenous that at Group on Indigenous Populations. that time, the At peoples'representatives presented need indigenous the to create forum at the highestpossiblelevel within the a UN system because WorkingGroupwasat thelowest the levelof theUnited Nations.

And,article with followingtext: 43 "All therightsandfreedoms recognised herein equally The establishment a permanent are of Forumfor Indieenous guaranteed maleandfemaleindigenous to individuals".
8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page 6l

resolution recommended the ioJ':i:'i:::il,: that

Thefirst timetheideaworked itselfintoa document ofthe UnitedNations v


ottl:I:1,proposa ts p,"*rr.a,T;;::ilil:,?jl;

rhen General the Assembry;at;ilN#;ili"T;';

the llT::lll*T to tt e ea Ho?-working within uN (as presented Group):


for swift sour, the estabrishment ofahigh rever
rorIndigenous peopres

we are represented where and *t *otL *itt' *trt andwith govemments issues on "'rttt unO p.oif"r, tt ut aff""is us,in orderto achieve rational;-p'";;ffi'sotutions.

i*T::H:'F:Jr:tmr;*#tpnu$i,i:t mrufl:*il.ra,,ma,,ers
' iilt n.rrrorra irso ue authorised to ca, upon and ,*O,rrn.O f,"._*".trg ;;"0, in specialised fields inai"ia"ui;;;;;, ;;"#,*h"n n"""rrury. ", Thatthe Permanent Forumshouro ..po.t ji...trv to it, o*rn, body, 8.""".i. the andsocial councii.

without acknowledget*' the tigrnJ-a u'pirution, of theIndigenous Peoples ""ii" trt? r"* trrr by states united Nations' Indigenous P*pr"t unJwutl^t"u" ut 'nrtuoeJ

*pi:l*#qrrufu*ff"."[.,ffi k'l;.::.:ru,ffi: :*#i*#flffi
permanent in"t theForum mandate shourd incrude, i", be-rimiteJ io,-tri submission proposars, of "", i#or,n.nautions ano.efons Economic to and sociar

along "tlndigenous with "in"r-ii

'" The circumpolar Inuit conference'Saami the council, the ' Russian Associaiic Peoples.
of.the north

. i:ro":, dia,.gue ;iHlii:il:, ^1l$5*:;.9;:"",'n'::m:,,"* be,ween _ _ workinglook o.t-".y c"n.uu i:::::$F?;il, ror Group pri."r,, inin ;"il:,$il:i;#i,f,lXlii::*e
Forum shourd #"ur.irr"o."i;;";,;*ththeurrangeofissues iltrii,. *:ngut of thepermanent

considered commi.'ion bvthe on a"ii"g theInternational.Decade nu#*,nisr,5 r". irr. #".ra, liaie"";;i peopres' thequestron Now, i;1"';" r,uno, ti, ir


;:Jir:?il#:.r"r;:filg n::y",irr-i"li",a-..


nienoty rerations for princi;i;;?ffiil#'or"o"o,JJ the "r"r:;_r^*I""1,ilra#lla, on

Aftertheviennaconference onHuman Rights t back 1993, in regional .onru-rrurllirence

Nations,and fina'y; llthe overar, vast rhe maio.litv ' of.rndigenour,l,.:r]r, participating ffffi,"ffiJi"',"*,lTH;m,mlr*i"::n:::: considered the'resuli oia;';fi

of agencies ' and 55 ,,';r;il:Tl;il''":Jil"'fi'#jffi1*11;;;j;:"*,.oT; -'vra bvv! organisations attendedthe session' lli,itXlj[l:::,;# budset United


'.:rlx$" f;Tf *t';qi;ti{lf1ff ' *ii*li';}l*?"Hlr**;#}l'T "'t{:iffi
worling ;n;il'be estabrishea iett in advanc" the firsi of

Forum shourd.,pon. Group on lT*j;il:TiTr""'f:,"t Hoc-working the

membership, participation ano '" Nations , bodvpermanent in wtri"tr^u"n"o the

r#.H**#{i:6{9ff a;*:i;* *T*[***:;+*l*fu=
can ,r,u,'1nf"j|oj,s':::1.:t"i^Tl,or*1n, participate.

;fillfl:;t h1;ffiT},?tffif#iq:ffii . [;.n"Forumshou,dbecompose o""r*utionon'i.i,i"'u,-,"i;#;:#""ntForum of tnJ Gou,tPttt.ntatives the unii'a Nuilninree8. #*ffiil#*flf.il3il,fi*Tl:?'#
organisations developed er.,irii?ig""nius peoples, an

il;]1,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,j: ror orrour lh?:.n aperioo years.

.",,,:ii:iiiX'-;:";*|*i[: *Hi:n?** ji-r"j||]lSm;:riiil:'i*. *i,hthe Economic

Forum,;;;;";" Secre,aria,,r,ou .[rui1fifJt[::J?'"T,;;*:lil#*m:nl o.he uv rnaig"nous the Permanent ilHl andstaffed Forum.The effortsby the persons, chair of the
Page 62 Sth Nuclear *" ,

rtering rissue, ,enthe tlarly

level eUN

rould ance pinc ron
'een ited 0us

Theresults the Ad Hoc Working Group sessionwere in of briei that the majority of participating governments expressed their support for the creation of a new organ withinthe UN systemto deal specifically with indigenous issues. this respect, In one ofthe objectivesexpressed by t he ind i g e n o u sc a u c u s - th a t th e term ,,possi bl e establishment" shouldbe eliminatedonceand for all - seems to havebeen achieved. However, governments such as UnitedStatesand India (supported by the Asian group) continued expresstheir opposition to the idea of the to establishment a Permanent Forum for Indisenous of Peoples.

Nations The Commission on Human Rights adopted a resolution to hold a secondmeeting in 2000 to finalise its work in the processof establishinga PermanentForum for Indigenous Peoples within the UN system once and for all. In any case,there are still many outstanding, questions around which it will not be easyto reach consensus on. The proposal made by the Canadiangovernmentto carry out inter-sessional work between Governments and Indigenous Peopleswith the aim of attempting to make progress in gaining a consensusaround a proposal is an important initiative alone, the path to achievementof the Permanent Forum.


ial rus le, ls, al ;o d s

With regardsto the concrete aspects of mandate, level and composition, certainconsensus a seems havebeen to achieved around the fact that the new body would: Hjalmar Dahl is an Inuit from Greenlsnd, ond a leading r Have a broad mandate, covering, not only issuesof campaignerfor the creation of a permanent Forum for huma n ri g h ts b u t a l s o i s s u e s re l ati ng, to the Indigenous Peoples within the United Nations system. environment, development,culture, education and health. He trained as a Teacher then worked from I98I as at ' Be established a high level within the IIN system, Assistant and then Executive Director of the Inuit "linked" directly or indirectly to ECOSOC. Circumpolar Conference(an NGOfor Inuit people of the Be and advisory body to the UN. Arctic region). ' . Havea core croup with mixed composition, made up of Go v e rn me n ts a n d In d i g e nous peopl es In 1992 - 1993, he worked at the United Nations Centre representatives, and for Human Rights dealing with indigenous peoples, . Be funded within the overall budeet of the United issues,and hqs acted as UN representative ofthe Inuitfor the past 10 years.

The new Ainu Act:
fts real effect and meaning
Mitsunori Keira Yay YukarNo Mori, Ainu Moshiri, Hokkaido
Anewact"'AnActforthe-PromotionofAinuCulture,the spread of Knowledge relevant to Aiiu ioiiiionr, ona an EducationalCampaign',(known u, tt. N.* iinu Act) was established on 8 May 1997 in the Diet of the governmentof Japan'This meant that the old Ainu Act, the "Hokkaido Former Aborigines protr"ti*',sct (Law No. 27, March I g9g),,lost its years. fower n"ulfy "t*'lg Peoplecall this act the ,,New Ainu Act,,. However, it is quitedoubtfulwhether cancqn ir o" we " "-:;;.. meant that the ord Ainu Act was not simpry enforced unitut".ariy by the government -""E,!, s,u of Japan.,, Therehad beenfive minor revisions of the old Ainu Act originar u"rrion ,nu,nry focused ""iii-rsZg.'rhe on the ro,owinglr'ee points: (l) Distribution of land to those who wish to be a Iarmer S upport to chi l dren for educat ion and establishment schools of Medical supporrto poor people

regard this as a .,real racial act,,. Evei the *.alu pruir.a this as "a greatachievement establish to a first racial act,, in Japan.But is it true? It is ne""sraf io-"*urnin. tfr. contents and the effect of the Act. Before the establishment the of New Ainu Act, therewas the old Ainu Act of 1899.Many peopte ..the ,*;;;, Old Ainu Act was established without t of ""i"g norany discussion ti..."""sensus *itr, " recent hundreds years.,,

o'e sation';;;J;T3:fi1,t:ilT gir ;; iffi,'"o,T @
(3) ltr.h:"gh fo.ttai{o,

limiting its target to the aboriginal peopte of the Ainu, certainly the Act trie? protect to the Ainu peopte. Nowadays,,or" p".lpl. ,t .r, :iqh: "f :|r" the negariveaspects the Old of Ainu e.t *iich limit occupation, placesto live in and so on.

ethnocide policyhadits ;;;;;*, powerin late1800s under Japanese the government,s development ofcourse it is necessary policyofHokkaido to evaruate effectiveness the /Ainu Mori'iri lrotf,"rianJofthe Ainu of theOldAinuAct. In a courtcase people). 1872, Meiji govemment In in March 1997, judges the the legattfassimitated dismissed the appeal the Ainu of ft:,11i" peopleasJapanese expropriated the Ainu ;;;;;;. and ail the tand function. The placewasreclaimeO^to of Hokkaido as..un-owned construct dam. virginland;.ft," louernment a However, courtadmitted tfrc the enforcedmany laws and reg-ulation, in A."irio" tf,lr..rr,, ainu to t.lutire their the indigenous actions.They sold thoselandls peopleof uokkaiJo. Although tirat tfreyga;ed without f:*.-ii: It wasnecessary consider importance to any cost.Buyerswere Japanese its. very carefully, immigraits,companies the, government Japan of andotherorganisations the,nuin and the local government from of l-uJ. in, landwas Hokkaido neglect mike enough to very cheap res""r.rr-i. irri, project priceor evenno costin orderro affract 3, :-"11 andignored importance iis the of culture.,,it andto help,.develop,,the of *u, land Hokkaido. referringto the fllrgrants landthatwasdistributed tt. r ne goverrrment abused power even UV ";uag" OtAainu its to expropriate the Act. However, to theestablishmrnt due landwhere Ainu people the oitt. N"w Ainu *...'u"r"ffy fi"in*. Act, the Old Ainu Act was abolished without careful discussion explanation. nor As the body of the local government changed, therehad been some rrials helottre,qinu to p."pt; i;;;ll; However, The purpose of establishing New Ainu Act all localregulation the Aiteato support Ainu.Then, can be the finally regarded a prevention as camethe Old Ainu Act in iSSS, itep ,o ..,uUfirf, an act to :O years-after the compensate what the Japanese establishmentthelocalgovernmrnt govemment doneto of has of LodaiAo. theAinu. TheAinu did not ao u,r-ytt ing to ;;;il. efforrs to establish New Ainu Act. this Mr. H. Kawano saidthat:,,There weresome Ainu people who helped establish old ainu to the e.i.-ff,iy visited theAinu peopte to examine the parliament a campaign had as rhefac thatthe to .rtuUiiJ'rf,, u",. ,ni, *!::t Japanese government not abolishthe did Old Ainu Act Page
64 8th Nuclear Free and

;;;;;;ed group of people. As a matter of fait,,i,.." ", *u, un l-mcial article for the recognirionof the Ainu TheAinu peopre people i;;il; suffered under government 1700s was 1900. It the in necessary enact a strict rule to and in 1800s. for the government to The government changed assimilation implement its the Old Ainu Acr. Already in tt policy quiteoftenin thosedays. Jr" juyr, tfr"." rn."einu p.ople were were many mixed blood marriagesbetween deprived oftheirplace liveandtheirculturai to the Ainu and meanng to the Japanese. rely on. This

ouetothis At least, it seemsto be 1l:1t1" foql: true that the people been has discriminated against the protection of the Ainu people Act was enacted for lll iil,n: for l,ny and outcast the

f or 100 y e a rs a n d p ro d u c e d a n a ti o n a l cul ture of discrimination Japanese by toward the Ainu people.People the abandoned Old Ainu Act that was the anti-symbol of thedemocraticcountry, Japan TheNew Ainu Act which replacedthe old one focuses only on the tradition and the culture of the Ainu, not on thepeopleof the Ainu as humanbeings. ed ArticleL' ct le "This act aims to realise the society in which the ethnic pride ofthe Ainu people is respectedan to contribute to thedevelopment diverse cultures in our country, by the of implementationof measuresfor the promotion of Ainu culture(hereafter called "Ainu Traditions"), the spread of knowledge related to Ainu Troditions and the education ofthe nation, referring to the situation ofAinu traditions and culture form which the Ainu people find their ethnicpride." Thecontentsofthis article can be regardedas an abstract ofthe official report ofthe private committeeofthe Cabinet Secretariat the Ainu peopleissuedin April 1996.I had for a personal opinion as following towardsthis report. "The purposeof this report is to isolatethe Ainu people sociallyby stressingon the aspectof its culture only. In order to realise what we need and what we want as an Ainu,a New Ainu Act is not necessary. is impossible It to restoreour rights and social statusa Ainu only by law. I just doubt the opinion that this will drive us to the start line. I would say that this simply drove us to a situation thatwe could not changeanymore.This will not improve our situationbutjust stabiliseour social situation."(Yay yukarNo Mori, Vol. 16,May I 996) In other words, I would say that although this report showed a recognition by the government about the originality of the Ainu, the indigenousness the Ainu, of the history of being oppressed and the history of being discriminated, was limited only to Ainu culture.Similarly it

the New Ainu Act which was basedon this report had only the samemeaningfor the Ainu. Article2 (definition): " "TheAinu Culture" in this act means Ainu language the and cultural properties such as music, dance, crafts and other cultural properties which have been inherited by the Ainu people, and other cultural properties developed form these". The governmentannounced that the governmentand other local govemment organisationshad to support to bring up those who would inherit the culture, had to supportthe activities for the promotion the researchand the publicity work of the Ainu culture. Literally, there is no necessity to have Ainu people in all theseactivities.Moreover,those Ainu peoplewho havenothing to do with the Ainu tradition are considered be exterminated to socially. Basically, there is no culture where no one lives in. "The pride as an Ainu" can not realisedby the possession and expression ofthe culture,but by the digrity to be recognised socially as Ainu - as a people and a nation. This New Ainu Act ignoresthe current situation of the Ainu people. It only focusedon the cultural aspectof the Ainu. So this can be regardedas an ethnocide of Ainu which even the ancient govemmentsof Japannever tried to do. This act which has nothing to do with the current lives of the Ainu people. It cannot be consideredto be a "real racial act". This can not replacethe Old Ainu Act which, at least recognisethe existenceof the Ainu people. And moreover,dueto the enforcement ofthis new act, it became much more difficult to establishan acknowledgment the of public about the indigenousness and the indigenousright of the Ainu people. Some people are saying: "This is just a start. We can developthis act and make it as an ideal act." However,in the hi story of human bei ngs, has there been any amendmentof a law that improved a situation of people? Mitsunori Keira is founder and administrator of Yay Yukar no Mori, a group with the purpose of maintaining the living culture of the A i nu people, t he indigenous people of the Japanese archipelago. He lives in Ainu Moshiri, Hokkaido and wqs organiser of the International Indigenous Peoples Conference in 1989 as part of the Peoples Planfor 21" C entury founding C onference. A mu K ei ra w orke d as a volunteer intern in the PCRC ffice in Suva in 1998-9.
Page 65


Japan's delegation: DorothyDufour,Amu Keira,MitsunoriKeira and HidemichiKano
8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

KathyMalera-Bandjalan, Kum SingandMary Kyra Munro Aboriginal Australia
Kathy Greetings! We're going to start with a dance _ a gift to the Maohi movementin your fight for independence, which,shows courageand commitmentbeyondthe call of duty. I want to acknowledge this as an indigenous Australianpersonwho haslived with the threat of extinction for a long, long time. We have survived and our culture has survived. I am the bloodline custodianof the north_east forest of New SouthWales.I am the custodian Malera of Bandjalan law, language, land and culture. My daughteris the next custodian ofdance,and shewill performforyou a survival dance, with our totem, the kangaroo. tKira Kum Sing performed a beauttful dance at this siage to introduce the presentationJ. Mary: Hi,I'm Mary Munro from Sydney, Australia. My mother'stribe is Wiradjuri. Kathy asled me to come up to explainthe coloursof our flag. Black is for the people,red is for the land and the blood that has been shei acrossour land, and yellow is for the sun that keeps us going. Ijust want everyone in the pacific to know that you have our support. Whatever you go through, we go ihrough. own earth with dignity, is also your freedom _ freedom to the peopleliving and freedomtL the ancestors we carryon My family comesfrom the north-eastforest. I come liom a mountain that is a solid rock of gold. That is the only interestthe Australiangovernment has in my family. Two yearsago' they offered me $ I .3 milrion for my mountain, but that mountainis ofour blood, ofour langiage,ofour law, of our culfure. After five generations, ,ny arity tu, kept it in order as true custodiansand traiitionat owners. This wasfinally recogrrised the Federal in court ofAustraria i n A ugust1999. It's embarrassing say that in the whole to state of New South Wales there are only five families that ever passed this test to remain as Aboriginal Ausfralians. Our people need support to change that. W e have legislat ion introducedafterthe 1992Mabo decision that acknowledges that_"terranullius" (the land belonging to no on"; *u, u lie. It was our land and our law that-hajp.*"i[a.

Lando law and culture in Australia


Not.all our indigenous peo_ple have the strength that my family has. Our strength is from the faith in kn?wmg who we are,in maintainingour language. That might seemlirnny Following the commentsthis morning about {athl: to you mob here,to hearme speakin EngliJ, eueen Pomare,I'd also like to add that we will dressed like ofdr any supporr a nice little white girl. But I cin tell you,'*",Ii Jo anytiring legal challenges bring your to lo.To*l eueen home. We as a meansof survival.As Malcolm X once said:..Bv anv believethat to bring homeyour own people, to lay in your meansnecessary". Aboriginal peoplesay that we believe this principle, but we must do it with tf,e Oignif that our old people did it with. We acknowleAge tf;;iopte are living in a time of revolution, in a timJwhen tiling, fraue got to change.People in power have misused that power, not only in my countrybut all across pacific. the Malcolm X also said:.,A betterworld must now be built,,. The R everend JesseJackson added: ..W e ar e not responsiblefor being down, but we are responsiblefor getting up." pleasetake that challenge on, _d with our two systemsof knowledge, continue the law of our grandmothers grandfathers, and whether in the institutions or in the community. On l9 August,we weretold that the gold on our land was millions of years old. We are very otJ. We come nom ttre first light - that is our berier a beiief that *" ;ii mainrain and keep and teach our children, along with their law and culture to.help keep their identity thiough anytfring. to -i lose that is to lose everything. fn rny f,]una, i,otA ,n. written treaty signedby my people, the Malera Bandjalan, with a SconishsettlernamedEdward Ogilvie. Ilwas printed in the SydneyMoming Herald at the time, Uutfor my Amity this keafy has never been acknowledged o. u.i.p,"a. n this treaty,we kept our mountain and tley gotthe grassto

Flying the Aboriginal flag at the NFIp conference Page 66

8th Nuclear Free and Indrprnd"@1

be implemented'grandchildren' still As we carry t?ese rreaties.
asnativetitle holdersl the?ore and sri;ish

domestic not :*H11,',1;to r"* peopleshoutdnotimain fi:j:,*lt-ffi;:,?,:H:#"j::1T,iil:'i,f* 6^i...^_L- . .l*luliuuptill now.""i-li', achargeab,e treaties have never acknowredged treaties that have that n.u-", been u""n acknowlero"rt - +^ r.^ _
to nu,u. ubffi';,ltfi:?,:ilj:frl!#flXml
we haveoorr"u iot o'r;;;;"" ;"ooort the maintenance mulo, irru" in Austraria. rr"". wi deaths the home, in

^' ::';::::, :?, *"-'';1, ::::,' *":

rheMabocasein ree2acknowredgedourrisht;:H::';;:t;TrH:f,r"i,1";:;:r1T:J:ft*:f}:t .gTr,.qt: stillexisted


people cannotbe ignoredforever.I am a single line of genealogyfromthatmountain'MygreatgreatJldmother Followingamendments the Native to was onlysurviving the Title Act andthe member oitt'" itut".i Bandjalan Ho*u.J lou.rnment,s point pranin 1996, ten hibe'I am her great Aushalia granddaughter' alsothe wasaskeitorespondtotheunitedNationscommitteefor lreat I am product a rape'Manypeople of askmeabout colour. theElimination my I of Raciar urr.lrinutron. Thisneeds be say you:"Forgetaboutcolour.Aboriginal to to peoplearea looked aiiy theNntr rurou.r"niundgroups spiritual people'we can't be what yo,i *unl-u, in thepacific, to be." to seehowth.y .un ,uppon ;;;;;;"p theextinguishment People consider crimes have must the that been committed of native titreon our rand. against indigenous our people, withoutpunishment. Rape is themajorone amongst old women' our we carrythat There many are Aboriginal people Australia haven,t pain' it is alsothe energy keeps in but who that usstrong, making beenas fortunateas me and my family in maintaining again our touches ord;";";,

;il; o*,r', r,r,," :i#tr #:llil*l ily::'ffi*; "ili#:'n"","r "e-r, fur ill TiTffili f ',:"#? "

# wou,d throughagain :ff - '' i'ii1ii'"Tlxiff#'"LilH:;:'iiffi::n;" #,,JJ go t,,ii hisrealname theycalledhim rini so nil['
Kathy MareraBandiaranis an Aboriginar 1999'w.elost' but ontyi."uur. th... isnodomestic in Australia law thattuyt it it unoffence to commit genocide against Aboriginalpeople. eurn tnougl

stories learning ledmeto maintain and that thebloodline law custom and ofmy people' tom a mat itin"ulnution, t'm which also is hardfor sometoaccept' Infact,my grandfather wasnamed "King Billy"' He was the husbind of the

Mv grandmother ago her,r:a1ry died vears rour From f*:"x:T';|hTTffi*;ffi"1?rn,,|il:?
,rr" sior-"nGeneiation.rrri, ir-*, because had the we rounruin, had the forestandthe hills to hide in. we knew our countrybetterthan anyone did. we had men una *or.n who stoodstrongtogether. Theyknewthat

",i *T:Ulf::*dl{j


There agenocide before Federar was case the court :::'J::;I:';#':ry::?:;;r!tr:;:;,;:;:i"':i,:; of Australia August in

activist from

has working'oni,,i,"ofHrv/ A.DS ti" fiTTITli: :FT: *:,Tr:1,ff:,:*:T":Tnocide, she been and ot been indigenous people.
8th Nuclear Fr"" on

with Tranbygoi"gi, t,r"l"iirs thefirst Aboriginal writer arntd'editor "ri with streetwze C7 education initiative y"rrr for orro;:t;:;:":":#:Y

The TangataWhenua
in Aotearoa
Marcia Cassidy
Freedom Roadworks. Aote aroa
Decolonisation politically incorporatesnot only the withdrawal of colonial forces from our lands,but also the crux ofwhat will be the survivalof thoselands- the people's identity. We need our independentnations run by strong people wit h i n d e p e n d e n t mi n d s - mi n d s that are independent our former colonisers. of To decoloniseourselveswe need to break through the barriers that the colonial powers create to keep our mre power, our true identities, our means of existence - not only from the world but also from ourselves. For many young people in jails, on the streets, psychiatric in institutions, in the pubs, on drugs, even in the churches_ theirphysical lives arestrugglingandtheir spiritsareflailing in the winds - their cultural identitieshavebeenstripped, lost and stolenby the generations colonial laws,power of and assimilation. The school system is the biggest institution of colonising our young. It is there that they losethe cultural identity with the land astheir true histories are re-shaped the lies and deliberate by brain washingof the westernculture on our kids. Imagine you have just completedbuilding the house of your dreams.It took a long time as the foundationshad to be make of the best materialspossible in order for this houseto stand forever and ever. The materialsyou have built your house with are the resourcesof the land that you specifically chose as the most appropriatefor you and you people to be housed in. All your furniture has been made by members of your family, immediate and extended- again this was determined by you and the people who would live there. photos of your ancestors, family and friends reflecting everyday the values and customsof your household. Then one day a visitor comes to stay, and signs an agreementto live in the ways that have been determined by the people.Very soonhe startsto rearrange fumiture the but then ever so subtly and strategicallybeginsto move all the furniture out the back door without you even knowing. All the photos are destroyed and the visitor replaces naturalresources the with his own resources all done without your permission and often without your knowledge. You've beenmadea stranger within your own environment. Marcia Cassidy works with Maori youth in Aotearoo (NewZealand), as a member of Freedom Roadwort<s. She was electedto the NFIP Executive Board iat the g,h NFIp Conference.

He Korero
no Aotearoa
Hilda HalkyardHarawira

E Nga waka, E nga reo, E raurangatira ma o Te Moana Nui a Kiwa. Tbna koutou katoa. I would like to acknowledge leaders the ofstruggle in Tirtriti: to King Pomare and his family, the Tahitian eueen, to Pouvanaaa Oopa, to Marguerita Tetuanui,Oscar Temaru, Charlie Ching, Gabriel Tetiarahi and the many active supporters ofindependence. is a signof mana to seethe It many movements represented here. In 1980, two Tahitians attendedthe Nuclear Free pacific Conferencein Hawai'i: Marie ThereseDanielssonand Tea Hirshon. One spoke of the effects of nuclear testing and the other spokeofthe desirefor independence. issue The of "Toto Tupuna" was brought to our attention. For me, they have laid the foundations for our continued networking with Te Ao Maohi. SeveralMaori elders,who have since died,journeyed to Moruroa to voice their opposition to the nuclear testing: Matiu Rata, Galvin Tihema and Huhana Oneroa. Eva Rickard was deported on her arrival at the airport. Like others, I came to the last French tests as a reprisentative of NFIP Aotearoa to show solidarity with the Tahitian

Marcia Cassidy(Aotearoa)
Page 68 8th Nuclear Free and Independent paciJic Conference, Arue, Tahiti

people. was amazedby the conviction of young people I fromall over the world who were draggedoffcoral reefsor whocame the peaceCamp. to I witnessed Australianand New Zealandparliamentarians "taking over". They were passionately opposed nuclear to testing healthreasons for and because was too closeto it thePacific "back door". But they did not want to hear about independence. colonial mini-powersinthe pacific, As theydid not want to offend their French brothers,nor did they wantto recognise call for independence Maohi the by people.If the parliamentarians recognisedthe right of Maohipeople,they would have to recognisethe Maori Treatyrights and Aboriginal land rights at home. From reliable sourceswe highlighted the campaignto release Hiro Tefaarere. Today, are forfunate to be hosted in Tahiti by Tavini we Huiraatira the EvangelicalChurch.This indeedis an and inspirational step forward for the church to be involved in theliberationof its people.I congratulate Tavini for winnine onethird of the political seatsin the TerritorialAssembly. I alsowould like to pay tribute to Nelson Mandela,Father WalterLini, Sitiveni Rabuka, JoseRamos Horta, Xanana Gusmao, Yann Uregei and all the soldiersand workers who haveshown great indigenous leadershipqualities in a capitalist world. We areunitedin our concernto provide a betterfuture for our grandchildren. Decolonisation and Self- Determination Decolonisationis a processthat cannot be won overnisht. It requires many strategies different levels.For the Miori at movement,decolonisationof the mind has been the greatest struggle. Fear of the unknown, fear of losing, fear of change and our distmst in eachother holds us back . Decolonisationbegins when we no longer believe that Maori are born failures. When we acceptthat we deserve justice, we have taken a great step. When we accept that we arethe guardiansofour Treaty,our land rights, culture, language,education, economy and our childrens future, that is another step. years ago, the Maori delegation sought support Jwenty ror: the recognition of our Treaty of Waitangi signed in ' 1840; . for our country to be known as Aotearoa; . for the right to speak our Maori tongue; . for the right to represent ourselves at international conferences; I and we sought solidarity for prisoners who were imprisonedas a result of Maori Treaty grievanceland occupations. We have gained all that support from ourselvesand fiom theNFIP Movement. In Aotearoa we have organisedlocal NFIP conferences,organised speaking tours, and hosted internationalguests.More importantly we continued

:o \ e

NFIP activists Hilda Halkyard-Harawira (right) and l.ea Hirshon

networking with indigenous organisationsand shared ideas, which have mutually benefited our struggles. Although Maori have fought strong resistance battles throughout our history ofcontact, there has been quiet a revolution in Aotearoain the last20 years.Bonowing from Bob Marley, music and art have conveyedmany creative political messages from throughoutAotiaroa. TameIti has erectedan open-airart gallery on confiscatedTuhoe Land. He has issued eviction orders to all non_Tuhoe. Cars passingby are met with the sign ,.Trespassers will be eaten!" Our Maori self-determinationleadershave beenportrayed as"disruptingthe nationalpeace."Good leaders arethose who agree with the Status euo. Although there are fourteen Maori parliamentarians coopteJ by various parties, our liberation as a people cannot be won in Parliament few concessions A havebeenmade.We don,t want to replicatedeal-makingpoliticians. Does parliament haveto be a dog-eat-dog business? now, many ofour For Movement prefer to rebuild our tribal and communify foundations ftst. Te Ohonga Ake or conscientisation has developedamongstMaori grassroots. The revival ofMaori languagehas been a common bond for many, which has led to the establishmentof pre-school andKira Kaupapa (Maori immersion primaryschools). 1) The FIag The Maori flag was borrowed from our Aboriginal cousins. Wc wanted a synbol of pride and identity thai would unite Maori regardl essof tri be, pol i ti cs or rel i gion. O ur
C;rf";;m Page 69

8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacifc

or gani SationTe K a warikira n a f la g c o mp e t it io n in l9 9 0 , We o rg a n is e p a re n t e d u c a . ' o n o " J f f i l i i
and the following design was approved' Red represents burdentoexpectourchildrentoshouldertheresponsib'ity

two parents lockedin a permanent embrace. separated Tane the parents tuk:.:ut-for the living. to The whiiekoru represents ongoinglife' The Maori flag is for those who choose to stand not undera colonial ti'lgn'
retired from organisingprotesimarches to wlitalsi have decidedwe want to adopt-newstrategies ,we for the New Millennium. It was satisf,ing that this y"u". ou, group was honouredby eldersfor our contribution to Maori politics. we are busyin someexciting new projects and they require " all our energy'

curture Maori,anguage i:;r::N2Yi;ii'i^y,::,Kkilti.::::::l:'-":::yth! f:;;F;;ge and rather Ranginui. represents w'rtil::: survive white the sJparation of
in everyday happenings, on ;i;;1 terevision, meetings, schoor, buses. in at on The Neip rurou",nent had ,-oir" greatgainsin thelast20 'nuo, years. vanuat,unogurtii.o;have gained independence.

""rt;l;':r:"?:."::#t:1fi#$ffi?ruI h;;";g" needs ue treaid to

rhis reKawariki announced havelliT:L$ff"i,i:f::1"#iJ:1fJ;*t:fif:fi: vear rormarv that we

i"aig"*r, and independence no rongerdirtywords. are ir,"iinc is our networking centre.It is ourjob to feedthe informationto arertothers. I would like to acknowledge the work of Lopeti and his *ife Lupe. It would be waitefut if we did not utilise the

Movement' self-determinationand decolonisation?By working in my own rural community, by challenging and learning from my people' by creatin! atit-utiu, models I hope to make some small changer] t cun rot charge off every time there is an action alert' I cannot changethe world but I can give energy to a small group of future leadersand potential supporters.

I ask mvserroften I best how can contribute :?|ll*t'"i"irTT:"i#t"[T,il'tri#i;;*;** l" ,1. ryTp ;; NFit

M;;;;;;;.';"".i""*,.0r. Lupe as Lopeti,s uu.tuon"; and all the men, women and children of our Mou;;;nt who supportand strugglefor self-determination.

2)Maori Language

Fromthisgathering, Iaskourpacificcousinsandfuture leadersto: l) RecogniseMaori as tangata whenuaof Aotearoa.I


the Far North community failing in are r.t ootr. For two yearswe ran our own kura kaupapa(Maori immersion school) without any funding.-G nt* receive srate tunding'Therearenow 54 kuia kaupapo in-fre country. As a principalof a Kura Kaupapa,ou. of learn thelocalhistories dialect ou, u."u "hiia.en and of u".uur" theyare nearly lost' The whanau(families)define what are the curriculum priorities Maorichildren a moJem for in world. My taskis to ensure the curriculum that will liberate our childrenand not enslave them' we do not copy the mainstream schools' teach we academic subjects also but Maori values practices and is important uut l:"*:,:t{ leaming-how copeif thepowerfaili to is alsoimponant. we teachour childrenit is normalto u" vao.i' we are preparing childrento governand our manage r.iir, ' o- ou. andour communities'

Agovernment that orMaori in review round85% chldren

i:ffi:,:ifi::,ff::#"Tfi|i. In our language our spirit,our wairua. is "Ko te reo te aspartofthecolonialregime.Tacticalpacincaliances maurio te manaMao!'' If we loseour language lose we wiil always useful be *"J,nu*u1y beneficial. someof our identity'In a recentsurvey it ias foundthat 2) Recognislthat Governmrnr-rponro."d only 8% of Maori are fluentin Maori language. speakers are Maori not th; spokespeople oirt"rutuori movement. language only recentlyb""n They has un official mayspeak government for policies not for Maori '"cognir"-J but language. hascreated ;wn indurtry It its I ant off"., aspirations. opporfunities communify in "u."". 3) services' Maori language is Recognise Maori never cededsovereignty the not a hobby- it is a lifestyle' in indigenous version theTreaty waitangiand of of we

Maori language isan importanttoorrorourdecororisation.


4) Meanwhile Maori will fighi our own baffles home. at Everything havegainea fought we we for. 5) oneiay J..uy t"t?-w"rt". Lini,s advice unite. to onedayyoumtr;;;n;;;;ii,ationmemberincluded in the Southpaiinc Forum.one day we may form a politicat party that i, ,roi afraid of the word ;'independenc"i. on" d;y ;; may run throughthe coloniar checklist routin",o tt uteotearoais included on the Decolonisation iome day t-isi. soonpacific leaderswill have flagpolesfor the Maori and Aboriginal flags... Theproceis Liberation Inesistible of is andIrreversible Hilda HatkyardHarawira is a mother of sevenchildren ;;';;;;:;r"ther of two. sn" isatso the mother of Tb Kawariki, whichprovideseducationar qwareness about

wehavejust approvar a conege, we won to_run and are ':r:.r\::r:lr{{:'::;fLf;,::;;'#r:irfr,i#{:;: universitv. Alloursubjecrs taushtf.-n.oMaori. Aotearoa wlrbe in ";;;:;;:r;?#,ir"l"ri"i"Iff:;ir"!^X{,
8th Nucrcar Free and na"@

o ;:lJ:f:x1,h::3:::l orNFrp i,T,Iy;,,y::,Tf:;^:y:::," i,r;;;"';;;-i,*"*b", 'r:!i:;:',t:",

Bio-colonialismand genetic research
Debra Harrv
Indigenous People's Coalitionon Biocolonialism Paiute Nation. USA
I bring warm greetings from Great Turtle Island and specificallyfrom the Northem Paiutenation, from the high desertcountry of the Great Basin area of Nevada. First I would like to thank PCRC and the organisersof this conferencefor having the opportuniff to be here. I'm thankful and humble to be speaking before you today. Thework that I'm working on is in the areaof biocolonialism - it's thenext wave of colonisation, time at the molecular this level.We're at a situationwherethe technologyof scientists - paticularly geneticscientists and researchers coupled with world-wide interest from countries and institutions andworld-wide funding from theseinstitutionsthat enable scientists look at lifeforms at the molecularlevel,andto to look at the genetic compositionof those lifeforms for a variety of reasons. The world's genetic diversity exists within aboriginal territories. The world's human genetic diversity exists amongst indigenouspeoples.So like it or not, we arehigh priority researchsubjectsby scientists.I cameat this work aboutsix yearsago when I heardaboutthe Human Genome Diversity Project, which targeted 500-700 indigenous populations aroundthe world. They wantedto collect our blood. What they do with the blood samples when they take it is to usea process known asimmortalisation, because the blood is living - the cells are alive. They now havethe capacityto keepthe cells alive in genebanksin laboratories all aroundthe world. Now, when I look at the scopeof humangeneticresearch, with its interestin collectingDNA from indigenous peoples, the institutions that are involved hasgrown. It's no longer just the Human GenomeDiversity project - now everyone and their uncle wants to coilect genetic materialsfrom indigenouspeoples.We are a high priority subjectand object for their scientific curiosity. We are finding when they look at our specific environmentsthat we have unique geneticcompositions.That's what they're looking for GeneticUniqueness. Whenthey find it, it's like gold mining, it's like prospecting - when they find it, they have the abi l i ty to mani pul ate i t. They have the abilit y t o commercialise it. We are at a situationwhereour bodiesnow are facingthe brand of colonisation.Our bodies now are considered a commodity protected by all of the laws that protect the right of commercialisers the global scale.Thereareno on

Debra Harry (second from left) with participants Joe Leon (USA), John Kawowo (papua New Guinea) and First Nations delegatesPriscilla Settee,Mika Usiskin-settee and Lois Standins 8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page 7I

laws that protect the rights of people in the face of biotechnology. that existsarewhail All call flimsy ethics or bio-ethics,but there'snothing in the law that protects us from this kind ofviolation and &ploitation. Wearefacing two major forceswith the advanceof biotechnology. We have seenthe theft ofgenetic resources from our tenitories, from the plants that we have. Now the new commodity is the human body itself. The benefitsare not for us. We are not the peoplewho canafford genetictechnologies, we,re not the people who can afford new medicines or genetic therapiesbut we are consideredobjects of scientific curiosity,we areproviding the basicraw resource. I think the two forcesthat we're coming up againstare first of all - racism.Racismbecause ttreyconsiOJr lessthan us human. We don't have the ,urn"iight, to control our resources even at the molecular level. We don,t have the right to say yes or no. We don't have the right to manage and control the resourcesthat are ours.

integrifyofour ancestry and it's an assault the genetic on integrity of our children,their birthright, and our unbom generations. In the Philippines, indigenous peoples havesaidthey have greparedto meet the genehunterswith spearsuna u..o*r. That's almost what we're going to have to do _ we are going to haveto protectour biological resources. only Not do we haveto protectour land from militarisationor gold mining or uraniummining,or the theft of land _no* *",u, got to think aboutthe molecularlevel.

The oppositionto this kind ofresearch hasbeenextensive the first research.The first opposition that i LearOabout was in 1993from theAboriginal people in Australia.They passedthe declarationopposing ih" Hurnun Genome Project.They nicknamed this kind of."s"u."hile vampire project, because that'swhat they want _ blood. That,s all they're interestedin. Once they get tne UtooAthat,s all they need. they're not going to Jo-" back. They might The secondforce I believethat we,re coming up againstis comewith a lot of promises. They might promisemedical greed. I regret ro inform you that the Hagaiai DNA cell care, they might promisepaymentsin iasir for your blood, line now is available for saleon the Interni you can order but in essence what you're of selling is you. birthdght. up a copy of their humanDNA, viable living cells_ full of They promisecures,to cancer, diabltes, to life essenceof the Hagahai people _ and so on. But for $i t a ftom the in the genetic field, much of the research American culture collections in Maryland thut they u., in the United doing.on diabetes, you can make more of a difference States. in your life stylein your health,in your well being by paying attention to what you eat and making changesln your life We have to understandthat even though we are talking style. You can make more changesin the survival of our about a mysri|/ing ropic _ science,g"i'"ti.r, DNA _ we peoplein the basichealth careoiour peopleby putting in nave [o get a handle on it, and understand it and not be the sameamountofmoney into makini,*. *" n'uveclean afraid of the topic because we're at the front end of this w ater, maki ng sure our chi l dren have new wave of bio-prospecting.With genetics, acc ess t o in our immunisation. That's when we would seechangesin understanding it, it is life .rr"n".. our of eiery part of your quality of health. With genetic technologies,i? s empty body, whether it's your hair or you. btoojoi your skin, promises. You're nevergoing to obtain th"e carriesyour ancestral resuttsof that spirit that belongsto your children. work. It is.not a.commodify,it cannot be biughi rola, oud"O, fixed, manipulatedin the market place. We propose that we have to look at protections at three levels.First of all, you haveto stop the flow of blood out O,ne: other side, they have absolutely no feeling about of your communities.you have to know when researchers what they do with geneticmaterials.ft.y .o._"rcialise and saying:,,We'relooking at asthma, it, they patentit, and they experiment we,re witir it. Because it,s lt.,".o.ing.in IooKrng cttabetes, at lookingat theprostate you,ve life essence, cancer,,. they have the abitity to put humanDNA into got to understandwhat they plan to do with the DNA _ other organisms. They can put it into bacteriar cultures, why do they want it and what do they do with it? For they can put in viruses,and they can put if into plants, instance,with the Hagahai DNA, we no* Ao-not tro* humans and animals.They havethe ability to ..os, sp"ci", whom elsehadaccess their DNA to and what they,re doing barrierswith geneticmanipulation.That hasnufp"n"O to with it in their laboratories. There,s someofour people.Someofour people ;ut 6 monitor now havepartsof what is being done with the DNA, "o once those materials their DNA in animals, in sheep.lt ias happenedto the leaveyour control. Maori, our relatives from Aotearoa.

of this manipulation of life will 6e on life itsetq on ttre environment'and what it means for fufure generations. They are acfually tinkering with the ptoducf;on and the reproduction of life itself and we cannot allow that to happen' our traditionul p::ll:, when they have heard aboutthis research our DNA, have on saidihat this is an act of war on our children' It's an assault on the genetic
Page 72

rlrere wav scientists what impacts is no that can predict the ffiil::i,'."J::l,YJffl,il*il'Xilif#l:,1,:;i:f:f;'ff;
il;-"""g" our resources, our land bases,our peoples, we have i1.no* look at protection of our biological resources.There,s going to be times when we,ll have to do interventions, bJ"aure*" t ro* ro. a fact that a huge amount of money is going to the research. There are ..rru..h i.u^ out in the indigenous communitiesas we speak taking blood. we got to get a handle on who is

8th Nuclear Free and na"@

PriscillaSettee CreeNation,Canada

Sovereignty As part of our missit and economy everyopporru"'"* jlr'l"liiT,:il,nn:,i",lill;l.i"ii for First Nations peoples aspiringyoungleaderslike io,o*.""tingr. ,l"ii _S1*O,rU
I think it's very important that NFIp to develop theleadership ";;;;; u*ong theyouth-So,n;;"r'i,il, I cometo meetings thereare not enough and youth.It,s important thal.elger. peoplepasson the histry ;il;; happened, paticularlyin relation the to Nu.t"* n". anllna"p.nO"nt Pacificmovement becatrse withouttfrattristory, can,t we moveforward.I wouldlike to take thi""ppo*rn.iry to thank ToviniHuiraatira for sponsoring ,fri. Before I left Canada, took tl "*f"r""ce. I ,rr" ."l""ia po*".,


sk'r te' s .*ffi ;ft:li#,:?"jl to H:"TIJ.",I?*I is chaltenging defying and

to thank the.Egtise Evangdtique -tiir. for openingit,s l:3, doorsand proclaiming solidaiity*itt or u, indigenous people from otherpartsof the it is time for churchand communtt;; world.I believe #;;en those ties,dueto thepotiticaluoo..onornil;ilffi", faceall gtobally. humbled stand r,m to ::y^1lo]9r,"ous.peoples up hereand to listento the storiesof o*-L.ot.rs and sisters pacific.t,, t urnit"a ofthe South il;; feeltike amonsgreatleaders. r;;;;;;.aly , :lilo'g ll right have no to be hereexceR^t I ur" I ,tha1 pacificopp-ortunity canto explainthestoryof the South "u"ry iJlry propf" backhome.I takethairesponsibility *.y r".io*fu. tl yr gountU it is estimated thatonly 3 languages of out tndisenous.languages survive wilt b.y;;-J;. turn of .{2 century. the Without languages, *t*" our o* is Aestinea to disappear. aneducator, As t 6.* l";;;;;;roblem. " as cirizenof the so_called First Lr*: y.::,tt:nsibiliry the

PriscillaSettee (First Nations,Canada)

Lois Standing (continued)

;#'; 1""1.5-"f.":_c_ou.-ilgu"oi**itr,i"l;ilfi u,ro ri,ri,;;il;#.,T;:"; TH:::1":", "uri.o about obligation tell thesestories to your
lands which example, Saskatche*@ in

oftr," oiffiffi;":i.i: Y?llo:1"_j:,stories peofre


in a forestry dance was 0,",""i't""N,carasua. ll:: lr.::t-"F:ll|jh. it sun l;::* ::]::l Aboriginal ofIee-8 u""r. lastperformed. are .u'"" unJffi;;il#il; partof : businessesgoing b'u..".n. il;"1ill; ILIIIU9 I(JT llj9.:y"r the Canadian economy. "" rut", pua sTrn My to r r yr r LJ a it,, :1"^:11*Ty_",*l: in r goback "ornrn,inity, u in variouseconomico"u"topm"rrtcommuniry tg..:". tlut every onoui.rr.*. home ,sr ys or";;r; such
sweat roa!. i" urrno;;; yardof
Ulal t ut

, and Inuit businesses Canada: in ugri""i,'u;;gh_tech, retail etc. Somdofthem were startingto form alliancesand developingstrategiesto participate in supportingother inrti_^-^,.^ r._-,,-l indigenous businisses

"""a,"irfrrg In our goalto achieve self_sufticiency througheconomic development, aremanybarriers, WhatI've beenlearning there aboutglobalissues concerns such government as: and andpoliticalinterference;.t".t ofother indigenous *i rio"n"it.lv oro-pl. n""".irg; gSograpt .oilii,rn.n,,, distancefrom icat IVIBA studies contribute my involvement markets;lack "f and or.au"uiiini-una ,o.iut to withFirst problems, Nations whicharetheresultof systeruii. organisations in.Canada. O". ru"irn. roru, of we needto strengthen "iiir"'"spects our economy providejobs in Canadail," to in goat for of ouro*' people build :1.r*:,_I"111^s ryonte a cn r ev r ng s elf _de te rmi n a ti o n and ""*"il o* i s to s tre n g th e n our Uut*ift'rt ut.gl", thatarecombined economies. Therewere about 20,000 firr, with First""ono,ni., Nuti"rr;;;rp;;il"r. Nui?on, metis is a graduatestudentin theMBA courseat ::ts Uniuersity the ::a:dinC of Saskatchewan, ori ,r-,rj.n"a in researching how business deveropment con ossist indigenouspeoples.

lt.*,::f::ltional everyeach familv.

investing a hotelandmedical in .fi"fi

as buffalo.

in otr,"r-purr ffi;


Page 74

Sth Nuclear rr""


; rrs or ings. elop
le to

tant red, lent an't ank bre list [1y )rs

and wiped out the traditional economy. The situations of destruction which the colonial governm€ntshave forced yearour PrimeMinister JeanChretienopenly among our people connect us and are too numerous to Last the of Suharto a meeting mention, but I'm going to leave this speechwith words of to welcomedPresident Indonesia, inCanada. wasmetwith a barrage protests hope. He of ofAPEC

reach backhome. veryseldom journalists

APEC forum. Many youthful student the from parallel protesters laterjailed imprisoned theiractions In spite of the massive attacks against our sovereignty, were and for Suharto. against communitiesare slowly and surely rising, discovering
recognise that the international trade Canadians that like thesetiny SouthPacific agreements bringcountries to countries their kneesalso bring many of the Canadian people a position of povefty. The International Free to Ageementwas the causefor the loss of thousands Trade ofjobs amongCanadians. was the same free trade It that agreements declared civil war on the indigenous people Mexicoin the early 1990s. inChiapas, In Canada in North America, indigenouspeople suffer and fromtheimpactof developmentand are left asmarginalised We communities. are suffering from the loss of haditional Iandthroughpollution. Our land base has disappeared sincethe arrival of Europeansin 1639.There significantly aremanytribal groups who now suffer from militaristic practices NATO, including the tiny Inuit nation in of who suffer from over a hundred low-level flights Labrador lands.The tiny nation of Lubicon Cree,with just overtheir people, becomevictims of largeoil development 2,000 has corporations have been forced into a life ofpoverty and anderosionofthe traditional culture. ancient techniquesand technologies, which sustain governmentsand communities. I was really pleasedto hear about some of the forms of agriculture that are produced in the South pacific. These sustainable models of developmentmust include women, children and the entire community. Women who have often been the keepers of traditional knowledge in all of our communities are now taking leadership in development projects in their community. Soli mentionedthat we must get rid of the multinational corporations that have taken over our communities, whether they be oil companies, companiesthat build mega-dams,clear-cut logging companies,or others. In closing, I believe that social change has two sisters. The one that is quite evident in our community is the one of anger and despair. But if we can use that anger and despair and couple it with its sister of courage, we can have the kind of future that we all envision. Thank you. Priscilla Settee is from the Woodlands Cree nation of northern Saskatchewan. She is co-ordinator of Indigenous Programs at the University of Saskatchewan, and serves as the Canqdian representative for the Indigenous llomen's Network and Indigenous Environment Network. She holds many positions within her First Nationb community, and has been involved in the anti-uranium campaign in Saskatchewan. She has been working to build links between indigenous peoples in Canada and the PaciJic, qnd serves on the NFIp Executive Board.

:ts ls e e

I t I

Presently thereover 200 documented environmental disaster sites in North America.Theseindigenous communities have becomerecipients toxic wastes, of victims ofminingpractices decimate communities that our undermine and traditional economies. owncommunity, My tinyCumberland House theNorthSaskatchewan on River, was once economically an viablecommunity. we had But 18 suicides amongst our youth in one year alone,all because a hydroelectric thatwasputin in the 1940s of dam

8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Page 75

ThemeThree; conserving the environmentfor

our chirdren

Keynoteaddress environment: on

rntellectuarproperty Rightso Genetica'y Modified


andour biologicar resources the pacific in
goes against those people those and religions worship that Theproblem from the Biblicalperspective is thatif you believethereis a Creator, then-youshouldworshipthe Creator not His Creation. and Th1";;;;:;minion, has not beentranslated meana sort to of freediscretion do to whatwe wantwith the

O Le Siosiomaga, Samoa
!or1n1and fabfo.I'd-like to beginby thanking hosts our p:jTto hospitaliry this U.uuiinf **". r atso and thank PCRC,especially t_9le1iSenituli,fo. tfre f.ivifege and of this keinote speech. lono11 being invited ro presenr Evenif I lrasn't giventhatpriuit.g., i*u, i.t.r*in.O to cometo Tahiti,because I,ve beenwalkingaroundthe rwo ,,angles,, my poctei. i*i*o in to come -t-"*T :nn to Tahitibecause completes it G oiu"gl oitolynesia. Another reason wanted come Thhiti I to to wasfor religious reasons. is theeateway the This of Gospel tt e pacific. into It wasfrom herethit the word *", ;;i;;;; amoa (totu to'iti) and spreadto the rest of pacific ,f,. way to Vanuatu, Tuvalu and papuaN"* Cuin"u. "ffSo with due respect Soli, I think Arue is to a fitting placeto haveour conference. Whathasthis got to do.withour theme ,.Conserving _ the environment our children,,? for Giventhevenue the.significance and ofthe Gospel the for pacific,we should South urk ourrrlu"r;;r rh; Biblehas to.say.o.n a significant such topic.For those you who of missed sermon Sunday, picked the on t',ve a-iairiliarverse - it's a controversial verse_ from the Soot ; Genesis, l:27-29.

will be children. Because there,s intentionandmind, that thereis alsoa corresponding obligation on'i, ,o ur" ou, dominionwith the tho.ught there that will be generations comingafterusthatwilialso u. uring tiir lii,ronrn"nr. JustasGodhasmadethe fish of the seas the birdsof and theair andput into themthenature ofa fisii u Ui.O, it ,o is thatwehave withinusthespiritof d";il;.;fyou take a fish out of water.vou seer,f* t go., il;:;;p, gasping for air.It hasbeen iaken out of its nafural environment. Once put it backin thewater, you ;*;y,, g"*

q'il, ;;,,;il: :l;:#i::H"?'i;ll!#r;"i: ri

Wehavethestoryof theGarden of EdenwhereAdamand Evewerechased ofthe Ca.aen. out t it" ilH out of its environment, were separated we from our natural environment waythat God rraa the pranneJ iilna tr,uti, we havethis spirit of dominion *-frif" ir still. We _]tf. want to dominate, because but "God [created we are no longerin that manandwoman]blessed them;andsaidto relationship rhat was madefor them'Be fruirtulandmultiply, d;;;"r."used ianain" our ways.Weu.. no'long", suiisnea it,andrule overthefishof tie sea"and "rii,'|nd subdue dominionin unwise witf, or", in'"f,iraso\th" dominionover nature.We want to dominate skyand overeveryliving thing that our fellow mtoves ;;;" Earth., human beings rule overthem. and

"Then Godsaid:'Behold, have I given every you plant pacific biodiversity yielding seed is on thesurfacJ that ana *ich has yielding "iuriii" be fruit seed; shall"*r,, for How it food does rerate thetheme mornins? this to i[?*" this
I haveemphasised sentence, that because therehasbeen somecontroversy amongst theologians overthemeaning of 'rule'.In some translations, io.J,Jorninion, tfr. i, ur"a inplace .rule'. of questions aboutour relationship the to 3:j-::::,1,"!ses Firstty,God has built into us a spirit of ::::,lT*,. and oomtnron wearemeant dominate to nafure. isnoton It thesame levelasus,andseryes needs. our This therefore
Page 76

r,lin ,T"i'::l:T,:': :Tf"I."ry thecountries thl Norihareuioaiv#^tf;:lT: "ii"""i "onou,,, of

Because our locationon the of planet,pacific Island C.ountries (pICs)havelotsof biodiversi;. ,;;, rich in plants. Because ourposition ,fr"pl"i",'*. of on receive a lot-of sunright,lot of energy, lot ofrain. a a Theislands are rich in marineandtenestriii biodiverJty. a'ti-#us in ttre islands haveinherited richnerr, this in plant diversiry.The Solomon "rp."i"fiy Islands il; havea rich fauna well.CorresponOingi"iir, Guinea "rd'p-"p* as tfrisrichness


8th Nuclear Freeandna"p""@

wealthy countries and technology-rich. Because recent advancesin science,the biodiversity of we've takenforgranted, which hasfed, nurturedand healed us, is becoming of more and more interest to the technologically but biodiversity-poorcountries. rich The arrivalof researchers and scientistsinto our countries, takingsamplesand plants for analysis overseas,is not a newevent.The early explorers did this and it continuesto this day. Until very recently, this activity was largely unregulated. These resourceswere once consideredthe "common heritageof humanity". In other words, therewas a free-for-all. You couldn't say it was yours- if someone foundsomething,took it away, did researchon it and produced somethinguseful, that was the person'sreward. Thishas all changedsincethe Conventionon Biological (CBD), because Diversity we've cometo realisethat there is value in our plants. In many plants, especially the domesticated ones,there has been an input oftraditional knowledgeand traditional ingenuity, but this was never rewarded compensated. or How different is this traditional science from the sciencewe have in laboratoriesconducted by men in white coats? Why is one compensatedand protectedby the iaw, while the other is ignored and called 'thecommonheritageof humanity', openfor all to exploit? So it is with some thanks that we should welcome the

CBD. It now says that you have sovereignty over the resources that you have within the jurisdiction of your country. The CBD has been signed by probably every country representedat this conference.It came about because there was a concern over the deterioration of our environment.Perhapsthe most controversial aspectof the Conventionwas the topic ofaccess to geneticresources. Many countries in the North were disturbed that these resources would become our property under the CBD. However, very few developing countries have the technology to exploit these resources). Thus what they gave us with one hand they took away with the other, becauseif you're not able to use those resources, they arguedthat we should not prohibit or make it difficult for countries with the technology to come in and exploit the resources. This is happeningnow in the Pacific. In Fiji, the University of the South Pacific (USP) in conjunction with people in Verataregion has engagedStrathclydeUniversity in a bioprospecting project.The peoplein the villageswill collect samplesand be paid, I think, about US$100 per sample, which will be taken for analysisat Strathclyde.From what I've seenof the agreement, justified in a number of it's ways: it is bringing in income; it is allowing capacity building because someof thosecollectingsamples will be trained in the nomenclature ofplants; research will be done at USP; and it's allegedthat it is encouragingconservation.

(seated Clark Peteru centre) with Samoan delegation

It is too early to see if this scheme is working, but this latter point is important, as one of the main thrusts of the CB D is t ha t th i s s o rt o f a c ti v i ty s h o u l d promote conservation. Another example is the Japanese Samoa,who havebeen in coming to the Pacific for researchfor sometime now. They have an interest in orchids and ornamentalplants and for several years they have been collecting orchids to send back to Japan.It is only recently that our governmenthas cast a worried eye over this activity, and the visits were beginning to come to an end. Justwhen we thought it was over, however,a new initiative seems be expandingthis ,.economical to botany inventory,, in Samoa.Initially, a researcherfrom Nihon University in Japanhad approachedour National University in Samoa, proposing that we should engage in a mutual plant gathering exercise.The SamoaGovemment rejected this, so the professor from Nihon University then went to the JapaneseEmbassy in Wellington to see if they could interveneon his behalf. That didn't work either. So after a few months he came back with JapaneseGovernment sponsorship for the project, which is something that is harder for our governmentto reject (Before it was simply university to university - now it's government to government). Japan funds a lot of education and infrastructure in our country, so I,m sure it was very difficult for our politicians to turn the project down outright. What they've now done is in the form of a compromise. They've allowed the Japaneseresearcher to engage studentsto go out and collect plants. However, tt.y *" only meant to gather dried specimensand no specimens are meant to leave the country. This is subject to an agreementthat will be negotiatedsometime in the future. to determine whether any plants will be allowed to leave Samoa and iftheydo, to determinewhowill haveownership in the chemical or the gene that is found in the plants.

for the production ofperfume, but apart from that they say they have had no success. Normally these plants will go to our traditional healers, who have generations of experience with these plants. They know which way the plant will work, and what to do with the plant to make it work (whetherto chew it, boil it or masticateit etc.). The researchscientists find it easierto use our traditional healers' knowledge in order to target promisingspecimens, sendoverseas analysisin to for order to find the active compound or chemical that gives the plant its medicinal property.

Intellectual Property Rights (IpR) If the searchis successful, legal protectionis normally properryRights(IpR) are laws sought.Intellectual that protectinventors and ideas.Normallywe associate IpR with inanimate thingslike thetelephone, fax machine, the the microphoneor the TV. But now IpR have been transferred living things. to Thereason hasbeen this done is that scientists haveargued that they've spentso much time and effort isolatinga geneo, u or "o.pound synthesisingcompound thegovernment a that should give some protection thediscovery. lawsgive scientists to IpR temporary ownership bio_chemicals, of isolated genes, altered genes otherinventions. or This givesthescientists (or the company sponsoring scientist) headstartin the a commercialising product. the Thecompany person or can commercialise product profit andrecoup the for theircosts, with a monopoly normallylastsfor twentyyearsbefore that anyone usethe process. can

the Frenchhavea laboratoryin Noumea thatanalyses samples found in New CaledoniaandVanuatu. The lab, run by CIRAD and IRD/Orstom, alsohasbranches in Port Vila and Santo in Vanuatu. They have been carrying out tests on local plants in their laboratories,but they,ri reluctantto give out results. They say they've only found one chemical in a plant that has commercial significance

In thePacific,therearemanyexamples whereplantshave beenusedin this way. In Samoawe have tie mamala plant, a plant found throughoutthe pacific from New Caledonia Tahiti.An Americanethnobotanist to workine in oneof our villages Samoa in discovered compound a ii theplant.He took it backfor testing, theyfoundit has and promising anti-AIDSproperties. That'sthe lastwe heard We were a bit worried and scepticalabout agreements like aboutthis plantuntil February 1999,whenI foundthat a this. It's so easy,once a researcher access collecting, has to patenthad beentakenout over the compound that had to slip a seedor part of a plant into a pocket. We,re also beenfoundin theplant.Thepatent wasin thenameofthe worried that the project has brought a biochemist into the National HealthUnit ofthe US Army andBrighamyoung country when they should only be collecting dried University. talkedto people our count4i, I in from Foreign specimens. A.ftirr, theForestry Deparfinent in thevillages,asking and whether theyhadgiventheirconsent it. Hadtheyknown to The Japanese also active in palau with a marine studies are tlat this had takenplace?No one had known anything centre, as you'll know that palau has a terrific marine aboutit. The point is that eventhoughthe ethnobotanist environment. In fact, the marine environment is more had published paperssayingthat he would sharethe attractiveto the biochemistthan the terrestrialenvironment. royalties ifthis compound werecommercialised. onein no the island beenconsulted has aboutit. In New Caledonia, Another example theplantin NewZealand all know, is you calledtheChinese Gooseberry Kiwi Fruit.Thishumble or fruit growson vinesandis eaten people. wasn'tuntil by It scientists conducted testson this plant and improvedits .,Kiwi Fruit', characteristics theycoined name that the and it became instant an commercial Theyhadmarkets hit. call

With one final example, perhaps our colleaguesfrom Rapanuicanhelp with further information.Lastyear,I heard that scientists discovered micro-organism the soil had a in in Rapanui that had potential benefits for children with kidney conditions.I was interestedin this becausemy Coming closerto home, let's havea look at kava, something niecehasa kidneyconditionandthe newsofthis discovery that nearand dearto many of us. The scientific literature was greetedwith greatjubilation on a supportnetwork for is suggests that Vanuatu is the centre of origin for kava. the children, They hope that this micro-organismcould Originallyit existed in wild form in the bush, but you hold out hope for the children. Thus it is not only plants couldn'tdrink it becauseit would make you nauseous. and marine organismsthat are a vital resource.Even things However, people in Vanuatu cultivated it for many that we have in our soil have potentialbeneficialuses. thousands ofyears and brought out its drinkable qualities. Voyages betweencountries enabledthe spreadofkava to Someyearsago,on behalf of PCRC, Lopeti and I attended Fiji, Samoa,Tonga and all the way to Tahiti and up to a meeting sponsoredby the South Pacific Commission Hawai'i. (S P C ). There w as a request from a B ri ti s h- based organisationthat wanted to catalogue our invertebrates, It wasonly in a few of thesecountriesthat the tradition of micro-organismsand fungi through a driftnet inventory. kavagrowing was continued..However,the Germanshave Most of the species our countries in havebeencatalogued, beenstudying our kava for over 100 years. Today, ifyou but not much work has been done on neglectedspecies lookin the United States, kava is oneof theboomingmiracle like micro-organismsand fungi. I'm happy to saythat after drugs,becauseof its healthful effects. In Europe, it has lobbying by Lopeti and myself, this project was put on nottakenoffat the samerate because is classifiedas a hold by the SPC.Many things neededclarification:what it drug,while in the United States classified a food, so will happento the information if we give scientistsa blank it's as thatit doesn'thaveto undergothe samenumberof rigorous chequeto collect whatever they want and to do research clinicaltests.In America, it's seenas an herb, and you'll on whatever they want? What safeguards would there be find it's freely availablein many US stores. Ifyou look at a for the countriesand communities who own those nlants? bottle of kava, it normally has a patent number or says 'patent pending'. Already, companies are seeking out Protection of Germplasm patentson the way they've processedthe drug or patents on certainchemicalcompounds that they've found in the Germplasm is the reproductive part of plants and many drug. samples from the Pacific arebeing help at the USp's Alafua campus i n S amoa. The S P C i s now proposing t he As a result, since I spoke on this issueat our last NFIp establishment a RegionalGermplasmCentrethat will of Conferencein 1996, the Forum Secretariathas organised housecore collectionsof the region's major crops (taro, two symposiaon kava, to try to seehow they can combat sweet-potato, yams, etc.) this. In the view of the scientists who were there,it would be very hard to apply the present IPR laws that exist to The SPC is aware that crop germplasm has been taken kava. The most appropriatelaw to apply would be plant overseasalready. Kava, for example, is found in many BreedersRights, but this is unlikely to work because of botanicalcollectionsoverseas. Unfornrnately,it seems that the plant's specific characteristics. askedwhether it We for kava collected before the CBD came into force in would be possibleto get trademarkprotectionfor the name December1993,thereis no protection. The feelingis that "kava", as there's nothing more Pacific than that name! it's anyone's propertyif it was collectedbeforeDecember But when we sent in a requestto the Trademark Office in I 993.Ifit is alreadyin your botanical gardenin Singapore, Wellington, the reply was that it was unlikely that the name Malaysia or the Kew Gardensin London, then it's your "kava" could be trademarked.You'll find that overseas properfy,you can research on it, you can try to make new countries will trademark their product as "Kavakava", varieties from it andgain legal protectionover it. "Kava Pill" or "Kava relaxant",but the name"kava" itself hasbecomeso comrnon,so genericlike "coffee" or "sugar", The SPC Regional Germplasm Centre has drawn up a that it can no longer be given trademark protection. contractcalleda materialtransferagreement. This contract will allow member countries access to their collection,so if Coming closer to Tahiti, the noni or nono plant is being you have a cycloneand all your treesor crop species are
8lh Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page 79

the over world for the ffuit, and for some years it was a tenificincomegenerator. But because scientists the and marketing Kiwi Fruit had not takenout ownership the those rights overthe fruit, it was copied in the United Statesand Europe grown in those countries.The bottom fell out and NewZealandKiwi Fruit market.New Zealandis now ofthe much wiser.Eventhoughthey had createda new variety the andunderinternationallaw you're able to protect new varieties no other country can use it without permission, so they hadn'tdone so. The Kiwi Fruit is now grown freely overseas, New Zealandno longer has a monopoly on and market. the

promotedasthe next wonderelixir. The US-based company that is marketing this product has their headquarters here in Tahiti, but they are collecting samples everywhere in the Pacific that this plant grows, such as Samoa,Fiji and the Cook Islands. It wouldn't surprise me that the biochemicals in that plant are already under scrutiny and that there are alreadypatentspending on thesechemicals.

Rights The IntellectualProPertY laws from the United Statesare the most virulent on the Planet. Other countries have seen the danger of these IPR laws and have excluded the operation of IPR over food and chemicals, thesearethe things that because we need for our basic survival. What can we do about this bioprospecting and bioPiracY? We can't refuseto ParticiPatein bioprospecting. NearlY every Pacific counfy has signed the C B D , and the C onvent ion requiresthat you don't Prohibit access to your ge net ic resources. out check thebookstalls participants Conference Another option if IPR patents are taken out over your wiped out, you can have accessto your germplasmin the with the RegionalCentre.In terms of regionalco-operationbetween plant resourcesis that you can lodge a complaint granted the protection. This was the patent office that the Pacific Islands. there is more or less free transfer of casewiththe Neem,aplantfrom India withmanymedicinal germplasm.For countries outside the region, if they want purposes long known to locals in India and other Asian to use this material they have to adhere to very strict countries. Scientists from the United States who fowrd guidelines as to how they make use of it' The other thing out about the properties of this plant were able to get in the agreement, I believe, is that permission must be properties.The Indian sought from the country that has donated the germplasm patentprotectionover someofthese a challengeagainstthis patent and Government launched before it can be transferredto a third party. they were successfulin having it invalidated, on the grounds that one ofthe conditions ofbeing given patent In the Pacific, we often think that the islands are the only Indians place that you can grow kava. But because it's such a protection is that it is a new discovery. Because theseproperties for generations,it was had known about boom industry in Europe and the United States,we can't been met. meet the quotas to fill the demandfor kava. Suppliersare easyto show that this condition hadn't looking elsewhereaswe can't meet the quantity or quality' in Fiji has done. You Fiji produces a lot, but mainly for domestic consumption A third option is to do what USP try collaborative methods with the overseas and when they don't get enough,they import from Samoa' could pharmaceuticalcompanies,to try to strike some balance How then can overseasmarkets be satisfied? betweenthe benefits for you and the benefits for them. in Samplesof kava havebeensentto Queensland Australia Yet another option is to do what Samoa is trying to do, to see if it can be grown, though I'm pleasedto say that of that will regulateaccess foreign after three years there samplesthere are still stunted and which is passregulations into the country. These regulations are biased havealso companies But they're not having a lot of success. samples on favour of the government, reafftrming its rights over beentaken to Guatemalato see if they'll grow' There's no way that the Pacific islands, with their limited land mass, local plant geneticresources. can compete with other countries with huge areas for If you have the capaciry you can conduct the research plantations. yourself. Then if you think that the WesternIPR laws are a great thing, you can make use of them. Most countries in Hawai'i is also involved and therehavebeenplantingsof the Pacific have patent,trademark and copyright laws, so kava there. Even though the Polynesian tradition of you canmake useof your own law. But one problem we've growing kava was discontinuedby the missionariesin found when discussingIntellectual Property Rights is that Hawai'i, the kava they have is in tip-top condition. Our IPR lawshaveWestemphilosophicalthinkingbehind them Hawai'i concernin the other Pacific Islandsis that because islands' This is clear is a stateof the United States,it has all the US IPR laws. and their not applicable to us in the you ask: who owns the plants in your village? Can when Theseare the most predatory and comprehensivelaws on you identify an individual or family that can claim the planet. ownership over a plant? That's what patent law requires you to do: to identify an individual - normally a company Earlier, Debra Harry mentioned IPR in respectof human - to hold the patent. Can villagers apply for that sort of genesand human cells. In Europe, they have had a big protection? That's an open question, but my feeling is ethical debateabout whether we should be playing God' that Western laws are not appropriate for our Pacific You can seehere how man's dominion knows no limits'
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communities. other elementis that the cost of taking The out IPR protection is quite high. That's why you'll find thatcompanies individuals in the countriesofthe North and takeout 99 per cent ofpatents. In order to fulfil the criteria for gettingpatent protection and defending it over the life of the patent,it costsa lot of money and that's often not available us. to Thefinal thing you can do - and it's what many developing countries doing - is to make our own suigeneris laws are which are more appropriate to our own situation. Forget aboutthe western model, let's just start afresh and find whatworks for us. Before I finish, I'd like to give two final examplesto demonstrate man's dominion over nature. The first is the Terminatorseed.You might have heard that this is a seed that scientistshave been able to program, almost like computersoftware. They can build characteristics into the seed.The idea is that when you buy the seed from the transnationalcorporation, it will grow to maturity. But beforeitgets to produce seed,it is sprayedwith a chemical thattriggers a reaction in the plant, producing a toxin that will destroy the plant's fertility. The plant can no longer produceseeds. The idea is that you then have to go back to the seed company to buy new seeds for the next planting. Fortunately, most of our major crops in the pacific (suchas taro, breadfruit, cassava,and bananas) are vegetatively grown- they don't produce seedsbut grow from a sucker or cuttingofthe plant. But for thoseofus who aredependent on seeds coming in, there may be pressure grow these to new Terminator seeds. Biosafety and modified organisms The other concern is over biosafety. Biosafety meansthe esiablishment maintenance means regulate, or of to manage, or control the risks associatedwith the use and releaseof any "living modified organism" (LMO) resulting from biotechnology,which is likely to have adverseimpactson the conservation and sustainable use of bioloeical diversity(CBD Article 8(g)).

more efficient industrial developmentprocesses for transformingraw materials, support for sustainablemethods of afforestation and reforestation, and detoxificationof hazardous wastes. However, significant potential and actual risks associated with the releaseand use of biotechnologyproductssuch as living modifiedorganisms (LMOs) arealsorecognised. Modem biotechnologyhas been applied since the early 1970sand used for applicationin the environmentsince the mi d-1980s. K ey gaps i n know l edge have been identified, most notably in the interaction betweenLMOs and the environment. Many developed countries have formulated recommendations,guidelines, laws and regulations governing the use and release of LMOs domestically,whilst most developing countries lack national laws, regulationsand institutional capacity to manageand control introductions of LMOs. The modern bi otechnol ogy i ndustry i s com pr ised pri nci pal l y of transnati onal corporati ons, such as Monsanto,ICI and CIBA-GEIG! among others.These corporationshaverapidly progressed the field ofgenetic in engineering,to such an extent that a number of organisms that have been genetically engineered or modified have beenreleased into a numberofcountries, both developed and developing.Somehave beenfield-tested. The transnationalcorporations, many of whom are based in OECD countries,haveoften outlined the needto obviate the requirement for increasing demands on food crops, nutrition and supply, particularly in the developing world where the majority ofthe starving are found. The concept is that by genetically engineeringor modifying food crop organisms,for exampleto becomeresistantto diseases, thenthe world food supplywill increase providerelief and and benefit to the world's starving. In addition, global biological diversity is shrinking at an alarming rate, where forests are burnt off, animals are becoming rare and the humanpopulationis increasing. The release genetically of engineered modified organismsto suppleryent world or the food shortages provide reliefand protectionto global will biologicaldiversity.


Essentially,such organismsare those in which the genetic material has been altered in a way which does not occur However,it is also increasingly evidentthat the release of naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. organismsthat have been genetically engineered or Biotechnologyconsistsof a set of enabling techniques modified into the environment also posesrisks to habitats f or br ing m a n -m a d e c h a n g e s i n g e n eti c materi al and ecosystems. This stemsfrom the fact that experiences (deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA) in plants, animalsand with genetically modified organisms show that they can microbial systems, leading to useful products and multiply, mutate, recombine, and spread out of control, technologies after a releasehas occurred. Experienceswith pest organisms,including the ChestnutBlight, Mediterranean Biotechnology may provide: Fruit Flies, rabbits and cane toads in Australia, Kudzu in I better health care. the southern USA and even with bio-control organisms enhanced food security through sustainable releasedto control these pests, are real unmistakable agricultural practices, lesson:once loose,releasedorganismscannot easily be improved supplies potable of water, recalled.
8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacifc Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page 8l

The use and release of LMOs covers both intended and unintendedreleasesituations.Concernsinclude . LMO interaction with various ecosystems. . unintendedchangesin non-targetipecies, . concern over genetic instability in living modified organisms, . accelerated geneticerosion, . increased crop and livestock vulnerability, and that once releasedinto the environmentLMOs may not be recalledand could potentiallyreproduce. Essentially, goal of biosafetyas appliedto LMOs, is the to avert adversehuman and environmentalimpactsthat could follow an LMO release.

Global warming and climate change
Mahendra Kumar SouthPacificRegionalEnvironment Programme (SPREP) Samoa
Mgdam Chairperson, Ladies and Gentlemen, I feel privileged to be allowed to make a presentation to this distinguished gathering.This is the first occasionthat I have had the opportunity to participate in a conference of the Nuclear Free and Independeni pacific, and wish to thank the organisers,pacific Concerns Resource Centre, more specificallyLopeti Senituli,for the invitation. May I also thank our hosts for the hospitality and assistance rendered to us since we first arrived in this beautiful country.

Biosafetymechanisms should: r use the precautionary principle; . be transparent and accountable; r use Prior Informed Consent (pIC) / Advanced InformedAgreement(AlA) . anticipate possible detrimental effects that follows a r eleas e of a n L MO d u ri n g e x p e ri me n tati onor commercialisation; Pacific Regional Environment programme . design monitoring systems for detecting adverse S^orrth (SPREP) outcomes; . plan intervention strategiesto avert, and ifnecessary Th-eSouth Pacific Regional Environment programme remediate,adverseenvironmental or health effects; . (SPREP) is an inter-governmentalorganisation dev elop r e g u l a to ry a u th o ri ty to p re vent the whose mission is to promote cooperationin ihe South pacific development and/or importation oi potentially region and to provide assistance order to protect dangerous LMOs, and in and r encouragedevelopment of the capacity to pursue improve its environment and to ensure sustainable development for present and future generations. biosafety adequately. As a protocol or annex to the CBD, the international community is trying to get a biosafety protocol that will addressthese concerns.But in developing countries in the Pacific, we have to be aware that some of our islands may be targets for experimentation.Our countrieshave a rich biodiversity,with a lot of germplasm that can also be usedfor experimentation.In the nuclearage,our countries were seenas vulnerableand isolated.In the past,this led to our islands being used for nuclear testing. In the biotechnology age, we may be vulnerable to the same pressures with regard to quarantinestationsor field testing for these new organisms.We must be vigilant. On that ca ut ionar y not e I,d l i k e to th a n k y o u a n d end my presentation. C_lark Peteru is a lawyer by profession. He is theformer Director and current president of the envrronmenl organisation O Le Siosiomaga in Samoa. Clark worked at PCRC in Suva in 1994-5, and helped organisepCRC b conference on Intellectual property Rights and IndigenousPeoples' Knowledge in 1995. Clark has been involved in drafting sui generts legislationfor Pacific islands to protect their biodiversitv and inte-llectual property, and also drafted the Hagahii Treatyfor a Lifeform patent Free pacilic.
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The member governments have called upon SpREp, through the "Action plan for Managing the bnvironment of the South pacific Region 1997:2000,,,to focus on a comprehensiverange of regionally_coordinated and nati onal l y i mpl emented acti vi ti es under the f ive Programmes: Biodiversity and Natural ResourceConservation Climate Changeand IntegratedCoastal Management ? 3. Waste Management, pollution prevention and Emergencies 4. E nvi ronmental Management, pl anni ne and Institutional Strengthening 5. EnvironmentalEducation,Information and Training My brief this morning is to talk about two of the areas of up our work, firstly climate change and secondly a programme within the biodiversityarea. Overview C l i mate change conti nuesto be an i ssue of gl ob al environmental concernand one over which pacific Island Countries have been expressingserious concern since 1987.Theseconcerns havebeenreflectedin the activities of SPREP since 1986, and every South pacific Forum Communiqud since1988.They havebeenwell captured in L

8th Nuclear Free and Independent po"ifi"iirf.iE,qrue

recent statements issuedby the Forum Leaders. Since lastSouthPacific Forum,the Forum Secretariat the has facilitated exchange political views with in the the of region and co-ordinated the development of Forum $atements the issue.Consistentwith the 29'hForum on Communiqud, SPREPcontinuesto provide policy relevant scientific technicaladviceto islandcountries and engaged in theclimatechangenegotiationsand build capacityin Pacific island countries to understandand respondto the issue. This has included efforts to further define critical scientific technicalissues this regionandto ensure and for theregion's priorities are reflected in international negotiations. SPREP Activities There a numberof initiatives orprogrammeswithin the are climate changearea currently implementedby SpREp in theregion. These are designed to further strengthenthe capacify Pacific Island countriesto respondto climate of change include: and r The establishmentoftheWMO Sub-regional Office for theSouthwestPacific within SPREP; r The installationof sealevel monitoringstationsin m any c oun tri e s i n th e re g i o n u n d e r a n A ustral i an govemment funded "South Pacific Climate Chanseand Sea LevelRise" project; o The completion of greenhousegas inventories, vulnerability and adaptation studies and training in additionto National Communications under the pacific Island ClimateChange Assistance Programme (pICCAp); r The development of a Strategic plan for the Development MeteorologicalServices the region; of for r The raising of awareness relevantissues of within thecontext of the tIN Framework Convention for Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol; r Assistanceto countries with ratification of the MontrealProtocol as part ofan overall regional strategy to removeOzone Depleting Substances. Frequently asked questions There are a number of frequently asked questionswhen one talks about issues of global warming and climate change.Some of the more conrmononesare: r Is the planet warming? o Climatechangeevidence r Natural variability vs human inducedchanges r Are the trendsdiscemible from the backgroundnoise? . Impactsof climate change e How wlnerable are small islandcountries?
Signing up for climate change workshop


I f )

Science: past, present and future Let me try and briefly cover some of these issuesand begin with a discussion the sciencethat underpinsthe of currentdebateand evidencefor the observedchanees in the climate. l) Global temperature-

According to a World Meterological Organisation(WMO) Statement the statusof global climate,the Earth,sglobal on surface temperature 1998was the highestsincereliable in worldwiderecords beganin 1860,0.57"Cabovethe recent long-term averagebasedon the period 1961-1990.The global temperatureis almost 0.7oCwarmer than at the end of l9'h century. Background The final text of the Convention.In the negotiations, the Alliance of SmallIslandStates (AOSIS) wasguidedby the following principles: r The principle of preventionaction; o The precautionary principle; o The pol l uter pays pri nci pl e and S tate responsibility;
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Duty to cooperate; Equity; The principle of common but differentiated responsibility;and Commitmentto binding energyconservation and the developmentof renewal energy sources.

There is no evidence that tropical cyclone numbers may ghange However,a generalincreasein tropical cyclone intensity(i.e. wind speedand centralp.rrru..; of l0_20%o at the time of CO2 doubling,now appears tikeiy. How this affects the risk posed by ,"u"." storms needs to be determinedon a regional basisand further work is requred to improvethe confidenceattached this resuh. to

r Reducing scientific

From theseprinciples,AOSIS hasdeveloped a numberof Impacts core mediumand longer-term objectivesthat haveguided itsrecentworkontheimplementationoftheclimatechange Another common question posed is whether conventionand the Kyoto Protocol' namely: the smalr islandsof the pacifrc which are regarded o as amongstthe Review of the adequacy and adequacy and mostvutnerable the adverse to er"it, of globalwarming. emissions


oranecdotar evidence. exampre: For

making saline Protoco'sor,tupr" such taro, soiland for cultivation i.ops as piaka yams :ffi1ffi:,"J"::1;:'il;i,#tJJ*,[:oto . Developmentof strongmonitoring, verification and compliance regimes;and o Development mechanisms meetingthe of for costs of adaptation the adverseeffectsof climate to chanse. o Coastal roads, bridges and plantations suffering i ncreasi ng erosi on, even on i sl ands that have not experienced inappropriate coastaldevelopment:

and methodological



the basis of AoSIS positions under the current negotiations the implementation the Convention in of and the Kyoto Protocol. Sustainable Development

rhese principres and objectivescontinued ** n'li,iilt.#::?::-.,fl",':lf;jllll1jl.ililili; have tororm
shortages many pacific countries in includingFSM, Fiji, the Marshall Islands, papua New Guinea, Samoa and Tonga; o Changesin fisheriespatternshave leftmany pacific Island countries with substantialreductions in their seasonal tuna catches;

T he ac k nowle d g e dv u l n e ra b i l i ti e s o f Sma l l Isl and Developing States (SIDS) have also highlighted the necessityfor small island Statesto pay special Increased incidence of malaria with attention o warmer to their sustainabledevelopmentneeds. Functioning temperatures, even in the highlandsof papua New Guinea togetheras a group through AOSIS, small island States and the SolomonIslandswhich previouriy *... too cold to give emphasisto this during the 1gg2 Earth for mosquitoes to survive. lought Summitin Rio de Janeiro. Agenda2l now recognises SIDS as a specialcaseboth for environmentand dwelopment, Indeed the evidencescontinue to support what was for they are ecologicallyfragile and wlnerable. highlighted in the Secondassessment n.po.t produced by the Intergovemmentalpanelon ClimateChange (IpCC) A direct outcomeofthe Rio process that; "the balanceof evidencesuggests discernible was the conveningof a human the Global Conference the sustainable on influenceon global climate.', piecautionary developmeni of R approach is Small IslandDevelopingStates held in Barbadosin 1994. justified by island countriesand significant action is AOSIS was deeply involved in the negotiations and requiredto reduceGHG concentrations the atmosphere in preparatorywork for the conference.A particularlyby the industrialised main focus of countries. AOSIS activities in the past five years has been the implementationof the Barbados programme It is revealingto notethat the pacific Island of Action countrieswhich (BPOA) producedby the conference. contributea negligible 0.03% of global greenhouse gas emissions are in the frontline as far impicts due to the Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) adverse effects of cl i mate change i s concern ed. Notwithstandingthis, countries have continued with The B P O A was th e fi rs t re a l o p p o rtu n i ty at f or the activities.aimed respondingto climate changeand internationalcommunity to give practicat efiect to the undertaking studies to demonstratetheir particular agreements ofthe Rio Earth Summit. It acknowledgedthat vulnerabilities. These should form the basis of future SIDS haveuniqueproblemsand rainfallproduced for this adaptationactivities. studyshow a more El-Niflo-like meanstateover the pacific underclimatechange.Rainfall increases also are distributed Actions in an El-Niflo-like patternbut they generallyincrease over mostof the Pacific. There is a recognitionof the problem internationally and
Page 84 8th Nuclear Free and Indenenffi

Small IslandDeveloping States will be hard hit by sea+vet rise: M.anongi Latham(Cook Islands)Annie Homasi (Tuvalu;, -Uota Charlene Funaki(Niue),Sulufaiga (Tuvalu)and Louisiana Faneva Kakahemoana (Niue)

as you may be aware, a IIN Framework Convention on ClimateChange(LINFCCC) cameinto force in 1995.The Convention: o Recognisesclimate change as a threat o Objectives o Framework and processfor action o Stepsto addressclimate chanse o Major responsibility on develoled countries o Recognises right ofdeveloping countries r Acknowledges particular vulnerability of some countries eg small Islands r Supports'sustainabledevelopment, Its ultimate objective is ,.to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would preventdangerous anthropogenicinterferenceinterference with the climate system',.The Conventionhas beenratified by 165countries,including l3 pacific Island counhies. The Kyoto Protocol, which was adopted in 1997, is designed_to provide parties with firmer guidelines on the levels of emissions and how these ma! be attained. It provides quotas or emission targets to the developed country parties. It allows mechanismsto enable countries to meet their targets.According to the Kyoto protocol, the developedcountries have agreedto an emission reduction of an average of 5.2o/oin their emission during the first commitmentperiod which 2 0Og-2012.

maintain the status quo, which according to the IpCC requiresan immediatecut ofbetween 60_g070. Nonetheless the Kyoto protocol has been accepted as a first step towards tackling this issue.Even so,ihe protocol has yei to come into force and to date has been ratified by 9 countries,7 ofwhich are small island states. To come into force, the Kyoto protocol needsto be ratified by 55 parties accounting for 55o/o the emissions. of

tr'uturePriorities and Actions
The issueswhich we feel are important to the region and needsto be advancedat national, regional and intemationallevelsare: o Adaptation r Capacirybuilding o Technology transfer, and o Transition to climate/environmentally friendly energy paradigm Inlernationally,we continue to call for an early ratification of the Kyoto protocol. We seek greater Uy tt. industrialised countries to reduce eiiissions"ffort at home and return emissionsto 1990 levels as advocated in the LINFCCC.The developingcountries needassistance with sound, envi ronmental l y fri endl y technol og ies and provision of adequatefinancial and iechnical ..rlo*..r ro advance capacity building and adaptation.

This is far smaller than what was proposedby the Alliance Mahendra Kumar is the Internqtional of Small Island States (AOSIS) which wante Negotiations d a 20o/o Ofiicer with the South pacific Regional Erl,irormrnt reduction. Indeed it is far less than what is required to Programme (SpREp), based in Apia, Samoa.


- the work of the south pacific Biodiversity conservation program

Biodiversify conservationin the Pacific Islands region

South PacificRegional program Environment (spREp)
The Pacific region has more rare, endangered and threatenedspeciesper capita that anywhereelsl on Earth. Its marineenvironmentcomprisesan enormous and largely unexplored resource including the most extensive and diverse reefs in the world, the largest tuna fishery the deepestoceanic trenches and the healthiestremaining populationsofmany globally threatenedspecies including whales, sea furtles, dugongs and saltwater crocodiles. Its high islands support large blocks of intact rainforests, including many unique speciesand communities ofplants and animals found nowhere else in the world. For some islands,80%o ormore ofthe species endemic, are andDahl (1985) estimates that 50% ofthe region,stotal biodiversi lverslty is at risk. What the main threats to this biodiversify? Unfortunately this rich natural heritage is increasingly underthreat.Rapid populationgrowth (2.2% for the region; as high as 3.60/oin some countries); habitat destruction from logging, mining, agriculture, uncontrolled disposal of wastes and coastal/near_shore degradation; over harvesting of fish and wildlife ..ro*"ir; and invasive species have combined to put tremendouspressures on natural environmentsand native species.Very new threats to the region's biodiversity are the destruciive live reef fish trade form Asia and illegal bio-prospecting. Some of the main threatsto biodiversity are: . Rapid population growth o Over-exploitationofresources r Habitat destruction mainly as a result of development activities. . Impact of invasivespecies o Live reef fish trade o Illegalbioprospecting SPREP is one of a number of regional organisations (including regional NGOs) who are actively involved in protecting the region's biodiversity. SpREpls addressing this through the following the programmesand activities of its Division for the Conservationof Natural Resources Speciesconservationprogramme. Avifauna and Invasive Spicies prograrnme South Pacific Biodiversity Conservationprogramme (SPBCP) (twice yearly) to co-ordinate their activities in nature conservation. By collaborating with SpREp's other technical Divisions (Environmental Education, Information and Capacity Building (EEIC); Environmental Management and planning (EMP) on cross cutting issues suJh as information, planning and capacity building. The South Pacific Biodiversity Conservation

Programme (SpBCp) o US$10.0MGlobal Environment Facility and AUSAIDfundedthroughuNDp; o Executed SpREpfor thepacificIslands by region. Initiallyfor 5 years from lgg3_ 1997 extended and to theendof2001. Aim of SPBCP To develop strategies the conservation for ofbiodiversity by means the sustainable of biological of use resources by the SouthPacific.

biological diversity, whichcouldbecome conservation areas (CAs); 2) Assistin thecreation CAsthatprotect of biodiversity and demonstrate ecologically sustainable development themanagement by ofnaturalresources by local communities, NGOs and government agencies; 3) Protectthreatenedorendangeredterrestrial andmarine species thepacificregion; in 4) Improveregionalawareness the importance of and means conserving of biologicaldiversity; capacities workingrelationsiips t Improve and between differentsectors and agencies contributing the to conservation the biologicaldiversity. of The Philosophy of SpBCp SPBCPpromotes in-situ conservation biological the of diversify.It seeksto do so by establishing large areas whereinbiodiversity conserved. is The CA concept promoted SpBCpdiffersfrom the traditional by national part andprotected areas conceptin that it allowsfor the utilisation resources a sustainable of in manner, while promoting conservation areas high the of of biodiversity. Theprogramme based the followingconvictions: is on l) It is absolutely essential the local population that be

Objectivesof SpBCp l) IdentiSnewareas important conservation for of

a) b) c)

T he P ac ifi c Is l a n d s R o u n d ta b l e o f C onservati on Organisations- SpREp is a founding member of the informal forum ofregional organisationsiho meet regularly
Page 86 Sth Nuclear Free and l,


an integral part ofthe project initiation processand that they agree to participate in its development and implementation. 2) The Conservation Area Project (CAPs) are intended to be community driven and owned. 3) They must reflect the wishesand desiresof the local people asultimately, the local people shouldtake over the administration and managementof Conservation Areas (CAs). Definition of a 'conservation area'

o CACC reviews and endorses quarterlywork plans and budgets before they are submitted to SpREp. They make sure activities in the workplans reflect community priorities and interests. o CACC ensurescommunity support and assistance for proj ect implementation. o CACC helps co-ordinatesproject implementation especi al l y of acti vi ti es i nvol vi ng the co m m unit y participation. c) Project staff - Conservation Area Support Officer (CASO) and Conservation Officer (CO). r Responsiblefor the day-to-day implementation of projectactivities. o Prepareprogressreports, quarterly workplans and budget for CACC to review and endorse. o SupportCACC and Project Manager. Participatory planning The need to ensure adequatecommunity participation demandsthatthe project management approachis flexible and adaptive. Planning in this context is a continuous process. But a basic indicative plan is formulated at the preparatoryphaseofthe Project to give an overall structure to the Project. This plan is participatory in its formulation and it identihes the objectives, issues,activities, inputs, expected outputs, risks and workplans and budget. SPBCP's approval of the overall Project is basedon this documentwhich is normally referred to as the proiect Preparatory Document(PPD). The PPD becomes basisfor the three-monthlyplanning the processwherethe Co-ordinating Committee plays a major role. Quarterlyworkplans arepreparedby the CASO based on the PPD. Thesearereviewedand endorsed the CACC by beforethey aresubmittedfor SPBCPfunding.The objective of the review is to ensureactivities proposed in the ppD continues to reflect the priorities of the progress in the implementation of the project over the previous quarter and advise and assist project management in resolving constraints and obstacles to project progress. In this manner, SPBCP adheresto its principle of letting the community drive the Project.

Ins lty ng


A generally large (relative to the island(s) on or around which they are established,diverse, geographicalunits which contain important features for the conservationof the biological diversity of the region or country. X'eatures of a Conservation l) Area Project:





4) 5) )f n

e rs It


They cover large and diverse areas encompassing either marine or terrestrial ecosystems both. or Biodiversity is conservedby ensuringthat the use of the resourceis sustainable.In this way, the objectives of sustainableand development are integrated. CA Communities form an integral part of the project management structure. They participate in project planning, implementation and monitoring. Biodiversity conservation uses both traditional practices and scientific methods. Income generating activities that use resourcesand are complementaryto conservationobjectives are facilitated and supported and are an integral part of the conservation strategy. There is emphasison building the capacity of the c om m u n i ty to e n a b l e th e m to ta ke over C A management the long term. in

How is a Conservation Area Project managed?


TheConservation Area ManagementStructure The management structure of each Conservation Area (CAP)consists the following: Project of a) Lead agency (either an NGO or a governmentagency) whoperforms thefollow ing functions : r Provides a Project Manager who has overall Status of implementation oversightresponsibility for the sound managementof the After 6 years of project planning and implementation: Project. o project Conduit for funds and reports betweenthe 17 conservation and SPREPand is the contact point between the Project . areasprojects(CAps) have been established l2 Pacific IslandCountries. in andSPBCP. o o The ceiling of 17 CAPs is determinedto be the Provide technical support to the Project r optimal number that can be supported eflectively by the Responsible SPREPfor the proper management, to Secretariat. useproject funds and accounting for project funds. o The total area under conservation managementin theseCAs exceeds million hectares. L3 b) ConservationArea Co-ordinating Committee (CACC) o Members are drawn from CA community(ies) and The following Table One lists the Conservation Area otherkey stakeholders. r Projectsand their respectivearea: CACC meetsquarterly but sometimes more often if required.
8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page 87


Table1: SPBCpconservation Area projects
1) Arnavon Islands Marine CA SolomonIslands- 8,270hectares 2) Funafuti Marine CA Tuvalu - 3,300 hectares 3) Haapai ConservationArea Tonga- 1,000,000 hectares 4) Huvalu Forest CA Niue - 6,029hectares 5) JaluitAtoil CA Marshall Islands- 70,100hectares 6) KiritimatiAtottCA Kiribati - 52,37 hectares 0 7) Komarindi Catchment CA SolomonIsland- 19,300hectares 8) Koroyanitu CA Fiji- 2,9}4hectares 9) Ngaremeduu CA Palau- 484 hectares Sustainable resource management: Sustainable resourcemanagement an importantobjective is of Conservation Area projects. All CAps pursue this objective through a combination of proven traditional practices and taboos that are sustainable and modern methods. The use of sustainable traditional methods combined with scientific tools is encouraged. Table 2 lists the CAPs and the methods of resourcem-anagement used for different t;rpes of resources. The.methodsare applied either through taboos issuedby traditional leadersand enforcedlocally or through formally constitutedresourcemanagement plans or nationalpolicies supportedby national legislation or local by _ laws. l0) North Thrawa CA Kiribati - 1,270hectares 1l) PohnpeiWatershedCA Pohnpei, FSM - I 0,625hectares 12) RocklstandsCA Palau- 100,000 hectares 13) Saaapu-SataoaCA Samoa- 75 hectares 14)Takitimu CA Cook Islands- 155hectares 15) UafatoCA Samoa 1,306hectares 16) Utwa-WatungCA Kosrae.FSM l7) VattheCommunityCA Vanuatu- 2,276 hectares Total 1,27 8,544hectares

To dateall projectCASOsand several CACC members havebeen trained two separate in sub_regional workshops on community basedresource management planning. Many of themhavesinceembarked the gattrering oi Jf planning information partoftheir rrro*r" i*agement as planningprocesses. Uafoto CAp management The plan wascompleted 1999. Ngeremeduu in The CASOcompleted themanagement for palauin August1999. plan Others are either.reviewing existingplans oiin the information gatheringstages.

in the following areas:

The SPBCPhasbeenactivelyinvolvedin conducting biodiversity surveys all CAs.Duringthelasttwo years, in 1998-99,these included o the complete surveying the flora and faunaof of theKoroyanitu Conservation Ar"u in Fiji, Over the years, SpBCp has been encouraging and o flying fox survey theHuvaluiorest in Niue. of facilitatingthe formulation of formal plansto make resource r ecological studyand flora surveyof the Tofua managementmore systematic, integrative and based on Islands Tonga, of solid scientific data.This approachis important to put in . reconnaissance surveyofthe marineresources place a processof biodiversity monitoring of that is more Jaluit Atoll, Marshall Islands, robustwith verifiable resultsover time. Achieving this aim . bird srudies ofthe Kiritimati Atoll of Kiribati requiresthat SPBCp provide technicalsupport
and fturding

Income generating activities Income generatingactivities play a vital role in strengthening reinforcingthe commitnent and of local communities conservation. in Theyareseen incentives as that supportand strengthen iesolve of enlightened the conservation-minded communities rather than inducements the unenlightened short_term for and utility maximises. reality, both types are found In in CA communities. typesof enterprises SpBCp The that have been assisting setting includehandicraft in up production, ecotourism facilitiesand activities development and marketing, forest tree nut harvesting and marketing,

o The collectionofbiodiversity and resource datato determinethe baselines and the extentofresource use; The training of CASOs in the information gathering and analytical tools and processesfor community based resourcemanagementplanning; o P r ov isi o n o n te c h n i c a l a s s i s ta n ce i n the developmentof CA managementplans o The determining of biological indicatorsand the settingup of biological monitoring systems for biological monitoring.

Page 88

8th Nuclear Free and Independent

Summaryof Conservation Areas
and methodsusedfor managingresource
Listingresource management method, CAs usingeachmethod andresource beingmanaged the corresponding by method 1) Controlling access 1.1 By closed areasor zones Kiritimati,Ngaremeduu, Saanapu-Sataoa, Rock Is., Trochus, fish, trees, Micronesian pigeons, milkfish, Koroyanitu, Arnavon, Funafuti, Uafato, Vattine, Huvalu, birds, turtles, bonefish, parrots, ganivatu (hawks), all Haapai, Pohnpei, Takitimu,TahitiBS marine invertebrates, reptiles, ferns, coconut crabs,
clams,freshwater fish, pigeons,flying foxes,clamcircle, mangroves, coastal plants, kaikerori, land snails. wetlands. 1,2 By closedseasons Koroyanitu, Arnavon, Uafato,Vatthe, Huvalu,Haapai, North Tarawa, RockIs., Tahiti BS, Pohnpei, Takitimu,Nagaremeduu, UtwaWalung, Jaluit

Pigeons,megapodes, flying foxes,coconutcrabs. migratoryfish turtles,mullets,bonefish, groupers, sardines, rabbit fish, Micronesiapigeon,lobsters, freshwater shrimps, atule, trochus, kaikerori, giantclams, mangrove crabs.

lbers hops ring. tg of ment plan leted sare rtion


Controlling harvest Sharks, ifilele, wild bullocks,pigeons, coconut crabs, timberclams, trochus, turtles

2.1 Bysettingharvestorcatch limits Amavon, Uafato,Vatthe,Tuvalu, RockIs.,pohnpei, Tahiti BS 2.2 By definingminimumsizes Kiritimati,Saanapu-Sataoa, Nageremeduu, Jaluit,Tahiti BS,UtwaWalung, Uafato 3 Controlling who can use the resource

Lobsters,mangrovecrabs, fishes,trochus,wrasse, parrotfish, hawkbillandgreen turtles, coconut crabs. clams. ifilele(Intsia bijuga)

ting )ars, aof

3.1 ToonlyCAcommunitymembers Uafato,Vatthe,Huvalu

Fish,landchestnuts, coconuts, freshwater prawns, bats, mangroves, trees,marineresources, medicinalplants, megapode eggs Timber, reef-fish (fenciag), mangroves, fish,bonefish all (Kiritimati),mangrove crabs, parlgpearloysters, fish manta raysandsharkfeeding. All resources mostCAslandmarine in resources tees. and megapodes, coconuts

,t u

3.2 To only license holders Huvalu, Haapai,Rock Is., Pohnpei,Kiritimati, Nageremeduu, TahitiBS 3.3 To only indigenous people Tahiti,Pohnpei, Ngaremeduu, Arnavon, Funafuti 4 Controlling harvesting practices and technology

in cal yes red an ity ]A ve

Dyramites, poisons, smallmeshnets,spear-guns, fin all fish,scuba, poison, firearms, heavy machinery gillnets 3" min., electricfishing,poisonherbs,huntingdogs,coral destruction diving- rubber& wire rods,bowandarrows. 4.2 By banningcertairr typesofharvesting techniques Otherincome generating activities, lowland sakau, use for useof larval stages baits instead fish for aquaria for of fish trade fishing, use of traditional fishing methods, instead dynamites. of


5 Encouraging the use of alternatives/ substitutes Haapai, Pohnpei, TahitiBS,Ngaremeduu, Utwa Jaluit, Walung, Koroyanity

pacific Conference, 8th Nuclear Free and Independent Arue, Tahiri


agricultural crops enterprises,bee-keeping,aquaculture and several others. SPBCP support is in the form of seedfunds for settingup small community enterprises,technical assistance for feasibility, businessplanning and marketing studies,and training. In a number of cases,SPBCP support is in partnershipwith other funding parb:lers.The major ones include The Nature Conservancyin Pohnpei and Arnavon

an NZODA in Koroyanitu. Training of CASOs and community representativescover a wide range of small business management, ecotourismplanning, tour-guiding, scubadiving, handicraft making and marketing. The following list in Table 3 shows the conservationarea projects and the types of income generatingactivities they are engagedin:

Table3: SPBCP ConservationArea Projects- Income Generating Activities
l) ArnavonIslandsMarine CA, SolomonIs. Fishing ventures,ecotourism, handicraft 2) Funafuti Marine CA. Tuvalu Ecotourism- outer-islandtours, scuba and snorkeling, handicraft, pandanusselling. 3) HaapaiConservationArea, Tonga Ecotourism,handicraft 4) Huvalu Forest CA, Niue Ecotourism,handicraft, coconut oil production 5) JaluitAtoll CA, Marshall Is Ecotourism - tours of World War II relics, scuba and snorkeling,handicraft, fi shing 6) Kiritimati Atoll CA, Kiribati Ecotourism - sport fishing, birdwatching, handicraft 7) Komarindi CatchmentCA, Solomon Islands Ecotourism - forest sightseeing& hiking 8) Koroyanitu CA, Fiji Ecotourism - accommodation,forest hiking tours 9) NgaremeduuCA, Palau Ecotourism- kayaking, snorkelingand scubadiving, water spons I 0) North TarawaCA, Kiribati Handicrafts,ecotourism l1) PohnpeiWatershed CA, PohnpeiFSM Ecotourism - forest tours; handicrafts l2) Rock IslandsCA, Palau Ecotourism - snorkeling, scubadiving, water sports. l3) Saaapu-Sataoa Samoa CA, Ecotourism-mangrovecanoe tours; cultural experience; mangrove crab harvesting, aquaculture. 14) Takitimu CA, Cook Islands Ecotourism - forest and bird watching tours 15)UafatoCA, Samoa Handicrafts, bee-keeping,ecotourism l6) Utwa-Walung CA, Kosrae FSM Ecotourism- mangroveforest tours, snorkelingand scuba diving 17) VattheCommunity CA, Vanuatu Lodges for accommodation,forest and culture tours, ngali nut harvesting.

Cook Islandsparticipants Maui BradburyDannyMataroa and ManongiLatham

Building communities


The sustainabilityof ConservationArea Projectsrelies ultimately on the commitment to and capacity of local to communities managethem. SPBCP is active in building this capacity of the local CA Support Offrcer (CASO)' of members the CACC andmany othersin the communities. formal training takesplace regionally SPBCPsponsored as well as in-country. CASOs are themselvestrainers in on skills areasand theseskills arepassed informally several through working together with local colleagues and communitymembers,or in in-country workshops. SPBCPhas also supported study tours by community (mainly CACCs) to similar Projects in representatives neighbouringcountries to promote the exchangeof and experiences the cross-fertilisationof new knowledge' Since1996,the following tourswere funded: r the KosraeCACC touredPohnpei(1998) r the Haapai CACC tour of Uafato and Saanapu(1998) in Sataoa Samoa CAPs o Takitimu CACC(Cooks)tour ofthe Samoan CAP in Fiji (1996) andKoroyanitu . Komarindi CACC's (Solomons)tour ofVatthe CAP (1998) in Vanuatu Lessons learned learnedform the SPBCPexperience ofthe key lessons Some arelistedbelow Community based conservation projects require l) longer time frames for capacities of communities to be and strengthened for income generatingactivities to bear fruit. The sustainability of projects depends on these factorsamong others. In many cases,donors must be committedto supporting CAPs over a term that is longer thanthe conventional ftve-year project life.

Participatingcommunitiesmustbesatisfiedthatthe t spud ofproject activities and benefits amongstthem are fair and balanced.Perceptionsofunfairness and lack of bal ance w i l l undermi ne communi ty i nterest and commitment. A strong CACC is crucial to the sustainabilityof O the CAP. Strong CACCs are usually those with members drawn from all sectors or interest groups. CACCs that of or includetraditional leaders communitymembers status and authority are the most effective and successful. A commi tted and competent C A SO and a 7) supportive Project Manager and Lead Agency is crucial of to the success the CAP. Unrealistic community expectationsof benefitsto 8) be gained are a major threat to their commitment and support for the CAP. It is important that dwing the initial consultationsin planning the CA, that the community membersare fully informed ofthe natureofthe Projectand of the kinds of activitiesand the levels of benefitsto be expected.


Annex 1: SPBCP Secretariat and TMAG The SPBCP Secretariat SPBCP implementation is supported by a secretariat consisting of a ProgrammeManager, ProgrammeOffrcer (resourcemanagement),Programme Officer (socioeconomics), Programme Officer (species conservation), Executive Officer, and two Divisional Assistants. of SPBCP also draws on the assistance other professional staffwithin the Division for the Conservationof Natural Resourcesof SPREP,including the Invasive Species/ Offtcer Offrcer,CoastalManagement AvifaunaProgramme and WetlandsOffrcer.

G r oup A dvi sory Management Local communities need the support of local Techni cal 2) line ministries andNGOs fortechnical advice (rMAG) government Partnershipswith governmentagencies and assistance. advisory The SPBCP also has a technical management andNGOs for this purpose are crucial for the long term Area Projects. group (TMAG) of independenttechnical experts and of success Conservation (IINDR AusAID, from donor organisations representatives Benefits from income generatingactivities must be NZODA) who providetechnical adviceand review project 3) handledin atransparentmannerand distributed equitably. progress.TMAG meetsonce annually. Projectinputs (especially funds) must likewise be handled Samuelu Sesega is the Programme Officer (Resource with transparency. Manogement), South Pacific Regional Environment this Programme (SPREP)in Apia Samoa.In his qbsence, 4) Unity amongst participating communities is vital to holding the Project together. Factious communities paper was presented by Mahendra Kumar of SPREP' affectthe Project' CACC unity andwill adversely undermine

8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Page 9l

Transhipmentof plutonium
HidemichiKano Japan Gensuikin,
Thank you all for letting me sharethis important moment with you. I have to speak about the serious crime now takingplaceon this Pacific Ocean. Two ships, both have the word "Pacific" in their names, Pacific Teal andPacific Pintail, havebeensailing through the Pacific islands to Japan with their deadly cargo of plutonium.This commercialshipmentof nuclearweaponsusable plutonium fuel is only a beginning of 80 to 100 times of theseseries. Thesetwo British-flagged freighterscarry nuclearmaterial MOX fuel (plutonium mixed with uranium), fabricated in Europe from Japanesespent nuclear fuel. Plutonium is that humans known as the most dangeroustoxic substance ever made. It is also a material to make nuclear weapons. This point is important, as it shows the difference from MOX and nuclear waste shipments, another problem spent nuclear fuel from power plants. causedby Japanese These ships need protection from possible attack by terrorists or so called rogue countries,becausethis MOX fuel assemblycontainsaround500 kilograms of plutonium and you can easily make 60 nuclearbombs from it. So, for the frst time as commercial ships since World War Two, thesetwo ships are armed by 30-mm cannonsand staffed by British officers with machine-guns. Security and proliferation issuesare now involved in these shipments. The nuclear industry claims this transport is safe,but they are based upon the safety standardsof the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) that are very limited. The are caskswhich theseMOX fuel assemblies in cannotstand a serious fire or collision. I heard there was a big earthquakein Taiwan yesterday.I do not know the details, but no one can tell there is no possibility of an accident like hit by tidal wave on their long route through the Atlantic, around the Cape of Good Hope in SouthernAfrica, throughthe Indian Ocean,around Australia and through the Pacific islands.Seriousdamage could come from an accident,but no environmentalimpact are assessments done yet. This shows one of the examplesof irresponsibility of this joint project by Japan,the United Kingdom and France. The nuclear industry use lies to claim its safety. They provide information only suitable for their convenience. They cover up accidentsand made up important data.One example recently revealed is the casks used to transport spent nuclear fuel. The nuclear companies changed the
Page 92

data about a radiation shield when they produced it and got a licence by the government. The nuclear industry sentofficials to the Paciftc islandsto arguein favour of this shipment.Japan'sreasonsto justiff their needsfor plutonium use are actually not true. Their ambitious plutonium plan was based on a dream of Fast Breeder Reactor(FBR), which producesmore fuel than it uses. This forty-year old dream was proved wrong and now becamea nightmarewhile creatingtons of plutonium and nuclearwaste. In 1995,the prototypeof FBR Monju had an accidentand that shoul d be the turni ng poi nt of the Japanese reprocessingpolicy. This accident brought Japan's development of fast breeder reactors to an end. The constructionsof Monju look eight years with a total cost of 600 billion yen, or US$5 billion. Monju achieved criticality in April 1994, and succeededin generating electricityin August 1995. The accident happened during a final check before the start up of full power operation and was causedby metal fatigue due to vibration of the thermocouple in the secondaryloop. The leaked sodium coolant reactedwith moisture in the air resulting in a fire, which melted part of the steel floor. The accident was causedby a basic design error of the thermocouple.The sodium diffirsed in a wide area,and will continueto make the plant's instrumentation vulnerableto corrosion. Now, the only justification for Japan to hold on to its increasingsurplus of plutonium is to use it in the form of MOX in light water reactors.Thesereactors are designed to useuranium fuels, and using plutonium is just like using gasoline in oil heaters.It is not safe, and economically speaking,MOX is much expensivethan uranium fuel. There justification or social benefit for the is no reasonable continuation ofplutonium separationand the launch ofa MOX fuel program for economic, security, safety,waste management and social implications. As long as Japan continues its reprocessing policy and continues plutonium separation from spent nuclear fuel already sent to France and the United Kingdom, these dangeroustranshipments could take place. The Pacific Ocean could become a freeway of plutonium and nuclear waste, floating Chernobyls going through Pacific islands every month. Some 50 nations have previously objected to nuclear transport and Caribbean states and the New Zealand Government have already expressedformal opposition. including Marshall Islands,Fiji, Pacific Islandgovemments Vanuatu have spoken out against this shipment. We should act now to speak out. Hidemichi Kano is a campaigner with the anti-nuclear organisation Gensuikin in Tokyo, Japan.

8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Fiji's Christmas Island nuclear veterans
Tubanavau- alabula S Losena Fiji Resource Centre, Islands Pacific Concerns
Iaorana! To the tangatafenua of Te Ao Maohi, I want to thankyou for allowing me to set foot on your land. To the of Superintendent the Evangelical Church of Arue, thank on youfor permitting us to hold the 8d NFIP Conference thank you to this very royal and holy land. A very special themembersof Tavini Huiraatira for their hospitality and possible. hardwork which made this conference ChristmasIsland was encounteredby Captain Cook on Eve in 1777, andthat is how the island got its Christmas name.Christmas Island is in the Line Group north of the Equatorand is politically under the nation of Kiribati, formerly Gilben Islands. the a In 1957-58, United Kingdom conducted seriesof the hydrogenbomb tests at Christmas Island known as the series(thesetestsfollowed earliernucleartests Grapple in Australia, Maralinga,Emu Field and Monte Bello). at As well as British and New Zealandtroops, Fijian military personnelalso took part in the Grapple tests conducted Britain (At the time, Fiji was still a British by colonyand the Fijian military forces came under the It that some300 Fijian Britishcommand). is estimated Army and Navy troops participated in the bomb tests, constructionwork and clean-up operationsfrom 1957 1960.Most of the young Fijian men were betweenthe ageof 19 and25 yearsand most of them single. Fortyyearsafterthe British testednine bombson Christmas Islandand Malden Island, nothing has been heard about fortheir sufferingsfrom forthe Fiji veterans, compensation tests.A US-basedattorney Ian Anderson has the Grapple on been campaigning behalf ofthe British nuclearveterans; who were exposedto the Christmas Island bomb tests. parallelsthat ofthe former Thesituationofthe Fiji veterans testsite workers in French Occupied Polynesia,and other veteransfrom Britain, Ausffalia andNew Zealand. nuclear Thisis the evil of Colonialism.The issueof compensation alsoremainscrucial for the people ofthe Marshall Islands, wherethe US conducted 67 atomic and hydrogen bombs Atolls. tests between1946 and1958on Bikini andEnewetak In late 1996, an NFIP activist StevenRatuva wrote to our PCRCDirector,Lopeti Senituliandtold him aboutthe Court who went to Christmas Case the British nuclearveterans on at the European Court of Human Rights. He Island that the Fiji veteranscould be followed up by suggested thePCRC. Island veterans. We How did PCRCcollect or compileinformation? frst put out a notice in the Fijian weekly paperNa i Lalakai onl5 May 1997. We calledthe veterans cometo PCRCoffice, to where we began the interviews and some of the veterans testified the horror of their work on ChristmasIsland.The response from the veterans was quite good: some physically visited while sometelephonedus - but many of them had passedaway. Most of those that came to visit us had never seeneach other for forty years. Some could not recognisetheir very closestfriends, due to the sicknesses that they havewhich they attributed to their exposureto radiation. There were tears of joy and also of sadness. One of them told me: "You know, I am 20 years older than what I should be actually; I regretted going to Christmas Island. If I had known about the effects before, I would not have gone." Another said: "We were never told what we went therefor, until we arrived. A British Army commandertold us why we came to ChristmasIsland - that was to test the atomic and hydrogen bombs, to help in the development of Britain's nuclearpower.He warnedthat we will sufferfrom some very serious diseasesand our children too will and even our grand children and great grand children as the resultsof the tests.However, you should never tell anyone anything about the activities here on Christmas Island." Some of the veteranscame and said that they still retain their allegianceto the military and will not reveal anything, and will die with it. But many otherswere very angry and quite saddenedby the way they were treated by the Fiji governmentand also the British. The most interestingand moving part was when veterans shed tears to reminisce about their time together at Island.For almostsix months,the offrceof PCRC Christmas was the meeting place of the veterans.Also the media, at national,regionaland eveninternationallevel - particularly the British journalistsandBruce Hill ofRadio New Zealand madevery good coverageofthe British bomb - consistently tests on Christmas Island. PCRC was able to compile informationthrough interviews and some told their own stories. We were also able to collect information from friends like: Ian Anderson;Mrs Sui Kiritome of Kiribati, Bruce Sowter;theAfter CareFund ofFiji.

The Director saw the need to document the heroic deeds It was not easyto collect information about the Christmas the Island bomb tests,there was very little availablein Fiji. of the Fijian veterans.So Mr. Senituli commissioned worktobegindocumentingthestoriesoftheFijiChristmas Secrecyis a featureof militarism. Despitethe hardships
8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page 93


PCRCencountered compilinginformation,we succeeded in we should give in to the French? NO! Do you think we in publishing bookKirisimasi,which waslaunchon the 23 shouldgive in to the British?NO! Do you think we should June1999by Fiji's MinisterforHome Affairs. give in to the Americans? NO! to ali the peoples of the Pacihc who are heretoday: do you think we should give in The book Kirisimasi hasfwo very important features that to Indonesia, Chile, Australiaand New Zealand? NO. We madeit very historic. Firstly, it is the first bilingual book to have been the victims of different agentsof colonialism. bepublished Fiji, in EnglishandFijian; and secondly, in it We must be liberatedfrom the evils oiimperialism. is the first documentarybook of the Fijian veterans who participatedin the British hydrogen bomb tests after fofi are the tangata whenua of the lands of the pacific, iVe as years. the themeof the 86 NFIp ConferencesaysWake up, stand up, work, work forjustice, fortruth and for independence I will take us back to 27 Aprjl l99g when the former Fiji into the new millenium. No Te parau Tia, No k parau govemmentannouncedit would amend both the pension Mau, No Tb Tiamaraa, E Tu, E Tu! Act and the After Care Fund Act to cover the Christmas Island veterans. The Fiji veterans were not covered I want to take this opportunity to thank Lopeti Senituli my because their serviceon ChrisfmasIsland was classified Director and his good and humble wife Mrs. Lupe Senituli in the military context as inactive service,regardless of all yh9 is always quietly working hard behind the scenesin the health devastation experienced by theleterans and both good and hard times. Also I want to thank the their childrenandtheir children's childien. I can confirm to Executive Board Members for working with us for the last you, my brothers and sisters, that it is through the three years. Vinqka saka vakalevr, lrtoto au pito, Kom e consistent lobbying and advocacywork of the pCRC staff mmol tata, Mauruuru maitai. that revoked the attitude and the decision of the Fiii governmentto compensate Fiji veterans. the The payment Losena Tubqnqvau Salabula has worked as a teacher in is on hold now through pCRC's requestto await the hearing Fiji and the Marshail Istands, and curently serves as the ofthe EuropeanCourt of Human iigt tr. Assistant Director Demilitarisation fir the pacific Concerns Resource Centre. She is co_author with Nic To my brothers and sisters of Te Ao Maohi, you have Maclellan and Josua Nqmoce, of the book'Kirisimqsi been the nuclear victims for 33 years, the Fijians for 43 (PCRC, Suva, 199q. years and the Marshallesefor 54 years. Do you think that

Losenasalabura(reft) with Nic Macreilanand Josua Namoce,co-authors Kirisimasi of

Page 94

8th Nuclear Free and tndrp"n@

Themefour:Militarisation and the new arms rece in thePacific
Keynote address demilitarisation: on

The new arms race in Asia and the pacific
Cora Fabros Nuclear FreePhilippines Coalition
As ever,it is througha gatheringofpeaceforcesandthose c om m it t edt o i n d e p e n d e n c es tru g g l e s , that future generations given hope and assurance a better, are for safer tomorrow. Our struggleis an arduousand difficult one becauseof the enormous and powerful foe that confronts But history hastime and againshown,that it us. isnotthesizeor might aloneof theaggressorthat determrne theoutcome of,the fight. It isthe determinationof a strugglingpeoplethat ultimately spells difference, we havewitnessed the struggles the as in for independence ofthe peoplesofVanuatu and now the peoples East Timor (or Timor Lorosaeas it shouldbe of appropriately called).Theseare inspirations that we carry in ourheartsas we build on our work and look for.ward to independence our brothersand sistershere in Te Ao for Maohi, WestPapua, Bougainville,andotherstill colonised Pacific islandnations. Whentalking about strugglesfor self-determination and independence, what stands out is the fact that our colonisers have occupied our lands and subjugatedour people throughthe power of the gun. The use of military andviolencehave beena common denominator, whether we are looking at centuriesof history or contemporary tmes. Thisyear 1999 marks 100yearsof US interventionin Asian affairs. erabeganon 4 February1899when US troops The trampled Philippine soil, undermined freedomand on the sovereignty that our forefatherswon after 300 years of S panis h olon i s a ti o n ,w a g e d a w a r o f c o n questand c colonised Philippines asto gaina marketandmilitary the so stronghold Asia. in ThebloodyUS conquest the Philippinesin 1899caused of thedeathof more than 650,000 Filipinos or 20%o our of population the time. Most of them were civilians. at Historians have describedthe Philippine-American War asAmerica's first Vietnamin Asia. In 1991, the Philippinespeople endedthe US military presence the Philippinesthrough the historic rejection in oftheRP-USMilitary BasesAgreement. is unfortunate It that year 1999also marksthe return of US forcesand this militaryexercises Philippine soil after the philippine in S enat e'r at if i c a ti o n o f th e R P-U S V i s i ti n g Forces s (VFA). This development Agreement will restorethe role that Philippinesplayed when we had US basesin our the

Corazon Fabros, Nuclear philippines Free Coalition country- as an accomplice interventionand aggression in by US forcesin the Asia-Pacificregion,the Middle East, or any part ofthe world. Therearetrendsand developments that supportthe assertion that there is a new armsrace in Asia andthe Pacific.Someelements include: . US military presence the Asia-pacificregion in . TheUS-JapanMilitaryallianceandthe Securiry l99l Guidelines RP-USVisitingForces Agreement, 1999 Foreign aid, armstrade and military and paramilitary build-up US securityand defencepolicies Wargames joint military exercises Asia andthe and in Pacificresion
Zrue, Tahiti Page 95

. '

. .

Bth Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Corlruru,

Themefour:Militarisation and the new armsrqce in thepacific
Keynoteaddress demilitarisation: on

The new arms race in Asia and the pacific
CoraFabros Nuclear FreePhilippines Coalition
As ever,it is througha gatheringofpeaceforcesandthose c om m it t ed to i n d e p e n d e n c es tru g g l e s, that future generations are given hope and assurance a better, for safertomorrow. Our struggleis an arduousand difficult one becauseof the enormous and powerful foe that confronts But history hastime and againshown,that it us. isnotthe sizeor might aloneof theaggressor determine that the outcomeof the fight. It is the determinationof a strugglingpeoplethat ultimately spells difference, we havewitnessed the struggles the as in for independence ofthe peoplesofVanuatu and now the peoples East Timor (or Timor Lorosaeas it shouldbe of appropriately called).Theseare inspirations that we carry in our heartsas we build on our work and look forwardto independence our brothersand sistershere in Te Ao for Maohi,WestPapua, Bougainville,andotherstill colonised Pacificislandnations. Whentalking about strugglesfor self-determination and independence, what stands out is the fact that our colonisers have occupied our lands and subjugatedour people through the power of the gun. The use of military andviolencehave beena common denominator, whether we are looking at centuriesof history or contemporary times. Thisyear I 999 marks 100yearsof US interventionin Asian affairs. The erabeganon 4 February1899whenUS troops trampled Philippine soil, undermined ffeedomand on the sovereignty that our forefatherswon after 300 years of S panis h olo n i s a ti o n ,w a g e d a w a r o f c o nquestand c colonised Philippines asto gaina marketandmilitary the so stronghold Asia. in Thebloody US conquest ofthe Philippinesin 1899caused the deathof more than 650,000 Filipinos or 20o% our of populationat the time. Most of them were civilians. Historians have describedthe philippine-AmericanWar asAmerica'sfirst Vietnamin Asia. In 1991,the Philippinespeople endedthe US military presence the Philippinesthrough the historic rejection in ofthe RP-US Military BasesAgreement. is unfortunate It thatthis year 1999 also marks the return of US forces and military exercisesin Philippine soil after the philippine S enat e' s at i fi c a ti o n o f th e R P-U S V i s i ti ng Forces r (VFA) This development .A.greement will restorethe role thatthe Philippinesplayed when we had US basesin our

Corazon Fabros, Nuclear Free philippines Coalition

country- as an accomplice interventionand aggression in by US forcesin the Asia-Pacificregion,the Middle East, or any part of the world. Therearetrendsand developments that support the assertionthat there is a new arms race in Asia andthe Pacific. Someelements include: . US military presence the Asia-pacificregion in . The US-Japan Military allianceandthe 199I Security Guidelines RP-USVisitingForces Agreement, 1999 Foreign aid, arms trade and military and paramilitary build-up US securiryand defencepolicies War games joint military exercises Asia andthe and in Pacificresion
Page 95


8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti


1) The US military presence the Asia-Pacific The uS in - Republic of the philippines visiting region ForcesAgreementof 1999
The main military basescoveringthe Asia_pacific region arelocatedin Alaska,Hawai'i, Japan, Korea,Guam,Saipan, Singaporeand Diego Garcia. Other Asian countries do not have basesbut are covered by Access and Cross Servicing Agreements (ACSA), Statusof Forces Agreements(SOFA), or Visiting Forces Agreements (VFA) asin the casefor the philippines. These agreements provide supply arrangements and unimpeded sea/airaccess ports and harbours.The forward pr"r"n." to of the United States more than 100,000troops_ with its bases, agreements operations a srumblingblock to and is the self-determination efforts of communities,underminine efforts to createa non-militarised regional securitysysteml The US-Japan military Security guidelines alliance and the 1999 Like previous military treaties between the philippine govemment theUS, the 1999Visiting Forces and Agreement (VFA) and its onerous provisions show utter disrespect for Philippine territorial integrity, environment and the dignity of the Filipino people. The VFA reinhoduces US military troopsinto the Republicofthe philippines,granting them landing and docking rights and extra_tenitorial privileges. It grants special privileges to US forces like exemptionfrom taxes,duties,charges, visa regulationsand judicial jurisdiction over crimes that may b! committed within Philippine territory. The US considered 22 commercial ports as military accesspoints, opening the whole country to unprecedented military presence. US More ominously,the VFA doesnot require the US military to declare whether or not nuclear weapons are on board vesselsentering philippines territory. This allows the transport of nuclear weapons into the country and the possibility of a nuclearexplosion.It also opensthe country to possible externalthreat from enemiesofthe US. The VFA is now a serious threat to our peoples, security and welfare. The US global military uppu.uto, that now spendsUS$264 billion annually - including its 15,000 nuclearwarheads and a new generationofnu"l"* *aupon, - is now a prime and favourite target of dedicatedIslamic groups challenging US imperial interests in the Middle East. They could strike anywhere against US interests, especially US military units sent out against them. A borderless US military presence in the country anracts borderlessretaliation and attacks by America,s foes.

Today, the comerstone of US military presencein Asia andthe Pacific is still the US-Japan military alliance. The revised Japan-US Mutual Defence Co_operation Guidelines,signed in 1999, intensi$r the nature and range of US-Japan military operations, causing uneaseamong Japan's neighbours. Theseguidelineswill allow Japanese forces to provide strongerrearguardsupport to US forces in crises that directly threaten the country's security. US naval shipswould be allowed to useJapanese civilianports and J apan e s es h i p s c o u l d c o n d u c t mi n e_sw eepi ng operations.It improves US-Japanmilitary co_operation in providing fuel, food, medical servicesand transportand allows Japanto sendwarshipsto rescue Japanese citizens overseas.

Other "activities" granted to US forces by the VFA have grave implicationsfor both our public and private security. In Okinawa, US Marine Expeditionary units form the core The US National SecurityAgency (NSA) iras developeda oftoday's interventionaryforcesin the Asia_pacificresion. global surveillancesystemcalled ECHELON, which is a In this region, US military might is actually the lalgest powerful electronic net that intercepts and monitors all military force overseas a foreign militarypower on land phone,fax, e-mail andmodem of signals.The l99g European and sea.As US Air Force GeneralJohn Lorber bragged: Parliament report entitled,,An appraisat of technoligies "We the US, are a Pacific nation where commandextends of political control, has listed serious and has from the west coast of the United Statesto the eastern recommended an intensive investigation "on""-, of US_NSA coastof Africa and includesboth polar extremes." operations, which utilisemilitary communications, facilities in other host countries. The NSA ECHELON system The United Statesaims to maintain and expand existing provides awesomepotential for abuse against civilian bilateral military and security treaties,the core of which is targetsand governments worldwide, even againstallies of the inter-operability ofstrategy, commandand equipment, the US. and where the US military command is the .,first amons equals".Corollary to this is the US doctrineof .,openanJ In the VFA, the definition of US military personnelincludes unimpededaccess"to Asia-pacific watersand the Indian not only US soldiers and sailors but also 44 civilian Ocean. personnel who are employed by the US armed forces. These US "civilians" include technicians and specialists US military today is anchoredon six securitytreatiesin the the National Security Agency, which during the time of _of region with Japan( I 95 I ), the Republic of Korea ( 1953), US basesoperatedspy communication facilities at Clark, Australia( I 95 I ), the philippines( I 95 I Thailand(1954) S ubi c and C amp John H ay. ), A l l pri vate ci tizens' and the Compactsof Free Associationwith the Marshall communications are intercepted and monitored bv the Islands, Federated States Micronesiaand palau(19g6). ECHELON system,which is one ofthe most sophisticated of
Page 96 8th Nuclear Free and tndrp"@i

nefworksin the world. Accordingto NickT eavesdropping 1996 book about the internationalspy network Hager's "secretPower", the US has not only beenusing its NSA to system collectpolitical,military andeconomic ECFIELON According to Hager,"there againstits enemies. intelligence interceptionof the ASEAN countriesincluding isextensive receivespecial . thePhilippines . . whereASEAN meetings of with both public and private communications attention thesecountries being intercepted to reveal the topics dis c us s ed p o s i ti o n s b e i n g ta k e n a n d pol i cy bei ng , Through the VFA, US plansto fully restore considered." its ECHELON system in the Philippines,which was interruptedby the pullout of US military facilities and ECHELON functionsasan electronicinterceptand bases. pr oc es s in g o p e ra ti o n g e a re d to w a rds ci vi l i an including those of governments. communications, We are concernedabout the environmentaldestruction and that will again be inflicted by US military exercises port calls. The Prefectureof Okinawa has documented environmental contamination and damage on its shores Some tkough the US port calls and military exercises. examples: their forests have destroyed a) artillery firing exercises and mountains and contaminatedlands with TNT, RBX, DNT and unexplodedammunitionand missiles; lead of b) contamination Okinawanwatersby asbestos, andPCB; c ) r ed s o i l e ro s i o n a s a re s u l t o f re gul ar mi l i tary manoeuvres, d) cobalt 60 emitted from military ports; e) PCB polluting Okinawacivilian watersupply; City in f) mutantfrogs havebeendiscovered Gushkawa coastalareasurounding US military facilities. With the VFA, Filipinos could onceagainbe atthe receiving end of human rights violations commiftedby US armed may once again be mistakenas wild forces.Scavengers boarsas bullets rip their flesh. Poor women and children may be forced to engagein the flesh trade due to extreme could also of difficulty.The presence Americans economic result in the mushrooming of brothels, nightspots and centres"for their unlimitedpleasure. other"entertainment Foreign aid, the arms trade, military and paramilitaries build-up

foreign policy objectivessuchas sustainable announced development,protection of human health and promotion of economicgrowth. According to a July 1998 study on foreign aid and the arms trade by Joan Whelan of the Council of a Liveable has of World, the United States approvedhundreds millions for licenses weapons sales of dollarsworth of commercial and and joint production betweendefencemanufacturers governmentsinvolved in or recently emergingfrom civil war or other forms of conflict. The United Statesholds a disproportionately large shareof the global arms market with 49 per cent of all weaponssales.Thesetransferscan increase threatof war, help fuel armsracesandrepresent the huge opportunity coststhat in the end limit economicand social development. Aid to Asia andthe Pacificis directedprimarilyto someof the poorest nations in the world and some of the most million. The populous- in programs rangingfrom $30-$50 progrcmsconsistof vast majority of military assistance military equipment stockpiles. Nations in East and S outheastA si a are consi stentl y some of t he best for customers US armsexports.In the five yearsfrom 19931997 eightnationsin Asia (including Indonesia,Thailand, , SouthKorea. Malaysia, Taiwan, Japan,Singaporeandthe purchased morethan$18.5billion of military Philippines) equipmentfrom the US through the Foreign Military Sales Program. The P hi l i ppi nes has asked a number of def ence manufacturersto bid in the production of fighter jets and patrol shipsthat will be part of a fifteen year $8.5 billion The Asia-Pacific plan to upgradeits military capabilities. for region accounts 48 per cent ofworld armspurchases. The 1997-8 economic collapse is undermining human security in many Asian countries,threateningthe stability newly modernised of the entireregion.In somecountries, to militarieshavebeenturnedon civil populations ensure "internal security". In the l{ew York Timesof 7 September 7999, there is an on article aboutAmerican submarines patrol in the Atlantic This is the W-88, which is oneof carryingsmallwarheads. The US Navy the most deadlyweaponsin the US arsenal. in the next few is adding this weaponto its Pacific fleet, so yearsthe W-88 is likely to be aimedat China. on We also needto look into the Multilateral Agreement (MA I) w hi ch i s desi gnedto liber alise Investment i nvestments, but i ts pow erful provi si ons lim it Such governments'ability to intervenein the economy. to pose a serious threat to measures corporatetreaties The MAI will have a dual promote peaceand security. effect ofthreatening social programs,while protectingand enhancingmilitary spendingand armstrade.The purpose of the MAI is to remove virnrally all barriers to the free by flow of investments investors(i. e. corporations) thus parties(i. e. signatory countries), between contracting
Page 97

of An examination $ 13 .6 billion in US foreignaid activity for Fiscal Year 1997revealsthat almosthalf of the aid is Every year,billions of dollars military or securityassistance. arespenton the activemilitarisationof the world through direct grants of military equipment or financing of that purchases. There is no needto emphasise equipment icing in the cakeon military and defence this aid comesas in agreements are being forged with governments Asia that region. Thesedealsare often undeftaken and the Pacific undera veil ofsecrecyforgedby corruptandunscrupulous defencenegotiators.The United Statesinvestsmore on militarisation than in development aid, contrary to its

8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahitt



granting special protection for military spending and pufting restrictionson governments' ability to control the armstrade. We should also look into the weapons trade shows that are being sponsoredby the arms industry with the cooperationof governments. Such exhibitionsare a yearly event in the Philippinesand regularly held in Australia. There is an upcoming internationalaerospace exhibition in Dubai in November 1999. This is meantto seekmore m ar k et s in th e A s i a a n d P a c i fi c re g i o n through demonstration the use and effectiveness weapons of of systems. US security and defence policy US strategic presence implemented 100,000 troops is by US deployedin the region. According to the 1997Report of the QuadrennialDefenceReview by the US Departmentof Defence,US national defenceand securitypolicy is now int er - t wined w i th e c o n o m i c g l o b a l i s a ti on such as "protection of the sea lanes of trade" and "ensuring unhampered accessto key markets,energy suppliesand strategicresources." Pentagon literaturenow treatsoperational jurisdiction of the Pacific Commandas "highways oftrade which are vital to US national security." It is in this context that the teritorial claimsin the Spratlysin the SouthChinaSeaby five Asian countriescan be seenas a potentialflashpoint in the region. Incidentally,it is this tensionperceivedas created by China's aggressiveterritorial claim in the Spratlys, that hasprovidedjustificationto restoremilitary presencein the Philippines through the Visiting Forces Agreement. A paperpresented the Centrefor DefenceInformation by to the US National SecurityStudy Group in March 1999, setsout developingtrendsthat affect security: . Many nationswill continueto move toward someform of democraticgovemmentand open markets. . National minorities within statescreatedduring the colonial era will demandmore equitableshareof economic and political power; or, they will pursue measures gain independence. to The United States will encounter greater resistance to permanent stationingand forward deployments US of forces overseas. Potential adversarieswill move away from classic force-on-force confrontations with the US and its allies. Computer-based informationgathering, datastorage, and distributionwill increase, and greaterfamiliarity with computertechniques will enhance possibility the for cyber warfare and the need for cyber defence.
Page 98


The 19th and 20th century concept of absolute nationalsovereignty will be challengedby the growing power inherent in non-statetransnationalfinance and trade organisations,the growth in treaties regulating or allocatingthe distributionofresources,and other agreementsembodying international norms and standards; g. human and political rights e.

The useofcyberspace the 21't Centuryopensnew areas in of concern.The Arms SalesMonitor reports in May 1999 that: "One aspect of the Pentagon's Defence Reform Initiative is the Departmentof DefenceElecffonic Mall, an Internetbasedsystemproviding 'one stop shopping' fo r the DOD warfighter to quickly and easily locate and order items from commercialelectronic catalogues. Hoping to providethe bestin moderncustomerserviceto its foreign arms sales customersas well, the DOD is planning a pilot program for integrating Foreign Military Salesinto the e-mail for June 1999." That is virtually arms saleson the Internet. Wargames and joint military and the Pacific region exercises in Asia

The primary purposeof US military training and exercises is to familiariseforeign military forceswith the useof US weaponsand military hardware.Joint training is imponant in creatinga climate of supportfor US foreign policy goals and in establishingpersonalcontactand influence between US military and foreign defence officers. US military exercises arepart and parcelofthe Pentagon,s expansion of US military might world-wideandto maximisecapabilities for intervention. US Army training institutions for foreign soldiers like the Schoolof Americashastrainedthousands soldiersfrom of Latin America, Asia and Africa. Among thosetrained were former military dictators and officers responsible for the deathsof thousands people. This has aligned the US of with the forces of tyranny and oppression. US military training programs have instructed and indoctrinated tens of thousandsof governmentkillers, death squads,US agentsand counters. ln 1996,the US Departmentof Defencefinally admitted that trainingmanuals usedat its military schoolsincluded instructionson torture, beating, murder, extortion and recrui tment of i nformers and counter-i nsu r gency operations. The United States has scheduled leasteight at joint military exercises the Philippinesbeforethe end of in 1999asa resultofthe VFA ratification. The ageof colonialismis slow to die, asself-determination and independence struggles Timor Lorosae,Guam,and of New Caledonia demonstrate. Larger powersare suppliers of military equipmentand training programsto pacific islandswheretherehas been a build-up of militaries and paramilitaries.




8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

; ring and :ing her rnd

)as 99 :m an )r

Herein the Pacific, sevenpacific island countrieshave taken in the Paradis part e'99 navalwargames June1999. in About300 naval personnel,12 vesselsand patrol boats took part in the l2-day exercisethat took place in the S olom o nS e a . T h e w a rg a me si n c l u ded forces from Australia,Papua New Guinea, the FederatedStatesof Micronesia, Fiji, New Zealand,palau and the Solomon Islands. The objective ofparadise '99 is to sharetactics. skillsand equipment. Frjian soldiers travel to New Caledonia eachyearfor military exercises training (including commandotraining) in and co-operation the Frencharmedforces.In retum, French with soldiers senton attachment are with theFiji Military Force. TomarkBastille day in 1998,a Frenchwarshipffom New Caledonia arrived in Suva to unload trucks, spareparts andmilitary suppliesas military aid for the Fiji Military Forces. Other countries have started similar programs. French troopsfrom New Caledoniajoined US Marines and the Tonga DefenceServicesfor wargames Tongain 199g. in Tonga now conductsannualmilitary exercises France. in Frenchpolice trainers also helped establishthe elite intervention force of the Vanuatupolice, with training in firearms, closeorder combatand specialoperations. Membersof Vanuatu'sparamilitary police force joined exercises New Caledoniafundedby France.Frenchaid in programs havebeenformally extendedto cover eight South Pacificcountries- PapuaNewGuinea,Fiji, Kiribati, Tuvalu, Tonga, Samoa,Vanuatuand SolomonIslands. This opensthe way for provision of military equipment,

military assistance local armiesandtrainingof overseas to military personnel Frenchmilitary schools. in The armed forces of France, Australia and New Zealand, areco-operating maritimesurveillance on ofthe smallisland statesofthe region. The use ofthe navy and airforce for civilian surveillanceand search and rescue should not cover up the ongoingmilitary functionsof this naval co_ operatlon. Australia-supplied patrol boatswere usedin the blockade of Bougainvilleby the papuaNew GuineaDefenceForce, in a conflict causingdeathto at least 12,000lives. Even with the closureof the Nuclear TestingCentreon Moruroa, Franceis maintaining military forcesin the pacific. The call for self-determination and independence the in French Pacific colonies of New Caledonia and French Polynesia takeson an increasing importancein this light. The end of nucleartestingin 1996is an importantstepfor securityin the region,but not the end ofthe issue. Now more than ever it is imperative for us in the Nuclear Free and Independentpacific movement to be vigilant, to provide the leadership that is neededduring thesecrucial momentsfor our brothersand sistersin Timor Lorosae. Bougainville, West Papua, Kanaky and other nations strugglingfor genuineindependence. must persistin We the strugglefor justice, peace,and independence the in region. Corazon ValdezFabros is a lawyerfrom the phitippines, and has worked as Secretqry General ofthe Nucleqr Free Phil ippines Coalir ion (NFpC ).



8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacifc C;4f.;;;,



Page 99


fnternal militarisation in the South pacific PapuaNew Guinea as a casestudv
Karibae JohnKawowo Melanesian Solidarity(Melsol),papuaNew Guinea
May I begin by taking this opportunity to thank Mayor OscarTemuraand his people of Te Ao Maohi for accepting us in their greatland,the EvangelicalChurchof Tahiti for sheltering and to Lopeti Senituli and his hard working us secretariat staff of the PCRC for bringing us here. WhenI first receivedthe invitationto participate this ge in NFIP Conference, was not surewhetherI would be granted I an entry visa due to my involvementin burningthe French flag in 1995,when Franceannouncedits re-introductionof nucleartesting. That year the South pacific Forum was held in PapuaNew Guineaandthe NGOs had initiatedthe concept SouthPacihcNGO parallelForum. of Mayor Oscar Temaru was invited but unfortunatelyhe was unableto attend.I must say herethat..your Struggle is Our Struggle"and it is not over until it,s over. Our last NFIP Conference ResolutionNo.26 on .,Intemal Militarisation in the Pacific" had little achievement since after the resolutionwas adopted.Our last resolutionhad some impacts like the withdrawal of pNG trooos in Bougainvilleand the war on Bougainville. My panel presentation on the internalmilitarisationin is the South Pacific, focussingon papua New Guineaas a case study. The Internal Militarisation issue is thought only to be experienced theNon Self-Goveming in Tenitories of the Pacific. But that is not alwaysthe casenow. T he war on B o u g a i n v i l l e , b e tw e e n th e p e o pl e of Bougainville and the PNG military had already set the precedentin the Pacific that internal militarisation is no longer faced by the Non Self-GoverningTerritories,but also an independent island statelike papuaNew Guinea. Therearemaybemany causes the internalwa1 but most to conflicts start due to the people'srelationshipwith their land, sea, waters and its resources. The pacific peoples havea very uniqu relationship with their lands,seas, waters and resources and that is their livelihood. A clear exampleis in PapuaNew Guinea,wherethe owners of the copper-richisland Bougainvillewere not informed about their wealth before development.There were no consentgiven in agreements the development their for of resources and fair compensation exploitationof their for resource, to unfair negotiations due between Stateand the M ult inat ional C o rp o ra ti o n . A s a re s u l t, a w ar on Bougainville had started. Oncethe Bougainvillewar had started, arms build_up the in PapuaNew Guinea increased.The law enforcement agencies havepurchased high-poweredmilitary equipment to kill their own people under the banner of maintaining law and order problems.We have seenthe deploymentoi armedRapidDeploymentUniS (specialpolice) to the major mining projects- to protectthe companies, the peoples not who areownersofthe resources. Therehavebeenmassive abusesof human rights under the guise of maintaining law.orderandpeace. Anotherimpactof intemalmilitarisationis the armsbuild_ up within communities,using high-poweredarms to resolve conflicts between two tribal groups. This has affectedthe borderrelationshipbetweenpapuaNew Guinea andthe SolomonIslandswherethe pNG militarv andpolice ofthe SolomonIslandsexchanged guns shots. The recent ethni c cri si s betw een the Mal ai ta and Guadalcanal peopleofthe SolomonIslandsis a directspill over of the ten years of war on Bougainville. Internal militarisation(specificallyarmsbuild-up anduseofmilitary equipment by the communities against the State) has alreadyplantedroots in the pacific. This experience PapuaNew Guinea shows us not see in intemalmilitarisation happening only in pacific Non Self_ Goveming Territories but may happen in the independent states because ofour Pacific people'sunique relationship betweenour land, seas, watersand resources. I wish to thank the Nuclear Free Independent pacific Movement and others unknown who had sent protest lettersto PNG Government well as solidarity lettersto as my threecomrades myselfafter our public protestmarch and agai nst the P N G Government' shi ri ng of S and line mercenaries. Withoutyour intemationalsupport,we don't know what would have happened us. to I wish thankLopeti Senituliand his good working partner (Lupe Senituli)for the commitmenthe had for the peoples ofthe PacificasI acknowledge time Mrs. Ellen Whelan the had spent for the Pacific News Bulletin I find no words that would satisrythe expressionof thank you for your commitmentto the NFIP Movement. Em tasol. Tenkyutru. John Kawowo is an activist with the Melanesian Solidarity group in Port Moresby, papua New Guinea. Ite was charged with NGO activists at the time of communityprotests against the Sandline mercenaries in I 998.

Pa g e 1 0 0

8th Nuclear Free and Independent poci$" Coi*1eonce, Arue, Taiii

Kwajalein missile tests and regional conflicts
NicMaclellan Pacific (PCRC), Islands Concerns Resource Centre Flji
On29 September 999,just daysafter our conference, I an intercontinental missilewill be fired from Vandenberg Air ForceBase in California. The missile will arc acrossthe PacificOcean,releasinga warheadaimedto splashdown in Kwajalein lagoon in the Marshall Islands- the largest lagoon the centralPacific. A smallermissilefired fiom in KwajaleinAtoll will try to interceptthe incoming warhead, andknock it from the sky. A weeklater,the leaders ofthe independent islandnations will start to arrive at this year's South Pacific Forum in Koror, the capital of Palau.They will be driven to their hotel in luxury vehicles purchased with a grant of US$400,000 from China.Our PrimeMinistersandPresidents will attendthe Heads of Governmentmeeting,which is alsosupported a grant of nearly a quarterof a million by dollarsfrom Taiwan. Thesetwo eventsmay seemunconnected,but they reflect a link betweenthe ongoing militarisation of the Pacific islands and resional conflicts in north eastAsia. The missiletest at Kwajalein is the first in a series the by US military for the developmentof a National Missile Defence System.Ever since the days of Ronald Reagan, US defencecontractors have dreamedof utilisingbillions of dollars to develop Star Wars missile systems- over $100 billion hasbeenspentso far, althoughthereis not a working system in operation. Even though such systems will breachthe 1972Anti-Ballistic Missile Treatysigned with the former Soviet Union, the US governmenthopes to makethe decisionto deploy this new missilesystem by theyear2000. The end of nucleartesting in the Pacific has not meantthe end of our ocean and atolls as a testing ground for new weaponssystems.Since the 1960s,the US has used Kwajalein Atoll asthe splashdownpoint for its long-range missilestest-firedfrom bases the US. Today, islands in the arestill being usedfor the developmentofNational Missile (TMD) Defence(NMD), aswell asTheatreMissile Defence systems be deployedin Asia and the Middle East. to Each NMD anti-ballisticmissile test at Kwajalein Atoll costsUS$100 million dollars. The overall cost of the National Missile Defencesystemwill be US$60 billion money that could be put to better purposes.The Marshall Islands government is currently asking the United States to pay extra compensation Marshall Islanders for who were irradiated by 67 US nuclear tests at Bikini and Enewetak atolls between1946-1958. How can the US government justifu this expensivemissile testing program, when it refusesto face its responsibilityfor past nuclear tests? The Nuclear Claims Tribunal in the Marshall Islandshas promised compensationto hundreds of Marshallese affected by the US nuclear tests at Bikini and Enewetak. But over one third of thosedue to receivecompensation from the US government have died before full payment canbe made. The US Army Kwajalein Atoll Missile Rangecovers 1l islands in Kwajalein Atoll, with land leasedfrom local landowners. The Kwajalein base employs over 1,200 Marshall Islanders. More than 1,000 work for Rayheon C orporati on, the U S company that runs the base engineering. Butthe Marshallese not live on Kwajalein do island with the US civilian and military technicianswho staffthemissilerange.Over 150womenwork asdomestic servantsfor US personnel,havelling each morning from Ebeye island and retuming home at night. Kwajalein is a key reason for the ongoing US strategic interestin the Marshall Islands.After more than forty years of US administration from 1944, and 67 atomic and hydrogen bomb tests at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, the
John Kawowo (Papua New Guinea) Bth Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page I0l

On24 May, the Japanese parliamentpassed the new US _ JapanDefenceCo-operationGuidelines, So what doesall thus have to do .Iaiwan .orn_itting lup* with China, and to support US military operations in areas surrounding the South pacific Forum? The luxury u, this year,s Japan - a cl ear breach of Japan,spo* _* u. p. u. . Forum are just one example of "u., un ongoirrfcompetition Constitution. Four dayslater,the liitippinoi"no" between China and Taiwan, to passed *o" ;;;i;irJ,,. ,ropon the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA), from Pacific Island states_ a substantial which allows new bloc ofvotes at US military activitiesln the United Nations now that Kiribati, the rniiippines u.if,ij.rugo. rh. N""r" Tongaare VFA comeslessthan joining eight other island a decade p";J;,;Jt uggr. ana nation, u,,..i.., ""0 of the UN the Mount pinatubo eruption "ft;; GeneralAssembly.Thiwanestablished US bases at Subic diplomatic relations Bay and Clark Air ForceBase."tor.i with the Marshall Islandsin November f Stg, witl, China closing its Embassyin December in retaliatiln. Taiwan,s As Filipino activist Walden Bello has noted, aftempt to woo support fiom papua the NATO New Guinea, and the bombing of Serbia and the ,igning oithl subsequent ofthe Skategovernment, fall lapun uno is anotherexample Philippines agreements a new sign of US are of thisdiplomaric game. unilateralism in international affairs. They marith. *a oiEu.op"un and Asian attempts to develop Peoplesaythe Cold War is over. rnuftifuiriuf security But Cold War rhetoricis systems ensurepeacein the post to still driving a new arns race.In the Cold War world. US, thereis debateover China'sallegedtheft of US.nu.t"u. *.ufon, *hoology. In the 1980s,South pacific nations Even in the pacific islands, took a stand against therehasb..;;;li; the Cold War era armsbuild_up:nu.t.* "overage t". Cilurrrion, Chinese base rtriOati,iocir"O spy in in ,t :,f ".1?tl"g"d in Palau, capital Tarawa recent " Zealand'sVanuatu and the ptritippiner;l;;;;;" / New media reports huu"rugg.rt.dthat nuclear free legislatiort th"il;;;a thismonitoring starion tracking USmissifirests is Treary the into for a Southpacific nucleaifree Kwajalein. zone_ With ongoingtensionbetweenChina and Taiwan,and the threatened developmentof missile ,".f,"ofogf Uy North Korea, there is increased pressure US cffirations to by acligns camein part from our anger at the use ofthe Itr-es; desertsofAustralia and the islands oftn-epacinc astesting grounds for weapons of war. These areas *"." ,r"n u, vast empty spaces- empty except for the indigenous peoples whose land and waters were desecrated. The end of the nuclear testins does not mean the end of th! developmentof weaponssystems rn ourregion. The useofour lands and waters for the development of satellite and rocket systemsis a new threat as we move into the twenty first century. Nic Maclellan works as the E ducat i onal Res ce D eveI oper our at the PaciJic Concerns Resource Centre in Suva, Fiji Islands. He is co-author of a number of books on militarisation and environment in the pacific, including Kirisimasi (\CRC. Suva, 1999.

Republic ofthe MarshallIslands ratifieda Compact Free of Association with the US in 19g6.Underthe US Compacts of FreeAssociation with the Marshall IslanJs,palau and F eder at edS t a te s o f Mi c ro n e s i a , Wa s h i ngton has responsibility for defence and security, in return for the right to deny strategicaccess other to countries.The l5yearCompactbetweenthe US and Marshall Islandsis up for renewalin 2001, with negotiation, in a few weekstime. While the Mlrshall "ornrn.ncing trtunJ, gou"__rnt cannegotiate issuessuch as aid, on trade and commerce, the uS government can unilateratty extenJ ttre leaseson theKwajaleinmissilerangefor unoih., Lt;;;,

develop missile defencesystems to be deployed in the Asian,,theatre', conflici. In of 199g, it"-irnir"o srur., signed an agreementwith Japan t":"iriiy ."rearch and develop such systems.Teniions Urt*..n China and Taiwan, and betweennorth and soutfrforea, are also used as the rationale for new defence ugr."."nirietween the US and its Asian allies.In May 199-9, at the sametime that NATO launchedits war.againstVugoslavil t"o impo.tant agr.e:meltswere signedby the US governmentwith Japan and the philippines.

N i c M a c l ella n carried statement a from the NFIF;;f.;;ffi1ff 1 9 9 9 S o u t h p a c ific Forum palau in Page 102 Bth Nuclear Free and I"d"@

(withMakareta rornutoipaCNEwi, r.rri

in the Sbtes and nd

of Legacies French nuclear testing
HiroTefaarere TaviniHuiraatirano TeAo Maohi
Iaorana, maeva, manava: Te Farereiraa, Kura Ora, Thankyou, brothers Kaoha, aloha, Kia orana, LVelcome. dearfriends,for giving me the freedomto speak, andsisters, to usethe sacredword which is so importantto all peoples ofthe Pacific. In Franceon 20 February 1999,within the very portalsof the French National Assembly, an important seminar was held on "The French Nuclear Tests in Polynesia demandingthe truth and proposalsfor the future". During the seminar,I had l0 minutes to explain the conditions to leading my arrestin 1995,my jailing, my trial andall the eventsthat have flowed from it. Today,my speechaims to explain to you how we in Tavini Huiraatira seethe current nuclearsituation. Above all, we learnt that the fight waged by our elders,our ancestorswas not in vain. Their struggle was the link betweengenerations:Pouvanaaa Oopa, Francis Sanford, Tony Teariki, PasteurHenri Vernier, Henri Hiro, Roland E petahui , Moana E humoana, E dw i n H aoa, Bengt Danielsson and others, famous or unknown. Togetherwith all thosemen and women who supportedus - whether here, in the Pacific, in Europe and especiallyin France- we have openedbreachesin the walls ofthe State. As long as we know how to use the opportunities created and developthem, we can gain political and legal victories in the days to come.



Dear friends, to explain how we got to this situation, it's necessaryto outline some information about the nuclear A lot has beenwritten and spokenaboutthe nucleartests lobby. In the yearsafter 2 July I 966, Franceconducted193 nuclear tests in French Polynesia,of which 44 were in the ofthe conductedin our homeland,and the consequences tests.Unfortunately,though, much still remainsto be done, atmosphereand 149 underground. After its last nuclear at all levels.My opposition- our opposition- to nuclear test on 27 January1996, France halted its nuclear test weaponsdatesback before the creationofour respective program and announcedthe dismantling of the test sites political parties.It comesfrom all levels:moral, spiritual, at Moruroa and Fangataufaatolls. Christian, cultural and also political, social, economic, relating to health, the environment, and education.I have In order to have a clear conscienceand draw a line under been - we have been - involved in struggle on all these thi rty years of nucl ear testi ng, France asked t he InternationalAtomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to conducta activistsor political leaders. levels,as sympathisers, mission to determine the "radiological balance sheet" at and the two atolls. Like you, dear brothers and sisters from the Pacifrc less more and sometimes we aroundthe world, sometimes A report of more that 2,000 pageswas publishedin July have cried out our indignation since the establishmentof on reassuring that seemed 1998with a set of conclusions (CEP - the the Centre d'Expdrimentations du Pacifique all points. One might even be led to believe that nothing Pacific Nuclear TestCentre). had happened at Moruroa, because t he I AEA always recommendedthat the atolls be left as they are and stated our We have demonstrated opposition, publiclybut peacefully. We have fasted, we have prayed, we have that they posedno risks (Justlike Chemobyl!). of undertakena range ofinitiatives to raise the awareness to hear us, to our people, but also to force the French state listento us, to respectus. But this was too much to expect from the State.The Statedidn't care.Its logic, implacable and pitiless,was simple: " We are at home here in French Polynesia.You graciously ceded title for Moruroa and Fangataufato us. We are paying you' so you have no to rights.Grin and bear it". This sloganwas repeated us in de Presidents: a rangeofaccents from a seriesofFrench Chirac. Gaulle, Giscard d'Estaing, Mitterrand, and ofstate had that reasons We soon learnedat our expense, ofjustice, peace,and greaterimportancethan our ideals solidarity between peoples, liberty, freedom, sovereignty and independence.These reasonsof state were the basis ofthe colonial stateand a powerful nuclear lobby (which' thanks to French Polynesia, made France into the third most powerful nuclear and maritime nation in the world)'
p ^ .;1 ;.

deeply shockedus, particularlythose Theseconclusions of us who had worked at the test sites and had been witnessesto numerousaccidentsand incidents during the tests series, and the fundamental impact the tests had on the underlying geological structuresof the atolls' It must have seemedthe same to all those men and women who had long opposed the nuclear tests as a crime against thesenuclear humanity.(Indeedhow elsecan we describe tests?).

What doesthe 1998IAEA rePort saY?
To note at the beginning, the report has become the standardreferenceof the civilian and military authorities, it their perfectalibi, because legalisesa crime that hasbeen this country and this people,my country committedagainst and my people.


of Legacies French nuclear testing
HiroTefaarere TaviniHuiraatirano TeAo Maohi
Iaorana, maeva, manava: Te Farereiraa, Kura Ora, Thankyou, brothers Kaoha,aloha, Kia orana, Welcome. dearfriends,for giving me the freedomto speak, sisters, and word which is so importantto all peoples to usethe sacred ofthePacific. on In France 20 February 1999,within the very portalsof the FrenchNational Assembly, an important seminarwas held on "The French Nuclear Tests in Polynesia the demanding truth and proposalsfor the future"' During the seminar,I had l0 minutes to explain the conditions to leading my arrestin 1995,my jailing' my trial and all the that have flowed from it. Today,my speechaims to events explainto you how we in Tavini Huiraatira seethe current nuclearsituation. Above all, we learnt that the fight waged by our elders,our was not in vain. Their struggle was the link ancestors generations:Pouvanaaa Oopa, Francis Sanford, between Tony Teariki, PasteurHenri Vernier, Henri Hiro, Roland E petahui , Moana E humoana, E dw i n H aoa, Bengt Danielsson and others, famous or unknown. Togetherwith all thosemen and women who supportedus - whether here, in the Pacific, in Europe and especially in France- we have openedbreachesin the walls ofthe State. As long as we know how to use the opporrunities created and developthem, we can gain political and legal victories in the daysto come.

I { I

Dear friends, to explain how we got to this situation, it's necessaryto outline some information about the nuclear 2 July 1966,Franceconducted193 A lot has beenwritten and spokenaboutthe nucleartests lobby. In the yearsafter of nucleartestsin FrenchPolynesia, which 44 were in the ofthe in conducted our homeland,and the consequences atmosphereand 149 underground. After its last nuclear Unfortunately,though, much still remainsto be done, tests. 1996, France halted its nuclear test at all levels.My opposition- our opposition- to nuclear test on 27 January program and announcedthe dismantling of the test sites datesback before the creationofour respective weapons atolls. politicalparties.It comesfrom all levels:moral, spiritual' at Moruroa and Fangataufa Christian,cultural and also political, social, economic, conscienceand draw a line under relating to health, the environment, and education' I have In order to have a clear all these thi rty years of nucl ear testi ng, France asked t he been - we have been - involved in struggleon InternationalAtomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to conducta activistsor political leaders' levels,as sympathisers, mission to determine the "radiological balance sheet" at Like you, dear brothers and sisters from the Pacific and less more and sometimes we aroundthe world, sometimes have cried out our indignation since the establishmentof the Centre d'Exp'lrimentations du Pacifique (CEP - the PacificNuclearTestCentre). We havedemonstratedour opposition, publicly but always peacefully. We have fasted, we have prayed, we have of undertakena range of initiatives to raise the awareness to hearus,to our people,but also to force the Frenchstate listento us, to respectus. But this was too much to expect from the State.The Statedidn't care.Its logic, implacable and pitiless,was simple: " We are at home here in French Polynesia.You graciously ceded title for Moruroa and Fangataufato us. We are paying you' so you have no to rights.Grin andbear it". This sloganwas repeated us in de Presidents: u iung" of accentsfrom a seriesof French Chirac' Gaulle, Giscard d'Estaing, Mittenand, and We soon learned at our expense,that reasonsof statehad greaterimportancethan our ideals ofjustice' peace,and solidarity between peoples, liberty, freedom, sovereignty and independence.These reasonsof state were the basis of the colonial stateand a powerful nuclear lobby (which, thanks to French Polynesia, made France into the third most powerful nuclear and maritime nation in the world)' the two atolls. A report of more that2,000 pageswas published in July on reassuring that seemed 1998with a set of conclusions all points. One might even be led to believe that nothing had happened at Moruroa, because t he I AEA recommendedthat the atolls be left as they are and stated that they posedno risks (Justlike Chernobyl!). deeply shockedus, particularlythose Theseconclusions of us who had worked at the test sites and had been witnessesto numerousaccidentsand incidents during the tests series,and the fundamental impact the tests had on the underlying geological structuresof the atolls. It must have seemedthe same to all those men and women who had long opposed the nuclear tests as a crime against humanity. (Indeed how else can we describethesenuclear tests?).

What doesthe 1998IAEA rePort saY?
To note at the beginning, the report has become the standardreferenceof the civilian and military authorities, it their perfect alibi, because legalisesa crime that hasbeen againstthis counffy andthis people,my country committed and my people.

1) The period of the atmospheric nuclear tests,which expertsconsideras the most polluting and harmful because the radioactivefallout, has been hidden of flom view (discussed only eightpages in ofthe 2,000page report). Yet we already have explicit and unequivocal evidence of the attitudes of military, civilian andmedical authoritiesfrom the time towards thehazards, detailedin the articleby VincentJauvert as in the February1998edition ofthe FrenchweeklyLe Nouvel Observateur.

lung cancer,even after courts in these two powerful countrieshave found them guilty. To this day, we are still awaiting the INSERM report. We are aware, however, that one of the authors of the report, in a public commentary published in the local monthly Tahiti Pacifique, gave her regrets that they had not benefited from all the necessary information to conclude their study. She also statedthat the French military had not given them access all the necessary to data,especiallyin relation to the workers who staffed the sites. What can we do in the face of this contempt?

Today, the French State and the Territorial Government say that we must turn the page as quickly as possible, to forget everything and to centre everything on the Reconstruction contract signed in August 1996 by PresidentGaston Flosse and then French Prime Minister Alain Juppe.Their dealfocusses economicdevelopment on The IAEA reportdoesnot broachthe epidemiological or high profile projects, at the sametime that they usedthe and health problems. Instead,the French government French media serviceRFO to launch invective and attacks has given responsibility to the French government againstthe "rioters", the "arsonists",the "terrorists" Oscar research institute Institut National de la Santd et de and Hiro, Hiro and Oscar. Rec her c he Md d i c a l e (IN S ER M ) to s tu dy the development ofcancers in FrenchPolynesia. For us, But the people have a memory. For us, it is our duty to the health issue is absolutelyfundamental, because remember. cancerhasbecomethe primary causeof mortality and our rate ofthyroid canceris one ofthe higheston the In prison, I had a lot of time to meditate, to pray and to planet. A simple press release from the French reflect on all the things that had come from my life as a Ministry of Defencein August 1998statedthat there public figure, as a father, as a Maohi. For me, a Maohi, a was no relationbetweenthe nucleartestsand cancer small man whose freedom had been taken away, whose in French Polynesia. That's a bit like the tobacco dignity and honour had been battered and humiliated, (American and French)who cry long whose sovereignty had been taken away, at last I manufacturers and loud that tobacco is not an aggravating factor in understoodthe deep significance of the messagewhich I

The IAEA experts have not taken account of the precautionaryprinciple, even though this idea has been advocatedby Christian Bataille, the French Socialist PartyDeputy (Memberof Parliament), his in December 1997 report to the French National Assembly.In the report, he advocatedthat the nuclear test sites should be registeredas "storage sites for high level radioactivewastes".

Hiro Tefaarere (second from left) with Tahitian participants at the conference


hadbeengiven by one of the most famous contemporary Nelson Mandela: "No one knows a nation until figures, onehasbeenin its jails". that I wasn't finished, not broken at all, and I understood thatonceagain I could servemy country and my people' I knewthat the first objectiveofthe colonialjusticesystem is to humiliate me, firstly before my wife and children, secondlybefore my friends and family, and finally before my people,and especiallyin the labour movement.They to hoped lynch me in the media, in the political world, in thetradeunion movement,cruciffing me throughajudicial decisionthat was unique in its content (threeyearsprison, withholdingmy civil, political and family rights). Their aim me wasto distance from everyoneand to silenceme' I can assureyou that they have not achieved the result theydesired.On my part - and I hope on the part of all of us- they will never gain a moment'srespite.


things ourselvesand exploit our resources can manage better mannerthan the multinationals. in a Rigour at the level of ethics, and in managing the that the peoplehave confided in us' responsibilities

It D t

{ t

In order to succeedin the political, social, cultural and economic decolonisationof our country, we have to undertakea number of things: 1) Open the archivesof the French Stateto createmore more light, more justice and tmth. We transparency, the havea duty to remember victims and their families, a duty towards the right of future generationsto live in a healthy environment.For this step,it is advisable that we never give up. Rememberthat the United States openedtheir archiveswith information on the nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. It's worth noting that our demand for France to lift the restrictions placed as by national security are not unprecedented, France releaseddefencedocumentsrelating to the period of 2)

I understoodthat I had to continue the struggle for human rights and for the Maohi people that I was undertaking beforehandas the leader of A Tia I Mua, at the time the most active and important trade union in the country (unfortunately today under the control ofthe presidentof theTenitorial Government).

genocidein Rwanda. Classify the nuclear test sites at Moruroa and Fangataufa as nucl ear w aste st or age sit es (installations nucl4aires de base), and inscribe them on the lists of nuclear waste disposal sites under French law and international law, to be covered by basicprinciplesof nuclearsafety. 3) Take France before all the legal tribunals at national and international level for its crime againsthumaniry I therefore acceptedthe proposition put by Oscar Temaru and to respectthe February 1964 decisionsof the pafi Tavini to servemy people and my country within the PermanentCommission of the Territorial Assembly, Huiraatira no Te Ao Maohi. Thanks to Oscar, to Tavini which calledfor the retum of Moruroa and Fangataufa Assembly andto the people, I was electedto the Territorial to FrenchPolynesia. still faithful to in 1996.I remainan electedrepresentative, social, on studies the economic, 4) Conductindependent ethics,from a his convictions,strugglingat the levels of ofthe nuclear health and environmentalconsequences an elected ofduty, ofpublic serviceandofsolidarity; sense tests (supportedby CRII-RAD and the many groups representativestill hopeful that tmth, justice, ready for all in France, Europe and other countries, as well as the sacrificesthat will be neededso that "Te Ao Maohi" intemationalexpertswho have offered their services)' will livetomonow. Support those Polynesian activists who were found t guilty in October I 998 by Frenchcolonialjustice,by For the moment,we areboggeddown with the daily routine supportingtheir needsfor the costsofjustice (fines createdby the myriad of problems and all the constraints and paymentsto lawyers),the appealprocess(at a we face:jobs, education,socialwelfare,financialproblems' date that has still not been set) and their complaints unemployment,working hours,managingwastewater and againstthe mannerof their arrest(which is still under the tax system, and householdwaste,reform of sewerage investigation). land reform issues,protection and conservationof the Win the next electionsfor the Territorial Assembly to O environmentetc. be held in March 2001, developinga new and allsocial vision which can mobilise the encompassing For me, the things we needmost are imagination, audacity ofthe Maohi people,whatevergroupthey conscience and rigour: belong to: Tavini Huiraatira; Hiti Tau; PomareParfy; Te TaataTahiti Tiama; Aia Api; Ia Mana Te Nunaa; Imagination nthe searchfor solutionsto the concrete ' Churchetc. the Evangelical problems of the modern world. Often, it's worth to find original recalling that we can useour traditions obliged to participate in all the and lasting solutions to the problems that face us (the Unfortunately,we are institutionaland political gamesto achievethis. As you intelligentuseof Pacific medicinalplantssuchasKava colossal' But don't you think the or Nono. and the use ofresourcesfrom our lagoons can see,the tasks are is challenge magnificent? ofaquacultureand fisheries)' for the development paths and searchingfor , Audacity in the seeking new I've to say that over the conference, initiatives to undertake(especiallyin the legal and To conclude,I'd like we been challenged. financial sectors),to show that we understand,

I've been challengedabout the reasons for my struggle,in my life as a public figure, for my existence as a Maohi

Call for Peace
PaTepaeru Ariki
In 1894, a noble declarationwas made by the Federal Parliament the Cook Islandsas of follows: ' land is owned by the tribe, but its use is with the family who occupies the land. The family consists of all the children who have a common ancestor. togetherwith the adopted children, and al l the descendantsw ho have not enteredother tribes.,, This statementis about relationship. It is about how to live in a community.Knowing your iurnify. X"o*ing your heritageand your future. This gives you ;."d".. It gives you peace.It gives you a sense ofsecurity. ..The

chaltenged capacirvristen theviews president, in mv to to of House ofAriki. other to respect differences and our
Challenged with my thirst for justice, truth and solidarity Challengedby the type of society that we must build, Challenged by the rights that you claim over our genetic, biological, intellectual and natural heritage, and our capacity to resist the multinationals who govern us and dictate the laws Challenged by the urgency of building a new community of vision and destiny,where w" *it iinuily be free and sovereign in oui o*n .oun,ry,-it.." democracy meshes with human rigtrts,;usiice wittr equality, truth with respect,fraternity with solidarity. Challenged by the things that we will face tomorrow rn our country how to explain to our people the challengesand sacrificesnecessary to achieve our independence,so that we can avoid in our country the fate suffered by our brothers and sistersln'gu* Timor. B-efo_re finishing, I'd like to thank you for holding this gft NFIP Conferencehere on the land of rny un."rtors, land chargedwith history. Allow me to quoie fro* ,i,. ffoty Scriptures (psalmsg: 4-9): "When I look to the sky that you have made At the moon and the stars,which you set in their places_ What are hlman beings that you it i* of tn"_; Mere mortals that you care for them? Yet you made them inferior only to yourself; You crowned them with glory and hono*; ' You appointed them rulers over everything you made; You placedthem over all creation: Sheep and cattle and the wild animalstoo; The birds and the fish and the creatures in the seas,,. Lord, comfort us in our choices, strengthen us in our fight and leadus to victory. Hiro Tefaarerewas atested by the French police, jaited and tortured after the september r 995 riotsihich rocked rapeete aJter the first nuclear test, foltowing the resumptionof French nuclear testing.

This goesway back in history. Think of the story of Isaac and Ishmael. The Jews and the Arabs are stitt ngnting. Fighting about land rights. Wars u.. ,tiff-ruging now becauseof land. Look around us. What is the solution to all our problems?We needpeace. We nera *di.rtunOrng. We need everyone, not jilt some people ;; t;* in with any effort to bring peaceand trarmonyio o* wortO. Pacifrcmeanspeace.Let us make it starthere in our pacific islands and in our pacific region. I."t ur-tat" up the challengeand appealour governments to take on what we have starredand carry the torch frigfr.. unJfrigir.. ,o thut the world may enjoy greaterpeace in the new milennium. In the Cook Islands,the HouseofAriki took up the initiative to ask the Prime Minister to support this move towards peace in the new millennium. I understand that there is agenda item forthe Annual GeneralAssembty oittre Unitea Nations of which every United Nation *itt ,ign. "o*Oy Knowing that we arenot yet recognised as an independent member country nevertheless, th-. Hour. oiarif.i of ,n. Cook Islands wanted to be part ofthat pro."r" together wjtf at] other organisationsand arms of the Governmenr of the Cook.Islandsto promote and maintain peacehere in the Cook Islands.It is our hope that this will'spread to all other placesin the pacific region and throughoritthe whole world.

Renseignement Generaur' Tefqarere o, th: l:ader of theMaohitradeunionmovement '"-"i A TiaI Mua. Tefaarere waselected the Territorial to Assembly 1996 a in as member theTavini of Huiraatiralist'
Page 106 Sth Nuclear r,

Formertv an inspectorthe with intettigence ##mrf:ffir; !:'r:, zboo


ffit"royl9 ft" corner. just wantto bepartofthe we rr"n iJ peace ;; h;il;;y commencing with o'rownt"rr"brish idap"opt.inoui"o**ities,withthehope that it would get to the commonwearth Heads of

PaTepaeru Ariki (right), with Motarilavoa HildaLini (Vanuatu) TeaHirshon Ao Maohi) and (Te Governmentsmeeting in November 1999 and eventually the United Nations. I am glad to have the support of the Prime Minister as the Head of this country, and they should, for they are our door to the outside world. I anticipate the Prime Minister taking our peacedocument on behalf of our people to the attention of the conferencein Palau and to the world. It has always been the stance of the House of Ariki to uphold the welfare of its people and fight againstany form of threat to its people, land, titles, customs and other traditional matters. The House of Ariki has been accused of saying things againstthe Government. I say that, where there are issues that the Government, or any other organisations may impose on our people, or matters which cut across our traditionsand culture, I dareto saythat that will just invoke our utmost wrath or opposition for the sake of the well being of people whosetrust we must uphold at all cost. When Government brings hardship on our people, they expectus to be quiet?No. It is this issuethat the leaders of the land would like the world to know. We submit that the governmentmust also look after the welfare of our people. We will stand up for our people if they are oppressed. is It in this light that the Houseof Ariki hasoften beencriticised. The terror that is reigning in EastTimor, in Yugoslavia,and about a dozen other hot spots around the world, and some in the Pacific itself, are more than enoughto encourage us to foster peace and goodwill. The struggles of the oppressedfor peace and safety is a cry that must be answeredas urgently as possible to alleviate tragedy. The House ofAriki feels that eachone of us can do his/trer bit to better the lot of our people, our future generations, and people everywhereif we were to act right now. putting our differencesaside is a step in the right direction. There are many things in this country that the House of Ariki has supportedwith its people rallying behind them, but those have been taken for ganted by many. But, let's leave that behind, take up the challenge ofyear 2000 by beginning to lift high the call for peace with everyone in the community moving forward starting now. Let us join hands for this message resoundright around the globe to for peacein the new millennium. We, the House ofAriki of the Cook Islands pledge to lead you as we move to that ultimate goal. Pa Tepaeru Teariki Upokotini Ariki is President of the House of Ariki in the Cook Islands. She is also active in her support of the non-goyernment and community sectori as Patron of the Cook Islands Association of Non-Government Organisations (CIANGO) and other community organisations in the Cook Islands.

Sth Nuclear for


in Humanrights and goodgovernance thePaciJic Themefive;
on address humanrights: Keynote

Human Rights and Good Governance - CollectiveHuman Rights for Pacific People
Hilda Lini, Vanuatu Motarilavoa
the from the ancestors, chiefs' Firstofall, I bring greetings ofVanuatuto the ancestors andthe peopleofthe Republic andthe peopleof Te Ao Maohi. I would like to thankGod for here,because manyofus for bringingall ofus together havebeenhelpingyour struggle Tahitihasbeena dream.We with prayers, ln our own varlousways in our own countries, But we wereneverallowedto moralsupporland actions. ofthe comehereto Te Ao Maohi evenif we tried' because to try and end the nuclear commitmentsthat we made I testingon Moruroa and Fangataufa. for one am really before this I have never gratefulthat I am here, because i allowe d n toT a h i ti . been Tahiti was FrancisSanford.Latertherewas CharlieChing being put in jail and then OscarTemarucameon, and the others.As I was young and getting into the movement,I knew the activities againstnucleartesting here through Sanfordand BengtDanielsson two peopleFrancis these to The book Moruroa Mon Amour publicised us what was here in Te Ao Maohi happening

awaythis year'I have Threeotherimportantpeoplepassed rnentionedFather Walter Hadye Lini, but the two other are leaders the latePrimeMinister of Tonga;PrinceTupou and also the late Prime Minister of Samoa;Eti Alesana' While we are fighting as activists,churchpeople,women get to lt's these of alsothe presence our elders leadersthere is a level where we can't I would like to acknowledge for the NFIP movement' makethingshappen andour wise men and womenwho havebeenguidingthe peoplewho going' process Peace gettingthe Bougainville th e y e a rs . I a cknow l edge especially NF I P m ov e me n t th ro u g h by the Forum and and gettingNew Caledoniato be accepted our the the especially churchleaders, chiefs, activists, gettingthe nuclear are here with us today, because to be listedat the UnitedNations,even our women leaderswho for thosefive people,I'd on Moruroa.So we evenas we come tnro rhe movement still needthem' testingto end andgiveone to guide us through,to know what like you to bearwith me if we couldall stand We needtheir wisdom silence. minute's the NFIP movementis and what we standfor' We needto able to do in the past'which learnfiom what they've been Collective Human Rights for Pacific Peoples a hashelpedus to achieve lot. At thistime,on behalfof the Lini family,I would alsolike to the ffom across Pacific ofyou - fliends,people thankthose with us in spirit'in haveshared the andacross world - who writing, and also physicallywith the untimely deathof F at her W a l te r H a d y e L i n i , w h o p a s s e daw ay at the of beginning 1999.The family would like to thankyou very much for the appreciationand the sympathythat you had into life with us during that time, as we continue shared withouthim. The topi c that has been gi ven to me thi s m or ning is "Human RightsandGood Governance CollectiveHuman I Rightsfor PacificPeople." don't know how muchjustice I'll do to the topic but beforeI start,I'd like to saythat I that I havebeenusing.Oneof these havesomeprinciples I'd is that I neverwrite my speeches. like to explainthat in people we have our the Pacific,within the indigenous It's computer. a naturalcomputer[pointsto her headand of brain].Otherpeoplesaythatwe arepeople oral history we because don't write, we talk. I find that if we don't keep on using our naturalcomputer,we are going to lose that thankyou to On this note,I would like to makea special for the obituarythat skill - that is to speakandotherpeopleget it andthenstore to NFIP, especially Lopeti Senituli, papers, all sittingand reading was given to Father Walter Hadye Lini lt was a very it in their brain.We will be we information because powerful obituary;one of the most powerful messages dependingon other people's haven'tstoredour own. world' thatwere sentfiom aroundthe I ln the lasttwo yearswe have lost someof our leaders' to NFIP fiom their contribution would like to acknowledge my point of view, becauseI had known what they were ableto do for us,evenat their differentlevels' are Thetwo peoplefrom TahitiI'd like usto acknowledge WhenI wasgettlng SanfordandBengtDanielsson' Francis into the movement,the personandthe namethat I knew in that So I don't write mostof my speeches I havegivenin theyreallyneedit the the Pacificandaround world,unless I beforehand. do not want to lose sometime for translation that skill and talentwhich I believei5 Qsd:givento all peopleall over the world. Also whenwe talk indigenous aboutall sortsof things,I think that we haveto startfrom We ourselves' haveto be the examples' practise personal to We can't expectotherpeople do it, if you don't do it'

To talk aboutHuman Rights:I grew up in a family where the family had the land.The land belongedto the clan; the I also standon anotherprinciple that has been given by clan madeup the tribes.In my nation,we havetwo tribes other people, especially from Vanuatu.When Vanuatu that inter-marry.They arepart of the securitythat the nation became independent 19g0,my brother_who wasat that in - my indigenousnation -needs.My parentsare there to time the first Prime Minister - stoodup to give his speech. look after me, to provide me with food, to seethat I am He saidthat today Vanuatuis independent. as long as But shelteredand to see that I am loved and given other we havepeopleliving undercolonialismin the pacific and guidancethat is needed.I spoke my own languageand worldwide,Vanuatuis not free. We are committedto help that to me is my basichumanright. I was born with parents them fight for their human rights and self_determination. with land,with a clan, with a tribe, with a systemthat had That is the principle that I also standon everywhere go, I beeninheritedby my parentsfrom their unt"rtorr. because believe it so much. How can Vanuatube fiee? I New Caledoniais just nearby,Te Ao Maohi is here and Then I moved on and there were church schools.We had every other place aroundthe world needsus. Ifyou have to go to church.My parentwould say:.,Thebell is ringing. got there,pleasehold the hand ofthose who are not there Go to church". In the church, they would teachme about yet and pull them up to whereyou are. Christian principles at Sunday schools.At home. mv parents had already told me about Takaro. Takaro is mv The otherprinciple - againfrom my brother_ is that we are God and all the legends, every eveningI will be gettin! living in a different stage of development.We used to that which is mine. But when I go to church,they tell me haveour own indigenous valuesystems. Christianitycame about Christ who was born somewhere the world and in into the Pacific and has been acceptedas part of life. God.The nameis .God'not ,Takaro'. Foreign politics and Westerndemocracyhavi come into the Pacific. We have accepted them as a part of our life, Later I moved on in life, to school.When I got to school, part of our system. My brotheralwayssaidthat indigenous V anuatu w as col oni sed by B ri tai n andl rance. My values,Christianprinciplesand politics all have a role to community happenedto be in a church area which is play in development. a matterof how you usethem It's to Anglican with the Church of England, so automatically get to where you want. He always said that a sense of the schools there would be English schools and the communityis a sense securifyfor small islandnations for language that was taughtat school was English. We read andsmallvillages. a sense belonging It,s of anda sense of aboutall these thingsfrom England.We didn,t evenknow feelingsecure. communities very,very imponant So are to what snowlooks like. We didn,t evenknow what a train is, us . what a car is. But that'sthe educationI was given by the Colonial government that was still on my horie island. Then he said that one of his main principleshasbeenthat respectis honourable,wherever you are. If there is no Then I had to move to anotherisland. When I moved, I respect, thenthere'sboundto be conflict.The otherperson had to board at school. I realised that there were two who has not beenrespected will start coming up and say differentdormitories. Thereweretwo differenttoilets.The you aresupposed respect to me. I find thatto be a principle boys had to go to this one, the boys had to sleep in this that human beings need to live with, because there has one and the girls had to sleep in that one and usethis toilet beenso much disrespect going on for so long that today, and the bathroom.It was very different from home,because we tend to be taking revenge.It's alwaysrevengebecause at home we were all togetheras a family. I startedto see the we have not been respected one way or thq other and in difference of what the value of the family is and the we are not trying to say,,OK that,sthe end of disresoect community in the family, and how separationstarts in a now,let'srespect." The disrespect stillgoingon between is Westerneducationinstitution. other races,between colonial powers and indigenous people, between other nations.Ifwe do not respect each Everything is presented say: ..This to is for the boys,,. other we'll never get what we want because other people Obviouslythe boys went hereand the girls went there.In also expectto be respected. When they're not respected, my villages as you grow up, the parentsstart looking at they start fighting back. who is going to be your married partner,but here I am, away from my home.There isn,t that guidanceeventhough I'm not goingto talk aboutthe kind of HumanRiehtsand you are growing up and you are with the boys. Obviously

Now we talk a lot about Conservation.We talk about Biodiversity.But we areusinga lot of paper.Wheredo we expectthe paperto come from? We haveto qo and cut the treesfrom the indigenousland to g.t rno..-puper.So we have to start looking at what are the alternatives. we If keep usingthis resource somewhere, someone going to is suffer. The whole planet is going to suffer with global warming becausewe are cutting down all our ffees, to servethe purposeof the Western industrialised world that needsall the paper.

Good Governance that is beingpromotedworldwide. I,m going to sharewith you our experiences Human of Rishts and Good Governance and bad Governance in Vanu-atu. _ I'll also talk ofthe alternatives that I have been able to experience, hoping that maybe as I tell you, you will be ableto learn. The family, the land and respect

,m hts tu. to

you when seethe boys, you like them. The boys seeyou' theylike you and at the sametime they live in another that I had at place.The respect you place, live in another wasnot thereanymore. familylevelof communication the Therewas at Theboyswere laughing the girls at school. time you get into a situationwhere At norespect. the same they have the even boys were abusingthe girls because You would find people from other beenseparated. but communities not ffom the clan that you are supposed you are away from your clan, marriedwith, because to be island. onanother values start to erode as you follow the So indigenous and agenda the colonialsystem'I've gonethrough westem that.I finishedat high school then I wantedto becomea jour nalis t.It w a s a c o l o n i a l s i tu a ti o n. l n 1971, an movementwas startingalreadywith a very independence which must was Independence, The deadline agenda. clear in come 1977.Thesearethe thingsthat we need.We need We leadership. needto work together.We needinformation programmes. to go out. We needpeopleto run awareness A s s oon a s I w a n te d to b e a j o u rn a l i st, the B ri ti sh for said: "No, we only give scholarships Government not nursesand secretaries, forjournalists." So I teachers, didn't becomea journalist.I decidedto stay home and work for the LiberationMovement. The struggle for independence

to preach against injustice." These church leadersand indigenouschiefs were the backbonecf our Liberation Movementin Vanuatu.Togetherwith the women of course, ifthe womendidn't vote therewould be no majority. because together, which was Britain andFrance Wehadoneenemy, ruling usjointly. We had one enemyto fight against. I wasalsoin the LiberationMovementat the time whenwe set up the People'sProvisional Government,because wasplayingup so muchto delayour independence. France There were six people in the Cabinetthat had to decide what hadto be done.I was a memberof Cabinet everyday andthe only woman.But womenwere half the population to ofVanuatu,so they needed know what was happening. Information is very, very important in a Liberation you need to get things out there. Movementbecause us to Then,we lookedfor someone sponsor at the United of Churcheswas very Nations. The Pacific Conference NuclearFree for in instrumental support our lndependence. in The churches New Zealand Pacificwasvery supportive. and Australia were very supportive, together with the people World Council of Churchesand other indigenous placeswherewe do not aroundthe region.But therewere get to which make decisions.We neededsupport from Papua New Samoa, suchasWestern countries independent Tuvalu,SolomonIslands. Fiji, Nauru,Kiribati and Guinea,




Only threeof them were memberof the United Nationsat So Samoa' Fiji and Western I was in the Liberation Movement as the leader of the that time: PapuaNewGuinea, us and we couldn't get wom en a n d th e W o me n ' s w i n g o f the Li berati on we neededsomeoneto sponsor the United Nations. We had to to Movement.At the sametime I was editor andjournalist, someone sponsorus to for supportfrom the African region.In Africa, every start looking puttingthe paperout everyweek and a pressrelease us. It was try and put it in whatever languages the organisationof African Unity supported day. You have to us to be listed on the UN I people could understand. think one ofthe thingsabout Tanzaniathat sponsored Committeeand the massof the vote was wasthat it mobilised Decolonisation Movementin Vanuatu the Liberation African countries. the the IndigenousChiefs,the Church Leaders, educated, flom Everyonewas working not educated. andthosewho were very difficult. We hadto Therewas no divisionandthe As we movedon, Francebecame for together Independence. that we felt werethe most important things LiberationMovement stayedunited until we achieved do someof the and leaders to touch ideasFrancerespected holds in its heart.We we hadvery committed Atthattime, Independence. cultureis the mainthing.If you touch that France's decided who hadth e v i s i o no f w h a tw e w a n te d . the cultureofone countryor one nation,they would react, French thatteaches system wasthe Frencheducation We had our own agendaand we worked on our agenda. and it we were going to boycott French We decided We didn't want to know what the British and the French culture. Movement you have your own agenda,you set schoolsin Vanuatu,so where the Liberation agendawas. When the Frenchschoolsin VanuatuOf your goals and you have to try and get there. They tried was strong,we closed courseFrancestartedreactingreally strongly.Ifyou had But we everyway to distractyou from your own agenda. go to the Liberation areasyou had to get a passin the had to follow our own. That was the instruction:we have to Movementoffice, otherwiseyou could not go we our own agenda, follow ours - we don't follow what Liberation the we there.With the ProvisionalGovernment paralysed is. they say,or what their agenda we were the majority.Franceand whole country,because Francestarled in get Independence l9Tl .Three Britain were not ableto move.That'swhen we Unfortunately, didn't and they senttheir very high level to think very seriously way (ffom in yearslaterwe gainedIndependence a peaceful peopleto Vanuatu.They said: "Come to Franceto talk'" persondied). Even thoughtherewas a my count only one "No, it is the issue of Vanuatu' You come to rebellion, everyonewas in it - the chiefs and the church We said: we Vanuatuto talk about our Independence, don't come w leader s- a n d j u s ti c e a n d In d e p e n d ence ere bei ng to and Francehad to fly to Vanuatu weresaylng: to France."So Britain fiom the pulpit.The churchleaders preached in for Independence Vanuatu. They have discussour agenda sleep. cannot the "lfthere is injustice churches
8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue' Tahitt P age l l l


Motarilavoa Hilda Lini (Vanuatu) with Alfred Jack (pCRC)

I'm just telling you this becausedealing with colonial powers, there are certain things that we have to do. They have their agenda; it's been there for hundreds of years and they follow it. They don't sleep.We sleepsometimes in the Pacific,they don't. After we-have beenindependent th ey c om e ar ou n d a g a i n a n d b e c a u s eth e y f eel so humiliatedthat we beatthem, they comenow with different kinds of food, with different tastesand colours and everythingto offer to our leaders. For those who say that you need preparationbefore Independence, when we gainedIndependence Vanuatu in we only had one lawyer,five doctors,one economist, and one accountant. you're talking about Western If educated qualified people,thosewere the only onesthat we had in 1980whenwe gainedIndependence. believethat if we We had followed the French when they said that we have to prepare you, they just want to turn you into a little Frenchman, little Frenchwomen. the time they finish By with you, you have forgotten your agenda, you have forgottento be your own real person.You will be what they want to turn you into. So thoseare some aspects that we tried to follow to gain our humanrights, which was for the nationalcommunity o f V anuat u. A lr e a d y i n th e v i l l a g e s , p e o p l e w ere independent. They grow their own food. They don't go to the m ar k et . T hey d o n ' t l i v e w i th mo n e y . T h ey are independent, self-reliant peoplein the villagesofVanuatu. At that time, 98%o the population were living in the of villages. Even in the urbanareas, chief was controlling the his own people.They havetheir own gardens. we were So lucky and I believe that Vanuatu'ssituation was better because majority of the peoplestill lived that way. the
Page I l2

Good governance after independence O.K, whathappensafter Independence? got our human We rights, that is the communal human rights for the whole of Vanuatu- what do we do after that? We had two separate administrationsgoing in Vanuatu- now we had to combine them into one. While we were trying to build that up, we also tried to be with the people - to be accountableto them, so they tell us what to do. But after ten years of Independence one of the biggest things that I found in Vanuatu was that as people were coming back from overseas fiom education, they've gone through the Westerneducationsystem.When they come back, they all come with Westernconceptsand ideology ofwhat Independence Sovereigntyare,what education and is, what economy is, what everything is. While the grassrootspeople are talking about something that they were fighting for, they knew this is what we were fighting for. The indigenous people who run the country are the peoplethat sit in the office and makethe plans.They plan according to what they've learnt from the British, the French,the Australian and the New Zealand education systems, and they were not consultingthe people at the grassroots while they were making the plan. So the national level people were speaking a different languagewhile the majority of grassrootspeople were speakinga different language.The other thing that came up was the leadership struggle.During the Independence struggle,the leaderswere together.We were united until we gained Independence and our sovereignty. But after Independencethe leaders started to fight amongst themselves. This affectedthe developmentof Vanuatu,

8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Thhiti

as because you fight the interests start to change. I'd liketo sayonething aboutthis,for thoseof us who are fighting anyrvhere, an organisation, as liberation movement In or whatever. any organisation there are one or two or people three who havethe vision of what they want.The others membersare those of us who are around because we supportthat vision and want to help. Now if that visionary leaderdoes not completewhat the vision for Independencefor that particularcountryor his liberation is movement we keepchanging and people, will neverget we there. Take Kanaky for example.There were visionaryleaders, butthey have been killed along the way. In Vanuatu,we hadvisionary leaders the beginning. would saythere at I werethreewho were right there in the movement,going everyday with the people,while the otherswere in the British Administration, French Administration studying. or At Independence, shouldcontinue respect we to that we havean agendato completebecause lndependence on Dayour PrimeMinister said:"Today we are Independent. Thisis an easierroad but there is a most difficult road still ahead us, that is economicself-sufficiency selfof and reliance. That is the next stepfor Vanuatuand we should try to get there in ten years time." That was the agenda afterIndependence. By 1988,the leaderswere fighting amongstthemselves andby 1991,the Liberation Movementwas split into two. FatherWalter Lini was in one group, Donald Kalpokas with another. were split when the next Electionscame We threemonthsafter.Because were split, the pro-French we parties walked in and took the power in Vanuatubecause we were fighting amongstourselves liberationleaders. as The pro-Frenchparties have been ruling until last year. What has happened during 1991 until today?Where is Kanak Independence struggle,East Timor, West Papua, NuclearFreePacificandall that?Whereis it while we have been struggling amongourselves powerin our country? for Wewerenot beingresponsible. didn't evenlook beyond We Vanuatu seewhetherour struggle to amongourselves could affectotherstruggles aroundthe Pacific,aroundthe world. So I put a lot of the blameto Vanuatu. areto be blamed We because hada commitmentbut we werefightingamong we ourselves. hadplayeda very important We role at the South PacificForum, at the Melanesian Spearhead Group,at the UnitedNations.Whenthe KanaksandwhenOscarTemaru got there,EastTimor got there,if therewere no countries thatallowedthem,Vanuatu would register themasVanuatu delegates. OscarTemarucould sit in the Vanuatu chairand makehis presentation the Kanakscouldsit in the Vanuatu or chair and make their presentation. They are very small thingsbut this is what Liberation Movements need.They just little things,little consideration be given by need to thoseof us who are alreadyfree. If we are free we can be prayingall thetime,we canbe fishingandeating, gardening andwhatever. But what doesthis meanwhen our brothers

right next door to us are still sufferinqand we are not doi ng enough. Good Governance another is issue. For thoseof you who havebeenfollowing eventsin Vanuatu since 1992,there hasbeena lot ofabuseofpower.Therehavebeena lot of reportsput out by the Ombudsmanbecausea lot of our leaders havebeenmisusingtheir power.For the first time in 1992, had an Ombudsman we who was ableto bring out to the publicfor us to seewhat the leaders weredoing.It was good we wereableto do that. Therewasa lot of criticismaboutthe Ombudsman because she'swhite, she's French.They think that she doesn't have the culturalconceptthat indigenous peoplewould have.But at leastshedid one part of the job and that is monitoring leaders, the which is partof GoodGovernance - seeing thattheyareaccountable the peoplewho have to elected themto be in Parliament to be in Government. and Sincethentherehasbeena change the Ombudsman. of I myselfhavebeena Minister.I havebeena memberof Parliament tenyearsand I wasMinisterfirst responsible for policy, for Health,WaterSupply,Environment, Population the Rightsof Childrenand Traditional Medicine.Later,I was Ministerfor Justice, Culture,Religionand Women. Thoseare very responsible thingsthat you hold for the life of people. My inspiration always has comefrom thegrassroots people, the NGOs, the churches, NFIP movement.Wherever the you areyou haveto touch baseall the time. If you don't you canbe living in a dreamworld,not knowing touchbase, what is happening aroundyou. Whereveryou are, if any ofus can get into thosepositions, takeadvantage ofthat positionto useit for the issues that we are addressing so that we can help thosewho are still struggling. I'll give you the exarnple the Bougainville of situation. I w as the Mi ni ster for H eal th, w hen the N ew Zealand Minister for ForeignAffairs wasvisiting Vanuatu. had We dinner with him asMinisters. from Bougainville, But three delegations were therein Vanuatu trying to lobby and I hadto put them up in my house. I was a Minister,but what's wrong? They are my friends so I hadto putthemup in my house. dinnerI mentioned At to the advisor of the Foreign Minister of New Zealand.. "Oh you shouldmeet the Bougainvillepeoplewho are here so that you can hear their story yourself." So we arranged next morning,he would be jogging and I the arranged with the Bougainville representative one of that thernwould be sittingat the bus stop pretendingthat he is waiting for the busto comethat way wherethis guy would be heading. a smallthingbut it canhappen It's ifyou know whereyou can make the connections. they met with So hirn.They inforrned ForeignAffairs Minister who went the back and si nce then N ew Zeal and never st opped supporting Bougainville. They are very smallthingsthat
Page l13

8lh Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conlerence, Anre, Tahitr

you canmakeconxections. I havebeenvery insffumental at the international also level, especially the useof nuclear on weapons, relatingto the resolution that went beforethe World Court,and also at the momentwith Abolition 2000 and the Middle powers Initiative (We are trying to get a centre group going so thatthe nuclear powerscan negotiate with eachotherto t r y and r eally a b o l i s h n u c l e a rw e a p o n s , b a n them to altogether). After havinggone throughVanuatu's independence, the post-lndependence seeing State, how politicians playwith thepowerandabuse power,I resigned the from my political paffyin 1996.I did not like the way politicalparties were serving their own interests not the nation's. was my and It br ot her ' s polit ic a l p a rty a n d I re s i g n e d .I s at as an independent member by myselfin parliament all because I could not acceptthe way political partieswere handling l he is s ues V an u a tu . in After that I finished ffom parliamentlast year because I didn't wantto run on a partyticket.Since1996,lhadbeen runnlngan awareness programme the indieenous for chiefs of Vanuatu because believethey still harlepower but I they don't know whereto use it and how to use it. From rny point of view, Vanuatuneedsa secondrevolutionto really put it back on where we wanted it to be when we were'fightingfor Independence. Constitution The states clearlyin its preamble that the Independent Sovereign and Stateofthe Republicof Vanuatu foundedon Melanesian is indigenous values, traditions and in God.But we havenot done it.

ourselvesa Nuclear Free country and Aotearoadid the same.We havebeenfighting for a NuclearFreepacificall theseyears. When are some of our other independent countries the Pacificgoingto declare in themselves Nuclear Free States? If we have to dependon the RarotongaTreafy,well, the R arotonga Treaty i s the one that' s al l ow i ng th ese plutoniumshipments going throughthe pacific, because it is not strongenough. brotherneversignedit. It was My primeMinisterwho signed in theformerpro-French it I 993. It's too weak.It will nevergive usthekind ofNuclearFree Pacificthat is in our charter. NFIp Charter The clearlystates what a Nuclear Free and Independent pacific is. The RarotongaTrealy does not give us that. So my questionto you is: ',OK, can we make it? The Churches, Women, NGOs,thepoliticalparties, the the our governments together- canwe declarea NuclearFreeand Independent Pacific?" now theyear 2000. It's My last message thoseof you who are still fighting for to Independence a quotation is from Mahatma Gandhi.Ifthe colonisersare saying that you are not ready. Mahatma Gandhisaidthat:"lt is better the Indigenous peopleto for run a badGovernment thenfor a good administration be to run by al i ens."



I o


a a h



So with that I hope that I have given you somethingon HumanRightsand Good Governance. is the experience It of Vanuatu I'm giving it you, hopingthat you can see but which areHumanRightsandwhich is Good Governance. For me, my Governmentand Good Governancestartsat home.If my parents havelookedafterme and I canpractise With the awareness group that has beenworking with, it at home,I canpractiseit at church, I can practiseit in my thereare strongorganisations are basedin someof that community, can practiseit on my island,in my home I the islands. aretrying to getthe awareness We going in all countryandall theway up. But home is the most imoortant the is lands .W e a re s a y i n g th a t i n d i g e n o u sw i sdom, place.If we are not taughtGood Governance home, at sc ienc e,t ec hnol o g y ,v a l u e s , s y s te m a n d i n d i genous we'll neverbe able to get it anywhere else,because we democracy our key to the year 2000.If we aregoingto are ourselves mustpractise If we expectotherpeople do it. to continuewith all this Westerncrap that we have been it but we don't practise it, we arenot goodexamples. Thank co nt inuing h s in c eth e yc o l o n i s e d s ,w e w i l l n everbe you very much. wit u there. Motarilavoa Hilda Lini is from pentecost in Vanuatu,a high ranking chief in the women's chiefly sociee of Turaga. She has been involved in communie groups, w omen' s organi sati ons and i ndi genous peopl e's organisations such as Tuvanuatu, and was a founding member of the NFIP Movement.She sened as the only women in Vanuatus Parliament for ten years, including terms as Ministerfor Health and Environment and later Ministerfor Justice,Culture,Religion and Women. I999 In My last question,before I finish. Vanuatuhas been a she was appointed as the new Director of the pacific Nuc learF r eec oun trys i n c e I9 8 0 . In 1 9 g 3 ,w e d ecl ared ConcernsResource Centre in Suva, Fiii. I thinkthatI havegonefrom the villagelevelrightthrough the s pec t r umr igh t u p to th e i n te rn a ti o n aIe v e l , even l negotiating the UnitedNations. havefoundthatpower at I is still in the handsof your own peoplein the communrty. Ifyou makethe change there,thenthe change cango on. My other principle is that I,m not going to go and talk anywhere I haven'tdone it myself. if



the c all lent Iear

papua New Guineaafter the sandlinecrisis
GegeYo Sophie Councilof Churches New Papua Guinea
New Guineahavealwaysmaintained in andthe members The churches Papua like Iwould to thankMr. LopetiSenituli peacein Bougainville.At this point in time board of PCRC for the invitation to be andadvocated of theexecutive that I would like to pay tribute to the many missionaries panel' I at Dresent this meetingand to participatein this in Bougainvilleandcontinued their livesandstayed wouldlike to extendmy sinceregratitudeand deep risked also duringthe crisis' to provideservices churchof Te Ao Maohi for to appreciationtheEvangelical place' in occasion this beautiful this hosting historical I would like for us to give specialrecognitionfor the work of Caritasthroughthe Catholic Churchin the areaofjustice, beenaskedto sharemy thoughtson the issueof I have Great work has in affair'I work with the peaceand development Bougainvillb. afterthe Sandline Guinea PapuaNew by the women's network through the also been done and I will try and sharemy pNGCouncilof Churches Forum. Women's Interchurch to the Sandlineaffair' viewsin relation personal may ask the question"what is Sandline"?For the Some of benefit others,Sandlinewas the processin which the to mercenaries New Guineagovernmentengaged Papua a n d fl u s h o u t th e rebel sof the go int o Bo u g a i n v i l l e Army (BRA)' Revolutionary Bougainville The churchesbelieve that to be a Christian communlty would meanportrayingthe love of God to othersandthat of can only be achievedthrough the liberating message advocatingfor peaceand the churches Christand through find their destiny' justice,to assistthe Bougainvilleans free will' throughchoiceof

9 Se

use yas 93. :ee tes he

1e ur rd



madethis as Of course, we all know, the army commander to provi de rehabilit at ion, governmentknown to the public, when The churches conti nue plan of the secret reconstructionthrough the program on restorationand in hemadea public appearance the media' As a result, and forgiveness reconciliation'This is donethrough the public took to the streets peace therewas an uprising, in churches Bougainville. member to and petitioning calling on the government withdrawthe the and mercenaries not to allow them into Bougainville' Gi ven the di spari ti es of.poverty and har dship in Bougainville,the governmentis initiating a district level The public pressurewas go great that the government Communitybasedinitiatives' to and send them approach be encouraged' *as iorced to withdraw the mercenaries and linkages NGOs will be strengthened, and bac k t o So u th A fri c a T h e g o v e rn ment responded cirrrcttes activities' government-sponsored with the and as favourably the peoplehad demanded, I believethis made The people the powerof the people' by only possible was focus areas of the government pr ogr am on madethat change. In fact, the political leadersfelt so The Bougainvilleto furtherpromotepeaceand stability are: by threatened the peoplethat they soughtthe securityof House None was allowedto leaveParliament oarliament. of r restoration emPloYment people'sdemands' until they agreedto the livelihoods; generationand sustainable r rllcome ; ofthe basicservices r the rehabilitation thatmostof New Guineabelieve A lot of peoplein Papua ofyouth into and reintegration o the rehabilitation in lost theparliamentarians their seats the 1997election soclety; After the Sandlineaffair' we due to the Sandlineaffair. and the alleviation of suffering of women and The ongoingpolitical r government. a witnessed changeof children. crisishas had seriouseconomicand social implications for the countrY. may be genuine' of Thoughrhe intention the government situationis that very mush neededbasic has had the reality of the The lack of continuity betweengovernments are suchasthe provisionofhealthandeducation p l a n n i n g'The country services r eper c u s s i o no n d e v e l o p m e n t s to the maj ori ty of the people in and sti l l not avai l abl e in faies humanrights challenges the areaof excess tru. and Bougainville.TenkYu correctionalagencies by abuses law enforcement' women, against and discrimination violence forces, defence Sophia Gegeyois SecretaryGeneral of the Papua New politicsand publicadministratton' in andcorruption Guinea Council of Churches. On a positive note, the governmenthas recentlyadopted is a teacherby profession,andworked as a planning a new o rg a n i c l a w th a t w i l l b ri n g about greater She of Education and and resources responsibilities officer with the PNG Department of decentralisation powers, of the Anglican Church' EducationSecretary to the provincialand local levelgovernments'
Slh N*k* Fr* t"d Independent Paci.fic Conference' Arue' Tahiti Page I 15

Crisis in the SolomonIslands
Kelly Charles (SICA) Solomon Islands Christian Association
TheSolomon Islands (SICA) is made Present Situation Christian Association up of the five main churches the country:(i) Catholic l) Elements IFM - havecontinued harass people in of to the Churchof Solomon Islands.(ii) Church of Melanesia of Guadalcanal. That meansthe Guadalcanal people (Anglican (iii) UnitedChurchSolomonIslands, Church), are now fighting againsteachother. (iv) SouthSeasEvangelical Church,(v) and the Seventh 2) Food and other rehabi l i tati on servi ces to t he Day Adventists.[t is so unfortunate that the Solomon Guadalcanal peoplethat havebeendisciplined have Islands has beenviolated by ethnic tension.The ethnic been stoppedby IFM from accessing goods and tensionhas been a very sad and painful experience a for supplies. they do receivesupplies, If the receiving countrythat is known asihe "Happy Islands".The country community will pay compensation the IFM. to is affectedby ethnic tension,damagingthe economy, The Malaita people have been discouragedfrom tourism, andeventhe wantoksystem. Families havebeen retaliatingby way of a Malaita EagleForceto take up separated the crisis. by armsto fighttheGuadalcanal people. Malaitaleaders, Members of Parliamentand other Malaitan church The tension may I call it confusion developed between leadertry to stop the mortality of retaliation. two groups and island people from Guadalcanaland 4) The ministerhas announced that the militantsin a Malaita. Malaita is the most denselypopulatedisland, small way have begunto surrenderarms to SICA in whileGuadalcanal the biggest is island whereHoniara, the preparation the Peacekeeping for forcesfrom Frji and capitalcity of the country,is situated. More than 10,000 Vanuatu. peopleof both Malaita,Guadalcanal peopleffom other and p r ov is ionshav e b e e n ma d e d i s p l a c e db y th e l satabu In Summary, years Peaceful "20 of Independence.', FreedomFighters(IFF) who opposedthe presence of Malaitans Guadalcanal. the heightof the tension, 1) The Solomon on At Islands gonethroughan experience has the SolomonIslandsChristianAssociation (SICA) was of ethnicIslanders wantingrecognition. very instrumental.SICA made severalpress statements 2) Customaryland ownershipis of vital importance to c alling f or c alm a n d s u rre n d e ri n gU s i n g th e C hurch . the indigenous people. infrastructure, SICA wasableto reachthe militantsin their 3) It is an experience HousingProblems the labour of for hideouts(camps)when the Government called for help force working in the urban areasof Honiara. $15 from the Commonwealth a "Missionof Peace." for (led by (Notenongu) $50.00 SitiveniRabuka, ex-PrimeMinisterof Frjiand Professor 4) Our experienceis that to centralisedevelopmentin Ade Ade Fur,throughthe Commonwealth Secretariat). the capital- HoniaraCity -attracts manyrural migrants seeking right to development. the Because SICA was already developing relationships with 5) The Solomon Islands government a workingpolicy has IFF, it was a SICA personwho led the Commonwealth on NaturalDisaster hasno policyon "Man Made,' but PeaceEnvoy into the jungle to meet with the militants. Disaster. The ethnictensionhas not beendeclared a NGOs and churches were very involved in repatriation NationalDisaster. That is why it limits donations from and r ehabilit at i o n n v o l v i n g R e d C ro s s ,D e v el opment (i Internati onal genci es. A Services Exchange, SolorronIslands Development Trust, WorldVisionandwomen'sagencies). Remember: "No Man is an Island" Charles Kelly is Director of the S ol omon l sl ands C hri stian Associ ation (SICA) Ecumenical resourceand SupportDesk and Chairperson of the D evel opment S ervi c es Exchange (DSE) in Honiara, S ol omon Isl ands. H e has worked in the area of health, popul ati on and family pl anni ng, servi ng as t he Director of the SolomonIslands Red Cross and the Solomon Isl ands Fami l y P l anni ng Association.

Ch a r le s Ke lly ( se co n dfio m ri ght) with delegatesfionr Vanuatu, Pa p u aNe w Gui nea and West P apua Page ll6

8th Nuclear Fret and lndependent Pacific Conference,Arue, Thhiti

Above, from left: Tamara Bopp du Pont (Te Ao Maohi ), R ol and Ol dham (Te Ao Maohi ), Esrel l e Lakal aka(Wal l i s and Futuna), Lori ne Tevi (Fi j i Isl ands). Lel l : PC R C A ssi stant D i rector (Fi nance)A l fred .l ack Iooki ng forw ard l o reti rement Bel ow . Longti me N FIP acttvi st H i l da H al kyardH araw i ra fi om Aotearoa.

8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conference. ArLte, Tahiti

Page I 17

Samuela'Akilisi Pohiva Tonga HumanRightsandDemocracy Movement

Human Rights and Good Governance Tonga in

( ( l


S inc e t he las t N u c l e a r F re e a n d In d e p e n dent FIp) (N powers.Ours is a struggleagainstan authoritarian ruler conference, our movementhad continuedto work on a who is well protectedby a constitutiondesigned a by proposed draft constitution for Tonga, based on the Westernadministrator and advisers. resolutions ,,Tonsan adoptedin the conventionon the constitution democracy', and held at Nuku,alofain D:92, In summary, monarch our hasTonganblood, but his mind and on empiricaldata collectedfrom varioussources. is a foreignerto our country.The Crown prince and the Princess bothhavethe sameand inheritthe same mentality. For the Movement be ableto efficiently to andeffectively Like the Suharto family,the royal family hastakenoverthe carry out this very important task, it had to approve a most profitablebusiness optionsavailablein the country. recommendation fiom the Movement,s Executive for a Behindthe monarchy the Church.If you askme is about changein the official title of the .,Tongapro_Democracy the religion in Tonga,my answerwould be _ and I,m sorrv Movement"to the,.TongaHuman Rightsand Democracy to saythis - that this is wheremost of our people arebein! Movement." This newtitle fits in well to whattheMovement domesticated and made to suffer in siience.I am not does,which is the promotion of the fundamental rights of challenging Christianity, Christianprinciples.I am only or Tongans, and eventuallyto achieveits goal, which is the questioning mostof the religiouspractices adopted most in establishment a democratic of government elected the religiousorganisations. bv people. The Princess'company,Tongasat, agent of an Tonga government takescontrolof the slotsin the space registered underthe Kingdom of Tonga The profits ihat have been collectedhaveneverbeendisclosed madeknown or to the public. Her duty free companyis a major shareholder in a joint venture investment with Tonga government.She is also very much involved in other invistments on a loint venturebasiswith others,mostly foreigners.The Crown Prince'scompanybasedin San FranCisco controlsthe Internetstuff which Tongagovernment shouldbe a major shareholder. is a major shareholder a locally He in based company, Royal BeerCo., the only oneproducing the beer in the country. He is also involved in other business In January1999,a conventionon the draft constitution ventures such as the Lands,Sea,Air Co. Ltd. basedin was held at Nuku'alofa on the theme,.,A searchfor a H ong K ong w hi ch i nvol ved i n the sel l i ng of Tongan democratic ruling model suitablefor Tongafor the year Naturalisations and Tonganpassports. i992, before In 2000 and beyond."One of the resolutions adopted the retirement, became chairman in he the of the TongaElectric convention as follows: is Powerboard.Duringthis time, he obtained a=pproval the of the Boardto sell the manufacture oils to his companv of "That a request submitted government be to for a andto geta Development Licence removing duties all and referendumto coincide with the last election other charges imposed oils importedby his company. on s eek ing th e re s p o n s e o f th e p e o p l e to the ..Should question, the peopleelectthe members Despitethe fact that governmenthas been called, on of Parliament including noblerepresentatives several occasi ons, the to account for i ncompetence, and all the government ministers?,' maladministration misuse public fundsby and of someof the ministers and seniorofficers,Iack of accountability T he Deput y P r i m e Mi n i s te r i n h i s re p l y s a ys the still prevails to this moment. up government would needtime to consider request our and give a reply later.However,he addsit may be too late for In a response a letter of the Minister of Justice to and government get it donein time for the 1999election. to Attorney General to me requestingmy apology, on the ground that my statementpublished in the Walt Street Now, I wantto move on to what is curently happening in Journaldefamed Majesty, said: His I thepoliticalandcommercial arenas inside government. our During_thepast few days we learnt about tie on_gorng "Hon. Minister,I believethereis no groundfor me to make str uggles of t he i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e to g e t thei r an apologyas you requested... the statements as I made independence self-determination and from the colonial were done independently basedon factual occurrences. Towards end of 199g,the Movement,s the Constitutional Rev iew Com m i tte e c o m p l e te d i ts w o rk o n a draft constitution.In the proposeddraft constitution,there are t wo m aJ or c ha n g e s .T h e fi rs t ma j o r c h a n ge i s the r es t r uit ur ing o f th e L e g i s l a ti v e A s s e m b l y and the ExecutiveBranch of government,which, in effect. shifts the executivepower of the monarchyto the executive, or the ministerselectedby the people.The second major change the reallocation landrightsto givethe p.opt. is of a fair shareof the monetarybenefitsgainedffom the land resources.
Pctge I lB Bth Nuclear Free and InrtnKrM


..(Mr.Minister),the only way for the King to evade is criticisms a total isolationfrom the law making and the position becomean HonoraryKing like the executive to King Britainandotherdynasties Europe.. continued) of in (l theonlyleader the universe in that cannotbe subjected to criticisms Jehovah, King of Kings andLord of Lords. is the reign righteous flawless... leadership free His is and His is of prejudice unchallenged." and part That of my response the Minister'sletterwasquoted to inJustice Finnigan's decisioninthe King vs Pohiva inthe Supreme CourtofTonga, page17. I made theseremarks in my responseto the Minister's letter a hopethatwould clearmy positionto the Minister in once and for all. Unfortunately,the Minister did want to take bittermedicine.So,he decidedto takeme to court the fordefaming Majesty. His Brothers sisters, fundamental and the issueour movement has been dealingwith during the pastnine yearsor so,has been he lac k o f a c c o u n ta b i l i tya n d i n j u s tice l n our t government. prove our case,I wish to come back to To Justice Finnigan'sdecision in the SupremeCourt on the same case, part of it readsas follows: "lt is not shown to my satisfaction that the accused said thatthe King is a dictator. But, if he did then, in their c ont ex t t hos e w o rd s c a n o n l y m e a n , th e K ing i s an ,

authoritarian ruler who ignoresmy repeated requests for accountability himself and his Ministers... he said by if that, it appears me to be the truth. Taking into account to ofthe evidenceby the accused during the trial it appears to me not surpri si ng that hi s attempts to o bt ain accountabilityin a systemwhich does not provide for it areignored"(page26) The government neverchallenged has that part ofJustice Finnigan's decision. Somemight well say,if that is how things work in Tonga, then why do they need change, sincethe people'srights can be sortedout in the Court of Justice? Brothers and sisters,taking governmentin every single offencecommittedby any ofthe ministersor, a seniorofficer in government, a very costly and painful exercise. is One good example:I took government the couft, aftera to long battleto get government accountfor the unlawful to selling of Tongan naturalisationand Tongan passpofts. What actuallyhappened was that, a few days before the trial, Tongagovernment, under the royal commandfrom his Majesty,called an emergencymeeting of parliament only to passlegislation legalising unlawfulactiontaken the by government thus bringing an endto that long struggle for accountability. hope that the decision of Justice I Finnigan well supportsour case and the motive behind our struggle.But, this is not a struggleto removeour

T o n g a n p a r ticip a n tsa t th e 8 th NF IP Conf-erence: Seketi Fuko, Lupe S eni tul i and S i ster S enol i ta V akata Sth Nuclear Free and lndependent Pacfic Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page I 19

monarchyas some people might think. Rather,it is a struggle get our constitution to reviewed,as it is both theoretically practically and suppressive dictatorial. and We believethat a constitutionthat is dictatorialis bound to producevery selfish and authoritarianleaders.To be able t o get r id o f th e s e c o n s ti tu ti o n a l d e fe cts, our constitution to be reviewedas soon as possible, has so thatjustice and accountability be put in place. can So,between now and the year 2002 ourmovement will be working hard in preparationfor a nationalreferendum to ,,Should be held beforethe next electionon the issue: the people electallthe members parliament of including noble representatives all govemmentministers? this point and At of time, our movementneedsthe suppon of the world communityto put pressure our government on The last part of my presentation dedicated all of us is to who ar e her e in th i s v e ry i m p o rta n t a n d h i stori cal conference. Someof us who are here in this Conference witnessthe authoritarian character most, if not all, of the leaders of in the region. They are either motivated by fear of losing their own base or by the need to hang on to the former colonial m as t e rs a n d o th e r i n te rn a l a n d e xternal manipulators.

The history of humansocietyshouldalwaysbe viewed as a conti nui ng struggl e betw een the advocate s of development and the guardians the statusquo. Freire's of "Cultural actionfor lleedom" notesthat the revolutionary advocates engagedin a strugglewhich is utopian in are nature: "Revolutionary utopia tends to be dynamic than static; tendsto life ratherthan death;to the future as a challense to rnan'screativityratherthan a repetitionof the preseit; to love as liberationof subjectsrather than pathological possessiveness; the emotion of life ratherthan cold to abstractions. "To living togetherin harmonyratherthangregariousness; to dialogue rather than muteness; praxis rather than to "the law and order," to men who organise themselves reflectivelyfor actionratherthanmenwho areorganise for passivity;to creativeand communicativelanguage rather than prescriptivesignals;to reflective challJne;s rather than domesticated slogans; and to valuesthat are lived than myths that are imposed.,'

The revolutionary guardiansin the pacific are those distancedby the activistsin their searchfor this utopia. The struggl e betw eenthi s i rresi sti bl e force and it s immovableobject is illustratedby countlessconflicts. What is happening now in Timor, and in this islandTahiti and elsewhere the pacific is case in point. In these in The professionalideology of most of our leadersin the conflicts, the activistsare so often numberedamong the Pacificentailsa belief in accountability their superiors transgressors: to they raise uncomfortablequestionsabout ratherthan to the peoplethey are supposed serve.Our the whole nation to of criminality within humansociety. i deology is t o be a c c o u n ta b l e o u r p e o p l ewho are to sufferingand victimisedby uninvitedalienforcesandtheir Before I sit down, I wish, on behalf of the delegates from local partners,which is made worse by the forces of Tonga, to expressour thanks and love to the-Director. globalisation. however, If our organisations usedas a are Lopeti Senituliand the pCRC and NFIp staff and all the means towardsemancipation promotionofthe welfare organisersfor inviting and us from Tonga to be here to of the majorityof the peoplein our regionthenwe must parlicipatein this wonderfuland historic conference. Our alwaysresistbeingmanipulated. needto developand thanks are also We extendedto all our brothers and sisters express potentialin an openclimateand avoid being here in this our beautiful island for your hospitality,your usedasa means maximising for material rewards. kindnessand love. We wiil never forget you. Ofa atu. 'Akilisi Pohiva is General Secretarv of the Tonga Human Rights an-d Democracy Movementand a people's R epresentati ve Member of Parliament.Since his election in t98i, he has beenre-electedfour times with the highest tally of any candidate. Through radio programmes and the newsletterKele'a, he has campaigned in Tonga against conuption and for a broaderfranchise. His actions have earned hi m several sui ts f or defamation from the Crown prince and Government Ministers, an qrresl on charges of treason ond 26 days detention in September 1996 for contempt of P arliament.
T o n g a d e m o cr a cyca m p a ig n e r' Akilisi p o h iva ( le ft) w i th Oscar Temaru Page I 20 6th Nuctear l.ree and Independent pacfic Conference, Arue, Tahiti


Human Rights in Te Ao Maohi
Cross Stanley Ligue des Droits de l'Homme de Polyndsie Teturaetara
It is a greathonour for me to receiveyour invitationto be as NFIP Conference, a representative at anobserver this 8'h of the Human Rights Leagueof Polynesia Teturaetara (Ligue des Droits de I'Homme de Polynesie or LDPH Teturaetara). The conferenceis being held here on Maohi land - land as thatis alsoyours, ladiesand gentlemen, representatives It ofthe Pacific. is an honourtospeakbefore ofthepeoples this honourableassemblyabout human rights in French I Polynesia. would also like to take this opponunify to thank the political movement Tavini Huiraatira and Board, on particularly representative theNFIP Executive its Mr. Nui Ben Teriitehau. to It is an honour for LDPH Teturaetara be here. I must notethat neitherthe authoritiesofthe Territory ofFrench P oly nes ia ,P re s i d e n t Ga s to n F l o s s e , or the French of represented the High Commissioner the by authorities invitationto RepublicMr. JeanAribaud, havetakenup the attend. LDPH Teturaetara is a non-governmentorganisation, independent all authorities,trade unions and political of partiesand receivingno grantsor funding from any State persona yet authorityfrom overseas, we havebeenjud ged give you an exampleof non grata in our own country.To Secretary this politics of denial,the Frenchgovernment's it necessary Territorieshasnot seen of Statefor Overseas on to consultZD PH Teturaetara the evolutionofthe Statute of Autonomy for French Polynesia,which hasjust been In voted on by the French Parliament. their eyes,our in acknowledged this is organisation not a force to be country. come to saw their claim for compensation Polynesians fruition, the othershaving died before we could take up the casewith the relevantFrenchgovernmentservices. In order not to take up too much time, I'd like to focuson five actionsthat we've undertaken. The first and most significant action was to publicly denounce the inhuman and degrading treatment of centre), in detainees theNuutaniaMaison d'Anet (remand which is an expressbreachof Article 3 of the European in Conventionon HumanRights,which is applicable French Polynesia. Our action to support those detained in Nuutaniawere with hunger over severalyears, interspersed undertaken are of strikes by the prisonersthemselves, whom 95o/o the of Maohi. Paradoxically, success our campaignsaw the transferof control over Nuutaniafrom the Tenitorial authoritiesback to the French government,due to the of completeincompetence the local authorityin this area. SinceJanuaryI 995 and the transferofpower to the French conditionsfor those detainedhave improved authorities, The one remainingquestionis whetherthe considerably. overpopul ati on i n the pri sons necessit at est he on based French ofa construction new penalestablishment being as standards, the currentprisonis totally unsuitable, old. over30 years

The second significant action that LDPH Teturaetara whenwe lodgeda claim was in November1994, undertook againstthe French governmentbefore the Intemational (lLO) in Geneva. The claim focussed LabourOrganisation on the situation of the professionaldivers in the pearl Thesediverswere In spite of this, and since its creationin 1991 by seven farmsof the TuamotuGambierislands. hasnot ceased risking their lives every day, becausethe legislation LDPH Teturaetara volunteers, Polynesian werein by coveringtheir work passed the localauthorities on violationsof the UniversalDeclaration to denounce diving. of Human total violation ofsafety rules for professional Human Rights and the EuropeanConvention Rights and FundamentalFreedomsby the Territorial Thanks to support from the W FTU tra de union authoritiesand the Frenchauthorities. which lodgedthis complainton our behalf, confederation, taken by our group the ILO AdministrativeCouncil issueda recommendation Certain actions amongstthe dozens of havehad a greatimpacton local public opinion.Others in March 1996statingthat the Government Francehad like supportfor those carri ed out a pol i cy w hi ch di scri mi nated bet ween in have been undertaken secret, P oly nes i a n s w h o re c e i v e d b l o o d transfusi ons professi onal di vers i n French P ol ynesi a and t heir in with the HIV virus,while they were being counterparts France. contaminated in 1984-5.It wasa French hospitals on operated in French This discriminationcontinuestoday, with the Territorial who doctor who alertedus to the situationof Polynesians any financialsupport Governmentof FrenchPolynesiaand the Govemmentof weredying ofAIDS, without receiving ofthe large aboveall to protectthe interest fiom the French government.With the Franceseeking or compensation oearl farmers. l5 ofthe 40 not threatofrevealingthis scandal, lessthan

1995.In a mediarelease entitled,.Who benefits fiom the crime?",we denounced plot instigated.by the the FrenchGovernment, which stepped backto aliow the city ofPapeeteto be left in the handsoflooters and arsonists for severalhours after the first test' The gardes m.obiles (paramilitary police) were not sentin, eventhoughthey werereadyfor action in avenue Bruat andthe city of Fapeete was alreadyin flames.

are assisted by greeted quuirn.o the inte.p,eters. must thatFrench the one note is resumption L1,1jil::":,f"",,:i::i:::::ln-:.:iwhich ofnuclear bvFrench testing PresidJnt Jacquesom.iur ,"";;#.1;;";fi':11*1',ffi;nch Chiracin To this day,no concrete actions havebeentakento address this problem,eventhoughon 7 May 1999France became a silnatory to the European charter on Regional and Minlrity languages. This charter authorisesthe Maohi people'to ask that its reo Maohi, its language, be .".ognir"o as an official languageof equal status as the French languase.

The third action undertaken LDPH Teturaetara by wasto

Human rights activist Stanley Cross (left) with other delegates

interview or attenda hearingunlessthey

Finally, LDPH Teturaetara commemorated the 50th Anniversary ofthe UniversalDeclaration HumanRights of adoptedby the United Nations GeneralAssembly on l0 December 1948.With the approvalofthe Chief of Medical Staff at the Vaiamipsychiatric hospitalandthe headof the Nuutaniaprison, we used this anniversary to visit the mentalpatientsand detainees their cells. in We presented After a cleverly orchestrated campaignof disinformation, eachofthem poster a illustrating UniversalDeclaration the the authoritiesarrestedand jailed severaltrade union on Humanfughtstranslatedrnto reo Maohi,withadrawng leaderssuch as Hiro Tefaarere and Ronald Terorotua, as by our Secretary General,the artist Mathius and the text well as political figures such as Nui Ben Teriitehau. The translated our brotherTuro a Raapoto. by Courtsin Papeete released Nui Ben without convictionin October1998,but the anestsat the trmeallowedthe French I mustsayhowever thatI,m ashamed talk ofthe breaches to government completeits series nuclear to of testsin relative of humanrights in my own country which seemso small calrn. and inconsequential comparedto the eventscurrently happening otherpartsofthe pacific. I refer in ofcourse to The fourth major action of LDpH Teturaetara, supported therightto life forthe people ofEast Timor,who areseekins ,,1,:1,1. by rhe EvangelicalChurch of Frenchpolynesia to preserve this right from which all other rights inhereni (EEPF), was to denouncegrave faults in interpretation in the humanpersonflow. beforethe courtsandjudges, the police brigades and the Publicorderoffice, which areall underthe direct authoritv To the representative from East Timor, it is with great of the FrenchGovernment. emotionthat I heardyou speakaboutthe dramatic events ln your country,which you describedat our opening We launcheda public appeal,calling on all polynesians ceremonyand during your speechlast Monday. LD\H who. ar e ar r es t ed,q u e s ti o n e d o r b ro u g h t b e fo re a Tbturaetara slrongly condemns policy of extermuration the magistrate, refuseto sign their statement to and recordof launched the Indonesian by Army ind the pro_Indonesian
Page | 22 Sth Nucleor prn"

Immediatelyafter the riots, the French Government and the G ov er nm ent o f F re n c h p o l y n e s i a u s e d every opportunity to attribute responsibility for these acts of arson, pillageanddestruction thepolynesian to antr_nuclear movementand especiallyto the political parly Tavini Huiraatira.

Women, Health and the Environment
Dumaru, Patrina RightsMovement Fiji Women's
to Ni sa bula vinaka.Greetings you all' of "Women' I havebeenaskedto talk to you on the subject Before I start' however'I Health and the Environment"' the hostsof would like to take this opportunity to thank the preparation' warm for this conference the tremendous to thank andthe kind hospitality l would alsolike welcome to getto Knowyou PCRCfor allowing me this opportunity andthe in all andto shareyour experiences the difficulties you' I must say that of successes the issuesthat concern vitality'courage' by I asa youngperson, am encouraged the that I have seenin the last two days' The tove una*Uetief rne makes proud' thoughtthat we haveso much in common and women have special contributionsto conservation make-upas healthy living. This is due to our biological wellasthech-aracterofourrolesandresponsibilitywithin our familiesandcommunities' more risk to Studiesare showing that women are at due the fact that our environmentalpollution. This is to enter our biological make-upis such that toxins tend for longerperiods more easilyand remain in there bodie-s radiationin to ot,i*. compared that of men' Toxins and affecting our health' the environmentis distressingly project of ECOWOMAN (the women and environment on awareness the SPACHEE in Fiji) has been raising and exposureto breast linkagesbetweentoxic radiation that affect women' illnesses .un.* and other cancerous

why substantiate my ln presenting topic, I feel that I must wor nenar e d i ffe re n ti a te d w h e n a p p ro a c hi ngthei ssueof complicationsare the that environmental In the Pacific Islands,pregnancy as healthandenvirorunent we allknow ln addition'breastcancer of major cause femalemortality' the health of deteriorationhas the potential of affecting and cervicalcancerare on the rise' of regardless sex' everyone, Fiji Women's Rights moreevident This is of major concernto the While this may hold sometruth,it hasbecome working on providing Movement and they are currently As well' that women are in a more vulnerablesituation'

StanleYCross (continued)

people Allow me' Madame' the militiasagainst Timorese and pain for to preseniour suppofi at this time ofsadness your peoPle.

the suppofiof the That is why the LDPH Teturqetarawith its last Synod'-calledfor an EvangelicalChurch during Humanfughts French intem;ional missioncomprisingthe of Federation HumanRights' i.ugu. andthe International rights in Polynesia lt is your country ,o u"na.nut. a study of human in My fear is that what is happeningtoday of HumanRightsthat our children throughthis perspectrve homeland LDPH has ruy U. the same fate reseivedfor my g"t-a .i,itAi.n will know whethertheir country the basisfor alertingpublic opinionabout Teturaetarais ""i or Totalitarianism' takeithe pathof Democracy what weca l l a d i c ta to rs h i p ' w h i c h i s d e v el opi ngw i ththe Government' andcomplicityof the French at silence and observers this participants Ladies and gentlemen, you all with copiesof to present I'd we havealready NFIP Confeience' like On top of human rights violationswhich of Human Rights about the this posterof the UniversalDeclaration criticised, LDPH Teturaetarais concerned de Polyndsie in the Maohi language. creationof lhe Groupementcl'lntervention Flosse' Gaston Polynesia' of (GIP)by the President French that the acti vi sts of LDPH some former Tomorrow , i f you hear itlir'group, which includes as members Teturaetarahavebeenimprisonedorkilled'youwillknow from the and former parachutists for"iin Legionnaires up thi s Univer sal Tupat' that our governmentshave torn preni Aniy, has been training on the island of l ong for the day when our that D ecl arati l n. Instead, I iorbidden to the generalpublic' We fear with access respectHuman Rights' will scrupulously couldbe launched governments the GIP couldbe the coreof a militiathat on release 4 December Iorana and Mauruurut the against Maohi people ln a media this brigadeas tomorrow's"Tontons i"sss,*. described kthiti He holds StanleyCrossis a lawyer and activistin Macoute"of FrenchPolYnesia' of Bordeaux' andwas inrruit in lawfrom the University of the Confederationof Polynesta i"irrr1, the Generql Secretary in Government of "inctependent Therepresentative the French of French Polynesia He is a trade unions nothing of the has said nothing, seennothing and heard of the Ligue des Droits of \our,a*g memberand Presiclent the Government 'in .rrr"n, activitiel of the Presidentof - Teturaetara(Human Rights de Polyndsie t'ni*., who is puttingtogetherall the elements FrenchPolynesia' ia) Leagueof French P olYnes of a soft dictatorshiP'

My third and final point is the fact that women are in naditionalcaregivers nurturers thehome.Whenever and a family memberis sick it is most likely that the mother, grandmother, aunt,sisteror daughteris doing the nursing. This hasbeenthe traditionalrole of Pacific Islandwomen in we Moreover, areworking on promotingthe consumption and thereforewomen are most knowledgeable the use This oforganicallygrown food, insteadofthose that havebeen of medicinalplantsand traditionalhealingpractices. chemicallyapplied such as pesticidesprayedvegetables knowledgeis a significantpart of Pacific cultureandwelland fruit and other confectioneryitems. We are looking being and it is usuallythe women that are the experts. into ways of distinguishingorganically producedgoods from those that have been chemically applied through However, traditional practices of healing have been graduallydisappearing since colonial times. With the ecolabelling. introductionof Christianity,traditional healing has been with paganismand "evil witchcraft practice". However, this is not an easy task, particularly for a associated medicinehasalsocontributed of developingcountry like Fiji. Already,we have a member The introduction Western Nonetheless, type of medical this that has started up a permacultureinitiative in her own to this culturalerosion. servicehasnot alwaysbeenreadilyavailablefor peopleat communify and we would like to promote this sort of the lowereconomic bracketaswell asthosein remoterural agricultureat all levels. We heard that similar forms of in agicultureareactivelyimplemented theSolomonIslands areaswhere health servicesare inefficient and medical medicineis usually lacking.Furthermore, Western supplies and PapuaNew Guinea and we hope that this trend will too costly. spreadacrossthe region. In cultureswherewomen are the traditionalfood gathers, fi re wood c ollec t o rs a n d w a te r c a rri e rs , l a rg e-scal e developmentsuch as logging and intensivecommercial that women within the resource locality means agriculture are given the extra burden to walk even furlher and to spendlongerhourson their daily chores. A survey conducted last year on rural women in the that WestemProvinceof the SolomonIslandsrevealed the wom en wer e g e n e ra l l y c o n c e rn e d a b o u t the whereit linkedhealthandfamily especially environment, womenwere It that the problems well-being. also stated cunently faced with resultedfrom men making resource them.Logging decisions withoutconsulting management operations spoiledthe rivers so they hadto walk furtherto find clean drinking water; the coconut plantationsthat were too closeto the village madethe soil lessfertile for that women had to walk gardening, addingto the distance gardening. for subsistence WAINIMATE, a group of women traditional healers,is concerns. the Fijian languagewainimate In takingup these plants refersto medicine.WAINIMATE aimsto conserve that save lives, to make health affordable to all and to ofhealing ensure that traditionalknowledgeand practices down to the next generation. is passed Currently,a profile of healersfrom around Fiji is being with healers include compiled. Issues discussed traditional plantsthat they find are endangered becomingextinct, or i ntel l ectual property ri ghts and the i mportance of conservingtraditional medicinal plants. The healersare encouraged establish to traditional medicinal enterprises that can provide incomeand affordablemedicinefor rural communities.

that will caterfor healthcare services gender sensitive of their reproductive women'sspecialneedsbecause function.ECOWOMAN on the other hand is putting raising into reducingtoxins in effortsthroughawareness food we eatandwaterwe drink. We try theair we breathe, to inform people and draw public support against the littering, irresponsible of dangers industrialdischarge, vehiclefumesand otherforms of pollution.

initiative,aswe believesucha method for anydevelopment a brings out the concernsof women and ensures bottomup, participatoryapproachto development.

havegrown in village and WAINIMATE members affiliates medical communitiesas well as amongstprofessional practitioners. WAINIMATE hasbeenworking closelywith ofNursingandthe of Fiji the Fiji School Medicine, School Ministry of Health. Medical practitionershave admitted about the participationof ECOWOMAN is concerned traditionalmedicine grassroots decisionmakingasthey that at timesthey haverecommended women in development and healershave said that on a number of occasions ECOWOMAN have vestedinterestsin the environment. hasjust recently produceda ParticipatoryLearning and patientshavebeenreferredto them. WAINIMATE would are like to seethat traditionalhealers formally recognised. for specially usein Fijiand designed Action(PLA) manual Village pastors beginningto welcomethe conceptand are possibly otherPacificIslandcommunities. in preachthat plantsarea gift of life to us liom God and that andpotentials it is our duty to protectthem. the PLA is a methodof assessing problems with differentsectors of a communitythroughconsultation just completed Protectionis being done through the establishment of etc.We have suchaswomen,youth,elders nurseri esi n vari ous vi l l ages and i n the i ndi vi dual one of t he t hr ee PL A tra i n i n g w o rk s h o p i n w hi ch The University of backyardsof the healersthemselves. Our participants weretrainedon this methodof approach. is that suchan approach usedas a basis the S outh P aci fi c al so has establ i sheda nurserv of aim is to ensure
Page 124 8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Conferenee,Arue, Tahiti

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Women's Rights are human rightsl Unasa Ese Vaeau (Mapusaga o Aiga, Samoa) wrth Dora Tsiuh (Bougainville Inter-church Women's Forum)

medicinalplantsin collaboration with WAINIMATE. Presentingthese linkages on women, health and the env ir o n m e n t b ri n g s to l i g h t a n umber of cruci al which I feel needs healthand culturalissues environmental, in to be addressed this conference: a) Improvement in women's health services Women have a crucial role in our society,as we are the we reproducers nurturesin the family.Therefore, must and have efficient and appropriateservices.It's not for our own well-beingbut for the well-beingof the family. We would like to see governmentsput more efforts into prioritising women's health and to provide better and as efficientservices, well aSto providemoretrainingand facilities for community health workers. I think that the for NFIP canplay a crucialrole in advocating this. b) Participation of women in resourcemanagement making decision

that the approachis participatory. ensure The PLA model or similar models should be oromoted in all areasof development. c) A concertedeffort to reduceall forms of pollution. S i nce i t started the N FIP has been lobbying and campaigning this issue.Our wish is that this continues on and that we environmentalorganisationswork more effectivelywith eachotherto fight it. We would like to see the industriestargetedin particular.Currently,in Fiji the industriesaregetting away with murder.They arepolluting enormously without compensating the costs.We must for ensurethat they take responsibilityto their actions. d) Awareness raisingon Persistent Organic Pollutants (PoPs). With thegrowingconsumerist culturein the PacificIslands, this issuemust be address.We must be informed about the goods we consume.POPs is a new word here in the Pacific. It's hazardous the human health and to other to organism.PCRC and other environmentaland health organisations need to make a concertedeffort in raising awareness this. on

particularly the grassroots level.Although at This is needed I in to this is a sensitive issue relation our culture, feelthat t he pro b l e m s a ri s i n g o u t o f th i s to too urgent to be in overlooked. Womenmustbe consulted anydevelopment We make up half of the population. e) The urgent needto conserve our biodiversity decision-making. NGOs,regional organisation and Government departments, in any group interested developingcommunitiesmust Biodiversity is an integral part of our culture and well8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacfic Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page 125

being.Throughout this conference we've been sharing about how important our land is to us and how our ancestors and pro-independence activistshave fought hardto protectthis right. The land, includingthe seabed, binds humans us with all thedifferentplantsandorganisms. This concept fundamental our cultureand our history. is to Well over 80% of the biodiversityin somePacific Islands are endemic us, in that they are found nowhereelse in to theworld but here.Ifthese plantsarethreatened thenso is ourculture well-being, a singleplantbecomes and If extinct than so will the traditional knowledgeand practicethat goeswith it. f) The needto revivetraditional knowledgeand practices We must ensurethat this is passedon to our youth. Education traditionalknowledgeandpractices of needs to be madeavailableto youth. We need to learn about our traditionalagriculturalmethods,fishing methods, healing methods, history etc. During colonial times,we were told do away with such practices. We were told they were mystic,inefficientand did not makesense andto a cerlain extentwe did. However,it is now that we are beginningto realisethat thesetraditional methods were practiced to ensurethat resources were managedsustainably. This can be seenin the design of traditional fishing gear, taboos placed on agriculturalland and fishing grounds (which are now referredto as"marine protected areas")and not forgetting our cultural totems such as the plantsand animalswhich certaintribes identi| themselves with.

Our children need to learn about the old ways and take pride in it. This is vital for our culture. It is vital for our naturalenvironmentand our healthand it is vital for our future. g) The needto lobby on the reduction of air, water and land pollutionin the Pacificregion. There has been a l ot of envi ronmental aw aren ess undertaken. now time to allow peopleto take action.I It's believe that the youth of today are amongstthe most preparedto do something- whether it be picking up rubbish,making compostsor lobbying. you know why? Because arescared. know I am. I'm afiaid of sealevel we I rise,deforestation, intensive of chemicals food. and use on I'm afraidclimatechange, POPs, plutonium,nuclear waste, genetic modification, the accumulationof solid waste, marine pollution, species extinction and list goes on and on. It's us that will be bearingthe consequences years fifty fiom now and I don't evenwant to begin to think of what it might be like for my children.We at SpACHEEandorher environmental organisations know of get peoplecoming I in askingfor voluntarywork. It's sucha pity thatwe cannot accommodate capacityto attendto their needs.Vinaka the vakalevu. Patrina Dumaru is a memberof the Fiji l(omen'sRights Movement (FIfRry in Suva, Fiji Islands. She worked as the co-ordinator of ECOII/OMAN, a project of the South Pacific Action Committeefor Human Eiology and Environment (SPACHEE).ln 2000, Patrina took-up the position of Assistant Director (Environment) wiih the Paci/ic ConcernsResource Centre.

F11idelegatesPatrina Dumaru (Fiii Women's Rights Movement) and JosephineTerry (Greenpeacepacific)

ake our 0ur

Health of indigenouscommunitiesin Ka Pae'aina
KekuniBlaisdellMD (Hawai'i) Kanaka Maoli TribunalKomike,Ka Pae'aina
peoples. Indigenous The world's500 million indigenous 1898 US forced annexationentrenched Big Five peopl e s re u s u a l l y d e fi n e d a s p e o p l esw i th di sti nct a oligarchy.194l -45 World War Two, I 950 KoreanWar cultures who continueto inhabittheir ancestral lands,but di spl aced K anaka Maol i by W ester n- educat ed who are dominated by settlers.Generally,they have A si ans. 1959 fraudul ent statehood, 1960s unfavourable Western healthindicators, suchas shoftened transnational tourism,nuclearism,Vietnam War and life expectancy and higher death and disease rates.The transmigration marginalised KanakaMaoli. 1993UN Draft Declarationon the Rights of Indigenous (5) Post-statehood rise of the modern Kanaka Maoli Peoples assures collectiveand individualrights to life, movement,in spiteof and because KanakaMaoli of, physicaland mental integrity, liberty, security and full worst health,social and economicindicators. the By guarantees againstgenocide. 1990s, total islandpopulationwas 1.2million (by the ethnic composition:whites 25ok, Japanese 23oh, Westernhealth determinants.The Westusuallyviews Kanaka2}%o, Filipino 140%, l0%, others Chinese 8%). the health determinants a community in three main of ( categories:I ) geneticfactors;(2) individuallifestyle,such l9l0-1993 Kanaka Maoli health and social profile: as nutrition, personalhygiene,physicalfitness,use of Shortestlife expectancy, highestratesfor leadingmortality har m fu l s u b s ta n c e s , c o p i n g w i th stress; and (3) andmorbidity(viz.: heartdisease, cancer, stroke,diabetes, environmental factors,such as the natural settingand injuries, infections, infant mortality); highest rates for resources, public sanitation, populationdensityand social tobacco,alcohol,obesity, high blood pressure, high blood institutions. chol esterol ;school drop-out;j uveni l e cr im e, pr ison i ncarcerati on,l ow est medi an fami l y i n com e, hom e Kanaka Maoli historical periods.ModernKanakaMaoli ownership. tendto considertheir past in five main eras: (1) Timelessorigin in Po, with the mating of Wakea Five main reasons Kanaka Maoli plight: for skyfatherwith Papa earthmotherflom which arose, 1) Depopulation and worseningminority status because and continueto arise,all in the cosmosin orderly of increasing foreign transmigration; sequence living, conscious as and communicating. 2) colonialexploitation with theftof KanakaMaoli lands; After Kalo was born Haloa,the first kanaka.Kanaka 3) culturalconflict and despair; sailedKa Moananui (the Pacific) by canoeand settled 4) too eageradoptionof harmful foreign ways; wid e l y d i s p e rs e di s l a n d s ,i n c l u d i ng K a P ae' ai na 5) colonialneglectandmalice(institutional racism). c l0 0 A D . (2) Kanakaproliferated andwith concepts aloha 'aina, Dr. Kekuni Blaisdell has worked as a physician and of 'ohana, 'aumakua, ahupua'a, lokahi, pono, mana, Professor of Medicine at the University of Hawai'i. He is palua, ola,'uhane, ha, mauli, wailua and ea, they a leading memberof Ka Pakaukauand Convenorof the thrivedand attained population a ofabout400,000 to K anaka Maol i Tri bunal K omi ke i n Ka Pae'aina (Hawai'i). These 800,000by the late I 700s. brief notesdo not do credit to thevigour (3) 1778retumof Lono or chance arrivalof BritishCaptain andjoy of Kekunis presentationat the conference! JamesCook broughtcontagious infections, alcohol, tobacco,guns,processed foods,goat, foreign plants, wheel and other instruments, booksand a singleGod wi th n o re s p e c t fo r th e K a n a ka Maol i akua. Depopulation andcollapse the old societyfollowed of with Euro-UScolonialism and l8l0 European-style hereditary monarchy. hupua'a subsistence A economy, which provided for all, was replacedby foreign sandalwood, whaling, trade debtsand KanakaMaoli imp o v e ri s h m e n t. 8 2 0 U S C h ri sti anevangel i sm, 1 coerciveassimilation, imposed1840 constitutional monarchy, ranches, plantations 1848capitalists' and 1850Maheleprivatisation landssecured ruling of the whites.By 1890,decliningKanakaMaoli reached a nadirof40,000,outnumbered 30,000voteless by Asian contract labourers 20,000whites. and (4) 1893US armedinvasion toppled Lili'uokalani, K ekuni Bl ai sdel l addresses the U N D ecol oni satron ommi ttee C Queen



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Radiation and health in French Polynesia
Drollet Jacqui Ia ManaTeNunaa,TeAo Maohi
We havethe right to know: what has happened? whatstill remains? what will happenin the future? What hashappened? What werethe conditionsunderwhich the Frenchnuclear tests at Moruroa and Fangataufawere conducted,and for what are the consequences the health of the workers who lived at the atolls? The response ofthe Frenchmilitary is asfollows:thereare no problemswith the tests,but the medical dossiersfor the workersremain a nationaldefencesecret. facts from the population: over the last The established thirfy years,more and more peoplehavedied fiom cancer. What will happenin the future? principle, an idea that is dear to the The precautionary heart of the current French government, should be appliedtothe nuclear test sites in the Tuamotu Islands. France has the responsi bi l i ty for moni tori ng a nd of surveillance the different nucleardump shafts. Basedon our existingknowledgeof fluid motion through the baseof the atolls, isn't there a risk of the releaseof known as radioactiveisotopesthrough the phenomenon for the first endo-upwelling,which has been described studyingthe Tuamotu islands? time by Frenchscientists of If there are new releases radioactiveelements,what measureswill France take to warn and protect the populationsmost at risk?




t( t( n n



I solemnly appealto the membersof this conferenceto this What canbe the solutionto understand contradiction? take up these three issuesofficially with the French by An epidem iolog i c a s tu d y c o u l d b e c o n d u c ted an government- concernswhich for we Polynesiansare l team,on the model of that doneby the British directly tied to the strugglefor Human Rightswhich must international and indivisible. be universal at the end of their nucleartesting. Following this work, of evenif it cametoo latefor some,the results the scientists Jacqui D rol l et i s S ecretary General of the pr ocould not be challenged. independenceparty Ia Mana Te Nunaa, and works as Mayor of Hitiaa in Tahiti, TeAo Maohi. What remainsand hasbeenleft as our legacy? The nucleartombs are underour feet,without us knowing of exactlywhat is in themandwhat will become them in the future. He is a member of the Territorial Assembly, and in the early 1990sserved as Minister of Health in the Leontieff povernment

Jacqui Drollet of la Mana Te Nunaa (right) with NFIP Conference panelists on human rights 8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacfic Conference, Arue, Thhiti

Page 128

Living with HIV / AIDS in the Pacific
MaireBopp du Pont Te TeReoTefana, Ao Maohi
Hi, Iaorana,my nameis Maire.

lhe be


Na mua roa, Maeva, Manava e Iaorana i teJarereiraa i teiemahana,outou tei ratere mai i rolo i to matoufenua, tatou tei tapapa mai i teie opooraa; Te Haamauruuru taaenei au i tefeia atoa, tane,vahine,ui api, tei tauturll mai i te /aaineineraa o teie apooraa NFIP. Mauruuru maitai! i To our Englishspeakers, havejust said a few words of to welcome you all, who havecomefrom overseas gather to atthis 1999NFIP conference. in so I wanted give my speech Tahitian, that my Maohi to I people from themessagewishto share won't be excluded thattherearesome with you here.But I havejust noticed muchEnglish herewho don't understand French speakers I aswell, so I might as well speakEnglish. hopeeveryone herewill be parl of thetalk. The first time I stoodup like this to talk aboutHIV/AIDS was at t h e Pa c i fi c Is l a n d sN e w s A s s o ci ati on(P IN A ) conference, December1998.I didn't know thenthat it in journey!First,I wouldjust be the startof a long advocacy Boardfor puttingthe wantto thankthe PCRC Executive is s ue H IV /AID S o n th e a g e n d a . of The story I'm going to sharehere is alreadyknown to someof you in the audience.

EX- because theyhadjust brokenup). Normal medication He wasn'tdoinganygood.Shetook him to hospital. stayed there more than a month. She stayed with him through those weeks,because althoughthey were not partners anymorethey were still friends, she thought. After this "Holiday", shewent back to USP for her final year. Life were successful. was srnilingon her then;her studies By the end of Augustthat year,shetravelledto Vancouver asthe YouthPacificDelegate a conference. journey to The high was nice but hard. She startedhaving continuous women fevers. Somehealingsessions with two Canadian relieved her for a few days, but it didn't get any better w henshegot backto Frj i . S he di dn' t w orry too much becauseshe thought her wisdomteethwere causingall this pain. But antibiotics andstrong vitamins didn't helpandby the endof October, thingshad goneso bad that shehad to enterthe hospital in Suva. She underwent possibleblood tests,includingHIV/ all but feared AIDS. Doctorsdiagnosed acutepneumonia, her side,shethoughtit would takeonly one the worst.On week before she got betterand that she would be able to return for her final exam. But as her caseworsened,she calledher fatherand asked him to takeher backto Tahiti. to She didn't know what it was. but she needed seeher family. ColonialWarMemorialHospitalon a Thursday. Sheentered her On the followingTuesday, doctorvisitedher,heldher her: "Your HIV/AIDS testis positive"She handandtold for he asked confirmation; confirmed.

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This story is that of a youngTahitiangirl who was raised in the smalland beautiful islandof Moorea.Shegrowsup just like any othergirl of her village.She'sonly 21 when from the Universitd in shefnst graduates Tahitianlanguage Frangaisedu Pacifique.

Her entire world had suddenly faded. UA MOE TEU physically you're alive, but your mind is gone, TIIROA'. It's at the sametime too when she gets involvedwith a freely in the air. How can it happen her,how did it to Tahitianguy from hervillage.A few monthsaftertheymet, flying happento her, what is she going to do, what abouther in for sheleaves Fiji. This girl wasnot interested continuing her unanswered! with her academicstudiesin France.What she wanted family,herfriends, life?So manyquestions But it's there and there'snothins she can do about it her wasto know betterthe Pacificrealitv. Pacific. r anylnore to Sofor the first time,shetravels Frji in 1996.As shewas the of thereshecameto know the University the SouthPacific That nightshedidn't sleep, shockwastoo big. On the (USP) and also the Pacific ConcernsResource followingevening, fatherandherbrotherfinally arrived her Centre It that (PCRC).She liked it and found it so interesting she in all their distress. wasjust the beginning!She didn't know how to tell them, but she realised therewere only / i m enr olle dn n e ws tu d i e s :j o u rn a l i sa n dH i story P ol i ti cs. three words:I HAVE AIDS! she It was so hard because was the only Tahitianstudent But andsheknewonly basicEnglish. shemetthechallenge Her brothersat with her that night and she told him, "l and throughstruggleshe succeeded. havepneumonia I alsohaveAIDS." but ln December 1997,shecamebackto Mooreafor Christmas; was The day after her fathersat with her and she told him; very sick (The boyfriend shefoundher ex-boyfriend,

" Dad,I hav e n e u m o n ib u t I a l s oh a v eA ID S . ' , p a Her friends r.vith andshetold them,,,1haveAIDS. sat her be morecareful thanI've been.', Miraculously. rnanaged come back to her island; she to God had answered prayersto bring her back.Thank her Godl

God gaveher that strength. she decidedto speakout So fbr the weakeronesand teach,educate, raiseawareness amongst peoplein the pacific. her Today, this girl is 25 and standing fiont of you. in Thereis so muchto say,but l5 minutes already is over! It is this, "much more,'part that I told my communifyin MoorealastSaturday night.The same,.much more,,I wjll tell the parishofpaea,the nextdistrict,next Saturday.

Backin Tahitishewasput undertritherapy, new anti_ the HIV treatrnent whichdoesn,t cure,but brings backanAIDS personto HIV statusand maintainsher. She also went I stand up because unfortunatelyAIDS is contaminatins underalternative treatmentto clean her organisrnand the blood of our indigenous fellows;the sameblood thai strengthen immunesysteln. her Iinksus to our land.We shallstandup, to talk aboutit. We shallsit down to discuss aboutit. We shallnot feel ashamed S he dis c ov er e d o w s h e c o n tra c te d e v i rus; i t w as because h th in shame, thereis no life! throughher steadyboyliiend. When he got sick the year befbre, was because AIDS. But he hid it. He saidhe Today, it of I am proud of an association called ACS which ,,What wastoo scared and sharneful. Shewondered kind gathers HIV positivepeople,doctors, nurses, family,and of picture ofthe world havewe build, for someone rerlarn volunteers. to With Ingrid,my teacher USp and with the at s ilentt,o r is k a b e l o v e d ' si fe ? ' , l supportof the Frjian and Frenchgovernments, have we l ust fi ni sheda 40 mi nute documentary hi ch w ill be w Now she knows,she'salmostan expen on AIDS sexual launched on 12October. inviteyou all to usethismaterial I im plic at ions , h e me d i c a l e x p e rt a n d p a rti c u l arl ythe rn your t communityto raiseawareness and information e c onom lcand s o c i a l i s s u e sth a t s u rro u n dH IV /A ID S . about H IV /A ID S . Todaysheknows peoplestill die with AIDS. Sheknows she'sluckier,she is healthier than n.rany other non_HIV In two weeks,I'll be on an advocacy tour aroundFiji and person.She knows how to protect herself and how to maybeotherPacificislands afterwards. Especially, want I protectothers- she is responsible aboutit. She,s strons. to raiseawareness arnongst you for you must be awareof our vulnerability AIDS; you mustalso know that g0% to of the affectedpeoplehave only one partner.Maybe one ofyou in this audience HIV positivebut doesn'tknow it is yet,because oncebeenin thatsituation I've before. don,t I wish any of you to go throughthis experience. It' sa si n for me to remai n gnorant. i There are ways to know; seekthem There are meansto protectyourself; usethem But finally,moreover, thereis dignity in HIV/AIDS, andNO ONE SHALL DENY IT I Fi nal l y d Ii kero rhank. I' o the NFIP Executive Board to have finally put HIV/ AIDS on the agenda. r thanksto the peoplewho havecontributed this g,h to NFIP Conference. o thanksto my radiostationfor beinga pleasant place to work in And I wish us the best,for this is just the beginning a of longlife. Maire Bopp du Pont is an independenceactivist from the island of Moorea, TeAo Maoht. She is a graduate of the Journalism Schoot of the Univer,sityo/'the South pacific, and works as a iournalist u'ith thr' rudio statictnTe Reoo Tefanain Tahiii
M a i r e Bo p p d u Po n t ( T ' eAo M a o h i) Pa g e I 3 0 dtn ,vuctear t-ree and lndependent pactfic Conference,Arue, Tahiti

'eness "*,


Globalisation and its impact on Pacific economies

Keynoteaddresson globalisation:
erl It ty in lw i l l

Globalisation - Impact on Small Island DevelopingState economies
Fata Koroseta To'o"Samoa
Through ForumEconomic the Minister's (FEMM). havebeencloseddown,hundreds millions of children Meeting of a new e c o n o m i c rth o d o x yi s i mp a cti ng aci fi ci sl and liavebeen o P denied rightto primaryeducation. several the In nat ion sSi m i l a r to th e w a v e o f n e o - l i beral . orthodoxy regions the world, including of the Pacific,reformshave affecting Africa,Asia and Latin An.rerica. therehavebeen been conduciveto a resurgence infectiousdiseases of a range structural of adjustment "reform"programs and in i ncl udi ngtubercul osi s, ari a rnal and chol e r a.While t he c ount ri e s u c h a s V a n u a tu ,Pa p u aN ew Gui nea, the World Bank'smandate s consists "combatingpoverty" of M ar s h a lIs l a n d sF rj i ,th e C o o k Is l a n d s S amoa. l , and andprotecting environrnent, support largescale the its for hydroelectric agro-industrial and projects alsospeeded has Pacificpeoples have many concerns relatingto political up the process ofdeforestation the destruction and ofthe indepe n d e n ca n d fre e i n gc o l o n i s e dpeopl esfrorn the naturalenvironment, e leadingto the forceddisplacement chains colonialisrn well as rrraintaining Pacificas andevi cti on several l l i onpeopl e. of as the of mi a nuclear free region.This articleis an attempt remind to andmakeus readyto countera force that hasalwaysbeen l n the aftermathof the C ol d W ar. macr o- econom ic around. havenot beenableto seeits subtle We penetration restructuri ng al so supports geopol i ti cal int er est s. des t r o y i n g u r v a l u e sa n d i n tu rn re i nforci nga rnore Structural o adjustment usedto undermine economy is the devastating dangerous and wave of neo-colonialism. of the formerSovietbloc anddismantle system state its of enterprises. Sincethe late 1980s,the IMF/World Bank G lobal i s a ti oin d e -l o c a l i s a ti ow , i c hi s the uprooti ng s nh of 'econornic rnedicine' beenimposed eastern has on Europe, activities relationships and fron.r localoriginsandcultures. Yugoslavia, fornterSovietUnion,and in Pacificcountries It means displacement activities the of that Lrntil recently like PapuaNew Guinea New Zealand, and with devastating were local. into networkswhosereachis distantand or econornic and socialconsequences. Theseconsequences worldwide.Anthony Giddenssums it up by sayingthat have i ncl uded unernpl oyment,l ow w a ges and t he globali s a ti o ns th e i n te n s i fi c a ti o o f worl dw i desoci al rnarginalisation the large sectorsof the population. i n of relations, which link distantrealitiesin sucha way, that S oci al expendi turesare curtai l ed and m any of t he local happenings shapedby eventsoccurringmany achievements the welfarestateare repealed. are of milesawayor vice versa. Sincethe 80s,the irnpact structural of adjustment, including In thePacific, haveseen we governments blindlyfollowing the derogati on the soci al ri ghts of w o m en and t he of the austerity measures imposed international by financial detri mental envi ronmental consequenceof econof illc s institutions asthe International such Monetary Fund(lMF), reform have been well documented. While the Bretton the World Bank,the World TradeOrganisation (WTO) as Wood institutions haveacknowledged social'impact the well asothereconomic tradeblockspromoted the Lomd of adj ustment' ,there has been no change in policy by Convention and otheragreements. is takenasthe 'best' direction. fact,the IMF-WorldBankpolicyprescriptions It ln medicinebut not realising the dangers that globalisation (now imposedin the name of povertyalleviation)have brings to society. becomeincreasingly harshand unyielding. S inc e, e e a rl y 1 9 8 0 sth e m a c ro -e c o nomi c th , stabi l i sati on andstructural programs (SAP)imposed the adjustment by IMF and the World Bank on developing (as countries a condition therenegotiation for oftheir external debt)have ledto theirnpoverishmenthundreds millions people. of of of Contraryto the spirit of the Bretton Woods agreement which was predicated economicconstruction the on and s t abilit y o f m a j o r e x c h a n g e ra te s , the S A P s have contributed largely destabilising to national currencies and r uining th e e c o n o m i e s f d e v e l o p i n gcountri es hi ch o w include Pacificnations. the lnternal purchasing powerhas collapsed, famines haveerupted, health clinicsandschools Role of Global Institutions Globalinstitutions playan irnporlant role in the process of restructuring nationaleconomies. The ratification the of GATT Agreernentand the World Trade Organisation (W TO) fbrrnati on i n 1995 mark a l and m ar k in t he development the globaleconomic of system. The WTO's mandate consists regulating of world tradeto the benefit of the i nternati onalbanks and the TN Cs as well as "supervising" enforcerrrent nationaltradepolicies. the of The GA TT A greementvi ol atesfundame nt al people's rights,particularly the areas foreigninvestment, in of biodiversityand intellectual propertyrights.

rtlng that We ned

Lich tnd the lve be ial on

rd nt rf

It 't

Sth Nuclear Free and Independent Pocifi(

In otherwords,a new "triangular division" of authority hasunfolded, based collaboration on with the IMF, World Bank and the WTO in the "surveillance" developing of c ount r ies 'ec on o m i cp o l i c i e s .T h e c o mp l e ti onof the Uruguay Roundsawthe emergence new tradeorder, ofa whic h now r ed e fi n e sth e re l a ti o n s h i p sb e tweenthe Washington-based institutions nationalgovernments. to IMF and the World Bank policy prescriptions longer no hingesolely upon ad-hoccountrylevel loan agreemenrs (whichare not legally bindingdocurnents). Many of the clauses SAPssuchastradeliberalisation the foreign of and lnvestment regimehavebecomepermanently entrenched in the WTO afticles agreement. of These havebecome the foundat ions f or p o l i c i n g c o u n tri e s a n d e n forci ng conditionalities according the international to law. IM F A genda Debtorcountries blacklisted are ifthey do not conformto IM F per f or m an c e ta rg e ts .' P a ra l l e l g o v e rnment, government that bypasses civil societyis established by theInternational Financial Institutions (lFIs).Central Banks and Ministry of Financeare reorganised, often with the complicityof the local bureaucracies. Stateinstitutions are undoneand "economictutelage"is installed

SAPs as Economic Genocide
Structural adjustrnent conducive a form of .,economic is to genocide" which is carried throughthe conscious out and deliberate manipulation marketforces. of Historically, its social impact is devastating. SAps affect directly the livelihood morethanfour billionpeople. of The application of SAPsin a largenumberof individualdebtorcountries favour "internationalisation"macro-economic the of policy under directcontrolof the IMF andWorldBankacting the on behalfof powerfulfinancial politicalinterests and (e.g. P ari s and the London C l ubs, G7). Thi s new form of economicand politicaldornination a form of ,.market col oni al i sm" subordi nates peopl e and government throughthe seemingly "neutral" interplayof marketforces. At no time in historyhasthe "free" market operating in the world throughthe instrument rnacroeconomics of playedsuchan importantrole in shapingthe destinyof "sovereign"nations. National Economy

The restructuring the world economyunderthe guidance of of the IMF/World Bank increasingly deniesindividual developing countries possibility buildinga national the of economy:the i nternati onal i sati on macro-econom ic of While adoptedin the name of "democracy"and "good policytransforms countries openeconomic into territories govemance" SAP requires the strengthening ofthe internal and nationaleconomies into "reserves" cheaplabour of security apparatus. Political repression with thecollusion and natural resources. application IMF ,,economic The of of the Third World elites supports parallelprocess a of medicine"tends furtherdepress to world commodityprices econornic repression. Consequently, Third World has because forcesindividualcountries simultaneously the it to ex per ienc ed s i tu a ti o n o f l o c a l d e s p e ra ti o n a and the geartheir national economies towardsa shrinkingworld hopelessness a populationimpoverished the inter- market. theheartof theglobal of by At economic system, an lies play of market forces.One only has to look at riots in unequal structure oftrade, production and creditwhich Car ac as 1989, o ro c c o1 9 9 0 , e x i c o 1 9 9 3a n dP apua defines role and positionof the developing in M M the countries New Guineain the early90sto namea few examples. in the globaleconomy.

Ke yn o te sp e a ke rF a ta Ko r o se taT o ' o (ri ght) w i th del egates om S amoa and A meri can S amoa ti Pape I
p ,,.i h 't- .r ^ :t:

By theturn of the century, world the populat io n i l l b e o v e rs i x b i l l i o n , w ofwhichfive billionwill be livingin poor countries. The rich countries wit h s onrel 5 p e rc e n o f th e w o rl d t populat io n c o n tro l c l o s e to 8 0 percent total world income. of In contrast, sorne56 percent ofthe world populationrepresenting the " low inc o m ec o u n tri e s (i n c l u d i n g " IndiaandChina), with a population of ov ert hr e e i l l i o np e o p l ere c e i v e d . b appr ox im a te l y p e rc e n to f to ta l 5 wor ld inc o me n 1 9 9 3 , e s s a nth e i l th G DP of Fra n c ea n d i ts o v e rs e a s territories. Pacific Experience - New Zealand
l -osenaSal abul apresented speci al N FIP conference a state nl ent to the September1999 U N S peci alS cssi onon S l nal l Isl ands evelopi ng tates D S

The principal costof New Zealand experiment been has a Iossofsocial cohesion. politicalaftershock been Its has a meltdownin which the electoral system was repudiated and all the major partieshave fragmented. The effects of rnarket fundamentalism New Zealandmay well be in ternpered over the next few years.Nearly all New Zealand politicalparties will publiclyabandon neo-liberal rhetoric. The New Zealand experiment the freemarketprojectin is of labor at or yc o n d i ti o n s - u n c o m p ro m i si ng neo-l i beral P ol i ti ci answ i l l repudi atethe di sregard econom ic for Criticism oftheexcesses ideology animated prograln radical a of reformin whichno fundar.nentals socialstability. experiment New Zealand become in will majorpoliticalsocialinstitution was left unreconstructed. of theneo-liberal component a new politicalconsensus. of Oneof theworld'smostcornprehensive social democracies an integral became neo-liberal a state. New Zealand society underwent C oncl usi on a c or r es p o n d i n g l y p ro fo r,rn dm e ta m o rphosi s. The consequences hazards and ofthe New Zealand experirnent The econouries small islandstates so vulnerable ar e ins t r u c ti v e .o t to s a yo m i n o u s . n of are to globalisation that its political independence the long in TheNew Zealand experiment very muchsimilarto the run will be controlled the more powerful was by andruthless structural programs adjustment forcedon thegovernrnents TNCs. The porverof the statedirninishes leaving and the of dev elo p i n gc o u n tri e sa s a c o n d i ti o nof credi t fi ont socio-econouric fabricofsociety a robotic controlled in and transitional ir.rternational institr"rtions. New Zealand As But puleesea ta ola" was nredium. theysayin Samoa'."Ua lo not a third world country - it was an advanced is by social (ourdestiny controlled others) thistimeby market and democratic state.Traditionsof stateintervention the forceswhom humanify in and emotions cannot feel. economyto protect social cohesionwere more deeply entrenched New Zealandthan in any other western Let us take stockof wherewe are and how we chaftour in country, into the nervrnillenniurn. not thelvealth with the exception socialdemocratic of Sweden. course Let carrot seduce to politicalmanipulation divideusfromthe us and ln New Zealand, in the UK. the sudden as growth of the course fieedorn. of The Pacificpeoplehavesurvived for underclass a textbookexar.nple the rnanufacture thousands is ofyears and we can sustain of of that by sticking to povertyby the neo-liberal the realities living in our culturalstrengths there, state. Beyondthe growthofthe of the underclass, New Zealandhasexperienced astonishing economic survivalandprosperity enhanced being of an is by groMh in economic inequalities allkinds. of Thebargaining free on one's land.Soifua ma ia Manuial. power of e mp l o y e e s i n re l a ti o n to e m pl oyers w as considerably reducedby legislation imposingindividual Fata Koroseta To'o is a matai (chiefl from Samoa.He c ont r ac t s o n th e l a b o u r rn a rk e t.At the same ti rne, workedwith theSouthPacificForutnSeuetariotin 1983r educ t ion sn ma rg i n a ll e v e l so f i n c o m etaxati onw ere 85, and has beenan activist in Sonoan non-goyernmenl i implemented, affectingparticr-rlarly thoseat the top. The or7anisatiuns anJ ttrdc trnions.

The new liberal experiment New Zealandis the most in ambitious attemptat constructing freemarketasa social the institution be implemented to anywhere century. is a this It clearer exampleof the costsand limits of reinventing the free market in the late 20'r'century context than the Thatcherite experiment Britain.Among thenoveleffects in of neo-liberal policy in New Zealand been creation has the ofan underclass a countrythatdid not haveonebefore. in

resultwasthat incomewasthat incomeinequality increased in New Zealand morethanin any otherwestern country.

Economicoptionsafter nucleartestingin Te Ao Maohi
Nelson Ortas TaviniHuiraatira,TeAo Maohi
Distinguished guestsand family, greetings all,Iaorana to With 30 years French of subsidies, simpledynarnics the of our economicstructurehas totally mutated.The word mutated mostappropriate, is considering we havethis that imbalance because Frenchnuclear of testing. Indigenouspeo p l e g a v e u p th e a n c i e n tc u s to msand lifesfyles our ancestors favourof government of in jobs in thenuclear society, Iiterallyabandoning tranquillity the of the outer islandsto move onto this island,Tahiti. The nuclearbomb transformed Maohi peopleinto a socrety the of people programmedto a 9 to 5 workday. We have a c olonis eds oc ie ty th a t b a s i c a l l y s ti fl e d th e s pi ri t of entrepreneurship. Dur ingt his per io d ,my c o u n tryre c e i v e d e a rl yU S $1.2 n billionoffinancialassistance yearfrom France. each From a bus ines ss t an d p o i n t, th i s c o n tra c t w a s a typi cal agreement between supplierand customer. Howeverthis agreement a hiddenclause. had This moneydid fuel the inner workingsof our economiccycle. But what we've discovered that Francegives from one hand but takes is back fiom the other. France createda system basedon extractingmaximum amountsof money from our local economy thentransferring moneybackto the European this co nt inent . The Frenchscheme consisted many things,but let me of mentionjust a few. The French createda favourable business environment French for businesses interests, and especiallyfor productsoriginatingfrom the European Community. Tahitibecame giantdisplayfor the European a community, basically holdingthe polynesian customer as hostage. It is made difficult for companies basedoutsideof EU borders flom entering localmarket.Imposingvery high the duty taxesor banningnon-European productsis a common practice in our country.This went on for many years in violationof the basicprinciplesof the GAIT treaty.France si gned thi s treaty that i s based on the free fl ow of merchandise products or between membernations. The Frenchalso implanted FrenchState-owned the lottery systemand Europeanbasedinsurance companiesto our market. Most of their profits are transferredto Europe. French banking andfinancial institutions 1993invested in nearly$580,000,000 outside polynesia of jobs thuscreating for Europeans. French civil servant expatriates earmarked back to the French continent nearly 39oh of their total wages. This is just a tip of the icebergbut it doesn'ttake an economist understand reality of this so called to the economicassistance highly acclaimed the French so by government. Verylittleis leftof the$ I .2 billion dollars. In light of this,the reinstatement Te Ao Maohi on the of United Nations list of countriesto be decolonised a is prerequisite full economicdevelopment. doing so to In this will open doorsto many opportunities suchas IMF and European economic assistance free unobstructed and commerce tradewith all nations. and The bases of our economi c program i s based on el ementarypri nci pl es of basi c economi cs mean ing efficientlymanaging and maximisingthe scarcityof our resources four basicsteps. in . Full employment available of resources . Development resources technology of and . E ffi ci ent organi sati on of the producti on and dissemination goods of . Redistribution goodsor income of among members of our soclety The elements will fuel our economic that programarethe following: l) Our economicmaritime zone is perhapsour largest resource nextto our culture. is largerthanall ofEurope. It Our oceanis rich in potential. havethe world famous We Poe Rava (Tahitianblack pearl) that was marketedby HollywoodstarsIike JodieFoster, E,lizabeth Taylor.and

N e l s o n O rta s o f T a vin i Hu ir a a tir a ( ce n tr e )

me ble
'[ J ,

SharonStone including others.We have fisheriesand aquaculture along with the black pearl contributed that millions our economylastyear.In additionour country to is now capableof building whole fleetsof commercial fishingvessels. 2) Opponunities existin thefieldof miningphosphate, also cobaltetc. 3) The agricultural industryhasyet to be born but holds much promise wilh Noni and Tamanuproductsand their bi- pr od u c ts . l n c e rta i n m e d i c a l c i rc l es the noni i s considered next bestdiscovery aspirin. the to 4) Our tourism industry,in its infant stagewith lessthan I 89,000 visitors, generated nearly$400,000,000 year last ( 35% of th e $ 1 .2 b i l l i o n i n F re n c hs u bsi di es). s i s i n Thi s pit e of o u r g o v e rn m e n t' sp o o r m a n agement our of r es our c e s It i s a re a l i s ti c v i s i o n th a t under present . conditions, tourismindustry our will doubleits capacity in the comingyears. We mustnot forgetalternative economic niches microor pro1ects, which areperhaps bestmeans distributing the of wealthto grassrootspeople.One example this are the of very popularfamily run and owned hostelsin our outer islands that are generating important revenues Maohi for people. Remember tourismis the mosteffective means of obtaining valuablehard currency, which is vital for trade and commerce.However as in any development program one must also control the expenses, two of the key and dangers guardagainst all NFIP members to for countnes are: l) Illiteracy

an an

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l nternati onalobserversat the 8'r,N Fl p C on ferenr:e S tandi ng:.l ohn TaroanuiD oom (Worl d C ounci l of C hurc hes . S w i tzerl and), Madel een H el mer (E C S IEp, N etherl ands ) Seated: eborahR obi nson(tPU , U SA ), D ebbi e S i ngh (U ni ted D N ati ons D evel opmer.rt rogram SID SN et, I.-U i ) P

In conclusion, like most of you here we've been led to believe by the very people that are the causefor our If I couldshare something with the EastTimor people who economicdependency, that without their assistance we ar e s t r a te g i c a l l y l o c a te d , I h i g h l y s u ggestthat you w i l l never survi ve. A nd yet our ancest or s r avelled t implement programs promotereadingskills.Factories treacherousourneys, faced droughts, ear t hquakes, to j needqualified workersandevenon theassernbly non- volcaniceruptions, line storms anda varietyof hostile climatic reading peoplecan incur unnecessary costs.I defendthis conditionsfor thousands years,and survived.When of subject because experience everyday Te Ao Maohi my countrybecomes indepenCent I know,like our I it in an state with our youth. Tupuna. tha(we will survive. 2) E x e rc i s e , e a t w e l l a n d s to p s m oki ng Nelson Ortas is a memberof the independence party Tavini Huiraatira. He was educated in the United States,and worked in tourism industry, with Tahiti Tourismand the TourismCouncil of the South Pocific. He works in the municipality of Faa'a in Tahiti.

In business, obviousthat you maximiseprofits and it's minimiseor eliminatecosts. Trainingan illiterateperson requires moretime and consequently morecost.Illiteracy is a costnot only for the privatesector alsoequallyfor but government. How doesa gardener fertiliser if he can't use r ead t he i n s tru c ti o n so r w a rn i n g l a bel s? H ow does governmentdiffuse information if inhabitantsin rernote areascan't read?

present government, like atl governments, shares same the concerns. Our socialsecuritysystem risks bankruptcy if the tide isn't turnedsoon.Programs prevention for must be uti l i sed. Economicgrowth comesthroughskilful management of your resources. Your cultureandjust beingyourselves is your greatest naturalresource.

It promotes well being and balance and keeps you out of hospitals, thus lessening financialburdenon social the Medicare.Sick people generate costs for society.Our

The Future of the Lom6 Convention
Feiloakitau Kaho Tevi Assistant Director, Sustainable HumanDevelopment PacificConcerns Resource (pCRC) Centre
The Lomd Convention a State State is to development co_ operation agreement between l5 European the Union (EU) countries the 71 African,Caribbean pacific (ACp) and and countries. first Convention The wassigned Lome,togo in in 1975. It coversalmost all development sectorsand addresses developrnent issues.It is a Conventionthat seek st o pr om ot e d e mo c ra ti cp ri n c i p l e s i n th e ACp countriesthrough political dialogue and it also atremDts to address the notion of partnership development in as one ofthe cornerstones ofthe co_operation. are negotiated betweenthe ACp country and the EU for the duration the Lomd Convention. of The other categoryof non-programmable fund catersfbr the other needsof the A C p countri esas they arise. Instrumentsunder thi s category cater for the price fluctuation exportcommodities, of minerals, financial the support for Structural Adjustment programmes and elnergency humanitarian and aid.

Trade is the other important componentof the Lomd The financial envelope of the 4th Lomd Convention, Convention.Productsfrom the ACp group are given commonlyknown as the EuropeanDevelopment Fund preferential treatmentwhen they enterthe EU market.In (EDF),is estimated morethan14,500 at millionEurosover otherwords,duty taxesand othertariffs are waived under a duration of the Convention,which is five years. This the variousprotocols(sugar,beef,rum, bananas etc.). fu nd is alloc at e d u n d e r tw o g e n e ra l .u t.g o .,.r, programmable fund and non-programmable fund. Lom6 Convention in the pacific region In t er m s of t he p ro g ra m m a b l e fu n d c a te g o ry, the Eight Pacificcountries currently are members the ACp of Convention allocates given sum to an ACp Jountryto a group. They are finance whatis knownastheNationalIndicative programme (NIP). In additionto that, other funds are availablefor . Tuvalu specificareassuch as privatesectorinvestment through r Kiribati the availabilityof investment funds from the European o Tonga Investment Bank.The NIp andotherprogrammable funds Flii


c a m p a i g n i n g o n th e PCRC / ECSIEP L o m d Pr o .ie ct:Fei l oakrtau Kaho Tevi (Fi ti ) w i th

a a


(Niue,Nauru,Cook Islands, OtherForumPacificcountries Statesof Micronesia,Marshall Islands,Palau) Federated are likely to be invited to join the ACP group at the next meeting. or )e al d

It is a fact that the Lome Conventionis not a namethat is in often encountered the Pacificregion asfar asNGOs are The Lom6 Convention is known only to the concerned. conveftedand to those who have a vested interestin it' thereis evena minority within the minority Furlhermore, that actuallydealswith policies of the Lomd Convention to EDF contributions theNIPs ofthe ACP Pacificcountries at the ACP level for the Pacific region. Apart from those as PacificACP countries well the from 7 Million Eurosfor Kiribati to 55 Million Euros that represent respective range there aren't many more durationofthe currentLomd as the regionalorganisations, New Guineafor the for Papua that know of the Lom6 Convention in the Conv en ti o n(L o m 6 4 ). Oth e r c o u n tr i esal so recei ve organisations for the Lomd Convention support. region. fundsthrough additional morethanECU 90 million every Fiji For example, receives to Europeunderthe SugarProtocol. yearfor sugarexports of Theseprotocolsallow for duty andtax-freeaccess ACP into the European market. However, these products that havean exportbase protocolsonly work for countries large enough to cater for local and foreign sufficiently markets. that as a resultof the lack of However,one cannotassume information. there is a lack of interest in the Lomd Convention.Resultantof our tours in the eight Pacific ACP countries(PACPS)and the three FrenchOCTs, we interest ftom bothNGOs aswell an encountered enormous line ministries. asGovernment

Guinea PapuaNew Vanuatu SolomonIslands Samoa.

is of dissemination information, a major stumblingblock in the region as far as participation in Lomd funded programmes the ACP countriesis concerned. in

n n

The levels of interestin the Conventionvaried flom the of in territories the Pacific- Wallisand informationlevel to the actualimplementation current The French Occupied though,had a firm grip Polynesia alsorecetve NIPs. Not manyof the participants and Caledonia, French New Futuna, policies and how fundsfrom the Lome Convention.However,their requests on the Lomd Conventiondevelopment in are in a specialcategorytogetherwith other overseas they linkedto its realisation the field. This observation countrles. can be expl ai ned by the fact that not m any of t he andterritories(OCT$ ofthe European counffies havebeeninvolvedin the actualdiscussions. participants The Pacific ConcernsResourceCentre (PCRC) and the (ECSIEP)havebeen Centrefor Pacific Issues European informationon the togetheron disseminating working NGOs in the Pacificregion. amongst Lom6 Convention on its This promotionhasfocussed attention the promotion (DC) as the Co-operation process Decentralised of of the in NGO participation Lom6 funded way of increasing ideal throughthe variousNIPS. A numberof DC programmes programmeproposalshave been submittedto Pacific fall in line for governments funding. Theseprogrammes policies theNIP. It mustbe stated of the development with here that the DC processis not a new principlethat is aboutthe DC What is peculiar appliedby donoragencies. i s th e fra me w o rk a n d c o n d iti onsi n w hi ch i t pr oc es s the operates: Lome Convention. that should are proposals initiatives The DC programme through the support by and consolidated be supported (EC) Delegates Office.They Commission from theEuropean to by local NGOs and Governments work are initiatives when the Lomd framework.Unfortunately, togetherunder Officesshyawayfrom mostof the Delegate's approached. theseprojects,as they do not have a firm grasp on what still remains the is. the DC process Nonetheless, request pertinent. very What is Lom6? The apparentlack of information, or rather the lack of C onstrai nts The other factor that has greatly influencedthe level of knowledgeof the Lome Conventionwas the complexset Whilst acknowledging of proceduresand requirements. the accountabilityfactor towardsEU citizens,it must be oftendiscourages stated thatthe complexsetofprocedures funding from the EU. any NGO to request In addition, the majority of NGOs in the Pacific do not to or havethecapaciry the resources handleEC procedures. to The exceptions this are the NGOs that have offices in NGOs in Europe(e.g.FSPInternational Europeor partner co-financingfunding in London has been able to access from the EC on behalfof its offices in the region). The natureand size of Lom6 funded projectsis another Most of ofNGOs in EC projects. barrierto the involvement the projectsfundedundertheNIPs areoften infiastructure fundedby (roads, bridgesetc.).Most projects buildings, the EC are aboveand beyondthe absorptioncapacityof when it is local and even regional NGOs. Furthermore, indicatedin the NIP that funds are for Human Resources the Development, most likely caseis that the EC and the country i nvol ved deci de to bui l d anot her buildingl in it Therefore, is unlikelythatthe Governments thePacific of involve NGOs in the implernentation their respective at NIPs asthey havehad very little experience this within

the Lomdffamework. In manyof the PacificACP countries, character the and attitude of the EC Delegareaffects the ratio of NIp programmes implemented well as the participationof as NGOs in suchprogrammes. the Pacific there is a wide In spectrum ofattitudes ofEC delegates, rangingfiom very appr oac hable d fl e x i b l e to c o m p l e te l y ri g i d and an condescending towardsPacificACP countries. This is an attitudethat does not foster good working relationswith the countriesand with NGOs for that matter. In the countries wherethereis a "good delegate',, NGOs havebeenableto participatein the NIP to a wide extent.It is understoodthat the official contact point of any EC Delegate theNational AurhorisingOfficer (NAO) of the is country.Nonetheless, is surprisingthat somedelegates it actually take the initiative to go into the field to obtain more dataand more contactwith the people.This is by far the most suitableway for the Pacific region. The negotiations for the new Convention Negotiations a new Convention underway Europe for are in between ACP andthe EU. Amongthe impoftanr the issues being negot iat e di s th e p ro p o s a l fo r a n e w forrn of partnership that would be compatiblewith World Trade (WTO) principles. Organisation The EU proposal a new for form of partnershipdefined as the Regional Economic Parlnership Agreement(REPA) is a proposalthat seeks to promotea form of partnership that will be compatible with the WTO principlesof trade liberalisation, deregulation and regionalintegration. Of coursewhat hasoccurredin this regardis that the ACp grouphasdepended lot on thesetradepreferences. a Their proposal seeks maintain currentstatus the Lom6 to the of Convention. If the EU succeeds, which is likely to be the case, will we seea phasing oftrade preferences thecomingyears. out in This actwill be followedby theopening of Pacific up ACp ma r k et st o f or eig n i n v e s to rs .F u rth e rmo re ,regi onal integration a form of tradeliberalisation as will resultin an increase competition the localprivatesector of for against the foreign investor. Recently, SouthPacificForumhasendorsed position the a that pr opos est o c o n s i d e rth e a d o p ti o n o f th e R E P A pending somestudies. This is a bold stepwithin the ACp group as none of the other regionshave considered the European proposalof an REPA. Now as it stands, the Pacificregionhas implicitly endorsed proposal an the of REPA,thus undermining the ACP group position.This endorsement follows in line with the proposal a Free of TradeArea for the SouthPacificIslandcountries. Whilst we are not againstthe proposalfor a free trade area,we are concernedabout the fact th a t th e soci al
Page I 38

ramifications these of tradepolicy decisions havenot been carefully considered thePacificIsland by Countryleaders. In this regard, welcomethepositionofthe recentForum we Economic MinistersMeetingin Samoa look moreclosely to at the socialconsequences ofthe decision a fiee trade for area and to slow down the processso that our pacific countriesare able to really understand what they are adopting instead ofjumping on the bandwagon. Well, for the Pacificwe shouldsaycanoes because do not have we trainsin the Pacific. For your information, hascalledfor the signingof the Fiji new Convention takeplacein Suva.Therefore, might to we havea SuvaConvention replace Lomd Convention. to the This signingis to takeplacein 2000 afterthetermination of the current4th Lomd Conventionon 28 Februarv2000. P roposal s l) Call for the renewalof EU-ACp Development CooperationAgreement with a specific promotionof the important role of NGOs in the development our of Islandcountries Bring the Lom6 Convention closerto the people.


Extensive effortsmustbe madeby the relevantofficialsto bri ng the Lom6 C onventi on cl oser to the peop le. Promotional materials, booklets, seminars othermeans and of communi cati on must be used to maxi mi se t he dissemination information in the pacific region. The of seminarsorganisedby PCRC and ECSIEp have been successful reachingthe NGO sectors.Other sectors in should also be addressed. fact, there might be a need In hereto havea promotionalcomponentinherentin eachof the newNIPs of the Pacificregion.The sameactivity could be initiatedin the EU wherebythere is a promotion of the issues that areencountered the pacific that could obtain in the assistance the E,UNGDOs. of 3) Renewthe ECSIEP/ PCRC Lom6 project.

The programme generated growing interestamongst has a theNGOsofthe Pacific ACP countries. is proposed It that the current project be extendedto cater for the new Decentralised Co-operation programmes, well asto be a as voi ce for the P aci fi c N GOs i n the new A C p-EU Developrnent Co-operation Agreement. 4) Call for the inclusion of the other pacific Island Countriesinto the ACP group. PCRChaswelcomed proposalfor the Marshall Islands the andtheFederated States Micronesia become of to members of theACP groupandproposes call on the otherpacific to Islandcountries become to mernbers the ACp group. of 5) cal l for the Incl usi on of the French occupi e d

Bth Nttclear Free and Independent Pac{ic Con"ference,Arue, Tahitt

Territoriesin the ACP group. Franceregulatesthe current benefitsincurred by Wallis andFutuna, New Caledonia, French and Polynesia. the As NFIP standsfor the rights to self-determination these of t er r it or ies , w e s h o u l d a l s o p u s h fo r th e economi c independence oftheseterritories. Sucha proposal will cut furtherties with the mothercountrvand brins them closer to the Pacificregion. 6) Underlinethe importanceof the socialramifications ofthe regionalintegrationpolicyofthe SouthPacific Forum, It must be made clear that any policy decisionleading towardsregionalintegration shouldbe accompanied with clearpolicieson the socialramifications the promotion of of WTO principles the Pacificregion. in The tacit endorsernent the REPA by the PacificACP of countries will lead the way to a gradualerosionof our economies the benefitof the EU. to 7) Promoteproductsthat are of comparativeadvantage t o t he S out hPa c i fi cre g i o n .

Tuna is a naturalresource that we have in abundance in the Pacific region. Other resources similar economic of natureneedto be promotedand usedas a bargaining tool for the Pacificregion.Even our Kava could be marketed in sucha manner. C oncl usi on The PacificACP countries facedwith the challenges are of the new mi l l enni umthat cal l for new strat egies and alliances. The Pacificregionhasalwayssurvivedthrough times when the externalpressures have beengreat. What has broughtus through is our way of life. We have always been able to sway with the pressures always but having that option of not jumping onto the bandwagon (or the canoe).We must remind ourselves that we still have that option with the new challenges pressures and from the WTO and other Bretton Woods institutrons. BefiyeenI 997 * 2000, Feiloakitau Kaho Teviworked as theAssistant Director (Sustainable Human Development) at the Pctcific ConcernsResourceCentre in Suva,Ftji. He is now the Executive Secretaryfor the PaciJic deskat the World Council of Churches (\VCC) in Geneva.

Sth Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Con;ference,Arue, Tohitt

Page 139

Cyril Chapman TeWhare Awhin,Aotearoa

Globalisation and its effectson Indigenouspeoples

Aotearoa. otherislandnationsof the pacific like already sub.ject colonisation,is experiencing to new forms of c olonialis mC o l o n i s a ti o n rc e s o f th i , u g . . fo w i th sel f s er v ingint er e s ts f a g l o b a l e l i te w h o s e i n terests o are shaping globaleconomy a andwho arenot accountable to anybody,other than themselves. Aotearoa an isolated is countrywhosepopulation less is than 4 million and with a Maori poputuiion of around 400.000. is an idealplace pushNew Rightpolicies It to and practices experienced us over the last as by ten v.u.s.

smarlcard("Kiwi Card,')aboutten yearsago, this wasto replace socialwelfarebenefitID card. the Many peoplein Aotearoaobjected.Civil liberties groups in Australia objected the government the plan on so put hold. A year laterthey introduced userpayssystem a for healthservices and with this introducedthe Communify ServicesCard which meantyou could get cheaphealth serviceonly if you had the card.This of courseforced our peoplewho could not afford to pay for health services to acceptthe card.

Early this year,a protestwas organised in opposition to Youwill be awarethatthe colonialgovernment of Aotearoa the Multilateral Agreement Investment on (l,,int;. egain, recently hosted Asian pacificEconomic the Co_operation TangataWhenua from Aotearoaobjectedto the take over (APEC),a forum of2 i economies whichaimsto bringabout by overseas giants. The guts of th; MAI agendameant liee tradeandinvesfinent its members, by ofwhich Aotearoa the governments and big businesscould rsone.APEC is seen a way to pushthefiee f,ut rn place as tradeagenda protocols,which ensuredBig Businemop.n access to of the CATT / World Trade Organisarion (WTO) which Aotearoaand its resources. In essence New Lealand the workedthrougha year-long cycleof ministers and heads governmentopenedthe country to any type of investing of.rnultinational companies engaged official meetings corporation in with few restrictions. This againis drivenby prior to the summit.Over $50 million was spenton the big business onceprotocols and were decidedthey were conference about$20 rnillionon security and lockedin placefor twentyyears.Not eventhe government inot bad for a countrythat is hundreds billionsof dollars of in debt). could suethese corporations. the peopleJf Aot.u.ou We had no say. It is not a coincidence ApEC washosted that in Aotearoa. In fact, it was organised happenthat way, to as part of a Smarlcardshavebecomea naturalpart of our lrves, most plan to promoteAotearoa an international to audience as peoplehavea card to purchase products(suchas a card a prosperous, povertyfree and tolerantmarketeconomv to access moneyfrom your banketc).Because evenin our (a rnodelfor all otherApEC governments follow). to oanKlng systemnot only do haveto pay to withdraw your own moneybut you alsohaveto pay to put your money in. The standard living in Aotearoa dropped of has frorn2"din the bank.We areonly exemptfrom paying bank feesif we theworld to 23,d (you couldhardlycall thispou.,-ty fiee or haveover $500 in our accounts. know of families I from prosperous). the past ten years,unemployment In rates home who haveat leastfive or six credit cards.They rely haverapidly increased with privatisation many of the on beingable of to purchase everything with the creditcard. oncepubliclyownedservices. telephone The andrailways Many of them are relianton benefits and can,t af-ford the hav e been s old to A m e ri c a n c o rp o ra ti o n sT h e . w aste necessary commodities, because the cardsend but of up disposal systems, which were run by localcouncils, have buyingthingson tick. However,the reality being if you alsobeencontracted another to American company. Local can't pay up you lose what little you havl got or go to councils now in the process are ofprivatisingand selling prison. offthe water.The roadsarebeingprivatisedaid thousands of acresof land now belongto giant overseas rnvestors. Thi s year the government ntroduced i di gi ti sedphot o Because deregulation of manyjobs havebeenlost. licenses. people All with theirlicense will belomepartof a massivedatabase. With the use of the technologythey Flora and fauna (native plants)have been patented by will.beableto keeptrackyou- you will simply be a number overseas companies and the spectrum also beensold on the big has computer beinginstalled Amerlca. in to overseas (over $200 billion is madeper year, interests againby and for overseas). Justbeforewe left Aotearoa Aotearoais being usedas the guineapig for all this new for this conference, government the announced thev technol ogy.They say i t,s that becausethe N ew Leal and planto build a prisonin my region,probably to be run by government wantsto play with the big boys i.e.America, a pnvatecorporation from Australia. France, Britain. pakehafrom New Zeilandare like sheep, they like to follow. A lot of the ministers govemment in NewZealand's formerLabourprimeMinisterMike Moore also have shares sorne thosebig compaiies.Of the in of hasbeen elected chairto the WTO. I am reminded as about 33 million acresof land,Maori no* huu. controlof less attempts the New Zealandgovernmentto introduce by a than2 million acresand much of that Iand hasnow been

giants. to leased big overseas Y es t er dayI h e a rd o u r s i s te r ta l k a b o u t the geneti c and geneticcloning.The big seed programs engineering of the world now havecontrolof many supplycompanies of the seeds,which are now hybrids so they cannot be usedmore than once. For many of our familiesat hometheyjust live day to day' we and because no longer They have becomedependent we control our resources, have been trapped. I support the talk from Hilda - we must free our minds from Next year marks 160 yearsof fighting to get colonisation. We did not cede our the Treaty of Waitangi recognised. sovereignty;the Treaty affirmed our sovereignty.The gov er nm en th a s n o ri g h t to n e g o ti a te i n ternati onal the They say they recognise Treaty but their agreements. Theyhaveneverstopped opposite. are actions the complete has taking our Treaty rights from us. Part oftheir strategy wherebysometribes process beento developa settlement are suckedinto doing dealsin fear of missingout on the havea fiscal offers.Thesegoodies goodies government the cap not even worth a quarter of their true value. Often appointedand these"leaders" have been government are settlements full andfinal andcanneverbe claimed these of for again.Many of the peoplewho are the guardians those lands don't want the money; they want the land

Cyril Tarnui ChaPman (Aotearoa)

(the earth)is our Mother and we the Maori in Paptuanuku Aotearoa are the guardiansof our Mother. We need to teachthis to our childrenin orderfor her andus to survive. to alwaysseems big for peopleto dealwith, Globalisation As really simplesolutions. Hilda Lini but it canhavesome back! to process needs startwith our familiesour the saidearlier, Treaty rights over our Taonga,like land, rivers, forests communitiesand ourselves.Take every opportunity to support our local communitiesbecauseit is too hard to placeswill be affectedby the actionsofforeign andsacred Their whenwe areisolated. that want to lirnit any risk from indigenous fight andto resistthe monsters industries taught us to hate learning,so we claims.Of the few jobs that we have in my homeland, educationsystemhas by forestryis one.They too arerun andcontrolled overseas must set up other alternativesbecausealthough the technologynow can help us we must not dependon it. companies. like will companies useagreements APEC andMAI Foreign to backtheir demandsin other internationalforum for rights to intellectualproperty over our taonga like flora, fauna knowledge' and other indigenous is MAI, APEC, Globalisation abouttotal controlby a few I have heard about the terible things they have people. done to you. The rule of the guns, the mass killings, it to happened us in Aotearoain the time of our grandfathers the For grandmothers. us, the descendants, coloniser and the They havecolonised mindsof othermeans. now uses B peopl e. ut w e w i l l resi st. our

S om e M ao ri c o rp o ra ti o n sma y s e e s o m e benefi tsi n par t ner s h i pw i th o v e rs e a si n v e s to rsb ut there i s no that the benefitswill flow down to the people' guarantee all Although the lifting of tariffs are being promotedas good The fight for freedomis not ownedby any ofus' Butwe of to freedom.Our commitmentto the struggles people may be able to buy productscheaper, belong because is land rights, independence becausein sovereignty, ofjobs have been lost. thousands of Aotearoawe havesufferedthe sameatrocities war' We nations, standback and allow other indigenous It for We mustlook at ourselves solutions. may be simple cannot to brothersand sistersin Timor Lorosae endup in but we muststartgrowing our own food, savingour seeds, like our that the same situation as Maori people today. We need to Not economies and settingup alternativeeconomies' models,but models learn from eachother's strugglesin order to reclaim and are basedon capitalistdog-eat-dog Pacific. that promote and enhanceour culture. In our individual restorea NuclearFreeand Independent plastic to we communities must set up alternatives the Kohatutakai, to money,developstrategies inform our peopleaboutwhat Cyril Chapman is a Maori activist from Te is within Nagapuhi and Te Tarawa nations in which is happening. A otearoa / N ew Zeal and. H e i s a member of t he Awhin, and community-basedorganisation Te LVhare Forgetaboutthe white man'sway of doing things,setup of the tribal radio station TautokoFM We trade links amongstourselves. know that manager independent
Page I4l

Conference staff: Left: Laughingpeter_translator pierre Above; pCRC staffmemberFipe fuant


Below: Conference staffFeiloakitauKaho Tevi andNic Maclellanwith media liaisonofficers StanleySimpsonand Maire B"pp d;p;;;

Page I 42

Bth Nuclear F

8th NuclearFree and Independent PacificMovementConference Arue, Tahiti, Te Ao Maohi (Frenchpolynesia) 19-25Septemb 1999 er
The following resolutionswere prepared at workshops of the 8,hNFIP Conferenceat Arue, Tahiti, or presentedby country delegations. Theywere adoptedby the plenary of the conference on24 September1999.The resolutionslisted below are grouped under headingsof Environment,Decolonisation, Demilitarisation, PCRC / NFIP activities, Human Rights and Good Governance;Sustainable Human Development, and Final resolutions. The resolutionscan alsobe found on the PCRC Website( www.pcrc.org.fj ).

ThemeOne: Environment
Resolution#l Transportation of MOX Fuel through First Nations Territory

The Conference resolves to: l) Insi st that the Governmentof C anad a st op t he transpoftationof American and RussianMOX fuel throughthe teritory of the Anishinabek Nation. That the Governmentof Canadaconsultwith Grand CouncilChief,VemonRooteand his peopleaboutthe plan to transportthis dangerousfuel through their territory.


GrandCouncil Chief, VernonRoote,of the Anishinabek 3) That only when the AnishinabekNation agrees, after Nation, Ontario,Canada, reacted with disgustand anger consultation the processoftransportation,can the to to the announcement the Canadian of Government, it that Government Canadaproceedwith its plan of will betransporting AmericanandRussian MOX fuel(mixed oxide) throughthe hearl of the RobinsonHuron Treaty 4) That if the AnishinabekNation deniesaccess the for Area. Chief VernonRootehas not beenconsulted transportation MOX fuel through its tenitory, the about of t his t r ans p o rta ti o n o f th i s d a n g e ro u s fuel , stati ng GovernmentofCanada shall find anotherroute,and emphatically that"we haveto be consulted". consultwith the peoplein the areaof the new routeto get their agreement carry out the shipment. to Thereare at leasteight FirstNationsareas throughwhich theseshipments MOX fuel will pass, throughareas Resolution# 2 of or adjacent the FirstNationsterritories. to High Seas Interception

of Elvers Migrating to

Whereas transporting MOX fuel involves danger andrisk of ac c ide n ts ,i n s p i te o f a s s u ra n c e b y the C anadi an s P reambl e: Government the contrarv: to R ecogni si ng that the Maori of A otearoa ut ilize freshwater eels for subsistence purposes; Whereas Chief VernonRoote,GrandCouncilChiefof the Whereasthe freshwater Anishinabek eel is a cadadromous Nation,nor this peoplehavebeenconsulted fish species, meaning thatis develops aboutthetransporting MOX fuelthrough from thejuvenileto of theirterritory, mature reproductivestage in freshwaterand then and, mlgratesto spawn in the ocean; Bearingin mind that the interception elvers,the Whereas this action by the Canadian of Government in is metamorphic stage ofthe eelduringits migratory clearviolationof thetraditional phase afterhatching the high seas in territoryof the Anishinabek will drastically reduce Nation;and the population returning the riversto complete to the life cycle; Whereas territorialareaof the Anishinabek the Nation is being affectedby circumstances beyondits control,and to furthermore benefits no accrue peoplein the area,except The Conferenceresolves : to risk and danser: Insist that Japanand the Netherlandshalt the practiceof intercepting elverson their migratory returnto Aotearoa.
8th Nuclear Free and Independent Pacfic Conference, Arue, Tahiti Page 143



Resolution# 3 Resolution stopPlutonium Shipments to
P r eam ble: Considering Pacificpeoples' continuous opposition the to pas s ageof s h i p me n ts o f p l u to n i u m a n d h i gh l evel radioactivewastesthrough the pacific Ocean; Deeply concerned that a commercial shipment MOX of nuclear weapons usable plutonium fuel is now takingplace and more are plannedin future by Japan, U.K and France t hr ough our Pa c i fi c Oc e a n , i n c l u d i n g th e E conomi c ExclusiveZones(EEZ) of islandstates, which is extrernelv dangerous our lives and environment; to The Conferenceresolves : to i) Urge a ban of all nuclearmaterialshipments through PacificIslandcountries, oceans and airspace. 2)

Mine operations papuaNew Guinea,wheretailings in liom the minehavebeendumpedinto rivers,polluting the water,causingthe river to overflow and creating die-backof the natural forests,as well as mining operations Vanuatu the RossMine in Solomon in and I sl ands; Notingthatothercompanies hopeto opennew mlnes in the region; Recognising thepeople that mostimpacted mining by practi cesshoul d have an acti ve voi ce i n m inins operatlons;


The Conference resolves to: l) Establishlinks with NGOs in regions outsidethe Pacific who are also working on mining issues, with the purposeof sharinginformation and strategies;

2) Collectinformation mining companies on operating in Demandenvironmental impactstatements caseof in the Pacific and investigatetheir practices in other accident funded by those three governments, be to countnes; carriedout by independent scientificorganisations; 3) I ns is t on t h e i m m e d i a tec o n v e n i n go f h igh l evel 3) Develop strategies hold the mining compantes to c ons ult at i v ed i a l o g u e s /m e e ti n gb e tw e e npaci fi c s accountable acceptable to environmentalprotection IslandCountries, Japan,U.K. and Franceon above practlces; items; 4) Strengthen RarotongaTreafy for a Southpacific the Nuc lear r e eZ o n e . F 4) Strongly urge that comprehensive Environmental Impact Statements with adequatecommunity input be conductedbefore any new mi ni ng opera t ions begi n;

Condem n th e J a p a n e s eg o v e rn m e n t for thei r inesponsible plutonium planwhichcauses potentially 5) Demand that multinationalcorporationsin NFIp hazardouseffects on our environment, well as as countries, especially papuaNew Guinea, in Vanuatu, nuclear armsproliferation problems ; Solomon Islands, West papua, Fiji, Kanaky and Bougainville, adequately compensate communities 6) Insist on a halt of reprocessing Japanese of spent affected theirminingpractices; by nuclear fuel andfabrication MOX fuelsin UK. USA of and France and all othercountries. O D emand that pol l uted ri vers and stream s be thoroughlycleaned-up; Action Strategy: Lobbythe SouthPacificForum,the 1999Commonwealth D emandthat any new mi ni ng operati ons not do Headsof Government Conference Durban,the United T in i rnpi nge sacred tes. on si Nations and other international conferences, work and through mediaall overthe world the


Resolution# 5 Ins is t t hat S ou th P a c i fi c F o ru m me mb e r c o untri es Forests/Logging

reconsider theirdiplomatic andtraderelations with Japan, B r it ain, F r anc e a n d a l l o th e r p l a y e rsi n v o l v ed i n the P reambl e: shipment plutonium. of Recognising valueof intact indigenous the forests;

Resolution# 4 Mining
Preamble: Recognising the devastating impact of large scale mining operations the peoples the pacific; on of Noting with specialconcernthe impactof Ok Tedi


N oti ng the destructi ve practi cesof cl ear_cu t t ing forests; Bearing in mind that fast growing exotic species are being introducedfor purely economicgain; C oncernedthat thi s practi ce takes out essent ial nutrients from the soil;




Recognising that somepeoplein the regionareselling their land to logging multinationalcorporations a as meansof incomegeneration;


Collect examples ofenvironmentallawsand legislation being passed the region and developa database in of this information. Promotesustainable development practicesthat use cleanrenewableenergytechnologies.

The Conferenceresolves : to 1. Lobby at regional levels (with the South Pacific Regional Environment Program, the South Pacific Forum Secretariat etc.) for more dialogue with individual Forum membersto promote small scale developmentprojects in opposition to industrial logging. 2.


8) Encourage Pacificislandcountries be very vocal in to our calls to industrialized nations such as New Zealand and Australia to drastically cut their use of fossil fuels suchas oil, coal and gas. Lobby Pacific island countries to take the lead in pushi ng for real efforts to ensure t hat t he environmental effectiveness the Kyoto Protocolis of not undermined.

A s s is t l a n d o w n e rsw h o n e e d s p e c i al i stservi ces, 9) technicalskills, financial assistance information and abouteconomic altematives logging(e.g.Smallscale to saw-milling, women's dress-making, poultrykeeping etc.)

Resolution # 7 programs increase Assistin providing to literacy, Ciguatera Poisoning business, commercial basic and bookkeeping skills, training access funding in to frombanks, donors and preamble : . development agencies partof a process as generated D^^_:..:_-^.:-r 1r.^+ ^ ^:^,,^+^-^ -^:^^by the villagers themselves, tr," .ont"*i li in P-tT:-i:mindthatciguaterapoisoningisincreasing ln mereglon; integrated campaigning

Resolution # 6 Climate Change
Preamble: Recognising that SouthPacific IslandNationsarefacinga major social, economic and environmentalthreat from climate changeand sea level rise; and Recognising powers,especially that major industrialised Australia in our own region, are failing to take the necessary stepsto reduce green housegas emissions; The Conferenceresolves to: l) Collect information from the region and develop a database the impactsthat people are seeingin on relation globalwarming. to

Noting the severehealth consequences both for humansand animals; Considering that this poisonaccumulates the body in and remainstherefor many years; Noting the negativeimpact on productivity and thus the economy; The Conferenceresolves to: I' Call for epidemiological healthsurveysto determine the incidence and prevalence ofciguaterapoisoning;

2. Strongly urge that further researchbe conductedto
identi! the sourcesof ciguaterapoisoning and the kind of fish most highly contaminated; Createeducationalprogramsthat raisethe awareness of peoplesin the Pacific to the harmful effects; Collectthe varioustestingprotocolsthat arecurrently available,determinewhich may be most appropriate for variousPacificcommunitiesand disseminate this information.


Collect information from the region and develop a database methodsof adaptation. on Developa list of simple thingsevery personcan start doing to protectthe environment. progra- nn thic Createa comprehensive educational issue,which includesbasic informuti"" "; "til;;; change,the impacts, methodsof adaptationwith naturalresources. Conductin-depthanalysis the relationship of between environmentalimpactsand economicdevelopment, as well as the relationship betweenenvironmental globalisation. degradation economic and




Resolution # 8 Invasive Exotic Species Preamble:


Concernedthat our islands are a highly fragile ecosystem that have developedin isolation; Noting that increased surfaceand air traffic posethe potential threat of introducing exotic pestiferous

species our islands; to Bearingin mind that our native flora and fauna,having developedin isolation, may not have the ability to repelor competewith introducedexotic species; Recognisingthat strict quarantine inspectionsare neededto minimize the accidentalor intentional introductionof unwantedpestiferousspecies; The Conferenceresolves : to l.




Bearingin mind that continuedeconomicgrowth will enhance busi ness grow th, thus bri ng m or e productsto our islands; manufactured Concernedthat the use of plastics,particularly the use ofplastic bags,has proliferatedin recentyears; Considering land is a scarce that resource demand and for housingneeds will in all likelihoodoutweighother usesfor land; Recognising that solid waste and sewagemust be properly disposedof to avoid health,environmental and sanitationproblems;



Ur ge it s me mb e rs to c a l l u p o n th e i r re specti ve to: governmentsto implement and enforce quarantine The Conferenceresolves l) Initiate dialogue with the South Pacific Applied laws, Geoscience Commission(SOPAC) and the South Pacific RegionalEnvironmentProgram(SPREP)to Support collaborativeefforts within the area in the assess solid wasteand sewage the disposalproblems development a quarantine of advisoryreportwarning for the member countries our region; in the membercountriesof the accidental intentional or introduction of any unwantedspecies; 2) Urge SOPACand SPREPto recommend appropriate measures solve the problem, including but not to Call upon PCRC to cooperatewith all appropriate limited to, implementation environmental of laws, r egional org a n i s a ti o n sto d e v e l o p e d ucati onal development plans,etc.; materialswarning the public on the dangersof the introduction of unwantedsnecies. 3) Develop educationalprograms to raise people's awareness this problem, of Establishlinks with NGOs from otherregionsthat have information,strategies educational and materials that couldbe usefulto the Pacificresion.

Resolution # 9 Fiji Sustainable Development Bill
Preamble: T he Conf er enc ew e l c o me sth e i n i ti a ti v e o f the Fi j i Govemment draftthe Fiji Sustainable to Development Bill, which aims to provide integratedenvironmentaland developmentlegislationfor the country. The Conferenceresolves : to l) 2) Ensure adoption the Bill assoonaspossible. the of Seekto haveCleanProduction included into the Waste Management section the Bill. of Seekto developan alliancewith industryasthey have the most to benefit from the current draft lesislation and are readyto developa code ofpractice.


Resolution# 11 Papua New Guinea - Australia Natural GasPipeline
Preamble: Bearing in mind that a new natural gas pipeline has been approvedby the governmentsof Papua New Guinea(PNG) andAustralia; N oti ng w i th extreme concern the poten t ial environmental and safetyhazardsof this pipeline; Concerned that the pipeline may result in the further militarisation Papua of New Guinea;



Promotethis bill as one of the models for the entire resion.

The Conferenceresolves : to E ducate the peopl e al ong the pi pel i ne abou t it s Resolution# 10 environmental and safetyimplicationsof the project. S olid Waste Manageme n t and S e wa g e Disposal Resolution# 12 POPs Preamble: (PersistentOrganic Pollutants) Pesticides Concerned that solid wasteand sewagedisposalis a major problemin our region,especially our smaller on islandcountries; Whereasthe population of the islandsare expected growing,furtherexacerbating problem; to continue the P reambl e: Recognising Persistent that (POPs)are OrganicPollutants a classof mainly synthetictoxic chemicalsubstances that


Pa g e 1 4 6

8th Nuclectr Free and lndependenl Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

lh will more y the "'ars; nand rther tb e :ntal

have severe and long-termeffectson andhumanhealth.


Rec og n i s i n gth a t P OPs ' fi n d i n g s a re parti cul arl y troublesome the Pacific Islandcountries for because of ourisolation and the sizeofour countries. Whilewesterngovernments have alreadygraduated from t he s t ag e o f i g n o ra n c e o f th e p ro b lem, of deni al , acknowledgment now into action,policy makersand and citizens the developingworld remainunawareof what in these chemicals and what they can do. are The POPs problem in the South pacific is too large, complicated and expensivefor individual countriesto handle,includingstockpiles obsolete of chemicals, the continued importation pOps pesticides the region of into and t he p ro p o s e d e x p a n s i o n o f p Ops produci ng technology. Not ing th a t ma n y p a c i fi c Is l a n d c o u ntri esare now under go i n g c h a n g e s i n i n d u s tri a l d e vel opment, i n consumption patterns and the materials that circulatein societythrough cyclesof production, use and disposal. As a result therecouldbe a rapidincrease theamount in of dioxin that is generated and releasedin pacific island environments. It is thereforevery importantat this stageto identif,i in a comprehensive way both the kinds of facilities and the kinds of processes generate that and release dioxins to the envlronment. is alsoimportantto identifofor eachsource It category, chain ofdioxin productionand in particular, the identifythe sourceof chlorinein the dioxin production. This basicinformation will providetheprimary'information that is neededto design effective dioxin abatement and elimination measures. The Conferenceresolves to: l) 2) Eliminate formsof POpsin the pacificregion. all Lobby for urgent commitments phaseout pOps to andtheirsources to movetowarda globalsystem and ofclean production. LobbyPacificcountries conclude legally to a binding, global agreementon POps by the year 2000 at the latest. Lobby fo r a n Ag re e me n t to i n c l ude real and enforceable commitments : to Phase productionof intentionallyproducedpOps out in everyregionand in everycountry. Phaseout production and use of syntheticmaterials that alwaysgenerate POPsas unwanted wastes durine theirordinarvlife-cvc le.

C l ean up P OP s stockpi l es and env ir onm ent al reservoirsusing technologies that do not createby_ productsthat are also pOps. . Introducecleanproductsand processes that serveas effectivereplacements pOps and their sources. to Pacificcountries needto seekthe financial,technical assistance take appropriate to action. In this context, governments the OECD and newly indusfrialised of countries can hasten the shift to non_toxic and resource efficient food and manufacturing systems. Placea priority on the development useofexistins and and economicallyviable alternative,yrt.r, unJ materials, POPscould be phased rapidly. out Lobby for Pacific countriesto participatein the Intergoverrunental NegotiatingConventions.This will provide governments the region an opportunityto of ensure thatregionalSmall IslandStates'concerns are voiced.


ie d uth to ms




Resolution# 13 Banning of Tributyltin (TBT) in NFIpMember Countries
(ori gi nal l y adopted as resol uti on 4g at t he NFI p Conference) Preamble: Concerned the useof tributyltinasan antifoulingagent that for boat and ship hulls is increasing worldwide; Whereastributyltin, commonly known as TBT, is preferred by boat ownersbecause ofits longer effective life of5_7 years as compared to copper sulfate which has an effectiveness ofonly 2-3 years; Whereaspreliminary scientific studieshave shown that TBT has a harmful genetic effect on certain marine invertebrate species; Bearingin mind thatTBT's persistency the environment in means that its harmful effectslast longer; Considering the harmful effects of TBT on marine invertebrates, urgesNFIp to call for the banningof this it antifouling agent. The Conferenceresolves to: l) Urge all NFIP membersto appealto their respective governments take immediateactionto ban the use to ofTBT. 2) Call on the manufactures TBT to conductresearch of on the impactof TBT on the environment.





8th Nuclear

Free and Independent

ThemeTWo: Decolonisation and Self-Determination
Resolution 14 # Decolonisation
Preamble: Consideringthat a number of non-selfgovemingterritories are locatedin the Pacific and that the,,tIN Decadefor the Eradication Colonialism"will sooncometo an end,with of the United Nations plan of action not carried out for lack of funds, and Concerned that therearemoveswithin the UnitedNations to abolishthe SpecialCommitteeon Decolonisation; The Conferenceresolves: l) pacific (NFIP) That Nuclear Free and Independenr members in co-operationwith interestedNGOs, churches,trade unions, political parties and other organisations their respective in countries, lobby their governmentsand the South pacific Forum Secretariat to adopt a pro-active strategy within the United Nations (tIN) systemto deflect the reactionaryattacks on the SpecialCommitteeon Decolonisation to ensure the Committee continues its work beyond the year 2000, by decentralising the discussions throughout asmany UN and other intemationalbodiesaspossible. That the UN Decadefor the Eradicationof Colonialism be extended, particularlyto implementthe Barbados Plan of Action until all the Non Self Governing t er r it or ies h a v e e x e rc i s e d th e i r ri e h t to sel f_ determination. That the following Pacific Islandnon-selfgoverning t er r it or ies b e a d d e d to th e U N D e c o l o ni sati on CommitteeList of Non Self-Governing Tenitories 7) O

concertwith the Caribbean Communityat the United Nations and through joint meetingsto discussthe futureof self-determination the colonialterritories of in the two regions. That the Forum nations also commit themselves to put the issueof self-determination a human right as on the agendaof other relevant UN bodies that discusshuman rights. That the UN be askedto assistthe territoriesin their social,economic, development securityconcerns, and consistent with the recommendations some of the of administering powers and the respective mandateof the specialised agencies and technicalorsansofthe United Nations. That the SpecialCommitteebe encouraged identiry to resourcesto carry out the relevant political and economicstudiesand analysiscontainedin the plan of A cti on of the Internati onal D ecade for t he Eradication of Colonialism, in conjunction with regionalorganisations expefts. and That the new UN initiatives in governanceshould include a component that addresses governance issues non self-governing of territories.




l 0) That parti ci pantsl obby thei r respecti vepr im e Ministers and Ministers of Foreign Affairs on the i ssue of extensi on of the U N D ecol oni sa t ion CommitteeList ofNon Self-Governing Territories to include Te Ao Maohi / French polynesia (to be reinscribed), West Papua/ lrian laya, Bougainville, Ka Pae'aina/ Hawai'i(to be reinscribed), Rapanui. and l1) That the delegates from Tonga,Nauru and Kiribati in particularasktheir government move at the United to NationsGeneralAssemblythis year for the inclusion of the above territories on the UN Decolonisation Committee List of Non Self-Governing Teritories. 12) That churchmembersof the NFIP at the conference approach their own churches and National Council of Churchesfor assistance lobbying for the above. in 13) That the NFIP conference recommendto the pacific Conferenceof Churches,CEPAC and the World CouncilofChurchesto continuetheir supportactions to assist in the resolution on decolonisationand thereforeto ask their ecumenicalpartnersfor equal support.


a) Te Ao Maohi/ FrenchPolynesia(to be reinscribed) b) WestPapua/lrian Jaya(tobe reinscribed) c) KaPae'ainaI Hawai'i (to be reinscribed) d) Bougainville e) Rapanui/ EasterIsland 4) T hat in add i ti o n to d i s c u s s i o n si n th e S peci al Com m it t ee o n D e c o l o n i s a ti o n a n d th e Fourth Committee,the issueof decolonisation should be addressedin the Third Committee of the General Assembly under its agendaof .,The Right of Self_ Determination".

Resolution# 15 Conveningcountry and regional seminarsfor 5) That"The Right of Self-Determination" be placed colonies be reinscribed on the United Nations to also on the agendaof the South pacific Forum, so that Decolonisation Committee List of Non Selfmember statesof the Forum may promote this in GoverningTerritories
Page 148 8th Nuclear Free and lndependent pacfic Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Preamble: Reaffirming right to self-determination all countries the for in thePacific; Acknowledgingthe right of non self-governing countries to be reinscribedon the UN Decolonisation Committee List;

1) The delegates the 8'hNFIP conference of acknowledge the efforts madeby indigenous peoplesand govemments to establisha Permanent Forum for IndigenousPeoples within the United Nations system;and 2) All necessary information be distributedto all NFIP affiliates for regional consultations about the Permanent Forum;and

to ht at



f )

Recalling Resolution paragraph on Decolonisation, #6, 4 adopted the 7th at NFIP / PCRCConference, Fij i in 1996, 3) The NFIP delegates in respondto the Pacific Concerns R esourceC entre about the resul ts of the ir r egional The Conferenceresolves: consultation aboutthe Permanent Forum no later than 15 1) That PCRC/NFIP throughthe PCRCDecolonisarion Decernber 1999. and Desk convenesa seminar for each country to be relisted andthatthe seminar opento all concerned 4) Delegates be ofthe 8'h NFIP conference authorise PCRC the parties including Non GovernmentOrganisations, to follow up and make further actionson this matter,and churchgroups,trade unionsand the civil societyin consult with the Centre for Human Rights, Indigenous generaladvocating aboveresolutions; the Peoplessection in Geneva,Switzerlandregardingthe upcoming session February in 2000of the UnitedNations 2) That PCRC / NFIP throughthe Decolonisation Desk Working Groupon the Establishment Permanent ofa Forum convenes regionalseminarfor representatives a of for Indigenous Peoples within the United Nationssystem. thesecolonies; 3) That the presentterms of referencebe implemented by 2002,yearof the 9th NFIP / PCRCConference.

Resolution# 17 EuropeanUnion policyon the role ofindigenous peoples development in cooperation
Preamble: The Conferencewelcomesthe resolution issuedby the Council of Ministers of the EuropeanUnion (EU) in November1998,on support indigenous to peoples the in developmentco-operationprogram of the European Commission its MemberStates. and The Conferenceresolves to: l) 2) Recognise importance this policy instrument. the of Emphasise the necessityof ensuring appropriate implementation, which will integrate concernfor the i ndi genous peopl es at al l l evel s of Eur opean development co-operation. This will also imply the inclusion of indigenouspeoples' concernsin the negoti ati onsof the new E U -A C P co oper at ion agreement. E,specially underlinethe importanceof the direct parti ci pati on of i ndi genous peopl es and t heir organi sati onsn the di scussi ons i and m onit or ing mechanisms relatedto the implementation this of policy. Callson PCRCto liaisewith indigenous organisations and concerned NGOs to promotethe implementation of the EU policy on supportto indigenous peoples in development co-operation, throughdissemination e.g. of i nformati on, l obbyi ng and di al ogue wit h t he European Commission MemberStates and ofthe EU.

Resolution 16 # Establishment a Permanent of Forum for Indigenous Peoples within theUnitedNations system
Preamble: We, the representatives the 8'hNFIP Conference of were informed about efforts made by indigenouspeoples' representatives from otherpartsof the world to establish a Permanent Forumfor Indigenous Peoples within the United Nat ions s y s te m , a n d th e d e l e g a te so f the 8' h N FIP Conference were also informed. o Thatthe World Conference HumanRightsin Vienna on in 1993recommended UnitedNationsto seriously the c ons i d e r th e e s ta b l i s h m e n to f s u ch a bodv for indigenous peoples, and T hat re g i o n a l c o n s u l ta ti o n sh a v e been hel d i n (D Cope n h a g e n e n m a rk ), T e mu c o (C hi l e), K una (Panama) and Indore(lndia) with the participationof indigenous peoplesandgovernments aboutthe future establishment a Permanent of Forum for Indigenous Peoples within the UnitedNationssystem, and That the regional consultations have supportedthe idea to establisha high level body for indigenous peoples within the UnitedNationssystem;



4) r

The Conferenceresolves that :

8th Nuclear Free and lndependent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Page 149

Resolution l8 # TimorLorasae

Ac k nowledgingth e d e mo c ra ti c v o te fo r th e new l y constituted independent government Timor Lorasae, of The Conference resolves to: and congratulating people of the country for their the i) Call on international NGOs on Bougainville historic to: voteon 30 August 1999; . H el p w i th the re-bui l di ng of i nfrastructureon Bougainville The Conferenceresolves : to . Continuethe supportfor local BougainvilleNGOs to l ) Denounc et he m a s s a c re sa rs o n ,a n d m u rd ersof , strengthen C ommuni ty B ased programs o n innocentpeoplein Timor. Bousainville. 2) Demand complete removalof all Indonesian Military Forces andtheir paramilitary detachments from Timor. Supportthe call by the newly constituted independent government Timor Lorasae an internationar of for war crimes tribunal. Call for the releaseof all East Timoreseoolitical prisoners Indonesia. in Recommendthat PCRC writes to the South pacific Forumgovernment members lobby that EastTimor to be grantedobserver status the Southpacific Forum. at O Recommend that PCRC writes to the United Nations High Com m is s i o n fo r R e fu g e e sc a l l i n g for the repatriationof all the Timorese in West Timor and otherpartsof Indonesia.

Recognising needfor the Governmentof papuaNew the Gui nea to consi der gi vi ng fi nanci al support to t he Bougainville People's Congress (BpC) to provideessential services, health,education,agricultureand in rebuildine of infrastructure Bougainville. on

2) Call on the South Pacific Forum, consideringthe
situationin Bougainville,to proposeto the pNG Government i mmedi atel yal l ow the peopl e of to Bougainville decide to theirpoliticalfuturethrough a referendum. ThattheNFIP delegation the UnitedNationsSpecial to Session Small IslandsDeveloping on States suggest to the United Nations to proposeto the papua New Guinea Governmentthat it holds a United Nations supervi sed referendumon sel f-determi nati on f o Bougainville, whilsttheUnitedNationspeace Keeping Forces still in Bougainville. are Action Strategy: That the PCRC Secretariat, togetherwith representatives of memberorganisations Suvaand papuaNew Guinea, in lobbythe SouthPacificForumSecretariat, Govemment the of Fiji and the PapuaNew GuineaGovernmentto put the issueof the right to self-determination the peopleof of Bougainville the Agendaof the next meetinsof the on SouthPacificForum.



Resolution# 19 Bougainville
Preamble: Recognising that: 1) The war on Bougainville hasstopped two yearsago, and that the peaceprocessis in progress underthe supervision ofthe SouthPacificpeaceKeepingforces and the United Nations; 2) T he B ougainv i l l e P e o p l e ' sC o n g re s s(Bp C ) w as established earlythis yearto legallygovernthe affairs of Bougainville;

Resolution# 20 Resolutionon Kanaka Maoli Decolonisation, by reinscriptionof Ka Pae'ainaon the United Nations list of non-self-governingterritories
Preamble: Whereas,the NFIP / PCRC has repeatedlysupported KanakaMaoli (lndigenous Hawaiian)self-determination throughpeaceful decolonisation their homeland Ka in of Pae'aina (Hawai'i),mostrecently four resolutions: by S eptember 1996, S uva, Fi j i , R esol utron on peoples Decolonisation Indigenous for ofthe pacific, peoples of the pacific endorsedby the Indigenous W orkshop on the U ni ted N ati ons (U N ) D raft Declarationof the Rights of Indigenouspeoples, whichresolved "submitthisresolution the South to to Pacific Forum and appropriateentitieswithin the UnitedNations":
Conference, Arue, Tahiti

Concerned howeverthar: l) T he t ot al wit h d ra w a l o f p N G Mi l i ta ry f rom B ougainv ille a n d l a y i n g d o w n o f a rm s b y the B ougainv ille R e v o l u ti o n a ry A rm y (BR A) and Resistance had not eventuated;

2) The new Governmentof PapuaNew Guinea and Bougainville People's (BpC) havenot made Congress a serious commitment negotiate issueof selfto the determination allow people decide to to theirpolitical futurethrougha referendum.
Page I 50

8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacfic

,lew the rtial ting

December 1996, Suva, Fiji, Resolutionon the and the O pp o s i ti o n to th e " N a ti v e H a w ai i an V ote" "Ha*alian ConstitutionalConvention"' approvedby the whichinter alia "urgedPacificIsland NFIP Conference, 7'h ofKanaka andnationsto supportthereinscription peoples it4uotiof Hawai'ion the UN List of Non-Self-Governing ; Territoriesfor decolonisation"

and areprojectedby the US conditionsin their homeland, for Congress extinctionas a "pure race" by Year2044; Whereas,the Kanaka Maoli people strongly supportall and' peoplesin their strugglesfor self-determination brother and sister especiallyat this critical time, Pacific K i naks, Lorosae Ti morese, B ougai nvilleans,West Maohi of Te Ao Maohi' Maohi of Rapa Nui' Paouans. Maori of Aotearoaand Aborigines of Australia; to: The Conferenceresolves L Urge implementationof the above previous four in on resolutions UN reinscriptionof Ka Pae'aina, view of of the additional four clauses' the pressingimplications by the following action strategy:

on ;t o on

D e c e m b e r 1 9 9 6 , S u v a , F i j i , R esol uti on on Decolonisation"that Tahiti-Nui, West Papua and Ka on (Hawai'i) be reinscribed the IIN List of NonPae'aina Committee Territories(Decolonisation Self-Governing List)"; S e p te m b e r 1 9 9 7 , R a ro to nga, C ook l sl ands' and Resolutionon Kanaka Maoli Self-Determination (Hawai'i) on the UN List of of Reinscription Ka Pae'aina Non-Seli-GoverningTerritories,adoptedby the PCRC / Forum; PIANGO 3'dNGOParallel

:he JG of

ial )st w Is rf



Call upon the NFIP / PCRC Executive Board Group and NFIP / PCRC Staff Reference Decolonisation to i ncl ude Kanaka M aoli D ecol oni sati on D esk on of throughreinscription Ka Pae'aina decolonisation as Territories a regular the UN List ofNon-Self-Governing the Whereas, July 1998UnitedNationsStudyon Treaties' priority A rrangements agendaitem to be coordinatedwith appropriate A gre e m e n ts a n d o th e r C o n s tru cti ve such of otherPacificcolonies, a;d timing with reinscription submittedto beiweenStatesand lndigenousPopulations' Bougainvilleand WestPapua' asTe Ao Maohi, RapaNui, t he U N W o rk i n g Gro u p o n l n d i g enousP opul ati ons' of annexation Ka Pae'aina that sincethe 1898US proposed and research promotepublic education' Coordinate on "could be re-entered the List was invalid,Ka Pae'aina aboutKa world-widecommunication mediaandelectronic ; Territoriesfor decolonisation" of N on-Self-Governing and RapaNui,Bougainville West Te Pae'aina, Ao Maohi, beginning with documentstn Papua self-determination, in movement independence the Whereas, KanakaMaoli such as the 1997 Independence appropriatelanguages, by throughcooperation Ka Pae'ainais being undermined iia iornr"ignty for Te Ao'Maohl booklet, for wide of (US) federalandstate Hawai'i the colonialUnited States distribution. governments': current Convention Hawaiian HSEC/ Hawai'i / Native to, of, Seekofficial endorsement and commitment puppet governmentprocessto maintain colonial RapaNui' Te Ao Maohi, Ka Pae'aina, of controlover stolenKanakaMaoli landswhile denying reinscription Bougainvilleand West Papuainitially by Pacific region in violation of KanakaMaoli full self-determination, such as Pacific Women NGOs, Pacific K a n a k a Ma o l i l a w , th e U S C onsti tuti on and organisations, and otherPacificpeoples nations, ofChurches, Conference Iaw; international Forum and the MelanesianSpearhead the South Pacific andnations; peoples non-Pacific caseto be heard Group,otherappropriate v Cayetano legal position inlhe Rice and their endorsements commitments of and submission thatthe US Court in October1999, by the US Supreme Nat ions G ener al h a ve a " speci al trust through a resol uti onto the U ni ted a n d s ta te g o v e rn me n ts of with the support otherconcemed coordinated Assembly, relationshiP"to the for Committee, suchasthe UN Decolonisation to peopleanalogous the relationship UN bodies. KanakaMaoli i mP l ementati on. and of the US toward American lndian tribes,which are adopti on "domestic dependentnations," whose considered people are to be treated as "wards" subject to the Resolution# 21 plenarYPowerof the US Congress"; of July 1999 designation a US JusticeDepaftment official "to address Departrnent offrcial anda US Interior in and land issues"' politicalstatus Native Hawaiian and Maoli inherentsovereignty violation of Kanaka right to self-determinationl

West Papua
Preamble: W hereas,l ndonesi aannexedW est Papuain 1963 in completeviolation of the New York Agreementit signed on with the Netherlands 15 August1962; lndonesiabannedall democratic on Whereas annexation, and abolishedall freedomsand rights in organisations the violation of the said Agreementand against Universal 1948, of Rights 10 December ofHuman Declaration

Whereas,the Kanaka Maoli people presentlycomprise lessthan 20ohof the total Ka Pae'ainapopulationof 1'2 havethe to million, continue be evictedfrom their lands, h e a l th , soci al and economi c w o rs t a n d w o rs e n i n g

Page I5l

Whereasin 1969, insteadof a referendumto allow the 2) The 3000 indigenous people who compose RapaNui 800,000 peopleof Westpapuato casttheir voteson the arestill struggling their emancipation for ffom Chilean choicebefween independence remaining or with Indonesia, occupation sincethe late I ggOs; theIndonesian government conducted consultation a with only 1,025representatives who accepted only choice 3) Rapa Nui's independence the has been underminedby demanded the governmentand that is to becomepan by occupation colonialChileanState; of on Indonesia,in complete vir.rlation the New york of Agreement; 4) RapaNui peoplehavebeendispossessed their to basic rightsto land by the Chileangovernment; Whereas, over 35 yearsof rule Indonesia committed for has untoldhumanright violationsagainst peopleof West the 5) Rapa Nui's people,s uponthe ChileanGovernment call Papuasimply because they are differentand because thev to committo pastpromises remained has unsuccessful. refused be Indonesianised, the Westpapuan to and peopte contlnue resistIndonesian to rule and; The Conferenceresolves to: Whereas 26 February1999on the request president on of B. J. Habibie,100 Westpapuan representatives met have the Indonesian Cabinetand issueda Communiqudstating that West Papuanpeople want their independence. The Conference resolves to: l) Fully implement the resolutions all adopted the 7,h at NFIP conference Fij i. includingtheproposal seek in to SouthPacificForumsupport the re_inscription for of West Papuaon the United Nations list of non self_ govemingterritorres. S pons or ac a m p a i g n fo rth e re o p e n i n g o f 1969act the of self-determination (calledthe Act of free choice): including suppol-tfor the current dialogue between West Papuanleaders(delegationof f OO;and the Indonesian government a peaceful for process towards independen c e . Sponsora campaign in support of the efforts of the NG O s and c h u rc h e si n We s t p a p u a fo r t he ful l investigation HumanRightviolations of including the Red Cr os s i n v o l v e me n t w i th th e m a s s a cresar Nggeselema the centralhighlands in and appealfor the release ofall politicalprisoners. l) Campaignfor the listing of RapaNui with the United NationsSpecial Committee Decolonisation of on list non-self-governing territories. Publishand disseminate leafletabout RapaNui,s a strugglefor self-determination.


Resolution# 23 Kanalry
Preamble: Having heard and examinedthe report on the political situationin Kanaky,andthe new perspectives arisingfrom theNoumeaAccord process which will continuefor fifteen years; The ConferenceResolves to: l) Renew its continuing,complete and active support for the struggleof the Kanak people,the indigenous peopleof Kanaky(New Caledonia), their political, for economic, socialand culturalemancipation, for and the accession ofthe Kanaknationto independence. 2) Call for the maintenance Kanaky (New Caledonia) of on the United Nations list of non_self_governing territories. C al l on regi onal and i nternati onal pol i ti c al organisations supportthis resolutionbefore to the U ni tedN ati ons authori ti es.



Action Strategy In relation point2), the Westpapuan to delegation callson this conference senda Letter or Statement president to to Habibie encourage to continue current to him the dialogue he hasundertakenwith the Westpapuan peoplesince26 Febr uar y1999. S e n d c o p i e sro F OR E R I a n d th e U N Secretary GeneralKofi Annan.


Pr6ambule : Aprds avoir entendu examindle rapport sur la et situation politiqueen Kanakyet les nouvelles perspectives issues du processus I'Accordde Noumda de dontla p6riode porte sur quinzeans; La conf6rence: l) Renouvelle soutien son inddfectible, total et actifd la lutte du peupleKanak,peuple indigenede Kanaky (N ouvel l e-C al ddoni e) pour son dmanci pati on pol i ti que,dconomi que, soci al et cul turel et pour

Resolution# 22 Rapa Nui
Preamble: Recognising that: l) RapaNui peoplehavetoo long beenignoredby the Pacific community, except NFIp movement; the

Poge I 52

Bth Nuclear Free

du I'accession PaysKanakd I'lndependance. 2) sur de Exigele maintien Kanaky(Nouvelle-Cal6donie) de paysd decoloniser I'ONU. la listedes et politiquesregionales Appelle les organisations d soutenircetter6solutionaupresdes internationales ins t anc ed e l ' ON U . s 2)

struggle for tino rangatiratanga; to Call on the New ZealandGovernment stopthe sale of Aotearoa and its assetsto foreign multinational companies; Support the five-year Maori Nation Strategyfor by 2005 to be convened Te Kawariki Decolonisation and Te Kotahitangao Aotearoa.



Resolution# 24 participation and Decolonisation grassroots
: Preamble membersto the importanceof grassroots Recognising of properlyin the territorialelections 2001 in Te participate Ao Maohi and further to be awareof what is happening regionally. to: resolves The Conference l) the PCRC ExecutiveBoard to considerour Request come that the official reportofthis conference request English,Frenchand Tahitian. out in three languages, be ChurchofPolynesia requested Thatthe Evangelical to prepare appropriatebible studiesand encourage the theologicalreflectionsto be held accompanying repoft. of dissemination the conference

Kia ora ra.

Resolution# 26 OlympicActions on Aboriginal and IslanderRights
Preamble: in Whereas 1996NFIP Conference Suva,Fiji resolved the peoples ofAustralia to supportthe rightsofthe indigenous landrights andjustice at the time of the 2000Olympics to in Sydney; peoples Australia of the Whereas rights of the indigenous havesincethen beenfurther erodedby Federalgovernment even legislationand changesto institutionalsfructures, to the extentthat the UN Committeefor the Elimination of Racial Discrimination(CERD) has askedthe Australian to explain'; Government 'please Whereasthe Olympic torch will travel on its way to the Ol ympi cs i n S ydney through tw el ve P aci fi c island countries; to: The Conferenceresolves 1. Call on its membersin the twelve Pacific Island countries to organise for the red, black and gold Aboriginalflag to be carriedin parallelwith theOlympic torch: r e to call aftentionto the continuing injusticeswhich face Aboriginalpeoples to be a symbol of Pacific solidaritywith Aboriginal Australia. States of from Guam,Federated Call on the delegates Micronesia,Nauru, Solomon Islands,PapuaNew Guinea, Vanuatu, Samoa,American Samoa,Cook Islands,Tonga,Fiji, and Aotearoa/ New Zealand: and to receivethe flag from the Aboriginal delegation to commit to this action to organisea working group in eachof thesefwelve countries developthe logisticsandthe information to to necessary arrangefor the Aboriginal flag to run in tandem with the Olympic torch as a symbol of solidaritywith Aboriginal struggles.


Resolution# 25 Aotearoa
Preamble: and Sincethe GreatMigration, Maori tribeshaveoccupied contact; ruled overAotearoa,1000yearsbeforeEuropean signedon 28 October of The Declaration Independence andaffirmed state Niu Tireni an independent i 835 declared power and rule of the United Confederation the sovereign of Chiefs; The Treaty of Waitangi signed in 1840 betweenMaori Maoritheir tino chiefsand the British Crown guaranteed rangatiratanga (sovereignty)over their lands,fisheries, forests and treasures; Althoughthe Treatyof Waitangiis toutedasthe "founding documentof the nation", Maori Treaty rights have been since New ZealandGovernments violatedby successive of than2.5millionacres Maoriown less 1841 Forexample, . and Maori fisheryrightshave land (of 66 million acres), Deal; by beenextinguished the illegalSealords poor The Maori Treaty partnerhas high unemployment, healthand socialservices. education, resolves to: This conference l) Support the tangata whenua of Aotearoa in their





Call upon th e P C R C Se c re ta ri a t d e vel op an to informationleafletexplainingthe background the for Olympic action,which can be used by the working groupsin eachofthe fwelve countries, andwhich can be reproduced locally to be handedto the public as the Aboriginal flag passes by.


Resolution# 27 StolenGenerations

Call uponthe PCRC Secretariat supportthe efforts to of the NSW Traditional Ownerswho are calling for theNationalNative Title Tribunal to facilitateandfund the creation a counciloftraditionalownersin NSW of that havedirection and direct sayat all levels in matters relating to the lands for which they are responsible and over which they have traditional rights.

Recognising that the Prime Minister of Australia has for two yearsrefusedto say 'Sorry' as recommended the by Stolen Generations Report; Recognisingthat the Prime Minster,s statementin the Federal Parliament in August 1999 that he ,deeply regretted'the injusticessufferedby Aboriginal peoplesis insufficientin the eyesof Aboriginal communities; The 8'h NFIP Conference calls on its members and a s s oc iat est o w ri te to th e Au s tra l i a n g o v e rnment demanding: r that a full and proper apologybe madeto Australia,s Aboriginalpeoples. o that the recommendationsof the Stolen Generations Reportbe implemented immediately. The Conferenceresolves : to l) Call uponthe PCRC Secretariat give timely updates to regardingthe Australiangovernment's implementation ofthe StolenGenerations Report. Call uponthe PCRCSecretariat continue monitor to to t he im pleme n ta ti o n o f th e D e a th s i n C ustody recommendations and to advise its memberswhen lobbying action is needed.

Action Strategy: This supportmay best be expressed through: a) correspondence the NationalNative Title Tribunal, to supportingthe call for a NSW Traditional Owners council b) a post-cardcampaignto ATSIC on behalf of the Sovereignrights of Traditional Owners that have maintained continualconnection land in which we to ask NFIP/PCRC network to advertisethis campaign aboutthe fundingofsuch a council.

Resolution# 29 GenocideConvention
P reambl e: Recognisingthat the Australian governmenthas signed the Internati onalC onventi on on the preventi on of Genocidebut to date has not passedthe corresponding domesticlegislationto go with the Convention; Recognising that in a recentcasein the FederalCourt of Australia,the judge ruled that a case for genocidein Aboriginal Australia exists,but as there is no domestic law which makes it a crime and chargeableoffense,the judge could only determineto have the caseset aside, The Conference resolves to: l) r Call upon all NFIP members and associates: to lobby their governments question Australian to the governmenton why they signed an international conventi on w hen they have not made t he correspondingdomestic laws to give effect to that convention; to report back through pCRC the responses which thei r governmentsrecei ve from the A ustralian government.


Resolution # 28 Native title in Australia
Preamble: Bearing in mind the two landmarkHigh Court decisions (Mabo 1992 and Wik 1996) which acknowledgedand confirmedthe pre-existingright of TraditionalOwnersin Australiato their land through continualconnectionand maintenance; Concerned thereis a representative that body in New South Wafesundersection202 of the Native Title Act (1993) which is not properly constitutedto adequately represent the voicesof traditionalowners; .

2) Call upon PCRC to preparean information sheetwith the relevantdetailsto enablemembers do this lobbyine. to

Resolution# 30 Re s o lu t io n o n Wa r Re p a ra t io n s f o r t he Chamorro Peopleof Guam

(originally adopted as resolution #29b at the NFIp Understanding that there is a TraditionalOwnersregister Conference) in New South Wales of those who have successfully passed registration' as TraditionalOwnersof land: Preamble: the test Concernedthat the war betweenthe United Statesof The Conferenceresolves to: America and Japanendedover 44 years ago
Page I 54 8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti

)fforts rg for

'fSW, atters sible

the Whereas Chamorrosof Guahan(Guam)who were not even citizens of the United Statesof America suffered were enslaved,deprived of their ffeedom horrendously. withoutjust compensation; and Japansigneda Bearingin mind that the United States Treatyin 1950; Peace Cons i d e ri n g th a t th e T re a ty a b s o l ved Japan of i ts for the obligationto compensate Chamorros their pain and by duringtheir occupation Japan; experienced suffering

medicaland other archives,so that the truth and light can shine on the thirty years of Frenchnucleartests Atolls. on Moruroa and Fangataufa 5) Atolls as "storage ConsiderMoruroa and Fangataufa sitesfor radioactiveand high level wastes",basedon principle used for Frenchnuclear the precautionary installations.

Pr6ambule: qui d A I'occasion sa 8emeConf6rence s'estderoulde de dite Frangaise) Ao Papaoa-Arue-Te Maohi (Polyndsie ;

nal, ners the ave we

Recognisingthat the Chamorrosare the victims of both Reconnaissant celle-ci est la premiCre du conference que of Japanandthe United States America during World War NFIP qui setient dansune colonie frangaiSe Pacifique, du II and ofsubsequentactionsby both countriesthereafter. ddcidede : La Conference to: The Conferenceresolves total et actif ir son soutieninddfectible, 1) De renouveler of i) Insistthat the United States America and Japando la lutte du peupleMaohi, peuple indigdnede Te Ao what is legally right andjust for the Chamorropeople Maohi (P ol ynesi e di te Franca ise) pour la ofGuam. d6col oni sati on pol i ti que, i nst it ut ionnelle, 2) Endorse that this War Reparationsissue for the Chamorrosof Guahanbe included in the PCRC's to address the United Nations GeneralAssembly. de socialeet culturelleet l'accession Te 6conomique, Ao Maohi qui regroupe I'archipel des Iles Sous le Vent et des Iles du Vent, I'Archipel des Tuamotu Gambier,l'Archipel des Iles Australeset des Iles et Marquises,d son independence sa souverainet6 pleineet entidre. 2) en De tout mettreen ceuvre faveur de la r6inscription dite fiangaise)sur la liste de Te Ao Maohi (Polyndsie de despaysd decoloniser l'ONU. D ' appel er toutes l es organi sations polit iques, et cult ur elles soci al es, economi ques, rel i gi euses, d i nt er nat ionales regi onal eset envi ronmental es des inst ances souteni r cette resol uti on auprds de comp6tentes I'ONU. D'insister auprdsde I'Etat Frangaisen faveur de I'ouverture des archives militaires, scientifiques, soient que et af,tn la vdritdet la lumiere mddicales autres nucldaires d'experimentation faitesur lestrenteanndes frangaises les atolls de Moruroa et Fangataufa. sur De considererles atolls de Moruroa et Fangataufa comme de veritablessites de stockagede "dechets radioactifs2rhauteactivitd et d longuevie" en vertu de li6 du principede pr6caution aux installations bases nucl6aires.



Resolution# 31 Te Ao Maohi (French Polynesia)
(originally adopted as resolution #29c at the NFIP Conference) P r ea m b l e : takingplaceat NFIP Conference of On the occasion the 8'h ("French"Polynesia); Arue in Te Ao Maohi Papaoa, to Recognisingthat this is the first NFIP Conference be held in a FrenchPacificcolony, 4) to: The ConferenceResolves for 1) Renewits completeand activesupport the struggle people Te Ao of the of the Maohi people, indigenous pol i ti cal , M a o h i (" F re n c h " Po l y n e s i a ),for thei r e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , c u l tu ra l and governmental to and the accession independence decolonisation, for andfull sovereignty Te Ao Maohi,which comprises 5'r th e L e e w a rd Is l a n d s ,th e Wi n dw ard Isl ands,the So c i e ty Is l a n d s ,th e Ma rq u i s esIsl ands,and the islands. Tuamotu-Gambier 2) of Campaignin favour of the reinscription Te Ao ("French" Polynesia) the United Nations on Maohi territories. list of non-self-governing

rf n c


cultural social, economic, 3) Call on all political,religious, at and environmentalorganisations, regional and this resolutionbefore internationallevel, to support the relevantUnitedNationsbodies. 4) openall military,scientific, lnsistthatthe FrenchState
8th Nuclear Free ctnd Independent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahitr Page 155

Themethree: Demilitarisation
Resolution# 32 Japanese Militarism
Preamble: We the 8'hNFIP Conference feel a strong and present danger, following the adoption of a seriesof laws on the newJapan-US Defence Guidelines. Theseinclude: a)

Raiseawareness with the peopleof Kwajalein about the negative effectsof the Missile Rangetest on their environment and livelihood. Raiseawareness aboutthelinkagesbetweenKwajalein and the development the TheatreMissile Defense of System(TMDS) by the US with its allies, Taiwan, Japan, Korea. 4) Showsolidaritywith the peopleof Kauai,Niihau, and the PacificMissile Rangein Ka Pae'aina and their oppositionto all aspects TMD testing. of Insiston the US government and military to abandon programsfor the development a National Missile of Defence System, suchsystems breach Antias will the Ballistic Missile Treatysignedwith the former Soviet U ni on. Work with partnersin Asia to opposedevelopment and deployment ofTheatreMissile DefenceSystems.

T} Cc in th tr( :)

It f(


t Supponmeasures the U.S military by JapanSelffor 5) DefenseForces in areassurroundingJapan. b) The amendmentof the SDF law to allow Japan Maritime Self DefenceForceshipsto rescue Japanese nationalsabroad. c) The Japanese U.S Acquisition andCross-Servicing (ACSA) Agreement 6) We believe these laws are intended to support the reemergence Japanas a military force capableof waging of war in the Pacific. The Conferenceresolves to: l) Insist that the Governmentof Japanre-examine the above policies as soon as possibleand return to its former position of being a country that follows its own Constitution and continuesto be a country contributingto peaceon nationaland global levels. 2) Co-operatewith groups in Japan to publicise and opposetheselaws.

Resolution# 34 Johnston Atoll Chemical Agents Disposal System(JACADS)
Preamble: Recognising that the JohnstonAtoll Chemical Agents DisposalSystem (JACADS) is working toward its closure by the end ofthe year2001;

Resolution# 33 Kwajalein

Concerned over how the contaminated wastewill be treated before it is disposed, and how the plant, the incinerators, and the smokestacks, will be decommissioned; Aware that there are continuing pressures ffom Europe, Asia and the United States ship chemicalweapons to to the Pacificfacilityfor disposal;

Recognising KwajaleinMissile Baseis a key reason that for the ongoing US strategicinterest in the Marshall The Conferenceresolves to: Is lands ; 1) Reaffirm our demand for the complete closure of JACADS Noting the l5-Year Compactof FreeAssociationbetween the UnitedStates the MarshallIslands up for renewal and is 2) Call on the US authorities allow NGO oversightfor to in 2001,with negotiations commencing October1999. in the decommissioning process. Under the Compact,Washington has responsibility for defence security, returnforthe rightto denystrategic and in Resolution# 35 access other countries; to Noting that while the Marshall Islandscan negotiate on i ss ues s uc h as a i d , tra d e a n d c o mme rc e , the U S Governmentcan unilaterally extend the leaseson the Kwajaleinmissilerangefor another15years. The Conference resolves : to l) Work towardsthe completeclose down of the US Army KwajaleinAtoll Missile Range in Kwajalein Atoll and conveftthe facilitv to productive civilian us e.

Second Revolutionto Demilitarisethe Pacific Region.

Preamble: It is seen thatmilitarismis on the rise in the Pacifictoday. This is evidentin the situationin Bougainville,EastTirnor, WestPapua, Vanuatu andthe SolomonIslands(in the case of MalaitaandGuadalcanal). integrated An effort is needed to pushthe issue denuclearisation demilitarisation of and back onto the potitical agendaand start up a second revolutionto denuclearise demilitarise Pacific. and the

Pape I 56



to: The Conferenceresolves Conduct a study into the current stateof military affairs lt states is believed of the including militarybudgets island t hat t he in c re a s e si n th e m i l i ta ry b u d g etsw i l l have to impacton the budgetallocation the Social tremendous welfare. healthand social in Services education, that there shouldbe a study done on the It is proposed f ollowingi s s u e s : a) b) of The currentstate militaryaffairs; The military budgetsof the Pacificlslandcountries artniesor of regardless whetherthey have standing not .

up to

,l92 arms. thermonuclear of these

on Americansubmarines patrol in the Atlanticcarry Today, and the US navy is addingthem to the the small warheads Pacificfleet. to The Conferenceresolves : 1) C ondemnthe depl oyment of the W -88 nuclear w eapon. 2) callingfor a ban on the Lobby the U.S. government (with letters President Clinton,Defense to deployment and CINCPAC Admiral William Cohen, Secretary Blair) Dennis at of Lobbyheads govemment theOctober1999South Meeting PacificForum Notifl, andinformNFIP affiliates of further stages this Pacific deployment. Research Protest futureU.S.Navy port visits. at



Resolution# 36 Fiji Christmas Island Veterans


5) Preamble: about the ongoinghealthand environmental Concerned 6) Islandand testingat Christmas of impacts Britishnuclear i M aldenI s l a n d n 1 9 5 7 5 8 , of the Recognising completion the PCRCbookKirisimasi, of the which documents testimonies the Fijian army and lsland. who servedon Christmas navy personnel

Themefour: NFIP Activities
Resolution# 38 StrengtheningTies with'USA / Canada
P reambl e: that many issuesin the Pacific are relatedto Recognising globally; similarissues

to: The Conferenceresolves for l) To follow up the court casefor compensation the Chr is tma sIs l a n d v e te ra n sa t Eu ro peanC ourt of HumanRights. 2)

with otherNGOs in theUK, To work in collaboration New ZealandandEurope(e.g.ECSIEPandthe British R ecogni si ngthat many mul ti nati onal cor por at ions Nuclear Test VeteransAssociation)in awareness operatingin our regionhavetheir parentcompanyoutside raisingactivities. the region; and gaining to To continue work towardrecognition from the Britishgovernment. compensation Bearing in mind that multinationalcorporatepower can most effectively be counteredby multinationalNGO mobi l i sati on; the that Considering NGOs outside Pacificregionmayhave that and other resources could be information strategies, organi zati ons: hel pful N FIPmember to to The Conferenceresolves : l. NGOsoutside greater linkswith progressive Establish particularly Region5 (USA / Canada). in the Pacific,


Resolution# 37 Opposition to the deployment of the new Warhead 88 to the PacificOcean
P r eam bl e : to continued evolve,andby all accounts, Nuclearwarheads with theW88,oneof the in the 1980s theapexwasreached in the Americanarsenal mostdeadlyweapons

activities andmobilization actions solidarity first went to sea a 2. Endorse The warhead.made for submarines, in consultation in conducted Region5 which aredone powerfulfor its smallsize ago and is considered decade w i thN Fl P organi zati ons. can fit atopthe TridentD-5 missile, At leasteight W-88s which is less than sevenfeet wide. Since Trident subs i nform at ion wit h can havemore than24missiles a singlesubmarine carry 3. P rornotegreater exchange of in progressi veN GOs regi on5.
8th Nuclear Free and Independent I'acific (.'onference Arue' Tahiti Page I 57

Resolution# 39 Resolutionon the priorities of the NFIP/PCRC


Promote Pacific News Bulletin in their country (to educationalinstitutions, governmentdepartments, NGOs and other relevantgroups). P l ace adverti sements the magazi nein t heir for newsletters and magazines. S end i nformati onabout thei r organi sati on o be t profiled in Pacific News Bulletin and the PCRC website. Encourageyoung people to contribuLe Pacific to News Bulletin.

Preamble: Rec alling t h a t th e N F IP Mo v e m e n t w a s ori gi nal l y established with the mandate campaign a nuclear to for flee Pacificzone, independence colonised of territories, land rightsand dernilitarisation, 8'hNuclearFreeand 4) the Independent Pacifi Conference: c Reaffirmsits commitment theseareas the main thrust to as of theNFIP,andstronglycallson the ExecutiveBoardand the PCRC to ensurethat theseareasare given priority attentionin the implementation its three-year of work program.


Call on the Pacific Concerns Resource Centreto: Translatekey articles from Pacific News Bulletin ufto French or other relevant languages, with the longterm aim of publishinga French language edition of Pacific News Bulletin. Link the PCRC Websiteto other NFIP members' w ebsi tes. Promotetraining in email and website construction forNFIP members. Develop alternativehistoriesof the Pacific to be publishedin Pacific NewsBulletin and otherformats.

O The Conference resolves to: i) Requestthe Secretariat identif past Conference to resolutionson decolonisation that have not been implemented, havethemmergedwith the 8,h and NFIP Conference resolutions and have them includedin l) their appropriate Planof Action.

2) Request PCRC Executive the Boardto prioritise the
plansof actionto enablethe secretariat focuson to t hes e m a j o r a re a s o f c o n c e rn to th e N FIP , and streamlinePCRC program areasso as not to create overlapping with otherregionalorganisations.



3) Requestthe PCRC Executive Board to upgradethe
administrative capabilities allowthe Directormore to time for national, regionaland international campaigns and negotiations thesemajor areas on ofconcern. 4) Closelymonitor the decolonisation process East in Timor, West Papua,Te Ao Maohi, Rapa Nui, Ka P ae' aina , u g a i n v i l l ea n d Ka n a k y a n d submi t a Bo progress repoft to the next Conference. Mandate NFIP / PCRCto expand the and include the "Campaign Economic for ControlandIndependence" asa key to completing process a truly sovereign a for nat ion.

l0) Seekextrafundingto coverthe costsof improvements to Pacific News Bulletin.

Resolution# 41 Revolution Youth for NFIP Movement
(ori gi nal l y adopted as resol uti on #45 at the NFI p Conference) Preamble: We, the youth of the 8'hNFIP Conferencein Arue, Tahiti, Te Ao Maohi, Recallingthe resolutions were adoptedin the TthNFIp that Conference Suva, in Fiji, 1996- in particular:


Resolution# 40 Pacific News Bulletin
P r eam ble: Acknowledging importance the NFIP Movement's the of monthly magazinePaci/ic New.g Bulletin. as a meansof informingand mobilisingthe peoples the Pacificand of supporters the movement. of The Conferenceresolves : to Callon NFIP members to: 1) Sendarticlesandinformationto PCRC forusein Pacific News Bulletin.
8th Nuclear

NFIP to be called:"Revolution: Youth for a Nuclear Freeand Independent Pacific"; at leastone youth personwith their delegationeither as a delegate an observer"; or conferences a YouthCaucusaswell asthe time for for the caucus report back to the GeneralAssembly"; to Making it known that we are extremelydisappointed with the lackof actiontakento implementthe aboveresolutions; Bearingin mind the importance youth for the continuity of of the struggleof the NFIP Movement;

Page I 58

Free and Indeoendent

y (to rents,


The Conferenceresolves to: l) Request that the PCRC/ NFIp Executive Boardand the Director considerthe establishment a youth of desk,whoseobjectives to: are r

and Pro-Democracy Movementin Tongafor a more open government based on the pri nci pl es of equit y, accountabilityand fairness;

,be RC

. .



. to

. .



The Conferenceresolves : to Protect and promote customaryand cultural values 1) Lobby relevant Governmentorganisations the in and identity as youth of the pacific; regi on and other Internati onal H um an Right s Promote networkingof youth groups betweenthe Organisations, recognizeand supportthe Tongan to differentregions; Human Rights and pro-Democracy Movement,s Promote, educateand raise awareness Health on proposal to the Tongan Government to conduct a issues particularly HIV/AIDS and substance abuse; Referendum the issue:.,Should on the peopleelect Promotealternativeforms of educationand provide the membersof parliament including the nobles training and learning programsto pacific youth on representative all the government and members?,, Indigenous History; Facilitatediscussion debate and amongpacific youth 2) Supportthe disseminationof all ielevant materials on cultural valuesand human rights; relatingto the proposedReferendum throughoutthe EncouragePacific youth to be more pro_activeon Pacific region. environmental issues, Lobby, assistand promotethe creationof alternative 3) S upport the Tongan H uman R i ghts and pr o_ forms of employment that will reducerelianceand Democracy Movement,s proposalfor the government dep e n d e n c y to set up a Constitutional Review Commissionto review our constitutionaiming at giving the people We demandthat all delegations bring at leastone their Rightsto electour leaders and for our Monarch young person,either as a delegate an observer, or to to remainthe Ceremonial figure and Headof State. all futureNFIP Conferences. The conference resolves schedule to atime at allNFIp Conferences a Youth Caucusas well as the time for for the Caucus reportbackto the General to Assembly. 4) That the Tonga Human Rights and pro-Democracy Movement,with the supportof pCRC / NFIp, lobby relevant Governmentofficials through information exchanges and visits to countriesand /or to the next SouthPacificForummeetins.



The Conferencerequests ExecutiveBoard, in its the consideration ofthe structure ofthe ExecutiveBoard, to consider appointment the oftwo (2) youth delegates onto the Board. (This issue is to be discussedat the Resolution# 43 on level of the regions to discuss the make_upof the Resolution health: HIV/AIDS (ori gi nal l y adopted as resol uti on #45 at t he NFI p Board, with the involvement of Womenand youth.) Conference)

Themefive:, Human Rights and Good Governance

Focusing Maire Bopp Du pont,sinspiringspeech, on the 8'h NFIP Conference: 1) Recognised that HIV-AIDS is on the rampagein the P aci fi c, w i th French-occupi ed ynesia, New pol papuaNew Guinea Caledonia, Guamand havingthe highestreportedratesofinfection per capita.

Resolution# 42 Tongan Human Rights and pro-Democracy 2) Notesthat treatmentfor HIV-AIDS is not affordable Movement
Preamble: or accessible, denialoftreatmentfor any reason but is a violation of humanrights - newesttherapies should be available all. to

Drawing attention to the resolution on the Tonga pro_ Democracy Movementadopted the 7,h at NFIp Conference 3) Notes that Pacificchurches are an obstacle Fiii. in in Suva,1996; wheresocialconditions enforcesilence HIV-AIDS on aw areness and preventi on programs , while t he Recallingthe need to lobby relevantnon-governmental SolomonIslands Vanuatu and haveprograms train that organisations our Pacific countriesto recognise in the health workers prevent to STD'sandHIV-AIDS. Samoa TonganHuman Rights and pro-DemocracyMovement's and Niue have church participationin HIV_AIDS struggle and to pray for it: preventlon programs. Recognising struggleof the TonganHuman Rights the 4) W el comes w i th approval a recentl y launched
.t,ahiti Page 159

8th Nuclear Free and Independent pacrfic Coi1"rrn"", *"e,

publication Suva,Fiji, called"Up Front",theresult in of f iv e UNAID S / P IN A (P a c i fi c Is l a n dsN ew s Association) workshopson theseissues. The conferenceresolves : to programson HIV/ l) Lobby governments strengthen to AIDS and for access suchprograms. to

Resolution# 45 Human and IndigenousRights for Rapa and Morotori
(originally adopted as resolution #29a at the NFIP Conference)

between King Parima,from the lslandState 2) Reinforce recognise all NGOs and churches A Declaration and that can play an activerole in awareness building. ThatthePCRCExecutive Boardconsiders creation the of a HealthDeskwith two primary aims : programs a) Financeawareness to b) Lobby governments enact a policy of enabling young people to have ffee accessto an HIV-AIDS checkup. of Rapaandthe FrenchCommandant Chesse was signed7 May l 88l ; Under threatof Military retaliation,King Parima signed the Declarationbut urgedthe Frenchto allow them Selfgovernment undercustomarylaw ; The 1996petitionorganised the'OPARO PARURU IA by R A P A ' organi sati on cal l ed for the recogni ti on of Indigenousland rights and all natural resourcesof the Islandsof Rapaand Morotiri ; All RapaandMorotiri recordsareheld in the FrenchNaly Archives, The Conferenceresolves : to l) Call for an independent investigation the colonial on history of Rapaand Morotiri Lobby for the restorationof Self-Government over Rapaand Morotiri Present Declarationof Rapato the UN Working the Group on Indigenous Populations'Rapporteur the of U N S tudy on Treati es, A greements and ot her Constructive Arrangements between States and Indigenous Populations.

Resolution# 44 Solidarity with Vieques,Puerto Rico
The 8'hNuclear Free and lndependent Pacific Movement conference endorsesa call for a letter in support and solidarityto the people of Vieques,PuertoRico flom the NFIP affiliates.(draft letter and backgroundinformation provided below) COMITE PRORESCAIE Y DESAROLLODE VIEQUES (Committeefor the Rescue and Development Vieques) of Apartado1424Vieques, Puerto Rico00165(1 \l 41-865 81 1 Email bieke(Oc<,lq : i.net Lr DearFriends, Orana Ia Fromthe shores Arue, Tahiti-Nui,Te Ao Maohi we send of our warmestgreetingsand message solidarity. of



As PacificIslandnations, know how precious we landand Resolution# 46 our fiagile ocean resourcesare. We believe the United HumanRights States ofAmerica,in particular U.SNaly, hascommitted (ori gi nal l y adopted as resol uti on #49 at the N FI P the a gr eat c r im e e n g a g i n g i n th e d e s tru c ti on and Conference) contamination your Land and Oceansby continuous of bombingfor over 50 years. Preamble The 8'hNFIP Conference Arue, Tahiti endorses in human We standin solidaritywith your commitment call for to rights work as a priority for the NFIP Movement, to complete withdrawalof US Naval Forces from Vieques and highlightthe integrityand dignity of the humanperson. thetransfer lands the people Vieques, of to of Puerto Rico. We believethat humanrights involve not just individual Further call uponthe UnitedStates we to: Government civil and politicalrights,but also the collectiverightsof Pacific peoples. Our work on humanrights must focus on Immediately end all military operations the island our economic,social and cultural rights, from a Pacific on of Vieques,PuertoRico perspective, especiallythe right to self-determination as Clearordnance and removehazardous substances and indigenous peoples. and colonised material. otherwaste Desistfiom any repressive people The Conferenceresolves measures against to: of Vieques, which includes Fishermen theirfamilies In co-operationwith NFIP affiliates, the PCRC Human and (Mount David) presently occupying the Eastend of RightsandGood Governance deskshouldwork on a range Vieoues. of humanrightsissues, including:
Page I 60 8th Nuclear Free and lndependent Pacfic Conference, Arue, Tahiti

r . r r o . r . r r o . r

Rights over indigenousknowledgeand science Treat! rights and sovereigntyissues Nat iv e ti tl e ri g h ts o f i n d i g e n o u s peopl es and customary landowners Women'srights as Human Rights The rightsofyoung peopleand children and opening to The right to know: access information, colonialandmilitaryarchives Media freedom to Use of courts,mediaand othertribunals publicise of breaches human rights Governmentaccountabilityand transparency NGOs, unions) The right to organise(as churches, Health and human rights Legal literacy and human rights training for NFIP members Liaison with other human rights groups(including the proposedPacific Centreon Human Rights)

to of the Pacific. Regionalcooperationis a pre-requisite the bargainingpower of the Pacific statesin strengthen trade negotiations. international Indigenousknowledge and intellectual property should be protected against foreign patenting and should be exploitedin such a mannerthat the rightful economically and ownersof this knowledgebe equitably compensated their knowledgeprotected. to The Conferenceresolves : l) the Strengthen capacityofour Pacific peoplesin order for us to make informed choiceson the sustainable utilisationof our limited resources. the Strengthen capacityof Pacific peoplesand their networksto further elaborateon the principles of a this and Pacificregionalintegration to advocate vision intemational in the relevantnational, regional, and fora. ofour Pacificregionto supportlocal Urge the peoples industriesand locally made products. Lobby and advocate for the protect ion of all knowledgeand intellectualproperfy. indigenous Consider the long term goal of having a common currency. of the Strengthen capacities NGOs and other groups their towards informationtechnology to utilisemodern ic empowerment. own econom to Urgethe PCRCSecretariat providetrainingcourses empowerment. on economic


of the welcomes establishment a The 8rHNFIP Conference Rights and Governancedesk within the PCRC Human Secretariat. Boardto prioritisethe We urgethe PCRC/ NFIP Executive of a staff member for this desk as soon as recruitment pos s ible.




Themesix: Human Development Sustainable
Resolution# 47 Globalisation and our Pacific Alternatives.
Preamble: Globalisationand trade liberalisationbasedon WTO principleshavea greatimpact on the openand vulnerable of economies the Pacific Islandcountries.



8) Clarify the legal status of the French Occupied Terri tori es w i th regards to the W or ld Tr ade Organisation.

The 8'hNFIP conferencefearsthat only a few will profit to 9) Urge PacificGovernments take into consideration from globalisationand free tradewhilst the largemajority of consequences liberal economicpolicies the social and left with of Pacific peopleswill be impoverished as promotedby the Bretton Woods Institutions. stolen knowledgeand suppressed depletedresources, cultural values. 10) Call on NGOs and other relevantbodiesto continue economibmodelspertinentto to look into alternative We Land is the basis of Pacific culturesand economies. of social structures the Pacific communities. the should look after our land at all coststhusthe indigenous ec onom i c v a l u e o f l a n d s h o u l d b e th e basi s of any Resolution# 48 development. economic

Lom6 Convention

and manufacturing includingagriculture, Local economies, and be the basis of services should be strengthened in economicdevelopment Pacific.

(ori gi nal l y adopted as resol uti on #13 at t he NFI P Conference) Preamble:

unique to the Pacific should be identified Consideringthat the Lome Conventionis the main trade The resources betweenthe EuropeanUnion (EU) use and aid arrangement the and exploitedin a way that guarantees sustainable Pacific; to of these resources the presentand future generations and the

Recognising role of PacificNGOs and other Pacific the civil societyorganisations the grassroots in development R ecogni si ng the successful campai gnto programs; nucleartestingat Moruroa and Fangataufa


Emphasising increasing the importance thecontribution Paying of our deepest respect the many peopleof Te Ao to of PacificNGOs and othercivil societyorganisations in Maohi andaroundthe world who havefoughtand suffered Pacific policymakingspheres; nation's to achieve this end; Mindful of the role played by the joint programof the Pa c if ic Conc er n sR e s o u rc eC e n tre (P C R C ) a nd the European (ECSIEP)on the Lomd Centre Pacific Issues on Convention since1997in the followingareas: . Raisingthe generalawareness Pacific NGOs and of ot her c iv il s o c i e ty o rg a n i s a ti o n so n th e Lomd Convention and it's meaningfor the pacific; S uc c es s f ullye x p l o ri n g w i th Pa c i fi c N GO s the opportunities Pacific NGO participationin the of implementation the National Indicativeprograms; of Enhancingthe participationof Pacific NGOs in the policy discussion futureEU-ACP cooperation; on and Strengthening role of Pacificcivil societyin future the E U - P ac if ic o o p e ra ti o n . c Knowing in our heartsthat the end of testing has not meantan endto the healthand environmental hazards that remainat Moruroa and Fangataufa; Cerlain thatstudies suchasthe 1998IAEA reportareflawed and do not analyzeall aspects nuclearhazardswhich of remain; The Conferenceresolves that: i) The NFIP Movement will provide ongoing support and solidarityto the people of Te Ao Maohi to deal with the legacies thirfy yearsof nucleartesting. of


. .

2) The FrenchMinister of Statemust open all military,
medical, scientific and otherarchives independent to researchers and scientists, allow researchof the to nucleartestingera and its radioactiveaftermath. We call on the internationalagenciesto conduct comprehensive, independent and multidisciplinary studies into the nuclear era and the radioactive Iegacies Moruroa and Fangataufa, at including: Ongoingmonitoring the atolls; of Epidemiological studies the relationship on between the testsand the ratesofcancer and other diseases in Te Ao Maohi; Ongoinghealthstudies and monitoringof all military and civilian personnel who staffedthe sitesand their families; Geological and oceanographic studiesof the atolls, to monitortherelease radioactive of isotopes released (through endo-upswelling) through fissuresand the dispersal ofplutoniumfrom the lagoons.

The Conferenceresolves : to Havethe PCRC,ECSIEPandtheirnetworkscontinue their work on the Lomd Convention developing follow-up by a program the PCRC/ ECSIEP joint programon the Lom6 to Convention,whoseobjectivesare to: a) Monitor currentdevelopment policiesof the pacific I s lands nat io n s , i n p a rti c u l a rw i th re g a rd to the EuropeanUnion and the areas trade,the impactof of globalisation therole of civil society thefuture and in Pacifi c-EU cooperation.


b) Advocate the inclusion the Pacificcivil society for of in the future ACP-EU cooperation theareaofpolicy in dev elopm ent ,p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e me n ta ti onof development programs. c) I ns t it ut ionali s e th e p ro c e s s o f D e c e n tra l i sed Cooperationin the framework of the EU-Pacific cooperation. Renewthe call for the inclusion all pacific Island of countries into the ACP sroup.


e) Call f or t he I n c l u s i o n o f th e F re n c h Oc c uni ed Territories the ACP group. in



4) we call on the government Franceto fulfilt all its of moralandlegalresponsibilities For cleanup and rehabilitation ofthe sites For immediateand concretesupportfor the military personneland Maohi workers at the sites and their families who aresuffering from illness disease. or For compensation those affectedby the tests to For economic reparations the social,cultural, for and economic imbalances caused the nuclear by economy We will maintain our solidarity and support for the churches, political parties,NGOs, those who have beenimprisoned afterthe 1995eventsand customary landowners theseissues Te Ao Maohi. on in This Conference urgesthe Frenchto recognise the "colonial fact" during the nuclearera ofthirty years.


Resolution# 49 Moruroa and Fangataufa
(ori ginally adopt e d a s re s o l u ti o n # 4 7 a t th e N FIp Conference)

lch \o ed

thanksto: our E,xpress deepest o hosts The leader and membersof the conference TaviniHuiraatira no TeAo Maohi and membersof the Arue parish deacons The Pastor, of the Eglise Evangdlique de la Polyndsie Franqaise The Eglise Evangdliquede la PolyndsieFranqaise, facilities for useofthe conference trade churches, of The members all politicalparties, unions and community organisationsfrom Te Ao Maohi who have participatedin the conferenceand welcomedus to their country. secretariat The staffofthe conference musicians,joke security, The drivers,cooks,cleaners, tellersand allthosewho havelaboredso hardto make this conferencea resoundingsuccess.

# Resolution 50 AppreciationResolution
r Preamble: to made theNFIP contribution the Recognising invaluable during the past 12 yearsunderthe leadership o movement of LopetiSenituli; the Respecting decisionhe has made to be given leave fromhispositionasfull time PCRCDirector; beforehis contract that Realising this is the lastConference as expires Directorof PCRC; to: The Conferenceresolves RecogniseLopeti Senituli as a living legend within the NFIP,the Pacificregionand internationally' appreciationto Convey its heart felt and immeasurable patience'sacrifice, Lopeti's leadership,commitment, nurturing and guidance to the people and governments in and organisation the region. .

ot at

d n

r o

Resolution# 52 9thNFIP Conference

Preamble: the to Call on Lopeti Senitulito be available assist NFIP of the Recognising importance uniting all NFIP members which would needhis expertise and other organisations at the triennialNFIP Conferences, in andremainasNFIP Ambassador his futuredeliberation.

Resolution# 51 Thanks to hosts
(originally adopted as resolution#41 at IIFIP Conference) Preamble: in NFIP Conference Arue,Tahiti ofthe 8'h Wethe delegates wish to expressour profound thanksto our hosts at this held in a historic conference the first NFIP conference Frenchcolony in the Pacific. to: The Conferenceresolves

Taking leaveof our gracioushostsin Te Ao Maohi for the NFIP Conference 8th to: The Conferenceresolves from Tonga Acceptwith thanksthe offer of the delegation in the year 2002. to hostthe 9'hNFIP Conference the Encourages PCRC ExecutiveBoard and Secretariatto liaise with NFIP membersto organisethe conferencein Tonga, with Vanuatuand the Cook Islands as fall-back options.

Above. Secretariat staff M i t o u B o u d r n a n d Om e i T o r a n g i Right: PCRC conference staff: F i p e T u i t u b o u , S o p h ie Ra n a d i, St a n l e yS i m p s o n ,L ose n aSa la b u la and Alfred Jack. Be l o w . E n d i n g m o r e th a n twe lve years service with PCRC D i r e c t o r L o p e t i S e nitu li with A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r ( Pa cific Ne ws B u l l e t i n ) E l l e n Wh ela n .

PCRC / NFIP ExecutiveBoard
overall management The pCRC / NFIP ExecutiveBoard is responsiblefor policy, staffing and were held in September of pCRC and the Movement.Electionsfor a new ExecutiveBoard members of the PCRC lggg,at the time of the g,hNFIP conference in Arue, Tahiti. The new whom they replace: ExecutiveBoard are listed,followed by membersof the old ExecutiveBoard
Sione Teisina Fuko (Tonga) a member of the Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement. Teisina servesas Chairpersonof the Board (reelected). Rights(OPIR) in Guahan,and is activein the Indigenous He Chamorromovementfor self-determination. replaces Annie de Brum (MarshallIslands).

Priscilla Settee (First Nations, Canada) involved Canada, an activistand scholarfrom Saskatoon, Nui Ben Teriitehau (Te Ao Maohi) indigenous rights and against uranium activist with the political party in campaignsfor a leading independence (reelected)' mining. (re-elected). Polynesia in TaviniHuiraatira French-occupied Kali Vatoko (Vanuatu) Churchin Generalofthe Presbyterian Kali is the Secretary asChairpersonofthe VanuatuAlliance Vanuatu,and serves (VANGO)' He replaces Organisations ofNon-Government Islands)' (Solomon Baeanisia Abraham Hugo Teave (RaPa Nui) Hugo is a memberof Koro Huate in RapaNui (EasterIsland) Kihei Soli Niheu (Ka Pae'aina),a leaderin the and replaces movement. HawaiiansovereigntY

Hidemichi Kano (JaPan) activist in Japanand a memberof Hide is a disarmament Rex Rumakiek (West PaPua) He replaces Corazon Fabros (Philippines), Organisasi Gensuikin. representingthe Rex is a longtimeNFIP activist, Generalofthe NuclearFreePhilippinesCoalition' in Ausffalia, andreplaces Secretary PapuaMerdeka.Rex lives in exile Ceu Brites (East Timor), who returnedto Timor Lorosae Molesi Taumaoe (Samoa) fiom exile in Australiaafterthe 30 August 1999vote' Molesi is a journalist and board member of the Samoan environmentorganisationO Le Siosiomaga(replacing Marcia CassidY (Aotearoa) Maeva,Cook Islands). Vereara Marcia is an activist in the Maori movementin Aotearoa/ She Crossroads' and a memberof Freedom New Zealand Lorine Chan Tevi (Fiji) JennyMunro (Aboriginal Australia)' replaces of Lorine Tevi, formerly the GeneralSecretary the Pacific comesonto the board asex-officio of Conference Churches, RufoLujan (Guam) Uluiviti (Fiji)' Adi Asenaca replacing Secretary, Rufo is a member of the Organisationof People for

senituli; Lopeti revi);o*q:1lc (Fiji (cuam); Jonebakuvula --proxyfor Lonne Rufor_ujan ar standing rear: 1:l:,?::Y:t Fuko (Tonga)
Teisina Hugo Teave ittapanui); Hidemichi Kano (Japan); Board chairperson priscilla s.tt.. (ii,tt Nations, Canada); Rex Rumakiek (west Papua); Molesi Taumaoe (Samoa); centr-e, Standing, Motarilavoa Hilda Lini; Kale Vatoko (Vanuatu). Nui Ben Teriitehau (l.e Ao Maohi); incoming PCRC Director (P C R C staffl , Marci a C assi dy(Aotearoa) Kn e e lin g: Fi pe Tui tubou

First meeting of the incoming PCRC / NFIP Executive Board:

Page 165

Delegates and observers at the 8th NFIP Conference
Mr. Louis Kotra UREGEI - Union Syndicaledes TravailleursKanak et Exploitds (USTKE) Mr. Victor Tutugoro - Front de Libdration Nationale Kanak et Socialiste (FLNKS) Mr.JimmyNAUNAA Pacific Concerns Resource Centre Mr. Armand MAI (Observer) Protection of the Human Rights of the Leeward Islands

Motarilavoa Hilda LINI Mr. Lai SAKITA Nasional Komuniti Developmen Trust (NKDT) Mr. KaIiVATOKO VanuatuA I liance of N on-Government Organisations (VANGO)

Conseil Territorial Des Femmesde l{allis et Futuna Ms. SieneMANOUFIUA Conseil Teruitorial Des Femmes de Wallis et Futuna

Solomon Islands Christian Association 6ICA) Mr. Ian AUJARE DevelopmentServicesExchange (DSE)

Mr. OscaTTEMARU Tavini Huiraatira no TeAo Maohi Mr. Nui Ben TERIITEHAU Tavini Huiraatira. no TeAo Maohi Mr. JamesSALMON Tavini Huiraatira no TeAo Maohi MT,HiToTEMARERE Tavini Huiraatira no TeAo Maohi Mrs. TamaraBOPP DUPONT Tavini Huiraatira no TeAo Maohi PastorRalphTEINAORE Eglise Evangelique de Polyndsie Franqaise Mr. GabrielTETIARAHI Hiti Tau Mr. RolandOLDHAM Hiti Tau Mr. StanleyCROSS Ligue des Droils de I'Homme de Polyndsie - Teturaetara Marie Therese DANIELSSON AnnieCOEROLI A Tia I Mua Mr. Joinville POMARE Pomare Parti Mr. CharlieCHING Tb Taata Tahiti Tiama PastorJacques IHORAI (Observer) Eglise Evangdlique de Polyndsie Franqaise Ms. TeaHIRSCHON (Observer) Tavini Huiraatira no TeAo Maohi Mr. DesireTagaroaTORANGI (Observer) Tavini Huiraatira no TeAo Maohi Mr. Andre MANEA (Observer) Tavini Huiraatira no TeAo Maohi Ms. Roti MAKE (Observer) Mr. Mai TETUA (Observer) Te Tiamaraa O TeNunaa Maohi no Polynesia Mr. GerardVAHINI (Observer) Te Tiamaraa O TeNunaa Maohi no Polynesia Mr. Anthony TOKORAKI (Observer) Te Tiamaraa O TeNunaa Maohi no Polynesia

Melsol Ms. SophiaGEGEYO PNG Council of Churches

Ms.CeuBRITES East TimorReliefAssociation

MT.RexRUMAKIEK Organisasi Papua Merdeka (OPM) Mr. MosesWERROR, Organisasi Papua Merdeka (OPM)

Bougainville Community Based Integrated Humanit arian Pr ogr am (BOCBI H P) Mrs. DoTaTSUIH Bougainville Interchurch l(omen's Forum

Ms. Hilda HALKYARD-HARAWIRA TeReo Oranga O TeMoanq Nui a Kiwa Mr. Cyril TainuiCHAPMAN Te WhareAwhina Ms. MaTciaCASSIDY Freedom Roadworlt

Ms.KathyMALERA-BANDJALAN Ms.MaryMUNRO Ms.KyraKUMSING Mr. LukeNOONAN(observer) Australia llest PapuaAssociation

Mr. Rufo LUJAN Rights Organisation for the Protection of Indigenous Ms.NoTitaCHARFAUROS Nasion Chamoru

Cook Islands Association of Non-Government Organisations Mrs. Manongi LATHAM Cook IslandsAssociationof Non-Government Organisations Mr. Danny MATAROA Cook Islands Associqtion of Non-Government Organisations Mr. TeanauTANPO (observer) ARIKI (observer) PaTepaeru Mrs Maui BRADBURY (observer) Mrs. MadeleineMETCALFE (observer) LITTLE (observer) Mr. Terangi

Ms.TinaTAKASHY Network FSM llomenbAssociation

Ms. PriscillaSETTEE Indigenous Peoples Progtam, University oJ Sakatchewan Ms. Lois STANDING Mr. JackLAKAVICH (Observer) South Pacific PeoPle'sFoundation SI Ms. M ika SETTEE-U SKIN (Observer)

TongaHuman Rights and Democracy Movement VAKAUTA, SisterSenolita National Council of Churches Tonga FUKO Mr. SioneTeisina / NFIP ChairPerson PCRC Mrs. SeketiFUKO (observer) Mrs. LupeSENITULI (observer)

LEON Mr. Joseph N ative America Public Telecommunications Ms. Deb HARRY IndigenousPeople's Coalition Against Biocolinialism Mr RichardENG (Observer)

Mrs. RubYWILLIS Nauru Islands Association of Non-Government Organisations

Mr. KiheiSoliNIFIEU Ka Pakaukau Mr. KekuniBLAISDELL Ka Pakaukau Ms. Teni Keko'olaniRAYMOND Ohana Koa Ms. Miri VIDAL (observer) Ohana Koa Mr. Imai KALAHELE (observer) NaO lw i

Ms. MalelagaTUIOLOSEGA Le Tausagi Mrs Fiasili Puni HALECK Le Tausagi

Mr.ClarkPETERU Mr. MolesiTAUMAOE SocietY O Le Siosiomaga Ese MrsUnasa VAEAU o Mapusaga Aiga

Mr. HugoTEAVE TeKoro Hu'a RaPaNui Mr. JuanCHAVEZHaoa TeKoro Hu'a RaPa Nui

Mrs. Annie HOMASI Tuvalu Association of N on-Government Organisations 0ANGO) Miss SulufaigaIoanaUOTA Fakapotopotaga Fafine (Ekalesia Kelisiano Tuvalu)

Yay Yukar no Mori Ms. Amu KEIRA Yay Yukar no Mori Mr. HidemichiKANO Gensuikin

FUNAKI Ms. Charlene Council of llomen (NCW) Niue Ms. LouisianaFanevaKAKAHEMOANA Niue Council of Women(NCIY)

Ms CoraFABROS Nuclear Free Philippines Coalition

BAITEKE' Mrs.Claire Councilof lilomen) Amak(National

MAEVA Mrs.Vereara

Mr Tebebeku TEIA Kiribati National Council of Churches FIJI Ms. PatrinaDUMARU Fiji llomenb Rights Movement Mr. JoneDAKUVULA Citizens' Constitutional Forum Ms. Josephine TERRY (observer) GreenpeacePacific Mrs. LorineChanTEVI (observer) Mrs. EleniTEVI (observer) Keynote Speakers Mr. ClarkPETERU (Samoa) Dr. CarlyleCORBfN (US Virgin Islands) Dr. Hj alrnar DAHL (Greenland) FataKorosetaTO'O (Samoa) Motarilavoa Hilda LINI (Vanuatu) Ms. Corazon FABROS (philippines) International Observers PastorJohn Taroanui DOOM Executive Secretary - Pacific desk World Council of Churches (WCC - Switzerland) Mr. GeoTgFIENRIKSEN Ms. DianaVINDING Dr. HjalrnerDAHL Ms. BirgitteFEIRING International l(ork Group for indigenous Affairs (IWGIA - Denmark) Ms. Madeleen HELMER Mr. PeterVAN DER VLIES (ECSIEP) European Centrefor Pacific Issues(ECSIEp, the Netherlands) Mr. BemardBARTH Friedrich Ebert Sttftung (FES - papua New Gwneal Ms. DebbieSINGH SIDSnet - United Nations Developmentprogram (Fi) Mr. KaTIROESSEL

RheinischesJournalist Innen Bureau (Germany) Dr. DeboTahROBINSON International Possibilities Untimited ftJSA) Mr. Mahendra KUMAR South Pacific Regional Environment program (SpREp)

SUPPORT STAFF Translation services
Mr.AlanDOYLE International ConferenceServices - technician Ms. DorothyDUFOUR Interpreter - Japanese delegation Mr. PierreRIANT MT.NicMACLELLAN Mr. Phillip SAFFREY French - English translators Mr. Myron MATAAOA French - English - reo Maohi translator

Mr. LopetiSENITULI MT.NicMACLELLAN MT.FeiTEVI Mrs. LosenaSALABULA Mr. AlfredJACK Ms. FipeTUITUBOU Ms. Sophie RANADI Mrs. Ellen WHELAN Ms. Mitou BOUDIN Ms.OmeiTORANGI Mr. GeTaTdTEARIKI Mr. StanleySIMPSON Ms. Maire BOPPdu PONT Specialthanksto the Pastorand parishof Arue for hosting us, and a cast ofhundreds - thank you to all the drivers, musicians, dancers, late nightjoke tellers,healers, cooks, dishwashersand other helpers who provided such hospitalityfor our stay at Arue!

for a Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific
l) We,the peopleof the Pacific want to makeour positionclear.The Pacific is hometo millions of people with distinct cultures,religionsand ways of life, andwe refuseto be abused ignoredany longer; or

2) We,the peopleof the Pacifichavebeenvictimisedtoo long by foreignpowers.The Westernimperialistic
and colonial powersinvadedour defenceless region;they took over landsand subjugated peopleto our their whims. This form of aliencolonialpolitical andmilitary dominationunfortunately persists an evil as cancerin someof our nativeterritoriessuchas Tahiti-Polynesia, Kanaky,Australia and Aotearoa.Our home continuesto be despoiledby foreign powersdevelopingnuclearand other meansof destruction, oppression, and exploitationthat advance strategy a that hasno winners,no liberatorsand imperilsthe survivalof all humankind;

3) We, the peopleof the Pacific will assertourselves wrest control over the destinyof our nationsand and
our environment from foreignpowers,includingTransnational Corporations;

4) We note in particularthe racist roots of the world's nuclearpowers.We are entitled to and we commit
ourselves the creationof a just and equitablesociety; to

5) Our environmentis further threatened the continuingdeploymentof nucleararsenals the so-called by in
strategicareasthroughoutthe Pacific. Only one nuclearsubmarine to be lost at sea,or one nuclear has warheaddumped in our oceanfrom a strickenbomber,and the threat to the fish and our livelihood is endangered centuries. for The erection superports NuclearTestingStations, of and may bring employment but the price is destructionof our customs, way of life, the pollution of our crystalclearwaters,and our bringsthe ever present threatof disaster radio-active by poisoninginto the everydaylife of the peoples;

6) We,the peopleofthe Pacificreaffirm our intentionto extractonly thoseelements Westerncivilisation of
thatwill be a permanent benefitto us. We wish to controlour destinies protectour environment our and in own ways. Our usageof our naturalresources the pastwas morethan adequate ensurethe balance in to betweennatureand humankind.No form of administration shouldever seekto destrovthat balancefor the sakeof a brief commercial gain;

We the peoplesof the Pacific will striveto be politically,economically, and spiritually self-determining. This includes right to secede the from oppressing nations.



CONVINCED that our peoplesand our environmenthavebeenexploitedenoughby superpowers; ASSERTINGthe nuclearpowersin the Pacificareoperating hereagainst will, from territories our administered clairned themascolonies; or by BELIEVING that tlre political and economicself-determination all peoplesis fundamental of to attaininga NuclearFreeand Independent Pacific; BELIEVING that nucleartests in the Pacific and the resultantradiation constitutea threat to the health, livelihoodandsecurity ofthe inhabitants;
8th Nuclear Free and lndependent Pacific Conference, Arue, Tahiti Pase 169

+ IV)


BELIEVING that nucleartestsand missilestestsarethe major meansby which the armaments race maintains momentum: its BELIEVING that the presenceof the nuclear and chemical weapons,nuclear reactors,nuclear poweredvessels,and nuclearwastesin the Pacific endangers lives of the inhabitantsand the the environment; RECOGNISING the urgencyto end the use and manufacture nuclearweapons; of DESIRING to contributetowardsthe endingof the armaments race, and NOTING that a Nuclear FreeZone is not an end in itself but only a step,to total worldwide nuclear disarmament,




including allthat area of the South Pacific boundedby the Tlatelolco (Latin America), Antarctic, Indian Ocean andASEAN zones, and including of Micronesia, all Australia, Philippines, Japan andHawai'i; XD ARTICLE 2: THAT THE PEOPLES AND GOVERNMENTS OF THE PACIFIC WII,L NOT PERMIT ANY OF THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES OR INSTALLATIONS WITHIN THE ZONE:

a) All testsof nuclearexplosive devices includingthosedescribed "peaceful"; as b) All nuclearweapontestfacilities; c) All testsof nuclearweapondeliveryvehicles and systems; d) All storage,transit, development, destructionor any other form of presence nuclear and chemical of weapons land,or aboardships,submarines, aircraftwithin the zone; on and e) All bases carryingout command, control,communication, surveillance, navigation, anyotherfunctions and which aid the performance a nuclearweapondelivery system; of 0 All nuclearpower reactors, excepting very low capacity experimental units,all nuclearpoweredsatellites, surfaceand sub-surface vessels and all transit,storage, release dumpingof radioactivematerial; or


g) Uraniummining,processing transport; and XII) ARTICLE 3: THAT THE PEOPLES AND THE GOVERI\MENTS will withdrawfrom all mutualdefence alliances with nuclear powers; WITHIN THE ZONE


ARTICLE 4: THAT THE PEOPLES AND GOVERNMENTS SIGNATORY TO THE CHARTER willwork to ensurethe withdrawal of colonial powersfrom the Pacific; ARTICLE 5: THAT THE PEOPLES AND GOVERNMENTS SIGNATORY TO THIS CHARTER will meet at intervalsof not more than three yearsto explore ways of extendingthe geograph'ical extentof the zoneand the comprehensiveness the bansenforcedwithin it. of


governments; furnishedwith full powersby the respective plenipotentiaries, l ) The undersigned and to remain free of risks Z) AWARE of the desire of pacific peopleto gain political independence, power, war and nuclear nuclear with nuclearweapons, associated with nuclear associated 3) HAVE AGREED to observeall the prohibitionsand activitiesand installations FREE PACIFIC zone. in war and nuclear power as established the CHARTER FOR A NUCLEAR to to 4) AND HAVE FURTHER AGREED to take immediatesteps grantpolitical independence territories and peopleat presentgovernedby them within that zone'

governments; by with furnished full powers theirrespective plenipotentiaries, 1) Theundersigned 2) FIAVEAGREEDAS FOLLOWS: and with associated nuclearwar nuclear and on all a) TO RESPECT theprohibitions activities installations zones; FORNUCLEARFREEPACIFIC in poweras established the CHARTER within thezone. and of by b) TO pERMIT at anytime inspection representativesgovernments people

n September 1999, people from 28 nations around .the Pacific came together for the 8th in Arue, Tahiti Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific NFIP) Conference. In the shadow of Mount Erima, on the shores of Matavai Bay, over 120 participants discussed issues of decolonisation, demilitarisation and development facing the peoples of the Pacific. he theme of the conference was No Te Parau Tia, No Te Parau Mau, No Te Tiamaraa for justice, truth and years of French independence. The end of thrrty nuclear testing in 1!)96 has not ended the nuclear legacies for the region Thris book collects the testimony of the Maohi people of Te Ao Maohi (French Polynesid on their struggte for self-determination and independence in a nuclear free country. It also includes speeches, presentations and resolutions from people around the vast Pacific region, on issues of: self-determination, sovereigrnty and independence; the new arms race in the Pacific; human rights and good govem;rnce; the impact of globalisation on Pacific island economies; and the need to conserve the environment for our This book presents voices from around the regign, children calling for a Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific.

rsBN 982{01m2-4

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