Understanding by Design
Understanding by Design (UbD) is a conceptual framework for education anchored on the tenet of “teaching for understanding.” Introduced by Jay McTighe and Grant P. Wiggins in 1998, UbD espouses the process of “backward design” in the development of a school curriculum.
1 Teaching for Understanding 2 Backward Design o 2.1 Three steps of backward design 2.1.1 First stage - Identifying desired results 2.1.2 Second stage - Defining acceptable evidence through the different types of assessment 2.1.3 Third stage - Planning learning experiences and instruction 3 Six Facets of Understanding 4 Research Base supporting UbD 5 Understanding by Design in the Philippines 6 Some Key Terms in UbD 7 References 8 External Links 9 Citation
Teaching for Understanding
"Teaching for understanding" is the main tenet of UbD. In this framework, course design, teacher and student attitudes, and the classroom learning environment are factors not just in the learning of facts but also in the attainment of an “understanding” of those facts, such as the application of these facts in the context of the real world or
Through a coherent curriculum design and distinctions between “big ideas” and “essential questions.
. wherein curricula are based on a desired result--an “understanding” or a “big idea”--rather than the traditional method of constructing the curricula. including concrete manifestations such as displaying excellent examples of student work. focusing on the “facts” and hoping that an “understanding” will follow. 
The UbD concept of “teaching for understanding” is best exemplified by the concept of backward design.the development of an individual's insight regarding these facts.a central idea that holds all the facts together and makes these connected facts worth knowing. teachers must explain the “big ideas” and “essential questions” as well as the requirements and evaluative criteria at the start of the class. To facilitate student understanding. After getting to the “big idea.” the students should be able to describe the goals and performance requirements of the class. In his book “How to Solve It” (1945).” students can proceed to an “understanding” or to answer an “essential question” beyond the lessons taught. The classroom environment should also encourage students to work hard to understand the “big ideas” by having an atmosphere of respect for every student idea. This understanding is reached through the formulation of a “big idea”-. the Hungarian mathematician George Polya noted that the Greeks used the strategy of “thinking backward” by knowing what you want as a solution in order to solve a problem. Backward design as a problem-solving strategy can even be traced back to the ancient Greeks.
This is what backward design aims to resolve: to make students understand and gain a deeper insight into why they are being taught these information or made to participate in these kinds of activities. educators come up with all sorts of activities that students participate in and enjoy.Identifying desired results Identifying desired results means defining the objectives of the course/class.  Second stage .Defining acceptable evidence
through the different types of assessment
. One example would be the desired results from an English literature class. Desired results cannot be just limited to traditional parameters such as a good performance in state assessment tests. In activity-focused teaching. students do not completely understand why. in which students are not only prepared to score well in national English proficiency exams. Planning learning experiences and instruction  First stage . but also develop a love for reading and appreciation for literature. educators try to cover all topics as specified by a textbook or teaching manual for the whole school year. 
Three steps of backward design
Backward design entails three steps: 1. but again. Identifying desired results 2. Defining acceptable evidence 3.Backward design is geared to eliminate two common flaws in the traditional method: coverage-focused teaching and activity-focused teaching. but end up with students who do not understand why they are being taught all this information. but rather include specific goals that contribute to a deeper understanding of a topic. In coverage-focused teaching.
and evaluates if these activities and resources follow the WHERETO criteria.  The WHERETO criteria must be met cumulatively by all activities.Planning learning experiences and
The last stage. the highest test of understanding in which students are given a real world challenge wherein they must display a critical and effective use of the knowledge and skills learned in class. and unprompted assessment or self-assessment primarily for students.
. tests and prompts. These assessment methods are classified by McTighe and Wiggins into three types: performance tasks.  Third stage . WHERETO stands for
W = Where is the unit going? What is expected? (students). help them experience the key ideas and explore the issues. criteria referenced assessment such as quizzes. details students' activities throughout the class. E = Equip students. defining acceptable evidence refers to the process by which the educator will teach and gauge the level of understanding of a student. Where are the students coming from? (teachers) H = Hook all students and hold their interest. Going back to the example of the English class. such as observations and dialogues. an stage adaptation. a teacher may ask students to create works--from a parody. planning learning experiences and instruction. or even to the extent of fan fiction--based on his/her favorite text. lists which resources to be used. which provide both instructor and students feedback on how well the facts/concepts are being understood.The second stage. The educator should now choose which assessment methods are suited to track the progress of a student.
It only espouses that traditional and alternative methods be used hand-in-hand.
R = Provide opportunities to rethink and revise their understandings and work. showing the movie “Clueless” in class can fulfill the W. For example. H and E criteria--W. showing an example of creating a work from a literary source (“Clueless” is a modern adaptation of Jane Austen's Emma). in the appropriate contexts. the movie hooks the attention of the students. students can be said to have understanding when they:
Can explain by providing thorough and justifiable accounts of phenomena. H. E = Allow students to evaluate their work and its implications. facts and data. and E.” This can be illustrated in some activities for the English class.
. however. This does not mean. Can interpret by offering an individual insight to ideas and events. and abilities of learners. they are able to experience the key idea that literature can be enjoyed and is alive. Can apply and use that knowledge to diverse contexts. O = Be organized to maximize initial and sustained engagement as well as effective learning. interests. that backward design does not use traditional methods of teaching. 
Six Facets of Understanding
According to Wiggins and McTighe.
The WHERETO criteria are also the indicators to see if the course fits the idea of “teaching for understanding. T = Be tailored to the different needs. as the students enjoy the film. to achieve the desired results.
Other tenets of UbD have also been supported by studies influencing student achievement in American public schools. basing a sensitive perception on prior direct experience. where. Lee and Newmann in 2001 which show that interactive methods of teaching help students learn more in reading and mathematics. and School” (Bransford. Feedback is an important component of learning. Knowledge gained through rote learning or plain memorization is not readily applied compared to knowledge learned with understanding. Experience. such as one by Smith. and why to use that knowledge. learning must be guided by generalized principles. Can empathize by finding value in what others may find as implausible. 2002). The book. Many assessments measure only propositional (factual) knowledge and never ask whether students know when. Brown. demonstrates some of these points:
For applicability. a synthesis of studies conducted by the American National Research Council. Interactive teaching--defined by the study as “applications or interpretations of the material to develop new or
. but opportunities to provide feedback are scarce in classrooms. Have a self-knowledge or self-awareness that enables them to see what shapes and impedes their own understanding.
Research Base supporting UbD
Several tenets of UbD are supported by data compiled in the book “How People Learn: Brain. Mind. & Cocking.
Have perspective by seeing things in the context of the big picture and viewing these critically.
. The school has since then been fully implementing UbD in its academic program. The UbD framework will be formally implemented in the Philippines through the 2010 Secondary Curriculum which will be implemented in AY 2010-2011. 
Understanding by Design in the Philippines
Because of its success in the United States. filed by Sen.mannrentoy. the integration of the UbD framework in the public school system was begun as early as 2007. currently under pilot testing in 22 schools all across the country. Christian Zaens.com)] and three other school officers received training from McTighe in Bangkok. Manny Villar in August 2009. Among the private schools. Earlier implemented by private schools. with an order by then Mayor Enrico “Recom” Echiverri that the framework be implemented in the Basic Education Curriculum of Caloocan City public schools. Thailand. The results showed dramatic improvements in the students' performance in the various College Entrance Exams. PAREF Southridge School took the lead in implementing UbD in 2003.are similar to the methods espoused by the UbD. the UbD framework slowly made its way into the Philippine education system. These topics include Consumer Education. The 2010 curriculum. Its then Academic Director. was trained by Grant and McTighe in the ASCD Seminar in New York. The following year. which supports the implementation of the UbD framework in the Basic Education Curriculum. has included several topics that are similar to the UbD tenet favoring the application of knowledge in realworld situations. This move was backed by Senate Resolution 1295. Mann Rentoy [(www.deeper understandings of a given topic” -.
Quezon National High School.
The 22 Pilot Schools for the 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum 1. Lucena City (Region IV-A) 6. Calapan City (Region IV-B) 7. Tagbilaran City (Region VII) 13. Memorial National High School. Santos City (Region XII) 18. Angeles City (Region III) 5. Cebu City National Science High School. Masbate (Region V) 9. Mangaldan National High School. Pangasinan (Region I) 3. Jr. Albay (Region V) 8. Nueva Valencia National High School. Tabaco National High School. Ayala National High School. Dr. Gen. New Society National High School. 14. Cebu City (Region VII) 12. Cecilio Putong National High School. Jose J. Angeles City National Trade School. Iloilo City (Region VI) 11. Laoag City (Region I) 2. Cotabato (Region XII)
. and the Stock Market Basics topic in Economics for fourth-year students. Isabela (Region II) 4. Masbate National High School. Guimaras (Region VI) 10. Aguinaldo National High School. Pigcawayan National High School. Digos City National High School. Ilocos Norte National High School. Valencia City (Region X)
15. Leido. Zamboanga City (Region IX) Valencia National High School. Daniel R. Digos City (Region XI) 17. Sta. Barbara National Comprehensive High School. Davao City (Region XI) 16. Isabela National High School.applied across all subjects and intended teach students about the 18 Fair Trade Laws.
a National Education Conference on Understanding by Design was held at the Manila Hotel. The conference. During the conference. 22. and  Vibal have adapted Teachers' Manuals and Teaching Modules to principles and suggested templates of UbD.19. Quezon City (NCR) 21. DepEd Secretary Jesli Lapus announced that the 2010 Revised Secondary Education Curriulum (RSEC) will be rolled out this June 2010 and will be implemented initially for First Year High School only.
On February 4-6. 2010. Textbook publishers such as Rex. 2010  . also to be implemented in rural areas. plus an Indigenous Peoples' Curriculum. sponsored by the Fund for Assistance to Private Education. Surigao City (CARAGA)
20. thus temporarily assuaging the fear of a lack of materials to use for the implementation of UbD.
Surigao City National High School. Local educational publishers have also responded to the need for instructional materials aligned to UbD. Makati City (NCR) Pines City High School. Diwa. Vibal has also launched a UbD website to aid educators in understanding and implementing UbD in the Philippines. Department of Education representatives released the Curriculum Guides for each subject area. Baguio City (CAR)
Other revisions in the 2010 curriculum include provisions for a Madaris and Madrasah-based curriculum for Muslim students in schools in Mindanao. Cubao. Makati High School. Ramon Magsaysay High School. also had a Visayas/Mindanao leg held on February 8-10.Phoenix.
. Accordingly. together with the Teaching Guides for the first quarter of First Year High School.
the blueprint for learning.
. but also make those facts worth learning. Other private schools are also in the process of adapting the UbD framework into their curricula. how is it defined in the constitution?) but also extends to the humanities (the banning of literary works. learning-focused act of determining the extent to which the desired results are on the way to being achieved and to what extent they have been achieved.In the summer of 2010. which has been mandated to conduct trainings for private schools under the Educational Service Contracting (ESC)/ Educational Voucher System (EVS) programs. The building blocks of “understanding. This is different from evaluation in the sense that evaluation is short-term and credentialfocused. 
Some Key Terms in UbD
Assessment . An example is the big idea of “freedom of speech”: it not only limits itself to the field of social sciences and the law (basic human rights. including schools under De La Salle Philippines and Holy Name University in Tagbilaran. Big Idea .a long-term. Curriculum . The Fund for Assistance to Private Education (FAPE). it takes and plans content in order to conduct effective and engaging learning and teaching that are based on the desired results. has actually begun training private school teachers on UbD and the RSEC since the summer of 2009.Bohol. etc. the Department of Education will begin intensive mass trainings of public school teachers all around the country for the implementation of the 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum.the main idea which not only connects all the disjointed facts that are taught in a class.).” big ideas are not necessarily limited to just one area of study.
Jay McTighe and Associates 3. it consists of intended outcomes (the understanding). s.the objectives of the course.making connections and binding together knowledge into something that makes sense so that said knowledge can be widely and effectively applied in realistic tasks and settings. 71. ↑ Resources . ↑ DepEd Understanding By Design Staged 6. ↑ Vibal Conducts ICT+UbD Seminar for NCR.org/index.wikipilipinas.Jay McTighe and Eliot Seif 4. 2009 5. 
1. ↑ Understanding by Design-Google Books 2. ↑ DepEd Memo 472 s. 2009 7.php?title=Understanding_by_Design
. achievement targets and performance standards (traditional parameters such as national achievement exams). Luzon School Administrators
http://en.Desired results . N. ↑ DepEd Memo No. ↑ Indicators of Teaching for Understanding . Understanding .