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Introduction to the Protective Relaying Protective Relay Classifications Instrument Transformers and Circuit Breakers Over Current protection Introduction Motor Protection Generator Protection Introduction Generator Protection Transmission Line Protection Bus bar arrangements Bus Bar Protection Miscellaneous Numerical Relays Excitation System Metering Principles Equipment & Protective schemes Testing Bibliography

1.0 Introduction to Protective relaying:
Protective relays are the decision-making elements in the protection scheme for electrical power systems. They monitor circuit conditions and initiate protective action when an undesired condition is detected. Protective relays work in concert with sensing and control devices to accomplish their function. Under normal power system operation, a protective relay remains idle and serves no active function. However, when required to operate because of a fault or undesirable condition, the relay must function correctly. Failure of a protective relay can result in devastating equipment damage and prolonged downtime. A strong test and maintenance program is crucial to maintaining protective relays in a high state of readiness. Fortunately, protective relays have proven to be very reliable. Purpose of Protective Relaying Protective relaying is an integral part of any electrical power system. The fundamental objective of system protection is to quickly isolate a problem so that the unaffected portions of the system can continue to function. The flip side of this objective is that the protection system should not interrupt power for acceptable operating conditions, including tolerable transients. Protective relaying is applied for several reasons:  To isolate faulted circuits or equipment from the remainder of the system so the system can continue to function  To isolate portions of the system during abnormal conditions so the remainder of the system can continue to function  To limit damage to faulted equipment  To minimize the possibility of fire or catastrophic damage to adjacent equipment  To minimize hazards to personnel

MM3V / MR3V Relay Panels


2.0 Protective Relay Classification:
The most common methods used to classify relays are by: • Function • Input source • Operating principle • Performance characteristics

2.1 Classification by Function Functional classifications stem from the function that a relay provides in a power system. There are five general categories of relays as defined below. Protective Relay: A protective relay functions to detect defective lines or equipment, or other power system conditions of an abnormal or dangerous nature, and to initiate appropriate control circuit action. It can be used to initiate switching operations or actuate an alarm. A protective relay is further classified according to its input quantities, operating principle, or performance characteristics. Examples of protective relays are: • Overcurrent relays • Under voltage relays • Differential relays • Reverse sequence relays Auxiliary Relay: An auxiliary relay provides a specific, or secondary, function to assist another relay or control device in performing a general function. Typical functions performed by an auxiliary relay include circuit seal-in, time delay, control signals or lights, and contact multiplication. Examples of auxiliary relays are: • Control relays • Time delay relays • Lockout relays • Trip and close relays Monitoring Relay: A monitoring relay functions to verify that system or control circuit conditions conform to prescribed limits. Examples of monitoring relays are: • Alarm relays • Fault detector relays • Network phasing relays • Verification relays • Synchronism check relays Monitoring relays often provide a permissive function for various power system operations, such as paralleling across a circuit breaker. However, monitoring relays are not used to initiate protective functions during a fault. 3

regulating. over voltage.g. thereby classifying the relay on a performance basis. More often. overcurrent). it is seldom thought of in these terms. Typical functions performed by a programming relay include reposing and Synchronizing... From the definitions provided above. reverse power. Regulating relays are typically used to control transformer tap changers and generator governors.Regulating Relay: A regulating relay responds to normal changes in system operating conditions and functions to control system parameters (e. these three broader classifications tend not to be used extensively in practice. operating principle. and programming classifications tend to be referred to by their specific function. classification by operating principle provides limited information about a relay's intended application or function. However. This method of classification provides insight into the basic design features of a relay and is most useful for discussing hardware. auxiliary relays and other control devices carry out the specific functions associated with the protective action. power) within specified operating limits. and are not generally thought of as belonging to a broader functional category. or performance characteristics.3 Classification by Operating Principle Protective relays can be described in terms of their operating principle. Once a protective relay detects an abnormal condition and initiates protective action. Examples include: 4 . Examples include: • Current relays • Voltage relays • Power relays • Temperature relays • Pressure relays Classification by input alone is not common. Examples of programming relays are: • Accelerating relays • Phase selector relays • Reclosing relays • Synchronizing relays • Initiating relays Protective and auxiliary relays make up the majority of relays used in power system applications. 2.g. it is evident that protective relays constantly monitor power system conditions and only influence system operation when an abnormal or undesirable condition is detected. under voltage. For example.2 Classification by Input : Protective relays may be identified by the input parameter monitored. Thus. a synchronizing relay is a type of programming relay. A regulating relay is further classified according to its input quantities. however. a qualifying term is added to the input parameter (e. These two classifications of relays are commonly described in technical documents and literature. voltage. Programming: A programming relay functions to establish or detect electrical sequences. 2. Special-function relays falling within the monitoring.

the nomenclature in protective relaying is given in Table 1 below: Relay Code 2 21 25 27 30 32 37 38 40 46 47 49 50 Relay Function Time delayed Distance Protection Synchronisng check Under Voltage Check Alarm relay Reverse Power Under power relay Bearing protective device Loss of Excitation Negative Phase Sequence Reverse Phase Voltage Thermal Overload Instantaneous Over Current 5 .4 Classification by Performance Characteristics A protective relay's performance characteristic is a commonly used method to identify relays. Examples include: • High-speed differential relays • Directional-overcurrent relays • Reverse-power relays • Impedance relays • Mho relays • Overcurrent relays • Under voltage relays • Phase-balance relays • Reactance relays • Frequency relays • Overload relays Additional terms are sometimes used to describe in more detail a relay's exact performance characteristics. it is called a time-overcurrent relay. Electromagnetic relays • Solid-state relays • Harmonic-restraint relays • Electromechanical relays • Percent-differential relays • Sudden-pressure relays • Thermal relays 2. Performance characteristics represent the specific function provided by the relay. If the relay can be programmed with an intentional time delay. As an example. an overcurrent relay that is designed to actuate with no intentional delay is referred to as an instantaneous overcurrent relay.5 Relay nomenclature: Before Proceeding to protection philosophy. 2.

51 52 59 60 63 64 67 79 81 86 87 89 98 99 Time Over Current Circuit Breaker Over Voltage Voltage balance Sudden pressure for Transformers Ground detection Directional Over current Reclosing relay Frequency Lock out Differential Isolators Pole slip protection Over Fluxing protection Table 1 : Protective Relay Functions 6 .

. Bus Bar differential protection etc. the core never saturates and better accuracy will exist in the event of fault currents. these Instrument Transformers shall be more accurate in normal conditions. knee point Voltage. where as in metering circuits. The details of burden in VA shall be identified from the equipment leaflets. CT secondary ratings are either 1A or 5A ratings. In general. Primary rating depends on the equipment rating and secondary rating shall be coordinated with relay ratings.5 % and 0. Similar ratings 5P20 / 10P10 are also available. While specifying the CTs.1 Current Transformers ( IS 2705) : CTs used for Protection purposes shall be of better accuracy under fault conditions than under normal conditions. relays. ie. the following accuracy class CTs are available in the market o Accuracy Class 5P10 : Up to 10 times of rated current..0 % / 0. number of CT cores shall be specified.  Number of Cores : Depending upon the requirement of protection and metering functions...5 / 0..5 and 1. the composite error is 5%..  Class of accuracy of each core : Ratio error and phase angle error put together called as accuracy class. the CTs shall be used with different class PS.  Rated Burden of each core : Burden of the equipment connected to the CT secondary shall be calculated including the lead burden. meters.0 / 0. shall be specified in this event 7 .  CT Ratio : Primary rating of CT and secondary rating of CT shall be specified clearly. Whereas the CTs used for metering purpose shall be better accurate in normal conditions. However. o PS Class accuracy : CTs used for balance protection ie.2 class CTs are better accurate than 0. o Accuracy Class 1. Instrument Transformers are classified into two categories: • Current Transformers • Potential transformers 3. It is well known that 0.2 %. In general a 220 kV CT will have 5 secondary cores and 132 kV CT shall have 3 secondary cores. It is essentially required that CTs used for protection shall not be saturated under fault conditions. Instrument Transformers used for the protection shall be more accurate in the fault parameters. the following parameters shall be specified clearly. With these CTs..2 : Composite errors are in the range of 1.0 Instrument Transformers and Circuit Breakers: Instrument Transformers shall serve for the following purposes:  Protection Functions  Metering Functions Accuracy of these Instrument Transformers plays vital role in the protection scheme operation.0 CTs. etc.. Differential Protection of Transformers. Normally. Rct etc.3.

2 Potential Transformers ( IS 3156) : PTs used for Protection and metering purposes. the PT ratio will specify as 132 kV / 110 V √3 √3  Number of secondary windings: Depending upon the application. It will be better to keep secondary lead resistance as minimum as possible. the burden shall be calculated more accurately otherwise.6 132 220 400 Highest system Voltage ( KV) 7. system fault level shall be considered as the basis.  Class of accuracy : IS 4146-1983 recommended the following accuracy classes for various application. In present scenario.6 / 132 / 220 and 400 kV voltage levels Nominal System voltage ( KV) 6. PTs for protection are available with 0. While specifying the PTs.  Voltage class and Insulation level: Rated Insulation levels for various highest system voltages from 0. Ie.  Ratio : It is common practice to indicate ration of PT as rated primary voltage between phase and ground. the following parameters shall be specified clearly. The breaker shall 8 .66 to 765 kV have been detailed in IS 2705 / 1992.5 accuracy and for metering the accuracy is 0. Table 2 gives ready reference. for 6.2 145 245 420 Power frequency withstand voltage (kV) rms 20 230 / 275 360 / 395 / 460 1175 / 1300 / 1425 Lightening Impulse withstand voltage (kV ) peak 40 / 60 550 / 650 850 / 950 / 1050 950 / 1050 / 1050 Table 2: voltage Class and Insulation Level 3. less burdened PTs accuracy may not match with its accuracy limits.3 Circuit Breakers : The function of a circuit breaker is to isolate the faulty section from the healthy system. Voltages generally comes to low values in the event of fault in faulty phases and in occasion. PT accuracy is calculated with specified burden at the PT secondary terminals and not at the end of secondary leads. the healthy phase voltages rises to √3 times its normal value. For better accuracy. 3. number of secondary windings shall be specified. For ex : in 132 kV system.2. Circuit breaker shall operate in normal and abnormal conditions. One secondary winding for metering and one for protection purpose  Burden on each secondary winding: Burden shall be calculated from the number of instruments and the relays connected to each winding. Rated short time rating and its duration: For determining the fault current flow through CT primary winding for all types of the faults.

Due to current chopping. less maintenance. The important element in the circuit breaker is Trip coil. These mechanisms are initiated by electrically operated close and trip coils. surge arrestors requires for small motor feeders. gang mechanism is used to trip three phases and from 220 kV.  Minimum oil circuit breaker: Dielectric oil acts as medium for arc quenching. Discrepancy in the three pole mechanism breaker is being monitored by a relay called Pole discrepancy relay. Its healthiness is being monitors by monitoring relays called as CPR ( Close Position Relay) and TPR ( Trip Position Relay). The time setting to monitor the breaker discrepancy set as 100 mSec for the breakers Auto reclose operation is not in service. Up to 132 kV breakers. number of interrupters is more.  SF6 circuit breaker: SF6 gas is used as arc quenching medium. Hydraulic. Depending upon the type of arc interruption. Maintenance activities are more and the reliability of the breaker operation is satisfactory  Vacuum circuit breaker: Vacuum is used as arc quenching medium. these breakers are available. Other nomenclature for these relays is Pre close and post close supervision. Up to 765 kV. A typical 220 kV breaker closing time is around 100 milli seconds and tripping time is around 30 milli seconds. Applicable up to 12 kV breakers.have arc interrupting mechanism for quenching the arc during its opening. these breakers are available. These breakers require less maintenance and operation of these breakers is superior to all the other breakers. These breakers have current limiting feature  Bulk oil circuit breaker : Dielectric oil acts as medium for arc quenching. breakers are classified as  Air Break circuit Breaker : Air at atmospheric pressure acts as medium for arc quenching. Generally. Applicable from 415 V to 12 kV rating breakers. independent mechanisms are being used for interruption. These breakers requires lot of maintenance but the reliability of operations is more  Air blast circuit breaker: Compressed air at 20-30 kg/ cm2 is used for arc quenching. These breakers are preferred for in door switchgear up to 36 kV. Up to 245 kV. These breakers have long life. Up to 220 kV. the timing shall be set in coordination with the reclose operations. spring and pneumatic medium are available for the operations. Depending upon the voltage rating. Circuit breaker closing and tripping operations depends on the type of mechanism. Symmetrical Breaking Capacity : It is the rms value of the ac component of the fault current that the circuit breaker is capable of breaking under specified conditions of recovery voltage 9 . For the breakers having reclose operation. Rating of circuit breakers is specified as follows: a)Breaker Capacity : Breaking capacity of the Breaker can be divided into two types. these breakers are available. Suitable relays shall be incorporated to monitor the trip coils and necessary alarm shall be generated in the event of discrepancy.

rated frequency and the normal running current shall be specified e) Operating Mechanism : Operating mechanism for closing and tripping shall be specified 10 .Asymmetrical Breaking Capacity: It is the rms value of the total current comprising of both ac and dc components of the fault current that the circuit breaker is capable of breaking under specified conditions of recovery voltage b)Making Capacity: the rating making current is defined as the peak value of the current including the dc component in the first cycle at which a circuit breaker can be closed on to a short circuit c)Short time capacity: the CB must be capable of carrying the short circuit current for a short period. The rated short time current is the rms value including both ac and dc components that the CB can carry safely for a specific period. Current and Frequency: Highest system voltage. d) Rated Voltage.

. If the fault current is more the relay operates faster and if the current is lesser value.2 Definite Time Over Current Relays: Whenever the current exceed the set value and persists for defined time. the relay operates slowly.4..1 T= 13. Motor Short Circuit Protection.3 Inverse Definite time Over Current Relays: The operation of this relay depends on the fault current. Applications: Motor Blocked Rotor Protection.1 Instantaneous Over Current Relays: When ever the Current exceeds the set value. the relay operates.1 Normal Inverse Short Inverse Ext. etc. Over Load alarms. As per IEC IDMT characteristics.1 * Tp * Tp * Tp 11 . the relay operates. the following equations have been followed for finding out the Actual Time of Operation. Various inverse curves are available in this protection. Applications: Restricted Earth Fault Protection.1 T = 120 (I/Ip)1 .5 (I/Ip)1 . The Over Current Relays are generally Four types: Instantaneous Over Current Relays Definite Time Over Current relays Inverse Definite time Over Current Relays Directional Over Current Relays     4. 4. The Characteristics are as shown in the Fig.4.0 Over Current Protection: Over Current protection is that protection in which the relay picks up when the magnitude of current exceeds the pickup level. 4.1 T= 80 (I/Ip)2 . Long Inverse Long Inverse Where T Tp I Ip ( IEC 60255 – 3 type A) ( IEC 60255 – 3 type B) ( IEC 60255 – 3 type C) ( IEC 60255 – 3 type D) = Tripping Time = Set time Multiplier = Fault Current = Set Pick up Value of the Current T= 0. The time of the relay operation is instantaneous. etc.14 * Tp (I/Ip)2 . Both the Current and time shall be more than the set values.

Fig 4.1 IEC Inverse Curves (Courtesy: Siemens Manual) ANSI / IEE Characteristics of Inverse Characteristics is shown in Fig 4.2 ( A) & 4.2 ( B)


Fig 4.2 A ANSI / IEEE Inverse characteristics ( Courtesy : SIEMENS) 13

Fig 4.2 B ANSI / IEEE Inverse characteristics ( Courtesy : SIEMENS) 4.3 Directional Over Current Relays: By adding directional element in the power system, directional over current protection can be derived. This protection responds to over currents for a particular directional flow of currents. Relay will be in-operative if the direction of the power flow is reversed. Direction of tripping of ST for Over currents is shown in fig 4.3 If the Current direction is towards the Transformer only, the relay will operate. To know the direction, relay will be supplied with voltages for reference.


4 Directional Earth Fault Relays: The Directional earth Fault protection will protects for the earth faults in the direction of Object.5.h V Y P .3 ST Directional Over Current Protection Directional Over Current relays in three phases monitors three phase currents and the voltages given to the relay shall be cross polarised.h V R P . Connection diagram is as shown win Fig 4.h V Y P .4 R e l a y O p e r a t e s i n R t h Y P 2 B i s D i r e c t i o n o f f l o w P 1 3 3 3 9 1 0 B 7 8 R P .h V o o o o l t a g l t a g l t a g l t a g e e e e 8 7 8 F i g 4 . In open delta voltage connection.h V B P . i. 15 . or say the Transformer.e R – Phase relay shall get YB voltages and … The details of the Over current protection in three phases is given in Fig 4. Earth fault current is derived form the residual connection and the voltage given to the relay shall be derived form the Open Delta Voltages. normally the Voltage is zero and voltage will be increase in case of the earth fault. 4 D i r e c t i o n a l O v C e Dr R DC e ul ar yr s e n t R e 4.3 C T C r m 2 e r 2k 0VB u s B S t a t i o n T r a n s f o Fig 4.h V 7 o o l t a g l t a g e e 9 1 9 1 0 R 0 Y B P .

This can be ensured if the load current is more than earth fault relay setting. Vb winding  Insert the PT Fuses and measure the Voltage at the relay terminals. relay shall operate after its time of operation.3 3 3 R e la y O p e r a t e s in t h Ri s Y D i r e c t io n o f f l o w P 1 P 2 B P 9 1 0 7 8 TS e c o n d a r i e s F i g 4 . 5 D i r e c t i o n a l E a r Ct h D FRD a e u l al ty sR e l a y s b y U s i n g It is recommended to ensure the directional Earth fault protection sensitivity.  Remove Trip Link of the Earth fault protection  Remove PT Fuses for Open Delta Circuits  Short R and B Phase CTs with neutral and thus Y phase current will flow through the Neutral relay and ensure the current value  Remove PT Secondary wiring of Y phase with open delta formation  Temporarily connect the R phase Secondary Vn with B phase PT. The following procedure can be adopted for testing of this scheme. which ensures correct direction.  Reverse the PT Terminals at the relay and observe for non operation of the relay.  Restore the connections and trip links after ensuring proper direction of the protection 16 .  Depending up on the Current value.

Phase to Earth faults or Open circuit faults Starting Failures: Prolonged Starting of the Motor / Rotor Failures : Blocked Rotor 5. starts from few kW to 4000 kW. Contactors shall be provided with the following protections: o Bi-metallic thermal relay for overload protection o Fuses for Short Circuit protection  Low Voltage Motors beyond 100 kW: Air Break Circuit Breakers shall be provided with protective relays with the following functions: o Overload Protection by IDMT Relays o Short Circuit Protection with High set relays o Locked rotor Protection with Definite time relays  High Voltage Motors: These motors shall be generally controlled by Circuit Breakers and these shall have a typical Motor Protection relay (MPR) with the following functions: • Thermal Overload Protection with alarm and Trip 17 . i. Phase to Phase faults..0 Motor Protection The induction motor rating in a thermal power plant of 210 MW capacity.1 Abnormal Conditions: Typically the following abnormal conditions may be observed in an induction motors: o o o o o Over loads : Sustained Overload or Momentary Overload Supply Failures including loss of all the 3 phase / one phase Motor Internal faults .6 kV).2 Types of the Switchgear Control: Generally the following types of switchgear controls are provided for Induction Motors:  Low Rating LV Motors: Up to 100 KW motors. The Voltage ratings of the motors also of Low Voltage ( 415V) and High Voltage ( 6.e. Protection of the Induction motors depends not only up on the rating and Voltage bus also other issues and the data considered for protection requirements of an Induction Motors is as below:  Voltage Rating  Power Rating  Speed  Motor Thermal rating  Source type ( Delta Bus /Star Bus / Star Bus with resistance Earthing)  Type of the starter  Type of the load 5.5.

4 Thermal Overload Protection: For the motors controlled by Circuit Breakers. To care of this. In the case of the short circuits. which in turn operates the trip contact in the case of overloads. It is required to know the operating time under unbalanced conditions. Before selecting the bimetallic relay. The equivalent current Ieq iss calculated as: Ieq = √( I1 2 + Ke I2 2) I1 = Positive Sequence current of the motor I2 = negative sequence current of the motor Ke = Negative sequence current recognition factor (adjustable) ( For CTM Relays. The rating of this fuses shall be depends on the starting currents of the motors. dedicated Motor Protection relays with more emphasis on thermal overload protection are being used. these bimetallic relays can be connected through CTs. for quick isolation is required in case of short circuits. HRC ( High Rupturing Capacity) fuses shall be used for this purpose. Ke = 6) Thermal characteristic shall be compared with relay operating characteristic to operate the relay before the motor reaches to its limits. the positive & -ve sequence components of the current must be determined. these relays will operate in delay and may worsen further the situation. Bending of one or more bimetal strips causes movement of a common lever. The protective relay should also have Cold and Hot 18 . Hence. For the larger rating motors.3 Bimetallic thermal Relay and HRC Fuse Protection: These are popular in LT Motor applications. the following shall be monitored:  Characteristic of the relay  Characteristic of the Motor  Type of Starting and starting current The above bimetallic relays are generally used for the protection against the overloads. Bimetallic relays can be provided directly in series with the load current.• • • • • • Short Circuit Protection Unbalanced Protection Locked Rotor Protection Earth Fault Protection by Residual Connection or with CBCT Limitation of Number of starts Bus Under Voltage Protection Standards for AC Motor Protection: IEEE Std C37.96-2000 Revision of IEEE Std C37. 5. These relays give protection against heating of the rotor due to negative sequence currents caused by an unbalance system. These relays are also either self reset type or hand reset type.96-1988 IEEE Guide for AC Motor Protection 5. Motor withstanding capability varies from Cold condition and Hot condition. relay isolates the negative sequence currents and a multiple of square of Negative currents is added to the thermal element.

There are three popular methods of this protection methodology: a. b. if the CBs are used. However. thermal relay may be made inoperative during the period. Definite time over current relays are used in this protection. care shall be taken in coordinating the set values with thermal over current protection. if the motor fails during starting time or takes higher the starting currents. The relay calculated Is2 x Ts. just above the designed motor starting time. the value Is2 x Ts will be more than the set value and relay operates. Advantage of this protection is. Care shall be taken to set the relays that these relays shall not operate for starting currents. thermal content of the motor will be reduced.6 Short Circuit Protection: For the motors controlled by the contactors. For the motors having high starting times. If the over current exceeds the time set in the relay. For operational convenience. the current set value comes to normal value. Actual Starting Current of the Motor Is and Motor Starting time Ts shall be set for this protection. Based on Definite Time Over Current Protection: Motor start condition is detected by the relay if the current exceeds the its set current value. the set value shall be more than the starting current. relays can be set for doubling feature. The relay time is set for the value. Based on Thermal Stress Calculation: Thermal stress in the motor is calculated and the protected based on this protection. Motor manufacturer will furnish the data of motor Starting Current and starting time. 5. Instantaneous Over Current Relays shall be used for this protection. On activation of the control input. Relay shall have an indication of the thermal content of the motor and the value shall be memorised by the relay even in the case of loss of auxiliary supply. the relay operates within lesser time than the designed value. by reducing the load on the motor. Start-up supervision with as speed switch: Physical status of the motor is being monitored in this protection. On operation of this alarm. where during starting time. relay will operate and trips the CB. Relay should have a thermal reset push button to reset the thermal value in the event of emergency. The contacts of this speed switch shall be extended to the relay as a control input. which is equal to the amount of thermal stress. Thermal Overload alarm shall be provided and the alarm level can be settable. the set value will be doubled and after start-up time of the motor. 5. the counting of the definite time or the building-up of the thermal stress in the start-up supervision unit is inhibited. With latest numerical technology. 19 . However. this protection is extended by the fuses. Thermal characteristics are IDMT in nature. Over current set value is generally 150 % of its full load current.characteristics. To nullify the affect of Starting Current. Protective relay shall be set to operate if the motor starting time exceeds the designed value.5 Locked Rotor Protection: The starting current of Induction motors is very high and protective relays shall not operate for this current. which is around 6 to 7 times of its full load current. If the motor takes more the current or a long start is taken place. c.

While connecting to trip circuit.7 Earth Fault Protection: Depending upon the source of supply given to the motor. care shall be taken in time gradation with incomer tripping.5. If the similar supply is derived form the Delta Transformer or the transformer with resistance earthing. C B C T 3 3 3 M P 2 o t o r P 1 M o t o r F E a r t h a u l t r e l a y e le m e n t F E a r t h a u l t r e la y e le m e n t F i g 5 . earth fault protection need not be given for tripping of the motor and can be connected to an alarm. The allowable negative sequence current in the motor shall be determined by the motor manufacturer and protection shall be given with this information. Earth fault protection can be derived form either residual connection of CT circuits or a special CT called as CBCT ( Core Balance Current Transformer) which is mounted covering the three phase cables. If the source is from 3 wire supply derived form the Transformer having neutral solidly earthed or low resistance earthed. giving rise to heat due to copper losses. 1 E a r t h F a u l t R e l a y C o n nC e B c C i oT n t b y R e s i d u a l C o 5. The earth fault current protection can be of definite type and IDMT characteristic. the earth fault protection shall be set for the relay.1 for the details of connection of earth fault protection. earth fault protection shall be extended to trip the motor.8 Negative Sequence Protection: Negative sequence currents in the motor are due to following reasons:  Non closure of one or two poles of the Circuit Breaker  Failure of Power fuses in one or two fuses  Sustained Faults in the network Negative sequence currents results in rotating magnetic field revolves in opposite direction. The rotor gets heated and the temperature of the motor winding may increases beyond the limits. Negative sequence protection can be either definite time or with IDMT characteristic. This field induces double frequency induced currents in the rotor body and conductors. Ref Fig 5. Unbalance protection is generally provided in the following ways:  By measuring Negative sequence currents  By Monitoring the difference between Max and Minimum phase currents 20 .

This protection covers the switchgear. To safeguard the entire protection system in the case of open CTs. Stabilising resistors shall be connected in series with the relays. shall be protected additionally with Differential protection.9 Motor Differential Protection: The motors with rating more than 1500 kW. For better stability of the protection. for 100 % difference in the currents.8 %. Non-linear resistor ( Metrocils) shall be connected parallel to the Relay and resistor circuits. Motor and the power cables. the negative phase sequence current = 57. The difference of the Phase and neutral currents shall be connected to the differential relay. 5. The protection is as shown in the fig 5.The full unbalance in the currents i.e. 2 M o t o 3 r D i f f e 3 r e 3 n t i a l p r o t e c t i o n 21 . High impedance differential protection shall be provided.2 C B M O T O R 3 3 3 R 8 s t 7 M e t r o c il s F i g 5 .

200 and 500 MW. For the purpose of protection philosophy. Protection schemes need not be same for 60 MW unit and 500 MW unit. GT and UATs in a thermal power plant. it is disastrous. Mal-operation of Generator protection and Non-operation of Generator protection would lead in to system disturbances and financial loss to the organisations and some times. GT and UAT are taken as Unit and protection shall cover all types of faults in these equipment besides the back up protection for Bus Bars and Transmission lines. Generator. In general. 6. Hence the generator should be carefully protected and the protection scheme shall be well designed.1 Protection Functions for various Generators Protection Differntial Restricted Earth Fault Inter Turn Fault Over Current . 6. Shortly.1: Generator Protection Requirements In our country. Generators are available in the rating of 60. 22 . the table 3 shows the necessity pf protection schemes for various generators: In the modern generators. 100. called as Generator Transformer and Unit Auxiliary Transformers. The capital cost of the machine is very high and the down time of the Generator would result in to system disturbance and huge financial loss to the organisations.2 Generator Layout: Fig 1 shows the typical layout of 210 MW Generator.6.Time Temperature RTD Negative Sequence Current Loss Of Field Anti Motoring Loss of Load Loss of Synschronism Over Speed Over Voltage Rotor Earthfault Back-up Over Current Bearing Temperature < 1 MW < 10 MW < 100 MW OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK > 100 MW OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK Table 6. the alternator is connected to step-up transformer. 660 and 800 MW units will also be available on the Indian bars.0 Generator Protection Introduction: The important item of any power system network is Generator.

etc. OLTC details. 1 1 : G e n e r a t o Ur . … 6.S U A T T G E N E X U . the rating of the transformers.1 Generator grounding Some means of grounding the main generator neutral is normally applied to most generating station units. Vector group. As per IEEE Std 665-1995. Vector group. the following information is required for better protection scheme.3 Generator grounding To reduce the fault currents. and to limit the transient and temporary over voltages that may be caused by ground faults on the generator system.         Generator Name Plate details Type of Generator Earthing Generator Transformer name plate details UAT name plate details EHV Bus fault level CT and PT Ratios Relay name plate details Generator Time curves Generator Name plate shall indicate the rating of the Generator. reactances. The purpose of grounding the neutral is threefold: to limit the fault current flow during phase-to-ground faults. Time curves. Cooling systems.3. Generator neutral shall be earthed through many methods. 23 2 2 0k V B u s . Generator Grounding methods are as below: 6. Mechanical protection details. to allow for application of protective relaying to detect these faults. Stator and Rotor resistance values. Type of cooling systems. A G T T s a n d Before designing a Generator Protection.C T A T R G T S T F i g 6 . GT and UAT name plate shall indicate.

The resistor and transformer are sized to produce an equivalent ground resistance numerically equal to or less than the total three-phase capacitive reactance to ground of the generator and other equipment connected to the generator bus. the fault current is typically limited to 5 . 6.92.101-1993. Dielectrically. 6.Eight methods of grounding are identified by IEEE Std C37. IEEE Std C62. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are presented in IEEE Std C37.1. the unit arrangement(s) and the reason for using this method will be given.3.1.1. the resistor should meet the requirements of full phase. by symmetrical component impedance ratios.2 High resistance grounded (neutral-resistor grounded) This functions equivalently to item a) in 5.to-ground voltages or better. IEEE Std C62. A resistor is connected across the secondary of the transformer to provide a high-resistance neutral ground connection.2-1989 provides comprehensive guidance in the selection of generator neutral grounding device ratings with regard to over voltage performance and insulation exposure for most practical applications. It permits a higher level of fault current. the transient and temporary over voltages that may occur on generator systems having various electrical characteristic classes.3. The resistor should be sized without the benefit of a transformer to withstand the fault currents.3. 6.1 High resistance grounded (distribution-transformer grounded) This method is used on wye-wound unit connected generators and is illustrated in Figure 2.3.92-1987 provides means of estimating. Most unit-connected generators are grounded in this manner.101-1993: a) High Resistance Grounded (Distribution-Transformer Grounded) b) High Resistance Grounded (Neutral-Resistor Grounded) c) Low Resistance Grounded (Neutral-Resistor Grounded) d) Low Inductance Grounded (Neutral-Reactor Grounded) e) Resonant Grounded (Ground Fault Neutralizer Grounded) f) High Resistance Grounding Transformer Grounded g) Medium Resistance Grounding Transformer Grounded h) Ungrounded For each case.3 Low resistance grounded (neutral-resistor grounded) This is used when the generator is directly connected to the system without a step-up transformer.1.10 A. Using this type of grounding scheme. which is generally several hundred 24 . The main generator neutral is connected to ground through the primary of a single-phase transformer.

6. 6.8 Ungrounded The ungrounded method is rarely used but provides lower fault current than the other schemes.1. Ex : Generator Differential. 25 . This provides a generator system ground.3.7 Medium resistance grounding transformer grounded This method is used in a manner similar to the previous method. It permits sufficient fault current to operate the differential relays for all machine faults except those near the machine neutral.4 Generator Protection Classifications: Generator protections are broadly classified in to three types: Class-’A’ Protection : This covers all electrical protections for the faults with in the Generating Unit in which Generator Breaker.amperes to about 150% of rated machine current.5 Resonant grounded (ground fault neutralizer grounded) This method can be used for the unit connected generator(s). etc. 6.3. GT Standby Earth fault protection. Stator Earth fault protection Class-’B’ Protection: This covers all mechanical protections of the turbine in which turbine will be tripped first and Generator will be tripped on Low forward / Reverse power protection Ex : Condenser vacuum protection.3.1. 6. the generator Breaker will be tripped only and unit will come to house load operation. The approach to accomplish this is to select the reactor on the secondary side of the distribution transformer so that its reactance is equal to one-third of the zero-sequence capacitive reactance of the generator bus.1. The reactor should also meet the dielectric requirements of full phase-to-ground voltage or better. 6. Drum level very High. The main purpose of this method is to minimize phase-to-ground fault currents to low values (values that will not sustain an arc).3.3. This resistor should also meet dielectric requirements of full phase-to-ground voltages or better. In this case. Class-’C’ Protection: For all the external faults in the system. Field Breaker and Turbine shall be tripped. Generally this scheme permits significant phase-to-ground fault current for all faults except those near the neutral. This method creates the possibility of excessive transient over voltages during switching operations or arcing ground faults.4 Low inductance grounded (neutral-reactor grounded) This method is used similarly to the low resistance grounded scheme.1. Ex : EHV Bus Bar Protection.. the grounding resistance is chosen to provide adequate current for selective relaying purposes.6 High resistance grounding transformer grounded This scheme is used for delta-wound generator(s) since no machine neutral exists. The power dissipated in the effective resistance should be equal to or greater than the three-phase zero-sequence reactive volt-ampere loss in the zero-sequence capacitance of the generator system.. 6.1.1. A secondary resistor is applied to the grounding transformer to limit phase-to-ground current as in item a) in 5.3. however.

the above classification is not incorporated. Field Breaker. The Generator protection operates a lock out relay (86) and 86 in turn Trips GCB. 26 . UAT Breakers and Turbine.In VTPS stage-1.

Reactance Xd : 225.0 % Zero Sequence reactance X0 : 10.85 0.5 % Sub Transient Reactance Xd” : 21. Reactance X2: 26.3 0.5 0.5 % 2 Moment of Inertia WR : 2110000 kG – M 2 Output of Generator at various Power factors as per Capability Curve: Leading MW MVAR 62 126 --70 92 75 75 75 55 75 45 75 32 75 25 75 15 Power Factor 0.6 0.5 kG / CM 2 Cold Gas Temp : 44 ºC Inlet Water Temp : 45 ºC Sync. The data collected from 210 MW VTPS Unit 1 & 2.5 % Transient Reactance Xd’ : 30.4 0. : 3.7.0 Generator Protection Functions: The Generator protection or say Unit Protection shall include the following Protection functions:          Generator Stator Internal faults Generator Mechanical Protection Generator Rotor faults GT Internal Faults GT Mechanical faults UAT Internal Faults UAT mechanical Faults Back up protection for the system faults Prime mover faults A typical 210 MW generator’s name plate particulars are as given below.5 % Current : 9050 Amps Rotor Current : 2060 Amps Hydrogen Pr.8 0.2 MW -210 190 155 125 98 75 54 34 Lagging MVAR -130 145 160 170 170 170 170 170 27 .9 0.4 % -Ve seq.7 0. MVA : 247 Voltage : 15750 V +/.

4 0. CTs of Generator are located in phase Bus Duct and Neutral Bus ducts.2 shows the location of CT and PTs. Generator Bus duct is equipped with Generator PTs for metering and Protection.85 0. PTs are provided for 6.220 200 180 160 0.6 0. However. Metering and Bus Bar & LBB protections. 220 kV CT for GT is provided at MCR for Overall Differential. LV side of UAT have the CTs in the switchgear panel. 220 kV Bus PTs are utilized for metering and synchronisation of the Generator.5 0. HV Bus duct of UATs contains CTs for Differential protection .1 shows the location of PTs.8 0.5 0. GT Overall Differential and Back-up over current protection. GT HV Bushings equipped with CTs for REF and Standby earth fault protections.7 0. Fig 7.3 0. ICTs (Interposing CTs) are provided for Differential protection. negative sequence protection for matching the currents with relay specifications. 28 .8 0.6 0.1 Generator –GT-UAT CT / PT Locations and their applications: Fig 7.2 160 180 200 220 LEADING MVAR LAGGING MVAR 7. Generator is earthed through a Transformer NGT to reduce the fault currents.7 0.9 140 120 0.4 100 80 60 40 20 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0. PTs are provided on LV side of the transformer for synchronisation of the UAT.6 kV bus bars for metering and protection and additionally.

9 kV INCOM ER P T 6.75 kV. 15.6 KV / 3 110 / 3 210 M W 15.6 KV / 3 110 / 3 Grounding Tra nsform e r 50 KVA 15.75kV /240V Fig 7.85 pf To 1A Bus BUS PT 6.75 kV/236 kV (S tar / Delta ) AVR PT 60 VA / Pha se Me te ring & Prote ction PT 300 VA / Pha se Unit Auxilary T ransformer-B 15 M VA 15.75 kV/ 3 110/ 3 V INCOME R P T 6.1 PT Layout for Generator Protection 29 .75 kV/ 3 110/ 3 V U nit Auxilary T ransformer-A 15 M VA 15.9 kV 15.75/6.75/6.6 K v/110 V GEN To 1B Bus BUS P T 6.6 Kv/110 V 15. 10 kAm ps To Me te ring a t S w itchya rd Surge Dive rtor G ene rating T ransforme r 240 M VA.0.Bus-2 Bypa ss Bus PTs 220 kV / 3 110 / 3 V Bypass Isolator Bus Isola tors Bus Se le ction Re la ys 220 kV Bre a ke r 198 kV .

5V 5 2 P0 1 k /5 1 0 A 0A .A 1 V .0 L 1 0 /1 A 50 S itc G w h ear P t ro 1 V . 10 kAmps Bushing CT 800/1 A. 800/1 A 00 300 0 /5 1 0V 5 A 5 2 P0 5 /5 T B 0 1 1 5 /5 T A 0 1 1 Ict 3 /5 . 30 VA. 5P20.5 U it A x ry n u ila Tra s rm r-A n fo e 1 . 60 VA 5P20 Core21 : 800/1.6 8 TA 7 1 U it A x ry n u ila T n fo e ra s rm r-B 1 MA 5 V 1 . 5 A 5 2 P0 6 k M C .2 1 0 /5 7 V 50 .2 1 0 /5 7 V 50 .0 T s u er ran d c s 1 k /5 7 V . 5 A 5 2 P0 6 k M C .Bus-1 Bus-2 Bypass Bus Isolators Bypass Isolator 220 kV Breaker Core 1 : 800/1. M 2 7 eter s 1 k /5 7 V .5 1 k /5 1 0 A 0A .5 2 5 A P0 10 /5 50 4 /5 A . 5V 5 2 P0 4 6 Ic 4 /6 A t .8 f T 1 Bs o A u 1 k /5 1 0 A 0A .6 V O B GN E 2 0M 1 W 1 .5 h s 2 9A p 8 ms 3 0 /5 00 4 V . 0 A l .7 k /2 0 5 5V 4V Fig 7.6 8 G 7 T 8 TB 7 1 Ic 3 /5 t .C 0 0 A .75 kV/236 kV .C 0 0 A . 0 A .A T AR o V 1 k /5 3 V .9 V W . 30 VA.5 5 0 A P G u d g T s rm ro n in ran fo er 5 KA 0 V 1 . 60 VA 5P20 Core 5 : 800/1. 5P20 Spare To 87 GT To 50 ZA. 50 VA Cl 0.1 C . 5V 5 2 P0 1 k /5 1 0 A 0A .5 2 1 0 /5 5 A P0 50 4 /5 A . 5 A l . 60 VA 5P20 Core 3 : 600/1. 5P20 Bushing CT 800/1 A. 5 A l .7 /6 k 5 5 .9 .2 CT layout for Generator Protection 30 .C 3 0 A . 5V 5 2 P0 6 G 4 8 G 7 T 8T 7G V V V 0 Om .3 . 0 A .7 /6 k 5 5 .0 5p 5 5 V .7 k . 60 VA 5P20 198 kV.0 L 1 0 /1 A 50 S itc G w h ear P t ro 1 V . ZB.2 . 5V 5 2 P0 8 G 7 T 1 Bs o B u 1 k /5 1 0 A 0A .5 T 4 .1 C.3 Core 4 : 800/1.ZC To Metering Circuits To Main Zone Protection To Check Zone Protection Surge Divertor VVVVV 200 Ohms 87 NT Generating Transformer 240 MVA 15.5 G o 0 8 1 1 W .6 V O B 3 .9 V 1 MA 5 V 1 V . 0 (Star / Delta 1 0 0 ) 0 /5 1 0V 5 A 5 2 P0 70 5 /5 4 V 0 A 5 2 P0 70 5 /5 1 0V 5 A 5 2 P0 751NT 5 /5 0 1 0V 5 A 5 2 P0 70 5 /5 4 V 0 A 5 2 P0 1 VA.

Generator IR values may be satisfactory.4 : Split phase and Differential Relaying 31 . low impedance type over current relay is used for the same. Differential protection is not possible as the current at both ends of the winding remains same. Inter Turn Protection (87 TG): CAG 14 GEN PS : 3. but the winding resistances of each phase will give clarity of the Generator healthiness.5 A 87 3000 / 5 A 280 A. Inter Turn protection with split phase protection is shown in fig 7.7. both star points are connected through a CT before connecting to earth point as shown in the figure – 7. 0.4 Fig 7. At stage-1.5 Ohms VVVVVV VVVVVV Fig – 7.3 Generator Inter Turn Protection Operation of this relay needs checking of the Generator.3.2 Generator Inter turn Protection ( 87 TG) : Split phase relaying is popularly used for the protection of Generator against Generator Inter turn faults. As the generator is double star wounded.

7.6. Otherwise. a second earth fault in the machine would result in heavy damage.5 For Providing the proper relay settings with Rst values. a single earth fault in the winding may lead in to flow of 5A to the earth.4 Generator Stator Earth fault protection ( 64): The method of grounding adopted for the Generator is depending on the Earth fault current flow in the winding. A earth fault in the system would effect the core and may further damage the other phase windings and hence it should properly be cleared. If the generator is high resistance earthed.3 Generator Differential Protection ( 87 GA / GB / GC): High impedance type Generator Differential protection is generally used for protection of stator faults. For better stability.5 : Generator Differential Protection CTs used for this protection shall be same characteristic and these CTs should not be saturated for the fault currents. Both phase and neutral side currents of each phase are vectorially added and the resultant current is connected to the relay. the Fault level at Generator terminals shall be calculated and then calculate Operating current and Stabilising resistor values. The Generator Differential protection is as shown in the fig. Protection shall identify the fault and trip the generator. Operation of this protection needs thorough checking of Generator with necessary tests. 32 . 7. 7. In 95 % Stator earth fault protection an over voltage relay with IDMT characteristic is used to isolate the fault. For the CTs also saturation test shall also be performed if the Generator found healthy. Stabilising resistors are being used in series with relay coils. BUS COUPLER 10 KA /5 GEN 10KA /5 Neutral Side Rst Metrocil 87G Fig 7. Non-linear resistors ( Metrocils ) shall be connected across the relay and resistor to safeguard the system in case of CT open circuit. There are two protections called as 95 % Earth fault protection and the other is 100 % stator earth fault protection. The scheme is shown in Fig 7.

These system conditions produce negative-phase-sequence components of current which induce a double-frequency current in the surface of the rotor. In a 210 MW generator at VTPS Stage-1. unbalanced system faults and open phases. If there is a fault in the balance 5% protection. the retaining rings. It is better to track this voltage.R 64 R = 0. the slot wedges. and 33 .75kV/240V Fig 7. This NGT and resistor combination will increase the effective resistance in the neutral in the case of the fault.75 / 240 V is connected between Generator neutral and the earth and the secondary of the NGT is short circuited through a resistor. It is evident that during running of the Generator.5 V. Another relay is connected in parallel with the over voltage relay ( 64). 280 Amps NGT : 50 KVA 15. If the fault is very closure to the neutral. 7.5 Ohms. another relay is provided to cover 100 % of the winding. This relay is a 3rd harmonic U/V relay. the voltage developed across the NGT may not be sufficient to operated the Over Voltage relay and hence the protection is called as 95 % stator earth fault protection. the other protection shall clear the fault.5 Generator Negative sequence protection ( 46): There are a number of system conditions that may cause unbalanced three-phase currents in a generator. 15. Operation of this relay needs thorough checking of the Generator and its associated auxiliaries along with protection scheme checking. bus ducts and bushings is essentially required before keeping the machine in to service.6 : Stator Earth Fault Protection ( 95 % ) The distribution transformer ( NGT). Base on this principle. this 3rd harmonic voltage measured is around 8. To overcome the problem. an under voltage relay is used in coordination with Voltage or current check units to prevent maloperation. the 3 rd harmonic voltages will present at the neutral of the machine and these 3rd harmonic voltages will subside in the case of earth fault. unbalanced loads. The most common causes are system asymmetries (un-transposed lines). Measurement of Insulation resistance of the machine.

providing the rated kVA is not exceeded and the maximum current does not exceed 105% of rated current in any phase. The ability of a generator to accommodate unbalanced currents is specified by ANSI C50. as shown in figure 7. A generator shall be capable of withstanding.) Fig 7. This standard specifies the continuous I2 capability of a generator and the short time capability of a generator. 34 . the effects of a continuous current unbalance corresponding to a negative-sequence current I2 of the following values.to a smaller degree.7 : Continuous and short-time unbalanced current capability of generators Type of Generator Permissible I2 (percent) Salient Pole With connected amortisseur windings With non-connected amortisseur windings Cylindrical Rotor Indirectly cooled Directly cooled — to 960 MVA 961 to 1200 MVA 1201 to 1500 MVA 10 5 10 8 6 5 These values also express the negative-sequence current capability at reduced generator kVA capabilities. (Negative-sequence current is expressed as a percentage of rated stator current. These rotor currents may cause high and possibly dangerous temperatures in a very short time.13-1989 in terms of negative-sequence current (I2).7. specified in terms I2 2t. without injury. in the field winding.12-1982 and ANSI C50.

Hence the protection shall be linked with a timer. an over load protection is provided.5% Alarm: 80% Fig 7. ICT is used between CT circuit s and the relay.8. G E N ICT 4. Otherwise..5 / 6 A CT 10K/5 46 I2S = 7. this protection should not operate. 7. As per the recommended value of the current . 35 .Unbalanced fault negative-sequence current capability is expressed in per unit of rated current and time in seconds.8 : Negative sequence Protection If negative sequence protection operated alarm appears on the Generator. check the three phase currents to the relay and check the relay healthiness by secondary injection.6 Generator Over load Protection ( 51): Overloading of the Generator is permitted only for the certain period as per the Manufacturer recommendations. If no abnormality is noticed. VTPS. For momentary over loading values. GEC make CTN relay is used for the protection at Stage-1.. Any open jumper in any of the circuit has caused the relay operation and immediate action shall be initiated to isolate the faulty feeder. such as faults etc. Type of Generator Permissible I22t Salient pole generator 40 Synchronous condenser 30 Cylindrical rotor generators Indirectly cooled 30 Directly cooled (0–800 MVA) 10 Directly cooled (801–1600 MVA) see Fig 9. The scheme is shown in fig 7. To match with the relay characteristic. immediately check for the currents in the outgoing EHV feeders in all the three phases.

36 . Malfunction of the Excitation systems leads to Generator Over Voltage protection. Over voltages may be due to mal operation or non-operation of the AVR. manufacturer recommendations shall be taken in to the consideration for adopting the setting. Stability check of this protection shall also be ensured. The difference between above two is given to the relay. 7. In case of faults in the transformer itself. However. arrange for checking of the relay. Stabilising resistor shall be kept in series with relay for better stability of the relay operation. This protection is Differential based protection between the sum of the phase currents and neutral current.provide a definite time over current relay and this protection need not be given for tripping and can be connected to alarm only. Saturation of the CTs may also lead to relay operation in case of external fault.9. VTPS CTU relay is provided with 4. Operation of this protection needs immediate attention to check up the three phase currents.75 A ( 9500 Amps) and 5 Sec are the settings and the protection generated only alarm. In modern protection philosophy. which also zero and the relay will not operate. the phase current matches with neutral current and the resultant. Hence. two stage protection is being used with one stage set for 110 % with 10 Sec and second stage set with 130 % and 0.7Generator Over Voltage Protection ( 59) Over voltage on the terminals of the Generator will damage the insulation of the Generator and its auxiliary equipment. MW and MVAR. Over Voltage protection needs time delay to avert maloperation of the system in transient conditions. In case of external earth fault. phase current direction changes and both phase current and neutral current adds vectorially and the relay operates.5 Sec. Under normal conditions. 7.8 Generator Transformer REF Protection (87 NT) : Restricted Earth Fault protection shall operate if there is a earth fault in the GT only and this protection should not operate for external faults. which is Zero and thus relay will not operate. In generals. If any abnormality is noticed in MW / MVAR suitable action shall be initiated and if still the alarm appears. The scheme is generally is as given in Fig. Operation of this relay needs thorough inspection of the Transformer. Sustained Faults in the system. Operation of this protection needs thorough check up of the excitation system and the relay operation and it is better to check IR values of the machine before keeping in to service 7. the start of Over voltage function protection shall be given to Channel change over of the Excitation system. The CTs used for this protection shall be PS class type and all the Phase and neutral relay shall have same ration and characteristics. the vectorial sum of all the three phases is zero and the neutral current is also zero. In stage -1.

44 * f * Ǿ * N From the above equation.8 Generator Transformer B/U Earh Fault Protection (51 NTX) : A earth fault in the system beyond the Transformer shall be protected by Transmission line / Bus Bar protection. V = 4. Ensure the healthiness of the relay also. REF and Standby Earth fault protection for GT For stability check.1 Amps 220 kV Fig 7.8 Generator Transformer Over Flux Protection (99) : Over fluxing of the Transformer will damage the GT core. it should be Zero. Operation of this protection needs thorough study of system faults in that instant and ensure healthiness of the up stream protections. 37 . TMS 0.45 R 800 51 NTX 800 /1 C C T C T 87 NT 87 NT : Phase Side & Neutral Side CTR : 800/1 Relay : CAG 14 Setting : . The relays available in the market are two types. If relay not operated. Flux in the transformer can be represented by using transformer voltage equation. check for neutral CT polarity. it is understood that the flux is proportional to ratio of Voltage and frequency. short the three phases on LV side and apply 3 phase 415 V supply to HV side of the transformer and measure the spill current in the relay. Similarly check for all the three phases.e Definite time and IDMT characteristic protections. 11.3A. 7. 7. If theses relays fails to operate. The scheme is generally is as given in Fig.0.9. The relay shall be suitably graded with Transmission line protections.15. i. Apply only one phase supply and observe for the relay operation.75 kV 51 NTX : Standby Earth Fault Relay CTR 800/1 Relay : CDG 11 Setting :0. The permissible Flux density shall be observed from the manufacturer recommendations. standby earth fault protection will operate and clears the Fault. The CT used for this protection is connected in GT neutral circuit and the relay used shall have IDMT characteristic.

Operation of these power relays with turbine trip reveals that the protection logics are satisfactory. it can be suspected due to rise in voltage and it could be from maloperation of the AVR. the protection operates and trips the Generator. Generator would draw power from the Bars to run as motor. say 2 Sec and Turbine is in tripped condition. Generally in the interconnected network. i. 7. Check the healthiness of the relay and check the excitation system and PT circuitry.. 38 . Generator draws power from Bars. Trip time depend on prime mover manufacturer recommendations.5 % and persists for defined time. Machine draws power from the Grid or called as reverse power ( 32) . machine will trip after its stage-2 time. Tripping of Turbine / Boiler would result in closure of steam valves and thus the work done by Turbine comes to Low. Generator trip will be initiated. i. steam valve positions. The machine draws more reactive energy from the bars causing over heating to the rotor and stator overhang portion. If the operator increase the steam input to the turbine.e.e. Hence stage -1 protection shall generate an alarm and allows change over the AVR channel.5 % and persists for 2 secs with turbine is in trip condition. this protection resets. If the same conditions persists and 37 relay not operated.10 Generator Loss of Field Protection (40) : Loss of field or insufficient excitation would result the machine to run as induction Generator. Otherwise. If still the over-fluxing is observed. With this protection. etc. If this power is more than 0. an alarm will be initiated that the Generator is Motoring. Governing mechanism..Each relay will have two stages and first stage protection is given to alarm and second stage is connected to trip. needs checking of prime mover logics. machine will trip on Motoring protection ( 2 / 32 YA). If the turbine is in running condition and due to in sufficient energy receipt from the turbine. fall in frequency is rare and if real fall in frequency may lead to tripping of the machines. Rise in the V / F ratio may be due to rise in Voltage or due to lesser frequency. Operation of this protection ( Stage-1) needs thorough observation of the Generator parameters and reduce the excitation till the annunciation disappears. Generator will be tripped on Reverse Power Protection with Turbine Trip ( 2 / 32 ). Operation of Motoring protection when the turbine is in service. say 0. If this reverse power is more than 0. Direct trip contact of Turbine / Boiler need not be given for tripping of Generator. If V/F operated. If the Power generated by generator is less than set value.9 Generator Power Protection (32 / 37) : Tripping of Generator for the cause of tripping of Steam Generator / Steam Turbine shall be done with power relays. For monitoring of this Low power is done by using Low Forward Power Relay ( 2 / 37).5 % and persists for more than 20 Sec. 7.

10A.10B : Offset Mho Characteristic From the above fig 7. the under excitation conditions would resulting the machine to lie in 4th Quadrant. 39 . Generator & GT up to Switchyard also needs inspection. The Generator – Generator Transformer Impedance is considered for the setting calculations and little more over reach say 120% of the G-GT value shall be set for the protection with sufficient delay in coordination with Transmission line protections.11 Generator Back up impedance Protection (21) : To safeguard the Generator from all the areas of the power system in case of failure of main protections. the protection operates instantaneously and lock out relay operates to trip the GCB Operation of this protection needs thorough check up of the excitation system and identify the reason for insufficient excitation. Operation of this protection needs thorough checking of transmission line protection. The Offset and Diameter of the circle depends on the machine parameters. The impedance relays used in this protection shall be cross Polarised.V e t 4 : O D f f s e t i a m e t e r Fig 7.V e Q : .10A: Four Quadrant Diagram 7. i. Y phase relay shall be connected Y phase Currents with BR Voltages and B phase relay shall be connected B phase Currents with RY Voltages.. 7. the protection operates and lock out relay operates to trip the GCB b) If the machine parameters lie in the relay characteristic and the terminal voltage is less than 80 %. R phase relay shall be connected R phase Currents with YB Voltages. Check the protective relay and the logics.10 B. Offset : Diameter : ½ of Synchronous reactance ¾ Transient Reactance The protection logics shall be derived as follows: a) If the machine parameters lies in the relay characteristic for 2 Secs.V eP Q : + V e + V e t 1 : R Q P Q u : : a d r aQ n u t a 3 d : r a n . a back up impedance protection is provided.X Q P Q u : : a d r a Q n ut a 2 d : r a n : + V e . If a Offset Mho relay with characteristic is designed as for the Fig 7.V eP : + V e .e. the operation of this relay indicates under excitation conditions.

Tripping zone shall be in the first pole slip.7Xd’ 2. The available VAEM relay setting : 1mA / 30 k Ohms. the carbon from the brushes may form the continuity to the earth and cause to operate the alarm. 7. The Bridge method of the Protection is as shown in fig. If the source of oscillation lies outside the unit in the network. If the source of the oscillations lies between Generator and GT.11 Generator Pole Slip Protection (98) The pole slip relay shall protect the Generator against the possibility of the machine running in unstable region of the Power Angle Curve. Pole slip leads to an increase in rotor angular position beyond the generator transient stability limits. Hence the first rotor earth fault shall be identified and shall be warned to operators through an alarm. 7. i. The reasons for Pole relay operation are:  Large Network disturbance  Closure Faults  Loss of Excitation or under excitation  Load thrown off conditions Setting Recommendations: 1.12 Generator First Rotor Earth Fault Protection ( 64F1): Generator Rotor is unearthed and the winding is powered form the excitation system.e. In this case frequent dust blowing near brush gear will clear the rotor earth fault. another earth in the system would result in heavy damage. However.7.11. Operators shall arrange for:     Air blowing near brush gear Physical Inspection of Excitation Cubicles Measurement of leakage current in the relay with split pin If the fault still persists. trip the machine at the earliest. Forward reach of the relay characteristic shall cover G-GT. the generator should not be switched off until several pole slips have recurred. Bridge Method and Capacitance measurement. Operation of this protection needs immediate attention. If the alarm still persists.. This protection can be derived by two popular methods. 40 . The reach of this Zone : 0. trip the machine at the earliest for thorough checking of the winding and its auxiliaries. If the machine is having static excitation equipment with Slip rings and brush gear arrangement. A rotor earth fault in the Field Breaker output to Rotor Winding portion does not harmful to the rotor as there is no other earth in the system. the machine has to be isolated from the network after the first slip. which would result in oscillations and Pole Slip.

Simulation shall also be done for BBC make IWX relay also available in AVR Cubicles. it indicates that the earthing is not perfect. this simulation is preferred. during this period another earth fault will damage the Generator Rotor. Connect a decade resistance box between Slipring ( either +ve side or –ve side) and the earth with the resistance value set around 40 kA in series with DC milli Ammeter in the range of 0 – 1 mA. Ensure all the auxiliary supplies to VAEM relay and BBC make relay at AVR. 7. Ensure Brush gear is kept and the earth brush is also available. observe for the relay operation. Observe the current in the meter and if the current is showing as zero. If IWX relay is in service. By reducing decade resistance value by 1 k ohm per each step. still reduce the value to low value and observe for the relay operation. To avert such incident another protection called as Second Rotor Earth Fault Protection shall be used and it shall be connected to Trip Circuit. 41 .11 : Rotor earth Fault Protection ( VAEM relay) First Rotor Earth Fault Simulation : After overhaul of the unit.13 Generator Second Rotor Earth Fault Protection ( 64F2): As seen from the above. At around 25 k Ohms.From + Field Breaker 64 : VAEM 21 Setting:1 mA 2/64 : VTT : 2 Secs Rotor GEN 64 - 2/64 Current Limiting Resistor Alarm Circuit 230 V ac + Fig 7. relay shall operate and record the value of resistance and current. However. it is very much essential to simulate the earth fault and ensure the operation of the Earth Fault relay. At Barring gear. the first rotor earth fault is not harmful and machine can be continued in service.

 Generator shall not be continued to run for more than 24 hours with 1st rotor earth fault protection The setting for the second rotor earth fault protection : 1 mA 7. The differential relay shall be stable for the external fault and shall operate for all types of internal faults. Differentia protection can be connected to a Transformer. the differential current through the OC will be i1 + i2 and relay will operate. CAEM type relay is being used for this protection. In general Current Differential is very popular. 42 V f o r I n t e .Normally. etc. For external faults. for Internal fault. Second Rotor earth fault protection shall be balance by using potentiometer after keeping the selector switch ( On Generator Protection Panel) in Balance position and by keeping earth fault sensing selector 9 ON SCB Panel) switch in Fine / Medium / coarse controls.14 :Transformer Differential Protection ( 87) A differential relay operates for vector difference of two or more electrical quantities. it indicates that the balancing is imperfect and repeat the balance. For this. Motor. However. Then keep the selector switch on GRP to TEST position and observe for the second rotor earth fault relay operation. Bus Bar. After completing balance and confirming second rotor earth fault not operated. i 1 V W i n d i 2 i n g i1 3 V 3 W i n d i n i 2 g V 3 O C i 1 -i 2 O C i 1 +i 2 D i f f e r e n t i a l P r o t e c t i o n f D r i f Ef e x r t ee nr nt i a a l l F P a r uo lt t e s c t i o n o 3 Fig 7. at a time only one unit protection can be transferred to this relay. The following special observations need to be ensured:  Ensure trip link in closed position  Auxiliary supply to the relay shall be available and the failure of this supply would lead to tripping of the machine. If 1st rotor earth fault appears and if it desires to continue to run the machine. this protection will not be in service. generator.12: Differential Protection Fig 7. CT ratio matching and Vector group matching is very much essential in this protection. this protection shall be introduced in to the circuit.12 represents simple differential protection.  Second rotor earth fault protection is common to both the units of stage-1. the i1 and i2 are equal and the resultant current through the differential element is Zero and relay will not operate. proceed to keep the switch at GRP in Second Rotor Earth Fault position. If relay operates. transmission Line.

As the Transformer is Star / Delta type. K1 VS i d e 2 2 K 0 VS i d e 1 0 10 A / 3 0 . The characteristic of the relay operation shall be as shown in fig 15. As the relay is 1A rating.i 2 3 O p e r a t i o n O C i 1 +i 2 3 V N o O p e r a t io n ( i 1+ i 2) / 2 F i g 7 . an ICT of rating 0. the CT errors due to Core saturation. i 1 W i n d in i 2 g V i 1. 5 V 2 A2 0 k / V 7 .64 / 1 A is required. merz price biased differential protection shall be used. ICTs ( Inter Posing Current Transformer) are required both sides. the little current flows through the differential element due to CT mismatch and the current in the restraining coils is (i1 + i2) /2.14: ST Differential Protection Please refer to the above case. 43 3 3 7 7 A . To match the Currents. The operating coil is connected to mid point of the restraining coil. The scheme is as shown in fig 7. 8 2 / 0 . Ti overcome the above problem. the CTs shall be connected in Delta / Star connection. pilot wire lengths and CT ratio difference due to Tap Changer may resulting in to differential relay operation.82 / 0. 7 / 2 5 6 0 A m p s 4 0 01 0A / 7 . Under through fault conditions. 5 3 8 7 Fig 7.Drawbacks with the above protection is that. On LV side : The Transformer is Delta and the CT shall be connected in Star connection. The Full Load currents of the Transformer are 82 / 2560 Amps and the secondary values are 0. 1 d Y TN r a n s f o r m e r 8 2 .13. Main CT and the ICT primary and secondaries shall be connected in Star only.64 Amps. a) Case Example for ST Differential Protection: 3 1 M. The torque produced by the operating coils is less than restraining coil and the relay sill not operate. 1 3 : B i a s e d D i f f e r e n t i a l P r o t e c t i o n f o This relay contains an operating coil and Restraining coil. 6 4 / 1 A 3 3 0 .

As the Transformer is Delta / Delta type. Main CT and the ICT primary and secondaries shall be connected in Star only. 9 D d T0 r a n s f o r m e r 5 5 0 / 1 2 5 5 A m p s 1 5 05 0A / 6 . ICTs ( Inter Posing Current Transformer) are required both sides. which should be zero for the idle protection scheme. the ICT secondary rating shall be 0. As the relay is 5A rating. an ICT of rating 3. the CTs shall be connected in Star / Star connection. an ICT of 0.2 Amps. To match the Currents. After ensuring the healthiness. For this. As the relay is 5A rating. On HV Side: 3 4 . K9 VS i d e 1 5 . the currents from the ICT will be √3 times the normal value because of Delta connection. 6 / 5 A 3 44 .577 A. Maloperation of this protection needs thorough checking of CTs.15: UAT Differential Protection Please refer to the above case. The Currents in HV and LV windings shall be measured and also measure the differential element current. On LV side : The Transformer is Delta and the CT shall be connected in Star connection. an ICT of rating 4. Main CT and the ICT primary shall be connected in Star connection and secondary shall be connected in Delta only. it is recommended to perform the stability check of the scheme. The Transformer is Star and the CT shall be connected in Delta Connection.577 A is required. Short shall be placed after LV side CTs and apply the 3-Phase 415 V before the HV side CTs. . 7 5k V / 6 .82 / 0. which is protected. Operation of this protection needs thorough checkup of the equipment. b) Case Example for UAT Differential Protection: 1 5M V 1 A 5 .2 / 5 A is required. As the relay rating is 1A.On HV Side: The Transformer is Star and the CT shall be connected in Delta Connection. Main CT and the ICT primary and secondaries shall be connected in Star only. wiring and the healthiness of the relay. K 7 V5 S i d e 7 5 0 5 A/ 3 3 8 7 Fig 7. The Full Load currents of the Transformer are 550 / 1255 Amps and the secondary values are 3. Hence.6 / 4. 2 / 5 A 3 3 3 . ICTs.6 / 5 A is required.

CTs shall be connected in Star / Delta. i. The CTs used for this protection shall be PS class and suitable ICTs shall be used for balancing the protection. UAT is protected by Differential protection.16 :UAT Backup Over Current Protection ( 50 T1A ) and Overload Protection The Unit Board is protected by Over Current protection relays at the switchgear. Other than this. 7. The GT HV current for 247 MVA and for 220 kV. the Current shall be 0.e Delta on HV side.886 A ( 5 / √3 Amps) and hence the ICT Ratio shall be 2.16: Generator Overall Differential Protection at VTPS – Stage-1 The relay is 5 A and the CT on Generator shall be 10000/5 A. The schematic diagram for this protection is as shown in fig 7. Generator CTs were placed near the neutral CT Formation and the GT CTs were placed near the 220 kV CB and UAT CTs were placed in HV Bus Ducts.8125 = 3.5. CTs used for this protection shall be placed at more suitable locations. The UAT currents shall be represented by 10000/ 5A and both the UAT currents shall be added and given to the relay.886 / 0. The third winding shall be connected to the GT HV side.8125 A with CT Ratio of 800 /1 A. In recent designs.16. an additional backup protection is provide in UAT bus ducts for protection of UAT / Unit Boards. the UAT CTs are being placed after the UAT to cover the UAT also in to this protection in addition to the UAT Differential protection. 800/1 1/3.5 GT 10KA/5 10KA/5 87 GT Bias: 30 % DTH 32 86 GT UAT GEN 10KA/5 UAT To NGT Fig 7.7. The ICT output shall give 2.15 :Generator Overall Differential Protection ( 87 O ) This Protection is a three winding Transformer Differential protection. This protection covers the Generator – GT and UATs. 45 . As the GT is Delta / Star connected. To cover more area of protection.

Stage-2 Protection operation needs thorough checking of UAT / Bus Ducts and other switchgear elements in the Zone of protection. In addition to the above protection.17. It is clear that normal breaker opening time is around 30 msec and after 200 msec time.17: UAT Back up Over Current Protection The operation of this protection needs thorough check up of the System.17 Breaker Failure Protection / Bus Bar Protection: Opening of the Circuit Breaker is very important in all the required conditions and especially in the event of faults. Stage-1 Protection operation needs checking Bus Bars and the Switchgear protection circuitry. an overload alarm connected relay is provided for Full load current of the Transformer with definite time setting of 5 Secs. The relay current and time 46 . If the breaker opening is delayed by more than certain time say 200 msec after the operation of the lock out relay and if any current say 20 % of the normal value is present in the circuit. the currents in the circuit will be zero if the breaker opened with in the time. Due to mechanical problem or any other trouble in the Breaker. BFR or LBB relay shall be connected to HV side of GT and the lockout relay from Generator Protection is given to this relay as initiating contact. Operators shall ensure the loading of the BUS. GCB CT CT 50 2/50-1 2/50-2 G 2/50-2 50 2/50-1 Fig 7. The scheme is as shown in fig 7. this protection will operate.Two stage protections are available and stage-1 protection gives trip impulse to the Incomer Breaker and the Stage-2 protection gives trip impulse to GCB. 7. an additional protection Breaker Failure Protection or Local Breaker Backup Protection ( LBB) shall be provided.

Loss of three Converters 4. some more protections also required to safeguard the machine. Stage-2 12. RESET of PLC Processor 13. if the current value is more than set value. The stage -1 Generators has Static Excitation System and the trippings are as given below. Excitation Transformer O / C Stage-2 8.18 Other Miscellaneous Protection on Generator: Besides the above protection functions. Details of the bus bar protection is dealt in chapter 10 . Manual Mode Switched OFF 10. DC / DC Converter Failure 9. this relay operates. Details of these trippings and concept of excitation system is dealt with in chapter 9 Trips : 1. Channel –3 in operation and Failed 11. Ch-2 DC Short Circuit 15. Met/ Hour and the purity of the water shall be more than 200 K Ohms-Cm. 7. Lesser flow of water results in to in efficient cooling of the stator winding and lead in to damage of the Winding. Excitation Over Current Instantaneous 7. The case has been taken as stage-1 VTPS generators. Excitation Transformer Temp. Ch-1 DC Short Circuit 14. The stator water flow is being monitored and the value shall be more than 27 Cub. Channel-1 & Channel -2 Faulty and Manual Mode OFF / Faulty 3. Ch-3 DC Short Circuit b) Stator Water Flow Emergency: The Stage-1 generator is THW type. Rotor Over Voltage 2. a) Excitation Protection: Excitation equipment is having more logics and it has very important protections. Operation of this LBB or BFR relay will initiate Bus Bar protection scheme. Tripping of the excitation equipment needs Generator tripping otherwise machine will act as asynchronous mode. AVR in Test 6. Operation of the Bus Bar protection needs resetting of the Bus Bar protection at MCR and then 96X relay at GRP and then proceed for the start up operations.can be set and after the set time. The trip relay 96 for the Generator is connected to Lock out relay and 96 relay also initiates another auxiliary relay 96X at generator Protection panel. It requires DM water for cooling stator winding. Fuse AVR Supply 5. 96X relay will initiate tripping of the motors of that unit boards to prevent overloading of the Station Transformer. The protections and the settings for these functions are listed as below. 47 .

The following protections are provided for the Generator Stator Water Flow : Alarm 18 TPH Trip 13 TPH with time 60 Secs Trip initiates a timer 2/ 7A and after set time. e. i. Level Low contact of this tank will initiate an alarm and subsequently. The seal oil scheme is having storage tank. 7. b. some more protections have been provided for the GT. Bucholtz Trip Set Value Aux relay 30 D 48 . Bucholtz Alarm b. g. d. Alarm relays will generate an alarm and trip relays will initiate a auxiliary relay and then lock out relay Protection a.20 Other Miscellaneous Protection on Unit Auxiliary Transformer: Other than electrical protections. some more protections have been provided for the UAT. f. To prevent hydrogen escaping from the machine to atmosphere through bearings.18 Other Miscellaneous Protection on Generator Transformer: Other than electrical protections. Damper Tank and the level of this tank shall be monitored for better functioning of the protection. Oil temperature and Winding Temperature trips are connected to trip the UAT Incomer breaker on LV switchgear ( Reducing the load on the Transformer will reduce Oil Temperature and winding temperature) and other trips will initiate lock out relays.e. seal oil is provided at bearings with pressure more than the Hydrogen. Operation of this timer will initiate Lock out relay. For UAT – A: Protection a. Alarm relays will generate an alarm and trip relays will initiate a auxiliary relay. Very Low Level contact initiates a time 2/11 with setting Secs. Bucholtz Alarm Bucholtz Trip Oil Temperature Alarm / Trip Winding Temperature Alarm / Trip OLTC Bucholtz Oil Level Low Alarm Fire Protection Set Value Aux relay 30 A 30 C 30 B 30 M 30 N 85 / 90 C 95 / 105 7. relay initiates Lock out relay and thus the machine will trip Stator Water Purity : < 50 k Ohm-Cm Trip initiates a auxiliary relay 30 X and this relay initiates Lock out relay and thus the machine will trip c) Damper Tank Emergency: Generator Rotor and the stator core have been provided with hydrogen cooling. c.

c. e. d. g. f. Bucholtz Alarm Bucholtz Trip Oil Temperature Alarm / Trip Winding Temperature Alarm / Trip OLTC Bucholtz Oil Level Low Alarm Fire Protection Set Value Aux relay 30 G 30 J 30 H 30 L 30 Q 80 / 90 90 / 100 49 . e. g. d. b. f. Oil Temperature Alarm / Trip Winding Temperature Alarm / Trip OLTC Bucholtz Oil Level Low Alarm Fire Protection 80 / 90 90 / 100 30 F 30 E 30 K 30 P For UAT – B: Protection a.c.

3. GC 87 NT Relay Model CAG14AF16A CAG34 AF 8001A(M) Available Settings Ps : Ps 121 V(17./59 G 99 37 2. 86 T TMS 0.4 V.5 % Fixed) 2 Secs 0.5 % Fixed) 2 Secs 5 Secs 60 Secs 1 mA / 30 K Ohms 2 Secs K1 : 0.Diff Prot Ps : 0. Relay Reverse Power Prot. I 2s 7..5 Ohms 5./46 51G 64 G VTT 11ZG 8254 B(M) CTU SPECM55BF1A VDG 14 AF 1151 A5 VAGM 22AF 17 B VTT 11ZG 8094 B(M) GTT 21AF 8001 A(M) WCD 12 BF 2027 A VTT 11ZG 8094 B(M) WCD 11 BF 2088 A5 VTT 11ZG 8094 B(M) VTT 11ZG 8154 B(M) VTT 11ZG 8097 B(M) VAEM 21 AF 1D VTT 11ZG 8093 B(M) YCGF 11 AF 1A Over Voltage Prot 59G Aux. 86 B 50 .7. 2. 4 Adapted Settings PS 3. 1 CAG14AF2A CDG11AF209A5 86 G 3 4 G.25 K : 1. 86 Y 1 To 10 Secs 2 Secs K : 1 To 1. TMS 86 GT V 0.1 Amps 86 GT 35.25.5 % Fixed) 1 To 10 Secs 1 To 10 Secs 12 To 120 Secs 0. 86 Y 0. 86 Y 86 G.5 To 10 Amps 4.4 Ps To 5 Secs K 1 :0.1 Ohm K4 : 0.2.5% 1 86 G 10 1.75 A Bias 15.1 30 16 0.15. Prot 87 GT 5 DTH 32HG 8002A(M) 6 Neg.5./32 2/32 YA 2/32 YT 64 F1 Ps:.30..5 % Fixed) 1 To 10 Secs 0. 0.45 86 GT High Set 50 Amps K1 1 To 10.6 86 G 86 G.1. 0.75 To 1 K2 : 0.. 7.25 Amps Stab. REF Prot GT Standby Earth 51NTX Fault Overall Diff.12. 3.1.5 To 25 Secs 5 Secs Ps :5.5 To 4 Ohms K3 : 0.5%. Relay 7 8 9 10 11 Overload Alarm Stator e/f Prot 2.GB. Aux.20 Ps 5.85 K2 : 3. 2.The settings of the Stage-1 Generator are as given in the table for ready reference : Sl..4 Amps 86 GT.5 K4 : 3 K5 : 18. Res : 16..5 Amps Lock Out 86 G 2 Gen.5.no Protection 1 Inter Turn Relay No 87TG 87GA. 86 Y 12 13 14 15 Aux.1 To 0.325 121 To 154 Volts KV) 86 G..75 Amps 2. P/u 0. Relay 2/64 F1 Field Failure Prot 40 0. Sequence Protection 46 CTN 31 D8 FA 6 Aux..375..3 Ohm K5 : K3 : 0.95.78 15 4 20 7.7 Ps 0. Relay Anti Motoring : Annunciation Trip I st Rotor e/f Prot 2. K1 3.625..4.T.2. 3.5 to 5 Minutes 5 Minutes 2. Relay Over Flux prot Forward Power Prot Aux.12 86 G.45 Bias 30 %. Ps 0.3 Amps.9 Alarm 70 % To I2s 80 % 100 % (Alarm) I 2s K3 K3 1.875.25../37 32 2.5.

.1 VTT 11ZG 8093 B(M) 0..2.5 To 25 Secs 10 Secs Ps: Ps 80..56.55. B/u Impedance Aux Relay 40 GZ 2/2B1 2/2B2 27 G 21A.5 To 5 Secs 10 Amps 86 GT 1 Sec 30/64 F2 X Lock Out Relay 2/64 F2Y 27 P 27 A 50 T 1 A / 50 T 1 B 2A/50 T1 2B/50 T1 51 T 1A / 51 T1 B 2/51 T 1A 87 T 1A / VTT 11ZG 8154 B(M) VAGM 61 BF 6A VAGM 61 BF 6A CAG 37 AF 9 D VTT 11ZG 8093 B(M) VTT 11ZG 8093 B(M) CAG 19 AF 1A VTT 11 ZG 8154 B(M) DTH 31 FF 8008 A(M) 19 20 21 22 23 0.68 1 To 10 Secs 5 Sec Bias 30 %.58.B.. 1.9 Volts D/off : 44.5 To 5 Secs 0.7 V(11.5 1.1 mA 1 mA 86 B 1 To 10 Secs D/off : 44.5 .30.75 A Bias 15.4.9 To 1 K1 :0.3 K1 : 6 K2 : YCG 15 PF 8001 A(M) K2 : 1 0. 86 T P/u 0...79 86 GT.65. K3 : 4 1.5 Sec Ps : 2.5 VAGM 22 AF 19 A 44.45 High Set 50 Amps 86 G The mechanical protection settings are as given below: 51 .02 O1 : 75 degrees O2 : 75 degrees O2 : 75 degrees O2 : 75 degrees ZTO 11PF 1A 86 G K2 : K2 : VAA SPECM 2BF487A VTT 11ZG 8094 A(M) 1 To 10 secs 2 Secs VTT 11ZG 8095 A(M) 2..65.16. x I : x I : 1 to 2.9 Volts 10 To 40 Amps t : 40 To 80 msecs t : 52.18..2 K1 : 12.82 0.3 Sec 0.32 CAEM 33 AF 1D x1 : 1 To 2 x1 : 1. Ps : 2.Auxilary Relay Timer Timer Under Voltage Prot Gen.0 Secs K1 : K3 : 0.Prot AC fail Aux Voltage Balance Relay Voltage Balance Relay UAT B/U Over Current Relay Auxilary Relay Auxilary Relay Inst O/c Relay (Annunciation) Auxilary Relay UAT Diff Prot 87 T 1B 9.6.C 2A / 21 2B / 21 16 17 Pole Slipping Prot 98 2nd Rotor e/f Prot 64f2 18 Aux. Secs VTT 11ZG 8094 B(M) 1 To 10 Secs 3.82 0.52KV) 3.5 To 5 Secs 2.

2 GT OLTC Bucholtz GT on Fire UAT .1B Winding Temp High Stage .1B Oil Temp High Stage .2 GT Winding Temp High Stage .1B on Fire Available Relay No Settings Alarm 2/7A 30 X 2 / 11 30 R 30 A Alarm 30 B Alarm 30 C 30 M 30 N 30 D Alarm 30 E Alarm 30 F 30 K 30 P 30 G Alarm 30 H Alarm 30 J 30 L 30 Q 90 C 100 C 80 C 90 c 90 C 100 C 80 C 90 c 95 C 105 C 85 C 90 C 18 TPH 13 TPH 50 k Ohms Lock Out 86 B 86 B 86 B 86 G 86 G 86 B 86 B 86 GT 86 GT 86 GT Trips UAT A I/C Trips UAT A I/C 86 GT 86 GT 86 GT Trips UAT A I/C Trips UAT A I/C 86 GT 86 GT 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 52 .1B OLTC Bucholtz UAT .no Protection 1 Stator Water Flow Emergency 2 Stator Water Flow Emergency Stator Water Specific Resistance Very Low Damper Tank Emergency Excitation Protection GT Buchholtz Stage .1 UAT .2 UAT .1 UAT .1A Oil Temp High Stage .1A Buchholtz Stage .2 UAT .2 UAT .1A OLTC Bucholtz UAT .1 GT Winding Temp High Stage .Sl.1A Winding Temp High Stage .1A Oil Temp High Stage .1 UAT .2 UAT .1 GT Oil Temp High Stage .1B Winding Temp High Stage .1A on Fire UAT .2 UAT .2 GT Oil Temp High Stage .1A Winding Temp High Stage .1 UAT .2 UAT .1B Buchholtz Stage .1B Oil Temp High Stage .

e. A I n f e e d 1 . 0 S e c C B 0 . the time gradation will not allow to operate for the fault beyond Section C. There are several methods of protecting the Transmission lines. snow. CB at C operates first with a time delay of 0. Non-Unit type protection again divided into  Time graded Over current protection  Current Graded Over current protection Unit type protection includes Pilot wire differential protection. 5 S e c F i g 8 . around 90 % of the faults occurred in these lines only and among these faults.1 Time Graded Over Current protection ( Non-directional): The protection philosophy for time Non-directional graded Over Current protection is shown in fig 8. 8. 53 .. 90% faults are transient in nature..8. Because of Geography of these lines.1 Over Current Protection: The Over Current protection can be divided in to Non-Unit type and Unit Type protections.. 1 N o n . Transmission Line Protection Power system network is connected by number of transmission lines and the power from Generating station is transmitted to various substations through these lines.1. i. Though the fault beyond C is sensed by A and B. Protective system for identifying these faults is very important to safe guard power grid from more disturbances.3 sec.  Over Current Protection  Distance Protection 8. the damage to the power system components will be more. Popularly the following two methods are in more usage. Separate and effective protection for earth faults is necessary to overcome the frequent earth faults in the transmission lines. these lines are prone for faults due to vegetation. etc.1. lines can be restored immediately after the tripping.D i r e c Ct i P o r n o a t l e T t i im o ne c g r a d e d O / For a fault beyond section C. If faulty line is not isolated with in the time. In the power system network. carrier current protection based on phase comparison method etc.

3 54 . the breaker at A operates after 1. Definite time O/C relays also used.3 Current Graded Over Current protection: The long time delays in the time graded systems can be avoided by using the Current grading O/C protection.1. This system is suitable only for radial feeders only and IDMT relays are preferred for achieving the time gradation. 8. This protection employs high speed and high set O/C relays. Earth fault protection can be provided by residual connection of CTs. CB at B operates with a delay of 0.2 Time Graded Over Current protection (Directional): Directional O/C protection for the parallel feeders and for the ring mains is shown in the fig 8.5 Sec and for the fault between A & B.0 Sec. 2 D i r e c t i o C n P a rl o T t ie m c t e i o g n r a f od re d O / a r a l l e l F e e d e r s a n d f o r R i n g m a i n s The requirement for Directional and Non-directional O/C relays shall be as shown in the figure in the ring main system. The scheme is shown in fig 8.For the Fault between sections B and C.2 F i g P 8 . This protection system serves from the following drawbacks: o o o o o Applicable only for radial feeders Method is not suitable for Ring Main systems Change in the network needs revision of the settings Intentional time lags during faults may damage the system Over travel of the protective relays may cause more disturbance in the system 8. In some areas.1.

use of IDMT relays along with instantaneous protection may solve the problems. these schemes are limited up to HV networks only. Current I and power factor Ǿ are converted into two variables R and X. However.1 R – X Diagram : R-X diagram is very useful in plotting distance relay characteristics. this scheme suffers from the following difficulties: o Magnitude of the fault current can not be determined accurately o Fault current varies form the type of the fault To overcome the problems with instantaneous protection.2 Distance Protection: A distance relay is one whose operation is based on measurement of impedance. Foe EHV Lines. reactance o admittance of the line between the location of the relay and the fault point. 8. The Voltage V. As this type of protection suffers from over reach and delayed protections.2. 4 R . The following two equations can be recollected for better idea of the concept. The distance relays are being extensively used. 8. The same can be represented in the diagram called as R-X diagram as shown in fig 8.X d i a g r a m 55 . R = Z x Cos Ǿ X = Z x Sin Ǿ Ǿ is +ve if I lags V and –ve if I leads V. 3 C u r C e P n r t o tg e r c a t d i oe nd r By using the above scheme. the current graded O/C protection can be provided. 5 A 1 0 A 5 A 3 / 5 3 0 0 / 5 C 3 3 0 0 A F i g 3 3 0 0 / 5 B O / 8 .1 2 .4 j X Z R L C o c u s o o n sZ t a n f t F i g 8 .

This relay suffers from the disadvantages like it is Non-directional relay and affected by arc resistance of the line fault and sensitive for power swings.4 Mho Distance Relay: Mho relay is also called as Admittance relay. The Mho characteristic on R-X diagram is a circle passes through its origin.2.3 Reactance Relay: The reactance relay characteristic shall have a constant X component. In the event of the fault. The Characteristic is as shown in the fig 8.2 Directional Impedance Rely: The direction of power flow can be sensed by measuring phase angle between Voltage and Current. Directional Impedance relay is as shown in the figure 8. The characteristic is 56 . where X the reactance between the relay location and fault point. This relay measures Y and θ. j X L o o n c R I m C h R u s o . the point Z will be out of the relay locus. 5 D i r e c t i o n a l I m p e d a n c e R e l a y 8. i.The setting.6 and all the reactance relays are Directional restraint relays.2.X f D F a u l t P i a g r a m o i n t p e d a n c e a r a c t e r i s t i c D i r e c t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c F i g 8 . the Z value comes to lower values and if touches the relay locus. Above the directional characteristic line and below the relay locus is the relay operating zone. 8.e the diameter of the Circle depends on the length of the line Z.5. j X S e t t i n g R F i g 8 . Under normal conditions.2. 6 R e a c t a n c e R e la y 8. the relay operates.

characteristic is as shown in fog 8. 8 : 3 - Z o n e M H O R e l a y From the fig 8. Zone -1 is its own length of line protected area and other two zones shall be back up protections for the subsequent lines. 7 M H O R e la y 8. Similarly a fault between S/S B & C shall be identified by 3 & 4 and the fault between C & D shall be identified by 5 & 6 and all the corresponding breakers shall be opened.obtained by polarizing the impedance relay and directional reactance relay.1 a 1 A L E N G T H C c b 2 3 B D 4 R 5 o n e .C & D are interconnected and CBs are provided at both the ends of the transmission lines. the same fault will be identified by the relay at location 1 with delay t2 sec. The Fig 8.3: Transmission Line Protection In general. It is very clear that a fault between A & B shall be identified by the relays at locations 1 & 2 and both the Breakers 1 & 2 shall open.2 o n e . four sub stations A. The Transmission Line protective relays shall be Directional relays and the direction shall see towards the transmission line.B.8. For a fault between C & D.3 j X F i g 8 . the fault shall be identified by Breaker 3 and it operates after delay t1 Sec and if 3 also fails to operate. Z T im e ( t) Z Z o n e .7. j X The R F ig 8 . Relays connecting each breaker are directional type and the direction shall see towards the transmission line.8 represents 3 zone protections. 57 . All these protections are instantaneous as they are monitoring the faults with in their zone of protections. if breaker 5 is not opened. the Transmission Line should have a 3-zone protection.

its own protected line and 50 % of its next section ( BC) with time delay t1 sec Zone 3: The location shall be at ‘c’. next section(BC) and 50 % of its next section ( CD) with time delay t2 sec Similarly. It is very clear that the for the longer lines the Reactance is more and hence the relay characteristic moves towards Y axis.Now let us identify the zone of protection for the relay at location 1. The phase angle for the load impedance is between +/. for all the relays at each location. t3 Zone timings shall be selected in grade with the relays on all the feeders emanating from the adjacent bus 8. The difference between the relay operation on load and fault conditions is. The problem of load encroachment can be overcome by selecting the suitable relay characteristics for the long and heavily loaded lines.3. ie. Thus for the load parameters only. the concepts for the zone selection for the larger networks are as follows:  Zone 1 : 80 % of the protected Line Impedance ( Instantaneous)  Zone 2 : 100 % of Protected Line Impedance + 50 % Impedance of Adjoining Shortest Line ( With time delay t1 Sec)  Zone 3 : 100 % of Protected Line Impedance + 120 % Impedance of Adjoining Shortest Line ( With time delay t2 Sec)  Zone 4 : 100 % of Protected Line Impedance + 120 % Impedance of Adjoining Longest Line ( With time delay t3 Sec) And t1 < t2 . There is every possibility of encroaching the load impedance with relay characteristic for these lines. In Quad characteristic. The best fitted characteristic in these conditions is a Quadrilateral characteristic. 8. instead of taking the Impedance ( ‘Z’) into consideration. ie. The longer the line. its own protected line ( AB). it is 60 to 80 º .2 MHO / Quad Characteristics: The MHO relays impedance locus is proportion to the Line Impedance. 80 % its own protected line (AB)and time is instantaneous Zone 2: The location shall be at ‘b’. ie. the relay may operate and causes tripping of the CB.30º and for the short circuits. The characteristic is shown in the fig. the components Resistance( R) and Reactance ( X) shall be taken separately. In general. the zones will be identified and suitable settings shall be identified. the larger is the diameter of the Circle. the phase angle. Zone 1: The location shall be at ‘a’.9 58 .

Ex : EE make PYTS. For a 3 zone protection. first the starters will pickup and depending up on the starter operation.Switched. Static Relay) (Switched. 9 Q u a d r i l a t e r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 8.3. ABB make RAZOA and ER make THR 4PE1 relays. the scheme shall have 18 relays. Under Voltage type) In the event of fault. Examples : EE make SHPM.Switched. YN & BN) in each zone of protection. Static Relay) (Switched. The scheme will have Four starters in R. ABB make RAZFE relays  Switched Distance Protection Scheme: These scheme shall have One measuring element. Y. Over Current type. The distance schemes available at VTPS switchyard are dealt here with. Static Relay) (Non.X Z Z Z R 3 2 1 F i g 8 . YB and BR) and Earth faults ( RN. Microprocessor Relay) ( Numerical relay) (Non.3. Static Relay) (Switched. Numerical Relay) 8. the measuring relay shall be switched over to measure the impedance of the fault and clears as per the settings.         EE make SHPM EE make PYTS ER make THR4PE1 ABB make RAZFE ABB make RAZOA Alstom make PD 521 Alstom make MICOM GE make D 60 (Non. RY. B & N phases and the starter is also an impedance relay and the setting of the starter is more than Zone 3 value (Starters may be impedance type.Switched.3 SHPM Relay : 59 .2 Distance Protection Schemes: Depending up on the methods of Distance protection. the schemes generally classified into:  Non Switched Distance Protection Scheme : This scheme shall have separate impedance relays for Phase faults ( 3 Nos.Switched. Numerical Relay) (Non.

The characteristic is as shown in fig 8. check the power supply module. X Z Z Z R 1 2 3 F i g 8S . The relay characteristic is either Mho or Lenticular characteristic.A non-switched static relay have 3 zones and Zone-1 extension. Zon2 Starter Zone 3 Indication Module Voltage module Current Module DC / DC Converter The power supplies can be checked by the test plug at the socket SK2. H 0PL Me n 1 t i c C u hl a a r r a c t e r i s t i c The Modules available on the relay are :         Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5 Module 6 Module 7 Power supply Module RRZ 07 000 001B RRM 08 010 000B RRM 09 012 000 RCL 10 001 002B RFV 04 004 000 B RVC 53 000 000 RFC 15 000 000 A ZRE 01 002 000 Basic Setting Module Zone1.10. + 12 V Terminal 2 to 16 -12 V Terminal 2 to 15 +5 V Terminal 2 to 14 + 24 V Terminal 2 to 3 If the above supplies are not available. The Functions are controlled through the selector switches as below: SWITCH LHS RHS SW9 PSB Disabled PSB Enabled SW8 Week In-feed option disabled Enabled SW7 Week In-feed Trip disabled Enabled SW6 Normal A/R Block A/R SW5 Disabled comparator self check Enabled SW4 Normal A/R Block A/R SW3 VTS Indication only VTS Indication & Block SW2 SOTF Dead time 110 Sec SOTF Dead time 200 Sec SW1 SOTF for any comparator operation SOTF for Currents & No volts if any 60 . The Lenticular characteristic prevents load encroachment phenomenon and the available functions can be enabled / disabled by the selector switches.

The relay characteristic is as shown in the figure 8.11 & 12 13 14 RPD 62 003 000 RWR 01 002 000 RWR 02 002 000 RMA 03 030 001 RTD 04 55 000 B RFV 01 004 001 RVM 01 242 000 RVC 02 041 000A RCB 01 001 000 D RSZ 01 001 000 D RSC 03 001 001 C RFC 02 001 010 A Purpose Power supply module DC switching module AC switching Mho Measuring Module Zone Timer Module AC Voltage Module Fault Indicator Power Swing Blocking Starters for three phase Neutral Starter Unit Current Interface Module There are some special precautions need to be taken for commissioning of the relay: Module 2 Module 5 Module 5 Module 6 Module 6 Module 7 Module 9 Link 1 Link 2 Link 6 Link 1 Link 2 If the protection is BVT.3.operative) SOTF (IN : Enabled/ OUT : Disabled) IN : Set voltage inhibit level above which the SOTF will not Operate and OUT : SOTF operates irrespective of Voltage if starter operates Link 1 “A” : Flag operation is controlled by external trip relay “B “ Flag operation is in built Link 9 ‘A” : Common impedance starter override is connected “B” above is disconnected 61 . Select to ‘A’ else ‘B’ Zone 4 Directional / Non – directional Operation of Zone 4 ( IN : Operative / OUT : non.4 PYTS Relay : This is the Switched distance relay in static family and the relay is having Three directional Zones and a fourth zone having facility to choose the option directional / Nondirectional.8.11 X S Z 3 Z Z R 1 2 t a r t e r F i g P8 .Y 1 TC S h 1 a r a c t e r i s t i c The list of the modules in the PYTS scheme is as below: Module No Module Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10.

The relay has 11 internal modules and associated auxiliary relays as listed below for complete protection scheme. 3 step.switched relay. Fig 8. Z o n e 3 Z Z o n e 2 Z Z o n e 1 Z o o n o n e n e e 1 2 3 P h a s e F a u l t s E a r t h F a u l t s F i g 8 R . 931 Time lag relays type RXKB -1 for Zone 2 & 3 937 Signal Indicator type RXSK 2M 943 DC/DC Converter RTQA 180 1119 Input Relay type RXMBB-1 X and R in Each Zone : Xi = f *c*a / ( In *Pi) i = 1.5 RAZFE Relay : RAZFE is a static. 1 A 0 Z RF E l a y e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Internal Modules: Location  B1 Module  B2 Module  B3 Module  B4 Module  B5 Module  B6 Module  B7 Module  B8 Module  B9 Module  B10 Module  B11 Module Purpose Phase to Phase Measurement Phase to earth & 3-ph fault measurement for measuring Vr Phase to earth & 3-ph fault measurement for measuring Vd Reaches Phase selection and these modules are interchangeable Testing Card ( Generally not provided) for factory use Tripping & Start logic Tripping for 3 phase Power Swing Blocking o o o o o o o o o o o Auxiliary Relays: Location Purpose 101 Transformer and Compensating Unit with adjustment knobs 901 Test Switch RTXP 18 907 1103 Auxiliary Tripping Relay type RXME-1 1113 913 Tripping Unit RXMBA -1 919 Zero sequence unit RXIED-1 925.8.2 & 3 and Rb = b / In 62 .3.12 Shows the relay characteristic. Relay has two different characteristics for Phase and earth faults. 3 phase Non. Operating time of the relay is 20 to 40 mSec.

2 o n e . Starter Description Converts the station DC to +/.8.3 . RGAA 030 Current Setting ‘a’ : influences Reactive Reach . ‘b’ : Influences Resistive reach RGAB 030 Voltage Setting For setting the reach of measuring zones RGTA Time Lag Unit Having 10 switches for most common programs RGZA 030 Extra Measuring Not in basic model.1 R R R 1= 3 . 2 2= R 3= R * b PI n1 * 1 * P /1 P 2 1 * P 1 /P 3 F i g 8 R. Phase comparator and the reach can be programmed to follow Zone 1. Relay is having built-in functional test and the operation of the relay is around 20 mSec. X X X 1 = 3 . 2 f ** a I n P* 1 5 0 2= X 3= X 1* P 1* P /1 P 2 1 /P 3 * S Z Z Z t a r t e r o n e o n e .11.6 RAZOA Relay : RAZOA is a Static and Switched protection. The relay can be of under impedance starter ( can be made to operate with a circle or oval characteristic with a selectable switch) by using microprocessor in measuring circuit. Both phase and earth fault characteristics is quadrilateral type and as shown in fig 8. 1 A1 Z OR Ae l a y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Module Information: Module Type RXTUG 21 RGKC 070 RGZB 030 Purpose DC/DC Converter Input Unit Under Imp. Correct determination of direction by means of healthy phase polarization and memory circuit. Oval / Circular characteristics is available RGGB 030 Phase selector Controlled by starting elements and transfers these to the measuring unit for evaluation of the fault.2 or 3 RGLA 030 Memory Circuit Incorporates the memory circuit to determine the direction in the event of 3 –ph faults RGSB 030 Measuring & Consists Measuring element and a phase comparator Indication Programmable Data Input Details of the program fed to the relay RGKD 050 Output Contains electromechanical relays RTSG Transformer Mounted on rear of the relay includes 4 CTs and 3 PTs Unit 63 .12 V DC Dry reed relays for the functions and four outputs Measuring functions for Under Impedance & for zero sequence currents..3.

Fixed Scheme logic . 4 CT 16 bits ADC 64-way ribbon cable (BUS) Main Processor & User Interface PCB (DSP TMS 320C32 40 MHz) .Filtering .12 Power Supply PCB Opto input PCB Relay PCB Relay PCB 8 inputs 7 outputs 7 outputs (P442 only) Fig 8.Comm .3.Threshold calculation .Programmable Scheme Logic . The relay has five zones for both phase and earth fault protection. 8.12 MICOM RelayRelay PCB Characteristic Opto input Relay PCB 7 outputs (P442only ) 8 opto Transformer inputs & PCB Analogue PCB 4 VT. Zone-P is programmable zone and can be set for directional Forward or reverse zone. Zone 4 is directional reverse zone. Zones 1.7 MICOM Relay ( P 442): ALSTOM make MICOM relay is a Numerical relay.Analogue quantities acquisition .Distance algorithms Fig 8.8.13 Hardware Architecture of MICOM relay 64 . The characteristic is as shown in fig.& HMI Management Batter SK2 SK1 y IRIG-B PCB (P442 only) BNC Rx1 Tx1 Co-processor PCB (DSP TMS 320C32 40 MHz) .2 & 3 are directional Forward Zone.

13. The Fig 8.14.14 BLOCK Diagram of D 60 Relay The relay Block diagram is as shown in Fig 8. currents. voltages.3.8 GE make D 60 Relay: Fig 8. The relay used at VTPS with model No: P 442 312 B2A0070B is having 21 Input and 16 outputs.15 Shows the characteristic. VT / CT supervision  Circuit Breaker Failure Protection Non – Protection Functions:        Auto reclose with check synchronism Measurements of power. 65 . The Relay is having both Quad / Mho characteristics as selectable by the user. Relay has the following features: Protection Features:  5 Zone Phase and earth fault protection  Over Current Protection ( Instantaneous & Delayed)  Directional Earth Fault protection  Under Voltage & Over Voltage Protection  Negative sequence protection ( Directional / Non – directional)  SOTF and Reclose protection  Power Swing Blocking. etc Event Recorder / Disturbance recorder / Fault recorder / Fault locator Four setting groups Remote serial communication Self monitoring CB control / condition monitoring 8.The hardware architecture of the MICOM P 442 is as shown the fig 8.

3. The functions available are more or less similar to MICOM relays.16. 3 are programmable. Switched scheme with 3 offset mho starters and one mho measuring unit. 8.10 ER make THR 4PE1 Relay: Static. This relay is having additional benefits as below:  48 LEDs are available for user configuration  Two Breakers can be configured  Four control Pushbuttons are user programmable and can be configured for CB close / Trip  Modular construction and easily upgradeable 8. It has total 16 inputs and 16 outputs. Relay is having 12 LED indications and out of 12.3. The starter has a built in reverse reach equal to 50 % of forward reach for phase faults and 50% of 66 . Fault data can be seen from the relay in the addresses specified.15 Relay Characteristic of D 60 Relay The Relays at VTPS is having the Model No: D60 E00 HCH F8F H6U P6T U6U .Fig 8. The relay characteristic is as shown in the fig 8. It is a four zone protective relay. the relay settings can be loaded through the HMI.9 Alstom make PD 521 Relay: PD 521 is a numerical relay with polygon characteristic.

67 . which can follow a power system disturbance. it is a power swing. These power swings may touches the relay characteristics and there is a chance of relay operation. 8. which is under disturbance. CB Manual Close command is being monitored and enabled for the set time say for 1. Detection of this protection will initiate tripping of the CB instantaneously and Auto reclose can be blocked. Identification of power swings shall be done by monitoring the rate of change of impedance. Hence identify the power swing and block the distance protection.2 Power Swing Blocking: Power swings in the system are the oscillations in power flow. 15 72 1R e l a y TC Hh 4 aR P r Ea c1 t e r i s t i c o The THR relay comprises the following modules:  Phase Fault Input Module  Output Module  Matrix card with the following modules connecting the matrix card o VTS & N o PSB o MME o Zone 4 R o Zone 4 Y o Zone 4 B o Directional Earth Fault – Test o Timer 8. 8. 1 6 R e l a y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o F f i gP D8 . The relay characteristic is as shown in the fig 8.0 sec. ( Kn : Neutral Compensating Factor). Loss of Synchronism.17 S t a r t e r Z Z Z o o o n n n e e e 3 2 .4.forward reach ( 1 + Kn ) for earth faults. it is fault and if is slow.4.4. Sustained faults and switching operations in the system are the causes for the power swings. If the rate of change of impedance is fast.1 Switch On To Fault Protection: This protection shall identify the faults in any of the zone at the time of closing the Circuit Breaker.1 Z o n e 4 F i g 8 . Other Protection Features of Distance Protection: The distance Protection relay shall also perform the following protection features apart from the Impedance protection. which is undesirable as this tripping may worsen the power system.

A semi permanent fault could be caused by a small tree branch falling on the line. The cause of the fault may not be removed by the immediate tripping of the circuit. The same voltage will be tapped and given to the relay through the links. if the faulty line is immediately tripped out. Thus several time delayed shots may be required in forest areas. the feeder may be given tripping. In the majority of fault incidents.7 Auto reclose: An analysis of faults on any overhead line network has shown that 8090% are transient in nature. Maintenance staff should check for the causes of VT failures. 8. reclosure of the circuit breakers 68 .4.20% of faults are either semi. In fault conditions both the voltage and current parameters will change. This feature operates on detection of derived zero sequence currents in the absence of corresponding zero sequence voltage which would normally accompany it. As the faults are generally self clearing ‘non damage’ faults.5 CT Supervision: Failure of one or more CT signals may lead to mal operation or non operation of the scheme and simultaneously. followed by a reclose cycle for the circuit breakers.3 Negative sequence over current protection: Any unbalanced fault condition will produce negative sequence current of some magnitude. suitable alarms shall be generated with blocking some functions.4. Permanent faults could be broken conductors. This function is very much useful in attending the transmission lines. Definite time or IDMT characteristics can be associated with this negative sequence current protection. other possibilities being clashing conductors and wind blown debris. the fault locator will convert this data in to the fault location. a healthy restoration of supply will result.4. For the lines. transformer faults or cable faults which must be located and repaired before the supply can be restored. 8. A conventional relay scheme provides a fuse failure relay which will get the voltages through the fuses. If the substation is connecting the power station. The function operates on detection of residual voltages without the presence of Zero and negative sequence currents and earth fault current. 8. and time is allowed for the fault arc to de-ionise. these negative sequence currents would cause overheating of the Generators. As the distance protection relay depends on the Voltage parameter and loss of voltage may lead to the relay operation. Healthiness of CT circuits shall be ensured and if found faulty. Only change in Voltage parameters indicates that the Voltage circuits is failed. an open circuit in the CT circuits may damage the equipment. The remaining 10 .6 Fault Locator: Depending up on the fault parameters. VTS function blocks the distance protection scheme with an alarm. 8.4 VT Supervision: VT Supervision function is to detect the failure of ac voltages to the relay. this negative sequence current protection generally connected to Alarm and at the operator discretion.8.4. Lightning is the most common cause. A negative sequence over current element can operate for both phase –p phase and phase – earth faults. but could be burnt away/thrown clear after several further reclose attempts or “shots”. which is undesirable. Such faults can be cleared by the immediate tripping of one or more circuit breakers to isolate the fault.4. Failure of fuse will rise the potential applied across the relay and relay will operate and blocks the distance protection.permanent or permanent.

High speed single phase auto reclosure then follows. particularly since Reclosing on to a faulty cable is likely to aggravate the damage. EHV networks prefers One shot auto reclosing. The main advantages to be derived from using auto reclose can be summarised as follows:  Minimises interruptions in supply to the consumer.will result in the line being successfully re-energised. using the line to maintain synchronism between remote regions of a relatively weakly interconnected system.8 Sec Reclaim time : The time between 1st reclose and 2nd reclose. before lock out of the CB. Dead Time : The time between the Auto reclose being energised and the first reclosure of the CB and generally set as 1 sec. When considering feeders which are partly overhead line and partly underground cable. with obvious benefits.  Lower limit is decided by the de-ionising time of the CB  Upper limit is decided by the transient stability and synchronism  Long transmission line require longer dead time for single phase faults  The dead time for high speed auto reclose scheme with EHC schemes is 0. However. In generally. repeated attempts with high fault currents would lead to damage of the CB. When a significant proportion of the faults are permanent. Multi Shot Auto-reclosing: More then one reclosing attempts are made for a given fault before lockout of the CB. Auto reclose types based on Attempts: Single Shot Auto-reclosing: Only once the breaker is reclosed once on a given fault.3 – 0. 69 . This time shall be depend on the duty cycle of the CB and the mechanisms. the advantages of auto-reclosing are small. which is tripped on LG fault is reclosed without causing the interruption in interchange of synchronising power between two systems through other two healthy phases.  A high speed trip and reclose cycle clears the fault without threatening system stability. Single Phase Auto reclosing: Only faulty phase. leaving circuit breaker poles on the two un-faulted phases closed. The advantages and disadvantages of such single pole trip/reclose cycles are:  Synchronising power flows on the un-faulted phases. At sub transmission and transmission voltages. Auto reclose types based on phases: Three Phase Auto-reclosing: this type of auto reclosing causes an immediate drift apart of the two systems and hence no interchange of synchronising power can take place during the dead time. utilities often employ single pole tripping for earth faults. any decision to install auto-reclosing would be influenced by any data known on the frequency of transient faults.  However. the capacitive current induced from the healthy phases can increase the  time taken to de-ionise fault arcs.

8.4.8 Carrier Protection: The conventional distance protection scheme clears the faults above the 90 % of the line length in zone 2, i.e after a certain time delay and which is undesirable for the power system network. A healthy line protection system shall clears the faults in 100 % line length instantaneously and also should have a backup protection for adjacent networks. This feature can be derived by interconnecting the distance relays by a signaling network. The network can be either pilot wire, PLCC, microwave link or a radio link. This signal channel shall transmit the information about the system conditions at one end of the protected line to the other end and initiate or prevent the tripping of the other end breaker. The scheme looks like as shown in fig 8.18. Main functions of this scheme are Transfer Trip scheme and Blocking scheme.
+ V e Z T T 1 2 3 C R Z Z Z C 1 2 3 R V e C a r r i e r S e n d






2 T 3


2 3


2 3


i g

8 . 1 8


a r r i e r


r o t e c t i o n

Transfer Trip scheme : The distance relay at one end of the protected line sends a carrier signal to the other end relay for inter tripping and thus the fault will be cleared instantaneously. Blocking scheme: In this scheme, a blocking signal is sent by the reverse looking directional unit ZR to prevent instantaneous tripping for Zone2 & 3 faults, external to the protected line. ZR should be fast.


9. Bus Bar Arrangements
The Bus bar arrangements can be classified in to the following methods.

9.1SINGLE BUSBAR SYSTEM: All the equipment is connected to same Bus and in
the event of the fault entire section will be not available. This Bus bar arrangement can be seen at 132 kV S/S at VTPS & at Bhavanipuram





fault in one section, that particular section will be isolated and the other section is available for service







9.3 SINGLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM.: In the event of trouble in
breaker ( one at a time), it can be shifted to auxiliary Bus. Fault in bus will lead in to outage of the entire section.
B u s





T r a n s f e r B u s


9.4 DOUBLE BUSBAR SYSTEM.: Any Breaker can be connected to any one of the
Bus and a fault in one bus will lead in to outage of only that bus. Breaker troubles lead into outage of that line / Generator / Transformer

3 3 3 3 3

outages during bus faults is the major advantage with this arrangement. This is useful and economical for large Sub Stations. CB troubles lead into outage of that line.

3 3 3

3 3 3






Any feeder can be connected to ant of the bus. Transfer Breaker can be used for the troubles in CB and thus the outages are reduced. This bus bar arrangement can be seen at VTPS 220 kV switchyard.

3 3 3 3 3 3


1 T 3 C T C B . the scheme is very reliable and the advantages are as below:  The scheme has 3 breakers for two bays and thus called as One and Half breaker scheme ( 3 / 2 ) No bus Transfer through Isolators Maintenance of CB is easy and the loads get transferred to other Bus No disturbance for failure of any bus Failure of both the buses also does not affect the power transmission Location of CT leads in to four popular models of One and Half breaker scheme 9.2 2 A C 3 T 3 2 B C T The CT arrangement is as per the Figure.1 ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM ( 4CTs METHOD) B u s .7 ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM : CB LINE-1 CB LINE-2 CB LINE-3 CB LINE-4 CB 6 CTs METHOD CB T/F-4 CB 6 CTs METHOD CB T/F-3 CB 4 CTs METHOD CB T/F-1 CB T/F-2 CB 5 CTs METHOD     This is more popular in 400 kV networks.2 C B C .9.3 3 1 - 3 C B . Though number of Breakers are more.7.1 B u s . 73 .

 For Line 1 protection.1 B u s .1 T 3 C T C B . Current shall be derived from the summating values of 3-CT and 2-ACT  1-CT and 3-CT shall be used for Bus Bar protection  No blind zone is there in this protection The proposed 400 kV Sub station for VTPS Stage-IV is with this type of arrangement 9.7.CT  The zone between Bus CTs and Line CTs shall be covered by Teed protection by current differential protection 9. Current shall be derived from 1L-CT  For T/F -1 protection.1 B u s .2 3 3 1 LC T 2 C T 3 3 G - C T The CT arrangement is as per the Figure. 74 . Current shall be derived 3G. Current shall be derived from the summating values of 1-CT and 2-BCT  For T/F -1 protection.B C T The CT arrangement is as per the Figure.3 3 1 - 3 C B .A C 3 T 2 . For Line 1 protection.2 3 3 1 C B A C .1 C T T 3 - A 3C 3T T C B .7.2 C B C .3 ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM ( 6CTs METHOD-1) B u s .2 3 2 .3 1 -B 3 -B C C B .2 ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM ( 5CTs METHOD) B u s .

Current shall be derived from 3T-CT 1-CT and 3-CT shall be used for Bus Bar protection The zone between Bus CTs and Line CTs shall be covered by Teed protection by current differential protection 75 .7.2 C B C .1 T 3 C C B .3 3 1 - 3T C B .     For Line 1 protection.1 B u s . Current shall be derived from the summating values of 3-BCT and 2-ACT  1-ACT and 3-ACT shall be used for Bus Bar protection  No blind zone is there in this protection 9. For Line 1 protection.4 ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM ( 6CTs METHOD-2) B u s .2 2 A C 3 3 T B C 2 TT 3 1 L - C 3 3 G- C T The CT arrangement is as per the Figure. Current shall be derived from the summating values of 1-BCT and 2-BCT  For T/F -1 protection. Current shall be derived from 1L-CT For T/F -1 protection.

Under normal conditions. Bypass-1 and Bypass 2..1 High Impedance Differential Protection: The Merz. number of bus bars are available are : Main Bus 1 and Bus 2 and Two Transfer Buses. the sum of the currents will not be zero and the value flows through the relay and thus the differential relay operates. As this Bus Bar protection is very important and a mal operation may result in to severe disturbances. Hence the protection is required for Four Bus Bars or Zones. For each phase. In some substations. Overhead jumper cut and may fall on the bus bars Short circuits caused by birds and monkeys. Check feature or check zone protection will generally be incorporated in to this protection. the heavy fault currents may results into a faire accident. Operation of this relay will initiate the tripping of all the breakers connected to that bus bar. At VTPS. Usually the circulating current arrangement is being used. all the currents of all the feeders is summated and the resultant current is being given to the relay.price principle is applicable to a multi terminal zone as a bus bar. The details of protective zones and their protection scopes are as below at VTPS: 76 . Types of Bus Bar protections for EHV substations used more popularly are : o High Impedance Differential Protection o Low Impedance Differential Protection 10. because of the following reasons. If the bus faults are not cleared by high speed protective system. But is clear that the risk of occurrence of the bus faults can not be ignored and the delay in clearing the faults may lead into more damage as the fault MVA for the Bus faults is more.10. For Check protection. The principle is a direct application of Kirchhoff’s law. the sum of all the currents is zero and in the event of bus fault. sum of all the bus bar currents is used. bus bar protection was not incorporated:  The switchgear and bus bars used are of high degree of reliability  It was feared that accidental operation of bus bar protection might cause severe disturbance  It was opined that the protective relays and back up protection is sufficient for isolating the bus bar faults. Bus Bar protection Bus Bar faults can arise from any one of the following reasons:       Defective or damaged supporting insulators and thus causes a Phase to ground fault Flashover at Supporting insulators due to lightning or due to atmospheric dust Failure to remove the safety earthing devices before re-energisation of the bus Application of temporary ground device to a live bus through a mistake. The failure of a bus bar may results into instability of the power system.

Current Transformers: All the Current transformer CT ratios shall be same. Check Zone : Covers the Bus 1 and Bus -2 and monitors the sum of all the currents of the feeders / Generator / Transformers of Bus 1 and Bus -2 The components of the high Impedance Bus bar Protection scheme are – Ex : EE make Protection scheme at VTPS: • Bus bar differential protection relays ( 87 ) : CAG 34 • Bus Bar Supervision Relays ( 95) : VTX 31 • Stabilising Resistors • Non linear resistors ( Metrocils) • CT Switching relays : VAJC • Bus Bar Trip relays : VAJH • DC Supervision Relays ( 80) : VAA The scheme looks Like as below for One Bus : F O R M FEE C EDR T (8 0 A 0 /1 ) F O R M G N R T RC E EAO T (8 0 A 0 /1 ) T . 77 . Zone D : Covers the Bypass Bus -2 and monitors the sum of all the currents of the Bypass -1 CT and the currents of the bay that connected to the Bypass-2.T Rs t Rs t Rs t 8 7 0 A 9 5 8 7 0 A 9 5 8 7 0 A 9 5 The requirements of the High Impedance Bus Bar protection: 1. At VTPS.T C T S L C IO EE T N RL Y EAS T .B .Zone A : Covers the Bus -1 and monitors the sum of all the currents of the feeders / Generator / Transformers of Bus -1 and Bus Coupler Zone B : Covers the Bus -2 and monitors the sum of all the currents of the feeders / Generator / Transformers of Bus -2 and Bus Coupler Zone C : Covers the Bypass Bus -1 and monitors the sum of all the currents of the Bypass -1 CT and the currents of the bay that connected to the Bypass-1.B . the CT Ratio adopted is either 800 / 1 A or 1600 / 2A for Bus Bar protection.

6 Amps Rst = ( Vs / Iop) – ( 1/ Iop)2 = 898.2 9 6 .005 * ( 10+1.1 s .1 Ohm or say 900 Ohms Bus Supervision Relays : These relays shall operate for 25A difference in the Primary currents.1 e B T r ip B u s. check zone protection is also incorporated.Z o + o n n e T r ip B u s.3 2 5 / 0 ( ZL B) B B a y - 3 2 5 / 0 (ZL B) B 8 D C D r a w i n g s 0 B u s B a r P r o t e c t i o n 2 5 / 0 (L Z B) B o f 78 .ZC o n e V v eD C - B a y - 1 2 5 / 0 (ZL B) B B B u u s . The accuracy class of the CTs shall be PS type 3. The setting Calculations of this Bus Bar scheme are as follows: The SLG fault level at VTPS 220 KV Bus : 14024 MVA.5 V Select the Differential relay operating value : 0. This zone monitors the sum of all the currents of all the bays ( irrespective of Bus 1 or bus 2) and the difference if any will flow through the Check zone differential relay.005 A = If The Voltage developed across the relay : Vs = If * ( Rct + 2RL) Where Rct : The maximum secondary resistance of the available CTs = 10 Ohms 2 RL : Secondary Lead resistance 1. The Voltage developed across the VTX relay = 25/800 * ( 900 + 2.2 2 5 / 0 (L Z B) B B a y - 2 2 5 / 0 (ZL B) B B B u u s . due to importance of the Bus Bar protection.77 CAG Relay resistance Check Feature : As said earlier.77 ) = 28.2 B B u u s . 2 2 0 V D 8 8 7 C 7 . i.1 2 2 0 A T rip B u s--v e 8 7 .75) = 540.e.2 Volts where 2. Knee Point Voltage of the CT shall be more than double the Voltage of the scheme.75 Ohms Thus Vs = 46. 36804 A ( Data from the Power system Group) The secondary value of this current = 36804 / 800/1 = 46.2.1 s .2 9 6 .2 9 6 ..1 s .Z .

the damage to the system will be more. EE make CTIG relay and ABB make RAICA relays are popular for LBB protection. The same condition is being monitored by LBB relay or BFR relay ( Breaker failure relay) and will initiate the bus bar protection and thus clears the bus. DC logic diagram is as shown in the figure: Important Operational Procedures: • CT Switching relay shall be made to the correct bus • If no CT switching relay is made. Whenever breaker failed to open in the event of operation of protective relays.Scheme Operation: Whenever the Bus differential current is more than the set value. the differential current will cause rise of voltage across the supervision relay. measure the spill currents in the relay duly isolating one of the feeder for ensuring the healthiness of the CT wiring. If this voltage appears for more than 3 seconds. generally 200 msec. keep the Bus bar selection switches to out and inform the maintenance staff immediately • Periodically. it is construed that the breaker is struck. The LBB Protection will operate under the following conditions:  Lockout relay should be operated  Currents shall be more than 20 % of normal current rating  The above currents shall persist after a time. CT Circuits will be open circuited and damages the CT wiring and relays • If the alarm Bus Supervision relay operated appears. When ever the both Main zone and check zone relay operates. Operation of this relay will initiate the Bus Bar trip relays. supervision relay VTX operates and an alarm will be generated and the CT circuits will be short circuited through VAJH relays. relay operates. LBB Protection: Local Breaker Backup protection or Breaker Failure Protection is associated with the bus bar protection. Bus Bar trip relays will operate. 5 0Z I L R o c k e la y O u > t 2 0 % t > Z 2m 0 S 0 e c B P u s B a r r o t e c t i o n 2 / 5 0 L B RB e l a y s c h e m a t i c When all the above three conditions satisfy. Relay shall not operate for the external faults. If the differential current is less than the set value. 79 .

3  S S U ( S A T M a i n u p p l y ) U F i g n i t B T S t a t i o n B o a r d S R S u e s e r v e p p l y S i t B o a r d F AB i g u T .11. only two breakers can be in closed position.6 kV Bus layout EMC Board Layout and the Logics Station Board Layout for VTPS 11. 11.3. • Downstream breaker can be closed only after closing the upstream breaker and down stream breaker will trip if the upstream breaker trips. 3 Whatever is the board. Ref Fig 11.1  Station Boards : Main Supply from the Station Transformer and the reserve supply if from the other station Board .6 kV Bus Bars are derived from the delta 80 . Generally the following logics shall be provided: • Bus Incomer shall trip if there is a bus fault detected by the over current relays and reserve incomer is prevented form closing • Bus Incomer shall trip if Bus Under Voltage is detected and allows reserve breaker to close • While closing the Unit Breaker.1 S B C/ s 1 1 . three stage Under voltage protection is provided.6 kV bus bars in a thermal power plant can again be broadly connected into the following types:  Unit Boards : Main Supply is from the Unit Auxiliary Transformer and the reserve supply is from the Station Board. Miscellaneous      The following topics are covered in this chapter Bus Incomer Protection and the Logics Bus Under Voltage scheme for 6.2 AB u s S BB u s o a r d U n 1 1 . where. Among these three breakers. the incomer to AHA is fed from SA and AHB is fed from SB.6 kV Bus Bars. AHA and AHB are coupled through Bus Coupler.2 Bus Under Voltage Scheme ( For 6. Ref Fig 11.6 kV Bus bars and earth fault protection Stage-1 6.6 kV Bus): For the 6. 6. Ref Fig 11. the board will have one main supply and one reserve supply. at APH. The main incomer is provided with Bus Incomer protection. 1 t a t i o n F B i g o a1 r1 d . it shall be checked for synchronism and the Incomer breaker shall close only after closing the GCB • For the auxiliary buses. paralleling is not permitted and hence 2 / 3 logic is provided.2  Auxiliary Boards : Main supply is from Station Board and the reserve supply is from the other auxiliary board. Ref Fig 11.1 Bus Incomer Protection and the Logics: Existing 6. 2 S BB S u s C W A C BC A /W u B x i l i a r y B o a T .

the earth fault shall be monitored by the voltage principle. an annunciation appears at UCB. However. in YB phases and a timer with the setting of 58 V and 9. a timer will initiate and after 1. each in RY. RY phases and a timer with the setting of 20V and 1.  If the stage-1 Under voltage relays operated and the stage 3 under voltages also operates.e. if the PT MCB is in ON condition only. In the event of earth fault. i. The PT secondaries shall be connected in Open delta ( As shown in Fig 11.transformers. 4 E a r t h F a u l t p r o t e c t i o n 81 . is observed in all the phases and persists for 0. As the Bus is derived form the Delta connected transformer. Stage-1 Under Voltage Operation. Tripping of the MCB initiates an alarm at UCB.5 Sec o Stage-2 Under Voltage relay ( 1 No).5 Sec.. an earth fault in any of the loads is not harmful to the system and no earth fault current can be observed. The relays can be either IDMT or Definite time characteristic. a timer will initiate and after 9 seconds. the open delta voltage rises and the relay will operate.5 Sec The logics are as below: All these logics are applied.  If the Under voltage. the selected motors will be given for tripping.0 Sec o Stage-3 Under Voltage relay ( 1 No). < 80V. 4). Operation of this timer will allow tripping of un important motors. The following are the relays are provided on the bus under voltage scheme: o Stage-1 Under Voltage relays ( 3 Nos). Bus PTs are provided in each phase on the PT Truck for the purpose of protection and metering.  If the stage-1 Under voltage relays operated and the stage 2 under voltages also operates.5 seconds. P TS e c o n d a r i e s E F R a r t h a u lt e la y F i g 1 1 . the incomer will trip and allows reserve breaker to close. YB and BR phases and a timer with the setting of 80 V and 0.

2 S A B 1 E M . the supply for this board is derived form the Station Board and in the event of the failure of station boards. 9K V .1S S S.2 A 1 5 . 9K V .2 Fig 11. Air Pre-heaters and their lub oil pumps and emergency lighting.1 A 1 5 . Seal oil pump. Lub Oil pump. supply extends to these boards from DG sets.7 5 K V TO S D B U S S . Chargers.1 D G .1 B 1 5 . 2B B U S U A T-2 B 1 5 .1K V B U S -2 BUS 2000A B U S -1 S T -2 A H D /S -II BUS A H -B 1600 A BUS 1600 AC H-B B U S 1600 A B U S D U C T SB H C W -B U A T. Normally.2C 4 5 U A n d e r N .6 kV Bus Layout: Fig 11. 3 o r m i n C a l C o l o s e d n P d o it i o n s s i t i o n D G . 9K V 1 5 M V A CW -B G E N E R A TO R 24 7M V A 1 5 .1C 3 2 E M .1K V Fig 11.3 Stage-1 6.5 M V A 2 2 0 /7 .6 kV Boards 11.6 kV bus bars.11.5 M V A 2 2 0 /7 . B . 9K V 1 5 M V A BUS 1600 A H C W -A S T -1 3 1 .5 Shows the layout of Stage-1 6. Interconnection is provided between SA / SB boards to SD Bus at Stage-2. 7 5 / 6 .6 EMC Board Lay Out 82 2A B U S SA U A T. 7 5 / 6 .4 EMC Board Logics: 415 V Emergency board is provided to provide emergency supplies to important loads like Barring Gear. 7 5 / 6 .II BU S 2000A 1 B B U S B U S D U C T C H -A 1 6 0 0 A C L W A/ S . 7 5 / 6 .5 Stage-1 6.I I BUS C W -A BU S 1600 A IP B D 10K A G 1 B U S -2 A H -A U A T. The scheme is as shown in fig 11. 1 . AHD bus of Stage-2 is fed from Stage-1 AHB bus and Stage-2 Clarified Board A is fed from AHA bus. 1 5 M V A 3 1 . 6 S S . 1 5 M V A B U S -1 B U S 4000 A 1A B U S G 2 .

U/V will also persist on SSS -2 also and thus… ) Breaker 2 trips on U/V after 2 sec timer and DG 2 starts After 3 Sec breaker 3 trips If DG 1 and DG 2 builds up the voltage to the rated value.5 VTPS Station Board Layout: The Fig 11. But during station supply failure.7 shows the 6. SE Board is fed by SC board at Stage-2 • The inter connection between Stage-1 / Stage-2 and Stage-2 / Stage-3 also shown 83 .e. i. • Trip DG 1 & DG 2 and keep I / DI switches in Interlock position Note :  Never attempt to trip DG 1 & DG 2 when CB 4 & CB 5 are in closed position  Never parallel DG set with station supply  Never parallel DG sets 11. • Each stage has two station boards and each unit has two unit auxiliary transformers • Five station transformers are feeding 5 station board and one board at Stage-3. Breakers 4 & 5 closes Thus during the station supply failure DG 1 & 2 in running and Breakers 4 & 5 in closed position.5 Sec and Simultaneously Breaker 2 Closes and DG 1 starts ( If there is no U/V. After Restoration of station supply ( Manual Operation) : • Ensure 415 V supply on SSS-1 & 2 and breaker A & B are in closed position • Keep I / DI switches on DI position on SCB for EMC 1 & 2 sections • Trip Breaker 4 and close breaker 1 ( Interruption is unavoidable) • Trip Breaker 5 and close Breaker 3. system will remain as above.6 kV board schematics and their inter connection.Failure of Station Supply ( Auto Operation) : • • • • • • Breaker 1 Trips on U/V after 0.

5 M V A 2 2 0 /7 .9 K V IP B D 1 0 K A G 2 IP B D 1 0 K A G 4 G 6 84 . 15 M V A 1 5 .9 K V . 15 M V A 1 5 .7 5 K V P12 U A T .6B .3B 15 M V A 1 5 .9 K V U A T -1 A 1 5 .9 K V U A T -1 B 1 5 .7 5 /6 .3A 15 M V A 1 5 .I 1 2 5 0 C B C B B C L W A /S -II P1 630 A P4 B 3 A (T ) 1600 A 630 A 630 A 1600 A 3 B (T ) AC 1 C L W -C A C L W -D 2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0 C B A A 6 x 5 0 0 S q .5A 15 M V A 1 5 . m m A l/P h B BU S 1600 A CLW .5 M V A P 8 & P 1 0 2 2 0 /7 .9 K V G E N E R A TO R 247 M V A 1 5 .A CLW .9 K V .7 5 /6 .1 0 P 9 & 11 E C 3 .3 B U S 4000 A 4000 A C B P 26 S T -3 3 1 .B Y SU PPLY TO SD B U S -1 B U S -2 S T -1 3 1 . x 5 S0 q0 . x 5 S0 q0 .5 M V A 2 2 0 /7 .II C H -A C H -B C W -C A H -D 1600 A C H -C m B m C H -D P16 2000 A C BUS 1600 A C W -D A H -C A P13 P14 2000 A B h 1 6 0 0 1 6 0 0 A A A A A l / P l / P l / P l / P A h h h h A BUS 1600 A A 5 x5 0 0 S q .7 5 K V P4 1000 A S q . x 5 S0 q0 . 15 M V A 1 5 .7 5 /6 .4A .1 K V B U S -1 S T -5 T O /F R O M SC BO AR D S T G -2 3 1 .5 K V P 3 & P 5 A C 8 . 2A BU S 4 A (T ) 1600 A 6 B B B m B1 6 0 0 6 6 B B B B B m A H -E A H -F m x 5 S0 q0 .6A . 15 M V A 1 5 .9 K V P16 6 B (B ) U A T .7 5 /6 .5 M V A 2 2 0 /7 .7 5 /6 .B P10 P2 P11 P1 1000 A P2 P2 P9 C B EC 2 1000 A 1000 A BU S 1600 A P16 1000 A P13 H C W -A H C W -B 3 A (B ) 2B B U S BUS 2000A 3 B (B ) P13 U A T .7 5 /6 . m m A l/P h 5 A (T ) 1600 A 5 B (T ) 1600 A C B A C W -A C W -B 5x500 Sq . l / P h B S q .9 K V 5 A (B ) 5 B (B ) U A T . l / P h 4 A (B ) G E N ER A TO R 247 M V A 1 5 .7 5 /6 .7 5 /6 .4B . m m A l/P h l / P B U S 2000A B U S 2000A C 5x500Sq.5 M V A 2 2 0 /7 .7 5 /6 . m m A l/P h 1 2 5 0 A A l / P h l / P l / P h C W -E P15 C W -F A h h P15 P3 P6 P 6 630 A A H -A C C BUS 1600 A A H -B A H -B STG .9 K V 15 M V A 2 5 0 0 6 m A 6 m 2500 A C B 4 B (T ) 1600 A 6 A (T ) 1600 A G 5 P9 P4 6 B (T ) P2 1600 A 6 m 6 C B x 5 0 m BUS 2000A Fig 11.1 K V S T -4 3 1 . m A 1 6 0 0 m A A m m m m m C BUS 1600 A m m 1600 A 1600 A A m l / P l / P h 1 6 0 0 A C B m m m m m A H D /S .7 5 /6 .7 5 /6 .5 P2 P2 0 P17 P2 3 1600 A S A /S B S T G -1 SE 4000 A SF 4000 A 5 4 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 4 0 0 0 5 2 5 0 0 1 6 0 0 2 5 0 0 1 6 0 0 1 6 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0 2 5 0 0 P 33 P 5 & 7 P2 2 P14 A O M A R D A A A A A C P 33 P 24 & 26 SC 4000 A P3 A TO S D B U S S . l / P h C 0 A S q . l / P h 1000 A 1A B U S 2000A 1B B U S U A T . 1 5 M V A S q .1 K V S T -2 B U S -2 BU S D U CT T S S 3 1 . x 5 S0 q0 .9 K V G E N E R A TO R 247 M V A 1 5 .B U S -1 B U S -1 B U S -2 B U S -2 B U S -1 O N L Y E M E R G E N C Y S T D .5B 15 M V A 1 5 .9 K V 15 M V A G 3 U A T . x 5 S0 q0 . 1 6 0 0 5 x5 0 0 S q . 1 5 M V A U A T -2 B 1 5 . 5 x 5 S0 q0 .I A H -A STG .7 5 K V 6 A (B ) U A T . C B C 6B x 5 S 0 q 0 .II C C P13 P13 P2 1600 A P6 P12 P2 P2 2 A A A A A C C C C C C B 5 6 6 C BU S D U C T SD 4000 A x 5 S0 q0 .7 VTPS Station Board Layout x 5 0 0 m A 2 5 0 0 2500 A C B P9 x 5 0 0 m A A x 5 0 0 m m A BUS 2000A BUS EC 2 4 B (B ) 1000 A P2 P2 1000 A U A T -2 A 1 5 .7 5 /6 . m m A l/P h AC 2 AC 2 P 11 2000 A A C 29 AC 30 A C 17 1600 A 2000 A A C 14 x 5 S0 q0 .9 K V IP B D 1 0 K A IP B D 1 0 K A G 1 U A T .1 K V P8 & P10 P5 & P7 4000 A C B 4000 A C B P 26 O E T P 31 SA G B U S 4000 A P 31 SB / F R B O .

12. Numerical relays 85 .

This operation is observed in Synchronous Condenser mode  Quadrant -3: It absorbs both P and Q which is indication of Under excited Synchronous motor  Quadrant 4: Generation of Power and absorption of Q indicates the under excited Generator The functions of Excitation system are:  Extending DC supply to Field Winding of synchronous machine  Maintaining the Machine terminal voltage in all the occasions and thus the Bus Voltage  The system shall have good response to improve the stability 13. and protective elements is called as excitation system.V eP : + V e . it is expressed as the ratio of difference between the controlled variable and the desired value to the desired value.1 Four Quadrant diagram  Quadrant-1: Both the P and Q are generating. 13.V eP V e + V eQ : + t 1 : R Q P Q u : : a d r aQ n u t a 3 d : r a n . regulating. Quantitatively.V e t 4 : Fig. control. Excitation System Definitions ( as per IEEE Std 421. Excitation Systems The equipment providing Field current for a synchronous machine. humidity. The concept of Active Power (P) and Reactive Power ( Q) can be better understood from the fig 13.2: Absorbing of P and Generation of Q.V e Q : .13.  Quadrant. and supply voltage variations.1. ambient temperature. frequency.1-1986)  accuracy: The degree of correspondence between the controlled variable and the desired value under specified conditions such as load changes.1 X Q P Q u : : a d r a Q n ut a 2 d : r a n : + V e . including all power.  air gap Field voltage: The synchronous machine Field voltage required to produce rated voltage on the air-gap line of the synchronous machine with its Field winding at 86 .

 Alternator-rectifier exciter: An exciter whose energy is derived from an alternator and converted to direct current by rectifiers. The exciter may be driven by a motor. prime mover.  Automatic control: In excitation control system usage.  Ceiling voltage: The maximum direct voltage which the excitation system is able to supply from its terminals under defined conditions. including gate circuitry.  brushless exciter: An alternator-rectifier exciter employing rotating rectifiers with a direct connection to the synchronous machine Field thus eliminating the need for Field brushes  Ceiling current: The maximum direct current which the excitation system is able to supply from its terminals for a specified time. over the operating range of the synchronous machine within its capabilities.(1) 75 °C for Field windings designed to operate at rating with a temperature rise of 60 °C or less. It is exclusive of input control elements. The alternator may be driven by a motor.  Air-gap line: The extended straight line part of the no-load saturation curve of the synchronous machine. or (2) 100 °C for Field windings designed to operate at rating with a temperature rise greater than 60 °C. within which the excitation system will hold the regulated voltage of an electric machine during steady or gradually changing conditions over a specified range of load. 87 .  Band of regulated voltage: The band or zone. is connected across the Field windings of a synchronous machine or an exciter to limit the transient voltage in the Field circuit and to hasten the decay of Field current of the machine. automatic control refers to maintaining synchronous machine terminal voltage without operator action. It is exclusive of input control elements. or by the shaft of the synchronous machine. upon interruption of excitation source current. expressed in percent of the rated value of the regulated voltage. or pilot exciter.  DC generator-commutator exciter: An exciter whose energy is derived from a dc generator. The rectifiers may be stationary or rotating with the alternator shaft. prime mover. The exciter includes a dc generator with its commutator and brushes. or by the shaft of the synchronous machine.  Discharge resistor: A resistor that. The exciter includes an alternator and power rectifiers which may be either non-controlled or controlled.  De-excitation: The removal of the excitation of a synchronous machine.  Error signal: In a control system the error signal is the difference between a sensing signal and a constant reference signal. main exciter.

 Excitation system rated current: The direct current at the excitation system output terminals which the excitation system can supply under defined conditions of its operation. regulating.  excitation system rated voltage: The direct voltage at the excitation system output terminals which the excitation system can provide when delivering excitation system rated current under rated continuous load conditions of the synchronous machine with its Field winding at (1) 75 °C for Field windings designed to operate at rating with a temperature rise of 60 °C or less. This current is at least that value required by the synchronous machine under the most demanding continuous operating conditions (generally resulting from synchronous machine voltage frequency variations and power factor variations). including all power. 88 .  Excitation power potential transformer: The element or elements in a compound source-rectifier excitation system which transfer electrical energy from the synchronous machine armature terminals to the excitation system at a magnitude and phase relationship required in the excitation system.  Excitation system duty cycle: An initial operating condition and a subsequent sequence of events of specified duration to which the excitation system will be exposed.  Excitation system nominal response: The rate of increase of the excitation system output voltage determined from the excitation system voltage response curve.  Excitation system stabilizer: An element or group of elements that modify the forward signal by either series or feedback compensation to improve the dynamic performance of the excitation control system.  Excitation system: The equipment providing Field current for a synchronous machine. would develop the same voltage-time area as obtained from the actual curve over the First half-second interval (unless a different time interval is specified). or (2) 100 °C for Field windings designed to operate at rating with a temperature rise greater than 60 °C. divided by the rated Field voltage. if maintained constant. This rate. Also. the element or elements in a potential source-rectifier excitation system which transfer electrical energy either from the machine terminals or from an auxiliary bus to the excitation system at a magnitude level required by the excitation system. control. Excitation power current transformer: The elements in a compound sourcerectifier excitation system which transfer electrical energy from the synchronous machine armature current to the excitation system at a magnitude and phase relationship required by the excitation system. These terminals may be identical with the Field winding terminals.  Excitation system output terminals: The place of output from the equipment comprising the excitation system. and protective elements.

 Excitation system voltage response time: The time in seconds for the excitation voltage to attain 95% of the difference between ceiling voltage and rated load Field voltage under specific conditions.  Excitation system voltage time response: The excitation system output voltage expressed as a function of time, under specified conditions.  Exciter: The equipment providing the Field current for the excitation of a synchronous machine.  Field discharge circuit breaker: A circuit breaker having main contacts for energizing and deenergizing the Field of asynchronous machine or rotating exciter and having discharge contacts for short-circuiting the Field through the discharge resistor prior to the opening of the circuit breaker main contacts. The discharge contacts also disconnect the Field from the discharge resistor following the closing of the main contacts.  Field forcing: A control function that rapidly drives the Field current of a synchronous machine in the positive or in the negative direction.  Field winding: A winding on either the stationary or the rotating part of a synchronous machine whose sole purpose is the production of the main electromagnetic Field of the machine.  Field winding terminals: The place of input to the Field winding of the synchronous machine. If there are brushes and sliprings these are considered to be part of the Field winding.  high initial response: An excitation system capable of attaining 95% of the difference between ceiling voltage and rated-load Field voltage in 0.1 s or less under specified conditions.  Large signal performance: Response of an excitation control system, excitation system, or elements of an excitation system to signals which are large enough that nonlinearities must be included in the analysis of the response to obtain realistic results.  Limiter: An element of the excitation system which acts to limit a variable by modifying or replacing the functions of the primary detector element when predetermined conditions have been reached.  Manual control: In excitation control system usage, manual control refers to maintaining synchronous machine terminal voltage by operator action.


 No-load Field current: The direct current in the Field winding of synchronous machine required to produce rated voltage at no-load and rated speed.  no-load Field voltage: The voltage required across the terminals of the Field winding of the synchronous machine under conditions of no-load, rated speed, and rated terminal voltage, and with the Field winding at 25 °C.  Pilot exciter: The equipment providing the Field current for the excitation of another exciter.  Potential source-rectifier exciter: An exciter whose energy is derived from a stationary ac potential source and converted to direct current by rectifiers. The exciter includes the power potential transformers and power rectifiers which may be either non-controlled or controlled, including gate circuitry. It is exclusive of input control elements. The source of ac power may come from the machine terminals or from a station auxiliary bus or a separate winding within the synchronous machine.  Power system stabilizer: An element or group of elements that provide an additional input to the regulator to improve power system performance.  Rated Field current: The direct current in the Field winding of the synchronous machine when operating at rated voltage, current, power factor, and speed.  rated Field voltage: The voltage required across the terminals of the Field winding of the synchronous machine under rated continuous load conditions of the synchronous machine with its Field winding at (1) 75 °C for Field windings designed to operate at rating with a temperature rise of 60 °C or less; or (2) 100 °C for Field windings designed to operate at rating with a temperature rise greater than 60 °C.  Rotating amplifier: An electric machine in which a small energy change in the Field is amplified to a large energy change at the armature terminals.  Small signal performance: The response of an excitation control system, excitation system, or elements of an excitation system to signals which are small enough that nonlinearities can be disregarded in the analysis of the response, and operation can be considered to be linear.  Synchronous machine regulator: A regulator that couples the output variables of the synchronous machine to the input of the exciter through feedback and forward controlling elements for the purpose of regulating the synchronous machine output variables.


 Voltage regulating adjuster: A device associated with a synchronous machine voltage regulator by which adjustment of the synchronous machine terminal voltage can be made.  Voltage regulator: A synchronous machine regulator that functions to maintain the terminal voltage of a synchronous machine at a predetermined value, or to vary it according to a predetermined plan. 13.2 Types of Excitation Systems: Most popular excitation systems from the older days to the present modern synchronous machines are:     Conventional DC AC ( High Frequency) Excitation system Brushless Excitation system Static Excitation system

Conventional DC : Station DC supply shall be connected to the Generator rotor winding through the Rheostat. Control of the excitation shall be done by varying the rheostat. This scheme is applicable for lower rating machines as the size of Rheostat and source of external power are the limitations. AC ( High Frequency) Excitation system: Commutator and Brush gear assembly can be avoided in this scheme. Generator main shaft driven AC pilot exciter having rotating permanent Magnetic field and a stationery armature feeds the DC field current of the main high frequency AC exciter through controlled rectifiers. The High frequency output of the stationery armature is rectified by stationery diodes and fed via the slip-rings to the field of main turbo generator. Brushless Excitation: In addition to the above AC Excitation system, main exciter is also available along with rotating diodes in this system. Controlled output from the Pilot exciter is given to Main exciter armature and the generated AC in the rotor of the main exciter is given to the rotor winding through rotating diodes. Static Excitation system : No rotating parts are in this system and hence the name Static excitation system. Power required for the excitation is drawn from the machine terminals and controlled through the rectifiers and given to the rotor winding through the Brush gear and slip-rings assembly.


13. 15. For the Excitation Transformer. VTPS Block Diagram G CT VVV Excitation Transformer PT GT 220kV Regulation Cubicle Field Breaker Thyristor Cubicles 415 V AC Field Flashing Breaker Resistor 220 V DC The Scheme contains the following Cubicles      Excitation Transformer Thyristor Cubicles Field Breaker Cubicle Field Flashing Cubicle Regulation Cubicle Excitation Transformer : (2. 92 .75 kV / 575 V.3 Static Excitation System: the case is taken from Stsge-1. Two nos of Blower fans are provided on the transformer cubicle. A temperature gauge is mounted on the Transformer cubicle to monitor the Core temperature. Over current (Delayed and Instantaneous) and Over temperature protections are provided. out of one is always in running and the second fan starts at 120 C and unit will trip if the temperature exceeds 145 C. Another Exhaust fan is provided on the top of transformer cubicle for which supply is taken from the LDB provided in the regulation cubicle rear side.5 MVA. Excitation Transformer HV winding is connected to Generator Bus duct and LV winding is connected to Thyristor bridges. Dry cast Resign Transformer) The power required for the Excitation is being tapped from Generator itself.

Hence an external 415 V ac supply is taken from TGMCC. In addition to the voltage regulator. which initiates when FB is off and ULR operates. the intermediate pulse stage of the channel in operation is active and transmits the firing pulses galvonically separated to the common 93 . FF contactor opens if the Generated Voltage is more than 25 % or if the field current is more than 8 % of rated value. An Ammeter is mounted on each bridge for monitoring the DC current. FF breaker also closes and voltage build-up starts. The voltage is step down to 30V and rectified by Diode Bridge and fed the rectified DC to FB through a Field Flashing contactor. a Field Breaker is provided. Regulation Cubicle : Two independent Auto channels with follow-up circuits to each other channel along with one Manual channel are provided. the logic permit us to close the FB again. Each of these channels possesses a Gate control unit with a subsequent Intermediate pulse stage to generate the firing pulses for the Thyristor converter. During the normal operation. Pulse transformers and One cubicle fan along with Air flow monitoring device. Another annunciation “Field Breaker Trip Coil Faulty “also provided for monitoring the healthiness of Trip coil of FB. thyristor firing varies and thus can have a regulated DC output Voltage. Channel 1 & Channel-2 are built as voltage regulators and either of them can be ON during normal operation. Field Breaker Cubicle : (AMCC NOR type 3000 Amps Breaker) For opening and closing of field circuit. Field Flashing Cubicle : (ABB make Power contactor) Residual magnetism of the field is insufficient to build-up the voltage. Whenever FB is closed. At 10 % of the rated voltage Pulses releases and thyristors start conducting. If the Generator voltage build-up is less than 70 % at 15 secs. the Field discharge resistor will be connected across the FB terminals. which has a PID control algorithm. An annunciation “Field Breaker Tripped “is provided.Thyristor Bridges : (3 nos of Thyristor bridges with each bridge rating 1820 Amps) 3 nos of Thyristor bridge cubicles are provided having 6 nos of thyristors in each bridge. these AUTOMATIC channels also contain various limiters and power system stabilizers and corrective control circuits to ensure the use and stable operation of the synchronous machine up to its operating limits. the FB also trips on interlock along with annunciation “ Field Flashing Failure “and after 10 minutes only. When ever a FB trips. Cubicle also contains Isolators on AC / DC side. Parallel sharing reactors. Depending upon the pulses controlled by control voltage.

When both Channel 1 & 2 fails the excitation is switched off (TRIP). Inductive Stator Current Limiter : The Inductive Stator Current Limiter holds the stator current within permissible limits while the generator is in the “ Over – Excited “ operating by reducing the Field current accordingly. In case it is not possible to restore healthiness of at least one of the Auto channels then voltage build can be done in channel-3 (MANUAL). The setting for V / Hz Limiter is 115% with a Time Delay of 5 Sec. 8. High field currents are due to a. Normally any one of the Auto channels can be ON. It can be switched ON only when both the Auto channels are FAULTY. When one of the Auto channel fails excitation is switched over to the other standby channel. Functions of Automatic Channels :The functions of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) are 1. Both the Auto channels are equipped with TRACKING FACILITY (Follow-Up) with each other.pulse bus at the input of the Final pulse stage. 2. With Manual channel Faulty (already Auto Channels are faulty) Excitation is Switched OFF (TRIP). 94 . Channel-3 (Manual) is built as a simple Field – current regulator with a PI control algorithm. Sharp drop in net work Voltage b. 4. 5. Field Current Maximum Limiter : The field current maximum limiter is provided to protect the Generator rotor from over currents occurring in steady-state and transient operation. 7. The setting for Inductive Stator Current Limiter is 105%. It is also not permitted to change over from Manual Channel to any one of Auto channel when the Unit is in service. and the pulses from the intermediate Pulse stage of the standby Auto channel and Manual channel are blocked from the reaching the pulse bus. 3. Various monitoring functions of the channels initiate an automatic switchover to standby channel in case of a malfunction. To regulate the Voltage To regulate the effect of the reactive and / or active current on the voltage (Droops) To limit V/Hz To limit Maximum field current To limit Inductive stator Current To limit capacitive stator Current To limit the load angle To stabilize the Power System Description of the Limiters: V / Hz Limiter : At Under frequency. the V/Hz limiter reduces the Generator Voltage so as to prevent saturation effects in the supply and measuring transformers. Improper raising the set point of the Voltage The setting for Field Current Maximum Limiter is 105%. 6.

Channel-1 & Channel -2 Faulty and Manual Mode OFF / Faulty 3. Loss of three Converters 4. RESET of PLC Processor 13. If the driving torque remains constant.Capacitive Stator Current Limiter : The Capacitive Stator Current Limiter holds the stator current within permissible limits while generator is in the “ Under-Excited “ operating range by increasing the Field Current as required. Manual Mode Switched OFF 10. The setting for Load Angle Limiter is 105%. Ch-2 DC Short Circuit 15. Power System Stabilizer: The purpose of the Power System Stabilizer is to use the Generator excitation to damp electromechanical oscillations between the network and the Generator. Important Modules in the DVR and their functions are listed below: Excitation Trip: The following are the Protections for Tripping of Excitation & Field Breaker 1. Micro Terminal: To view the parameters and signal values of the various processor systems (Auto-1. The load angle is the difference in phase between the rotor and stator rotating field. 12 signals are available through Six Switches (Normal / Shift) for which of them typing the address is not required. Ch-1 DC Short Circuit 14. Ch-3 DC Short Circuit Note :1. Rotor Over Voltage 2. Stage-2 12. Fuse AVR Supply 5. . The Micro Terminal may be connected to any one of the processor modules to view the parameters through a system cable. Load Angle Limiter: Load Angle Limiter prevents the Generator from slipping phase due to slipping of the Rotor. Excitation Transformer Temp. Logic Controls and Monitoring) and to change temporarily / permanently stored values in certain address range or to enable / disable certain limiter/special functions a Micro Terminal at Regulation Cubicle is provided. Excitation will be OFF and Field Breaker will be 95 . For all the above cases. Channel –3 in operation and Failed 11. The setting for Capacitive Stator Current Limiter is 105%. Excitation Transformer O / C Stage-2 8. DC / DC Converter Failure 9. an in crease in the field current reduces the load angle. results mainly from the driving torque (active Power P) acting on the Generator and the level of the rotor current. Auto-2. The Micro terminal has a 4 line LCD display in which contents of 4 addresses can be recalled and displayed simultaneously. The four values can be measured at measurement sockets provided below the LCD display. Excitation Over Current Instantaneous 7. AVR in Test 6.

5. In such case.) 1. 4.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18 20 Module UN 0664 UN 0663 UN 0660 UN 0661 UN 0610 UN 0662 UN 0611 UN 0665 UN 02661 UN02660 KX 9180 UN 0094 UN 0096 UN 0097 UN 0098 CT 370 UNC 4660 UNC 4661 UNC 4662 UNC 4664 Module Description DC-DC Supply Module Digital Firing and Control Module CPU Module Interrupt Generator Module 10 Channel Analog I/O module 32 / 32 Channel Digital I/O module 8 Channel 12 Bit A/D Converter Module 32 Channel Alarm Indication Module Command Input Module Micro Terminal Power Supply DC/DC Converter Test Point Module Pulse Coupling Stage ( Intermediate Stage) Pulse Final Stage Amplifier Power Supply for Final Stage Memory Card V & I measuring module 16 Channel Binary I/P module 16 Channel Binary O/P module AC / DC Supply module 13. 7. 3. Over Current Stage-1 Channel-1 Actual Value Failure Channel-2 Actual Value Failure UN 0660 Channel-1 Failure UN 0664 Channel-1 Failure UN 0660 Channel-2 Failure UN 0664 Channel-2 Failure List of Modules available in the Excitation system ( Stage-1 with DVR): Sl. 6. 2. the Excitation will be Switched Off and FB also TRIPS. Protection Change Over: The following are the Interlocks for Change Over Between Channel-1 & Channel-2 (Change Over will be take place between the Auto Channels if the Standby Channel is healthy only. If Field flashing Failure occurs during the start-up. 2. 30 R will not Operate.4 Brushless Excitation System: The scheme of Brushless Excitation system is as shown the fig 96 .Tripped along with initiating the Lock out relay 30 R to trip the UNIT.

S t a t o r W n.hA C F B A V R P o T f G a n d C T e n e r a t o r Permanent magnets on the Pilot Exciter creates magnetic Field which induces 3 phase voltages on the armature winding of Pilot exciter stator. In this process. The magnetic field thus produced in Main exciter induces emf on the 3 phase armature winding. which is available on main exciter rotor. Direct measurement of Field Voltage. the AVR is as similar to the AVR which is described in static excitation with all the functions. Thus reduced the FB rating and Thyristor ratings. The induced 3 phase supply is given to rotating rectifiers on the rotor and the DC from the rectifiers is given to rotor winding. However. 97 . the DC supply after the rectification is given to main exciter stator winding through Field Breaker. Induced voltages from pilot exciter is controlled by using Thyristors and AVR. elimination of Brush gear and slip rings is possible and the rectification also done at lower current ratings. Field Current and rotor temperature are not possible in this excitation system. d g F R i e o l dt a t i n g D i o d e s M a i n G E N E R A T O R R D e c C t i f i e d 3 P.

 Transducer Inputs: The Current / Voltage / MW / Frequency parameters are converted in to low values. The following are the various types of inputs. In the CT circuits. these values are easily programmable. o Power Factor meters: Power factor of the Generator is very important parameter o Frequency meters: These meters are very much important to know the status of the Grid. The selected current flows to the meter and then connects to the neutral where as the other two phases connects to neutral point so that no opening of the CT circuit is ensured. Direct inputs : Low Voltage and small values of current measurement CT / PT inputs: Inputs to the meters given from the secondaries of CT or PT. generally 4 – 20 mA and this low value is given to the meter. replacement of the meter can be taken up only after shoring the CT. o Energy Meters : Energy generated by each Generator. Field Voltage. Type of the meter depends on the inputs given to the meters. transformers are required. the following parameters are displayed for the purpose of monitoring the important electrical quantities. Ammeter selector switch is the last item. DC Measurement: • Ammeters : Charger current .  Shunt Inputs: Measurement of DC Current is done through the shunts. Rectifier transformer output voltage of ESP are the applications. Meter shall be selected in line with the CT ratio. The drop across the shunt ( in milli volts) is given to the meter and meter is calibrated according to it.14. PT Secondary rating is 110 V and CT Secondary rating is either 1A or 5A. DC Motor currents and the field Current measurement are the applications of DC Ammeters • Voltmeters : Measurement of DC DB Voltages. Energy consumed by Transformers. Replacement of the Ammeter can be taken up after keeping the switch in OFF position. transformer are required. Motors and the energy sent out to the feeders are most important electrical measurements in the power stations. AC Measurements: o Ammeters : Bus Incomer Currents. Generally. Fig 14. o Voltmeters : Bus Voltage. Power flow on each feeder. generator Currents. Transmission of low values currents is easier and in the modern philosophy of measurements. Motor Currents. Reactive power flow on each feeder.1 Shows the Ammeter selector switch and Meter diagram.   14. Generator Voltage are required in thermal stations o MW meters: Measurement of Generating power. which are having very low resistance values are provided in series with the loads. If the Ammeter selector switch is not provided. If the selection is OFF. 98 . all the three phases shorts to neutral. etc are being measured.1Current Measurement: The three phase currents are given to the Ammeter selector switch and the output of the ammeters selector switch is given to the meter. Metering Principles In thermal Power stations. o MVAR meters: Measurement of Generating MAVR. DC distribution Board incoming value.

4. Please refer fig 14. Popular types of meters are: SIMCO / Landis and Gyr / UE make meters are available. ie for Voltage and currents are provided and the resultant flux produced depends on the power.0 / 0.1 Electromechanical Type Energy Meter : Principle of measurement depends on the Induction. Voltmeter selector switch is as shown in the Fig 14.2 Static Type Energy meter: Based on Electronic measurement: The Voltages and current signals are stepped down to low values and by using electronic principles. Two coils per phase..4 Energy Meter Classifications: Energy measurement can also be done in the above methods i. Please refer fig 14.3 For the circuit diagram  Two Watt meter method: This method of measurement can be applicable for balance loads. Single Watt meter / Two Watt meter / Three Watt meter methods.e. Please refer fig 14. power can be measured for balance loads. The total power will be thrice the meter reading.4. The secondary of the PTs will be connected in Star connection.2Voltage measurement: Bus Voltage is being measured by using PTs. 14. The secondaries shall be connected to the Voltmeter selector switch and the output of the switch is connected to the Voltmeter.3 Power Measurement: Active Power or Active Energy / Reactive Power or reactive Energy can be measured by three ways  One Watt Meter Method: This method of measurement can be applicable for balance loads. These meters are available in the accuracy classes of 1. Block schematic diagram of such meter (L + G make meter) is 99 .Iy) For balance loads Ir +Iy+Ib = 0 = Vr*Ir + Vb*Ib + Vy Iy Thus By using two currents and the three phase voltages.5.  Three watt meter method: This method of the measurement is applicable for the unbalanced loads. Types of the energy meter depends on Construction : Electro mechanical type / Static type Accuracy :Class 1. The Volt meter selector switches are available in different types: • Phase – phase Voltage measurement • Phase – Ground Voltage measurement • Both Phase to Phase and Phase to Ground voltage measurement. 14. Each phase power is being measured by extending the Phase voltage and phase currents.2 type Configuration : Tri vector configuration / ABT configuration. Cleanliness and the magnetic adjustments ( Calibration) are required periodically for these meters.0 and 0. Power in one phase will be measured by applying one phase voltage and one phase current to the meter.2 14.5 For the circuit diagram 14.14. Sum of all the three individual phase power is equal to the total power.5 / 0.4 For the circuit diagram P = Vry * Ir + Vyb * Ib = Ir* ( Vr-Vy) + Ib* ( Vy – Vb) = Vr*Ir + Vb*Ib – Vy ( Ir+Ib) = Vr*Ir + Vb*Ib – Vy ( . power measurement is carried out.

5 + 1. L & T type meters are available.6 + 3.2 + 0.5 + 2. Elster.6 Static Energy Meter Schematic 14.5 + 1.0 / 0.5 Lead The difference between the percentage error when the meter is carrying a single phase load and a balanced poly phase load at a basic current and unity power factor.0 VA and the specified Voltage operating range of meters shall be 0.4 + 0. 100 .5%. These meters have Separate display for display the parameters.4% for meters of classes 1.shown the figure 14.5 + 2.0 in % 0.0 + 2.0 / 0.2 meters are as shown in the table 14.4.3 Class 1.2 + 0.3 + 0.0 0.0 + 1.0 + 3.02 Ib < I < 0.6.0 + 2.1.5 1.6 + 1.8 Lead 0.0 1.0 / 0.5 + 1.5 Lag 0.2 Meters: As per IEC 687.3 + 0.0 + 0. Value of Current 0.5 + 3.0%. 1.5 and 0. L + G . Presently Secure.5 1.05 Ib I < I max I < 0.1 Ib Cos Ǿ / Sin Ǿ Limits of Variation Error for Class 1.1 Ib < I < Imax 0.0 + 3.5 Lag 0.1 Vref.02 Ib < 0.5 + 0.8 + 1.0 0.5 / 0. the Voltage Burden of the meters shall not exceed 10 VA. 0.5 + 0.8 + 1. memory for memorizing the registered values and Communication networks for interfacing with other plant equipment.0 1.8 to 1.0 + 1.2 + 0.01 Ib < 0.0 + 1.0 + 1. Fig 14. the current burden shall not exceed1.5 / 1. shall not exceed 2.5 + 2.2.0 + 1.5 + 0.1 Ib < I < I max 0.2 + 0.05 Ib < 0.5 / 0.05 Ib I < 0.5 / 1.0 + 3. For poly phase meters.8% and 0. the allowable limits of error due to variation in currents for class 1.8 Lead When Specially asked by the 0.25 Lag User 0.

4. The four quadrant diagram is as shown in the figure14. in six digits including one decimal. The meter should have facilities for the data transfer / remote metering with proper security via an optically isolated communication port using serial communication. Instantaneous parameters in phase wise like Voltage.  Net Wh transmittal during each successive 15-minute block. real time.8. Four quadrant measurements shall be followed for the measurement. KVA.4.7 Four Quadrant Diagram Fig 14. The meter shall have other following special functions:  Adjustable demand integration period  Time of Day tariff  Measurement of Harmonic Energy  Tamper and fraud monitoring  Load survey capability 14. Power factor. Connection diagram for 3 – Phase 4 wire method is also shown in the figure 14. Apparent Energy. upto second decimal. with plus/minus sign.  Cumulative VArh transmittal for voltage high condition.14. KVAR. in six digits including one decimal.0 Hz). the special tariff mechanism shall have special purpose meter shall have the following special displays:  Average frequency for each successive 15-minute block. Fig 14.  Cumulative Wh transmittal at each midnight. count for MD resets. KW. at each midnight. 101 .0 to 51. Cumulative MD.5 ABT Energy Meter: Consequent to introduction of new electricity bill. Rising Demand with elapsed time.8 Three Phase Four Wire Connection The meter shall be able to record the Following Parameters Active Energy . Reactive Energy.7. Currents. Maximum Demand. as a two digit code (00 to 99 for frequency from 49.4 Tri – Vector Energy Meter: These meters shall able to record the following parameters.

display. tamper proof. These meters shall have the other functions like Load survey. etc similar to the functions described for the Tri-vector meter. at each midnight. 102 . in six digits including one decimal. Cumulative VArh transmittal for voltage low condition.

 Terminate the Two core cable at L3 – 8/12 to 186 / 187 R for tripping the Transformer  Keeping the kV breaker panel to Regulation cubicle.  Remove the Incoming cables of Thyristor Cooling Fan supply MCBs ie. TY 51. Equipment & Protective scheme testing 15.1 Generator OCC and SCC tests (THE FOLLOWING PROCEDURE IS APPLICABLE FOR OCC & SCC TESTINGS ON GENERATOR FOR STAGE-1 UNITS OF VTPS HAVING STATIC EXCITATION EQUIPMENT WITH DIGITAL VOLTAGE REGULATOR) DUMMY LOAD TEST on AVR: PREPARATIONS : Complete the overhaul on Excitation equipment Check all the logics on SEE Ensure the availability of all the supplies except “Field flashing supply at BUC” Remove the FB outgoing cables ie.6 kV CB in Service and Close the CB Measure the Voltages at Thyristors 103 .2 and TY 51.  Measure the IR Values of the cable and terminate at both ends  Lay 2 core 2.6 kV CB in Test position close the CB and check for tipping the CB from regulation cubicle by initiating any protection trip.3 duly identifying the wires  Connect external 415 V supply to the above MCBs and Switch ON the MCBs  Observe for proper direction for the cooling Fans and Switch OFF fans  Remove the Fuses for Blower Fan at Transformer Cubicle  Remove the K 24 relay at Regulation cubicle  Remove “ FF Supply failed “ Input wire at A 02 – 11 input module.5 sq.6 kV cable already available at Transformer from 1B/15 or 2/B 15 panels for Unit 1 & Unit 2 correspondingly. Power Cables going to Rotor Remove the Bus links of Excitation Transformer on HV side Identify 6.  Switch off MCBs F 60 & F 61 ie. Auto –1 and Auto –2 channels  Switch OFF MCB F 59 and remove UN 0663 module of Manual channel at rack AF 29. TY 51.mm cable from corresponding 6..  Made switch S-865 to “ 1 “ for External control  Switch ON MCB F 59  From Remote Switch ON “ Manual Channel”  Connect 2 Nos of 300 W bulbs (in series) across FB O/p terminals Load Test :           Switch ON Fans Reset all the annunciations and Lock Out Relay Keep the 6.

0 -1.0 0 1. record the Impedance of the Rotor at Barring Gear.  While Turbine rolling.0 -2.0 2.: _____ ( Arround –8 V)  Switch ON Field Breaker  Switch ON Excitation  Observe the Bulbs connected  Slowly Increase the Excitation from the UN 0663 Module of manual channel and record the following parameters: Uc Field Voltage -4.o RY: YB: BR:  Measure Uc .6 kV Supply Reset the Annunciations and Lock Out Relays if any Switch ON FB & Excitation Slowly increase the Excitation and record the following parameters 104 . the following additional preparations also carried out:  Identify the Power Cables between FB & Rotor and terminate at both ends along with the Bulbs connected  Record the IR Values of Rotor _____________ with 500 V Megger  Generator is ready for OCC test. 500 RPM .0 8.0 4.0 -3.0 5.0 3.0 6.0  Switch OFF Excitation and FB  Switch OFF 6. 1200 RPM and at 3000 RPM  Ensure turbine speed is 3000 RPM and get clearance for OCC Test OCC Test      Switch ON Fans Switch ON 6.0 7.6 kV CB  Switch OFF fans Observe the Parameters and if Satisfactory prepare for OCC Test OCC Test : Preparations : In continuation of the arrangements made for Load Test.

PT ( RY) Field Curent Micro Voltage Terminal Secondary Primary Secondary Primary Milli Actul Uact Ifac Volts Value PT Ratio for AVR PT PT Ratio for PROT PT Field Current • • : 15. if bypass bus is available.Uc Field AVR PT ( RY) PROT. Slowly reduce the Excitation and record the parameters as below: 105 . 06(Y-Ph). change all the tap positions from 1 to 17 and record the voltages measured on bypass PT. close bypass bus isolator as the bypass bus is having PT which will give the GT HV KV readings.75 kV / 110v : 4000 Amps / 60 milli Volts At 15.9 & 10) RY: YB: BR: Voltage Balance Relay 27 A ( 7.75 kV record the following parameters AT Regulation Cubicle : AVR PT : ( Reg –01(R-Ph).8.8. 07(B-Ph) & 04(N) ) RY: RN: YB: YN: BR: BN: AT UCB : Voltage Balance Relay 27 P ( 7.9 & 10) RY: YB: BR: Energy Meter RY: YB: BR: Control Desk RY: YB: BR: Voltage across Stator E/F Relay ( 9 & 10) Check Phase Sequence with Phase sequence meter for both PTs at 27A / 27 P Note : While performing OCC test. 02(Y-Ph). 03(B-Ph) & 04(N) ) RY: RN: PROT PT : YB: YN: BR: BN: ( Reg –05(R-Ph). At full voltage.75 kV / 110v : 15.

LK2 Roll the Turbine to Full Speed At 3000 RPM. Field failure protection Made CT Switching Relay of Zone C Remove Bus Bar Protection Fuses ( Trip & Alarm) ie. PT ( RY) Field Curent Micro Voltage Terminal Secondary Primary Secondary Primary Milli Actul Uact Ifac Volts Value Switch OFF Excitation and FB Switch OFF 6. SCC TEST : Note :  Isolate Back up impedance protection.6 kV CB If the parameters are satisfied.Uc Field AVR PT ( RY) PROT. FS1.6 kV CB on 1B / 2B bus Close Field Breaker Switch On Excitation By slowly increasing the Excitation. Loss of Excitation protection. Pole slipping Protection.  Also bypass Bus Bar protection as the Short circuit currents will operate bus bar relays by removing DC supplies (shorting the Bus bar protection cores is not advisable as the currents in those cores can not be measured)  While checking the currents of Differential protection. Pole slip protection. Get the clearance for SCC Test Close the 6. Record the following parameters Field Voltage Field Current Milli Volt Actual Value Stator Current Micro Control Ig % 106             Uc Secondary Primary If % . Ensure all the Isolators at Switchyard are in Open condition Prepare a short between 3-phases between Generator CB and Breaker Isolator Close the Breaker Isolator so as GT HV side gets Short Circuited Isolate Generator Backup impedance protection. remove trip latch and measure the currents if the relays are electro mechanical relays. Lk1 & FS2. trip the Turbine and restore at SEE cubicles if SCC is not programmed.

6 kV Cable and made the Bus Links made through Remove the Two core cable connected between 6.10) 21 B ( 9.6) R-Ph: ( 5.10) 5. Made Earth at Breaker Isolator and open the Isolator Open the Short Circuit provided Made Earth at Excitation Transformer Open the 6. B/B Main Zone-C. GT S/B Earth Fault 8.8) Y-Ph(7.6 kV CB & Reg.8) Y-Ph(7.6) Forward Power Relay: R-Ph : (5. 2. B/B Check Zone 12. GT Overall Differential Generator Side: R-Ph (9) GT Side : R-Ph (7) 6.10) B-Ph(9.10) (9.6) R-Ph: ( 5.8) Y-Ph B-Ph(9. Gen. B/U Impedance 21 A ( 9.6) Gen.Field Current Stator Curent : 4000 Amps / 60 Milli Volts : 10000 / 5 Amps Measure at Shunt Measure at R – 9  Record the following Parameters at UCB / MCR at 4000 Amps of Short Circuit Stator Current: 1. R-Ph: Y-Ph: B-Ph: Y-Ph(7.10) B-Ph(9.10) Reverse Power Relay : R-Ph: ( 5.10) B-Ph(9.10) B-Ph  If all the readings are satisfied.8) B-Ph(9. LBB Relay 10. Energy Meter MCR (9. 3. Trip FB ( Item No 7 & 8 should not have any currents)  Trip 6.10) 21 C ( 9. GT REF Protection 9. Cubicle Remove the external supply to the fans and restore the supplies at MCBs Restore the wire at Input card A-02 –11 107 .6 kV Circuit Breaker  Trip the Turbine  At Barring Gear open the Breaker Isolator and open the Short Circuit made. Inter turn Fault 7.6) R-Ph Y-Ph(19) Y-Ph(17) B-Ph(29) B-Ph(27) N(7.8) Y-Ph(7.8) Y-Ph(7.10) R-Ph : (5.10) (9. 4.6) Generator Differential: R-Ph : (5.10) B-Ph(9. Restoration for Synchronisation :        At Turbine Zero Speed. 11.

close FB and adjust the excitation and then speed At synchronism conditions. close GCB. The unit have : o Ammeter of 0-2. 15.4 Bus Bar Protection Simulation: 15. 1-Ph. This test kit contains two units:  Power Supply Unit : This Unit requires input Supply 230 V.2 CT Testing:  IR value and Secondary Resistance measurement  Ratio Test  Polarity test  Primary Injection by Z connection  CT Saturation test: 15.3 REF and Differential protection scheme checking: 15.            Trip F 59 and restore the setting of S 865 for UN 0663 Module Restore the K 24 Relay Switch On the FF Supply and ensure DC supply at FF Contactor Restore the Blower Fan Fuses Restore the Bus Bar Protection Fuses Reset the CT Switching Relay of Zone C and make the Bus 1 / 2 depends on Isolator closed Switch ON F 60 & F 61 Switch ON Auto –1 Switch ON F 59 Reset all the alarms at UCB and at Regulation cubicle. Range of currents from 0.05 Amps to 200 Amps can be injected from the test kit. No alarm shall be persisted At 3000 RPM.5 CFB Test Kit( EE Make) : This Test kit is being used for testing Current relays.5 Amps range o Control of the Current by o Coarse Control through 5 Steps o Medium Control through 8 steps o Fine Control by Variac o Actual Value of the Current by Power Supply Unit = Ammeter reading x Coarse selection  Injection Transformer Unit: This Unit Contains impedance matching Unit Injection Transformer Secondary selection steps Time Interval meter Relay shorting switch Current terminals to relay Current to relay 108 o o o o o .

Step 109 . Or Ammeter x Coarse reading x Inj.Current to relay = Current from Injection Transformer x Step value of Inj. Trans. Tran.

I/P Burden 9 KVA Output Current Range 0.05 to 200Amps CFB TEST RATINGS Test Kit is short time rated and the duration of the kit operation is as follows Coarse Control K2 setting 1 2 4 10 20 Time in Sec 300 200 150 120 90 Test Procedure  Ensure kit connections  Ensure kit to relay connections  Keep relay short switch in short  Select the Range of Current required and accordingly select Coarse control and inj. Trans.CFB TEST RATINGS Operating Voltage 200-250 V. 50 CPS Input Current Range 0 – 40Amps Max. Secondary taps  Keep Variac in Minimum position  Switch on the supply to Kit  Press ON push Button  Check the Ammeter reading  Open the relay short  Change the Variac and adjust the currents till relay operates NEVER CHANGE COARSE AND INJECTION TRANSFORMER TAPS WHILE KIT IS IN ON CONDITION 110 .

12. Voltage injection.24. U6 terminals AC Currents After the Variac.72 Amps for 10 Sec Available AC Voltages : 0-250 V Ac adjustable Available DC Voltages : 0-320 V Dc adjustable Available Resistors : 5 k. Procedure for variable AC Voltages is: Extend the supply from Mains Switch on the kit by changing toggle switch Observe LED display Switch on RED Push button By changing variac. Variable currents can be obtained.24 Amps Continuous 12. 200. For 30 Sec 6 A 12 A 12 A 24 A 24 A 48 A For 10 Sec 18 A 36 A 72 A AC Currents by Resistors: By connecting Resistors to the Voltage Circuit in series.48 Amps for 30 Sec 18. Features of the kit are:         Available AC current ranges : 6. 4K.15. U4 can be connected to the load through the resistor and thus variable current can be arrived by varying the variac 111 . 25 Capacitor : 6. variable voltage available at U3.8. U2. Variable AC Voltages from U3.36. 3 secondary winding transformers are provided for obtaining various currents from terminals U1.6 TURE Test Kit ( ABB Make): The TURE Kit can be used for AC/ DC Currents.3 micro farads o o o o o o AC Voltage : Variable AC Voltage can be derived from the kit. By changing the Links. U4 terminals Fixed 230 V AC is available at U5. 0. current limits can be changed Cont.

3 Micro farads capacitor can be connected across terminals A3. This unit contains fault selection. Voltage and Current terminals to the relay. CT having the ratios of 10 / 5 / 2. Backup impedance protection for Generators. U6 can be connected to the rectifier input terminals A7. Variable or Fixed DC voltage depending on input is available at A3. the test kit contains the following units  Supply Unit: The input to the test kit. Inbuilt AC/ DC relay is available and the contacts of the relay are also available Important  Input supply polarity ie. To achieve those conditions.7. 15. the three zone impedances are: • • • Zone – 1 : 19. A4 if smoothen DC is required Contacts On and OFF contacts are available to initiate external timer.2 Test Procedure Connect the test kit as per the diagram given in the manual. 6.7. Phase / Neutral  While using for currents.7 ZFB Test Kit ( EE Make): 15. A4 terminals. % potential selection.DC Voltages A rectifier Bridge Circuit is available in the kit. Observe the correct polarity of connections where ever marked + . For ex : From the VTS – Podili line data. the simulated fault conditions can be applied suddenly for observing better relay performance.5. smooth variation if variac is required 15.16 Ohms Zone – 3 : 35.8 112 . 3-Phase. Required combination of Resistance ( R) and Reactance (X) can be connected to the test setup  External CT: For testing Long lines and very long lines relays. 415 V AC . CT can be used in to the circuit. Fault Push button. ON / OFF Switch and other terminals to connect the other units of the kit  Control Unit: Source Impedance.2 Ohms Zone – 2 : 32. U4 or Fixed AC Voltage from U5. the impedance values required to be tested with higher values.1 Kit Description This test kit is used to test the impedance relays such as for line protection. A8. Requirement of CT ration and the Impedance values can be selected from the following calculations. Either variable AC voltage from U3. Normal / reverse switch and other terminals to connect the other units of the kit  Fault Impedance Unit: This unit contains the 16 resistors and 8 reactors.52 Ohms Line angle : 81 º Kn = 0. With this test kit.

AB. continuity shall not be available with change in fault selection switch ie.04 11.52 19.Earth Zone-1 Zone-2 Zone-3 19.19 / 80.71 25. N in the current to the relay terminals  For same terminals.31 25.79 1302 2 3 3 2 3 3 7 8 8 7 8 8 11.2 / 5 = 6.68 Similarly calculate for Zone 2 and Zone 3. The following are the test set up data for the above data. The test kit selected is MK-II and Sl.16 35. The loop impedance value / impedance selected in the kit gives the % potential required for the relay operation.31 11. The following shall be observed for identifying the impedance values: 1 .865 / 80.21 7. CN.912 Loop Impedance for Ph-Phase Faults in Z1 = ( 1+1 )*19.MK II Sl.19 / 80.No: 007138 Phase Phase Zone-1 Zone-2 Zone-3 Phase . No: 007138 ZFB.STEP1 : Calculate Loop Impedance : ( 1 + K ) * Z / CTR K = Kn for Phase to Earth Faults = 1 for Phase to Phase faults CTR = 5 selected form the external CT Hence Loop Impedance for Ph-Earth Faults in Z1 = ( 1+0. STEP 2: Select the Impedance values from the kit impedance unit.865 / 80. Check the Currents to relays as follows :  Short Relay Amps terminals  Select Fault selector switch to AN Fault  With continuity meter.2 / 5 = 7.16 35. Also check for no continuity in other selections 113 . The angle of R & X combination shall be nearer to the line angle STEP 3: Calculate the % potential required.7. CA faults  Connect the continuity meter between B. N terminals and check for continuity for BN fault as above. BN.31 25.2 32.19 / 80. check for the continuity across A. The impedance of the R & X combination of the kit shall be more then loop impedance 2.8)*19.31 65 51 54 59 47 52 Line Impedance CT Ratio Loop Impedance R Kit Impedance X Equ.Imp % Potential Required 15. STEP 4: The relay operation shall be checked up nearer to the above % potential.71 25.2 32.19 / 80.68 12. BC.52 5 5 5 5 5 5 7.3Testing of ZFB Relay Test Kit Supply Unit : Without extending supplies to the kit.86 14.

Connect 3.8 TURH Test Kit ( ABB make) 15.  Short terminals “ To Supply Unit ( Relay Amps)”  Short Ammeter terminals  Extend supply from Supply Unit for checking Ph – Earth faults  Connect the leads from supply unit “ Relay Volts” to control unit with proper polarity  Connect Voltmeter at voltmeter terminals  Select fault AN  Switch on the kit  Select % Potential selector switch to 100 % and measure the voltage. o AN = 63.5 V  Change the % Potential selector and observe change in voltmeter reading and it should vary accordingly 15.8.3Testing of TURH Relay Test Kit Short the current terminals in reactance unit  Extend 3.5 V  Measure the voltage across 0 and 110 V terminals. If 3 phase voltages are available.5.8. CA= 110  Repeat the above test by selecting BN and CN faults and record the voltages  Change the connections to check the Phase to Phase faults  Select Ph – Ph fault say AB fault  Measure the voltages at the following terminals o AN = 0. CA= 110  Repeat the above test by selecting BC and CA faults and record the voltages  Measure the voltage across “ To Control Unit “ and it should be 115 V AC Control Unit  Short source impedance terminals Common & 24.Phase supply ( 110 V) keeping AF switch in position 1 and observe LED glow.8.2 Test Procedure 15. CN= 63. BC= 110.1 Kit Description This kit contains the following units: Power supply Unit Reactance 15. It should be 63. BN= 63. CN= 0 o AB = 110. 415 V AC input and switch on Mains and Kit  Measure the voltage across 0 and 63. It should be 110 V  Switch off kit and connect Relay Volts terminals to Control Unit terminals for checking Earth fault voltages  Select fault AN and switch on Kit  Measure the voltages at the following terminals. BN= 0.Ph .5. LED will glow 114  .5 V terminals. BC= 110.5 o AB = 110. It should be 63.

Ie.  Extend 3. By changing S1 / S2 switches. TN after changing fault selections  Open the short between R & N terminals of currents  Multiplication of S1 & S 2 is the current in the circuit. the current shall be 1 Amp.Phase supply ( 110 V ) keeping AF switch in position 2 and observe LED glow. Record the value of D  Phase angle = D / 5  Keep P =1 and S1 & S2 = 1. 115 . LED will glow Phase Angle Measurement :  Connect the required voltage and currents for which phase sequence is to be measured to the terminals provided below D Potentiometer  Keeping D at Maximum position ( 99) switch on kit.Ph. Fault selection. output voltage will be 50 V  Now reduce Gx & Fx to 0 and raise Gr + Fr and observe similar change in voltages  Similarly check the voltages between SN. Voltage rises by 5 V in each step  At maximum of Gx & Fx. Rotate the D potentiometer till LED changes its state ( ON to OFF / OFF to ON ). Output current = S1 * S2  For 2. the Kit is satisfactory. Gr + Fr=0 and select fault RN and switch on KIT  Measure voltage across RN output voltage terminals. observe the currents  For 3. It should be 0 V  Change Gx and observe change in Voltage. If S1 = 1 and S2 = 1. Output current = √ 3 * S1 * S2  If all the Voltages and currents are satisfied. Gx + Fx = 0 .Ph. If phase sequence is correct. Fault / Ph.N fault selection.

OCC TEST PARAMETERS TO BE RECORDEE AT UCB Ensure all the Isolators of Main CB and Breaker Isolator of Bypass-1 Breaker are in open condition and the keep Bypass Isolator of GT-1 in Closed condition Field Current Field Voltage RY Generator Voltages YB BR Bypass Bus kV Voltage Balance Relay 27 P ( 7.9 & 10) Energy Meter Control Desk Voltage across Stator E/F Relay ( 9 & 10) RY: RY: RY: RY: YB: YB: YB: YB: BR: BR: BR: BR: Check Phase Sequence with Phase sequence meter for both PTs at 27A / 27 P 116 .9 & 10) Voltage Balance Relay 27 A ( 7.8.8.

PARAMETERS TO BE RECORDEE AT AVR While Increasing the Excitation: Uc Field AVR PT ( RY) PROT. PT ( RY) Field Curent Micro Voltage Terminal Secondary Primary Secondary Primary Milli Actul Uact Ifac Volts Value While Decreasing the Excitation: Uc Field AVR PT ( RY) PROT. PT ( RY) Field Curent Micro Voltage Terminal Secondary Primary Secondary Primary Milli Actul Uact Ifac Volts Value 117 .

10) Y-Ph(7.10) R-Ph Y-Ph(19) Y-Ph(17) B-Ph(29) B-Ph(27) 6. Ph(9.10) (9.10) 21 C ( 9.8) B- 5. Reverse Power Relay: R-Ph: ( 5.Phase B. 2. Ph(9. Y-Ph B-Ph 118 .6) Forward Power Relay: R-Ph : (5. Inter turn Fault GT S/B Earth Fault 8.10) (9. GT REF Protection 9. B/U Impedance 21 A ( 9.6) Generator Differential: R-Ph : (5.Phase  Record the following Parameters at UCB at 4000 Amps of Short Circuit Stator Current: R-Ph: Y-Ph: B-Ph: 1.6) Gen.10) 3. 7.10) 21 B ( 9.10) Y-Ph(7. Energy Meter MCR (9. GT Overall Differential Generator Side: R-Ph (9) GT Side : R-Ph (7) Gen.SCC PARAMETERS TO BE RECORDEE AT UCB Field Current Field Voltage Generator Kv Generator Current in Amps R .8) BY-Ph(7.8) B-Ph(9.Phase Y .10) 4.

Please Ensure that CT Switching Relay of GT-1 Breaker is on Zone – C ie.6) R-Ph: ( 5.8) Y-Ph(7.10) PARAMETERS TO BE RECORDEE AT DVR Uc Field Voltage Field Current Milli Volt Actual Value Stator Current Micro Control Ig % Secondary Primary If % 119 .8) B-Ph(9.PARAMETERS TO BE RECORDEE AT MCR Before SCC.6) R-Ph: ( 5. on Bypass Record the Parameters at 4000 Amps of Generator Current And as per UCB Direction LBB Relay B/B Main Zone-C.6) N(7.10) B-Ph(9.8) Y-Ph(7. B/B Check Zone R-Ph : (5.10) B-Ph(9.

120 .

102-1995 (Revision of IEEE Std C37.1-1986 (Revision of IEEE Std 421-1972) An American National Standard IEEE Standard Definitions for Excitation Systems for Synchronous Machines 121 .2-1996(R2001) (Revision of C37.102-1987) : IEEE Guide for AC Generator Protection  Protective Relay Applications : EPRI  IEEE Std C37.2-1991) IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers and Contact Designations American National Standard (ANSI)  IEEMA specification for Instrument Transformers  IEEE Std 665-1995 (Revision of IEEE Std 665-1987) : IEEE Guide for Generating Station Grounding  Siemens Numerical Over Current Protection Manual  Switchgear Protection & Power Systems – Sunil S Rao  Power Systems – CL Wadhwa  ANSI/IEEE Std 421.Bliography:  IEEE Std C37.

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