Therapy Shielding Calculations

Melissa C. Martin, M.S., FACR, FACMP American College of Medical Physics 21st Annual Meeting & Workshops Scottsdale, AZ June 13, 2004

Therapy Shielding Design Traditionally Relies on NCRP Reports
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NCRP Report 49
– Primary and secondary barrier calculation methodology – Applicable up to 60Cobalt and linacs up to 10 MV

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NCRP Report 51
– Extended NCRP 49 methodology up to 100 MV – Empirical shielding requirements for maze doors

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NCRP Report 79
– Improved neutron shielding methodology

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NCRP Report 144
– Update of NCRP 51 primarily aimed at non-medical facilities

Reports reflect progress in linac design and shielding research Reports reflect progress in linac design and shielding research

Revised NCRP Report in Drafting Stage by AAPM Task Group 57, NCRP SC 46-13
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Design of Facilities for Medical Radiation Therapy
– 4 MV - 50 MV (including 60Co)

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Calculation scheme generally follows NCRP 49 All shielding data (TVLs) reviewed and updated Updated for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) Improved accuracy of entrance requirements
– Both with and without the use of maze

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Laminated barriers for high energy x-rays
– Photoneutron generation due to metal in primary barrier

Goal: Improved accuracy Goal: Improved accuracy

Linear Accelerator Energy and Workload
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BJR #11 megavoltage (MV) definition used here
– British Journal of Radiology (BJR) Supplement No. 11

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Comparison of BJR #11 and BJR #17 MV definitions
4 4 6 6 10 10 15 16 18 23 20 25 24 30

BJR #11 MV BJR #17 MV
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Workload assumptions typically used for shielding design
– Workload identified by symbol “W” in calculations – For MV ≤ 10 MV: W = 1000 Gy/wk at 1 meter from the target » Based on NCRP 49 Appendix C Table 2 – For MV > 10: W = 500 Gy/wk » Based on NCRP 51 Appendix B Table 5

12 mSv/week for controlled areas – 0.Radiation Protection Limits for People s Structural shielding is designed to limit exposure to people – Exposure must not exceed a specific dose equivalent limit – Limiting exposure to unoccupied locations is not the goal s NCRP 116 design dose limit (P) – 0.004 mSv/week for uncontrolled areas NCRP 116 dose limit is a factor of 5 lower than NCRP 49 value NCRP 116 dose limit is a factor of 5 lower than NCRP 49 value .10 mSv/week for occupational exposure – 0.02 mSv/week for the general public s Typical international design dose limits – 0.

Radiation Protection Limits for Locations s s Permissible dose outside vault depends on occupancy Occupancy factor (T): Fraction of time a particular location may be occupied Maximum shielded dose (Smax) at protected location s S max = P T – Assuming occupancy factor T for protected location Maximum shielded dose is traditionally referred to simply as P/T Maximum shielded dose is traditionally referred to simply as P/T .

wards.Occupancy Values from NCRP 49 s s Full occupancy for controlled areas by convention (T=1) Full occupancy uncontrolled areas (T=1) – Offices. unattended elevators. outside areas used only for pedestrian or vehicular traffic . nurses stations. janitor’s closets. children’s play areas. shops. and occupied space in nearby buildings s Partial occupancy for uncontrolled areas (T=1/4) – Corridors. stairways. laboratories. elevators with operators. living quarters. unattended parking lots s Occasional for uncontrolled areas (T=1/16) – Waiting rooms. rest rooms. toilets.

16 for higher energy accelerators (500 Gy / wk workload) – T ≥ 0..02 mSv hourly limit for uncontrolled areas 20 Gy/hr common assumption for calculation Implies a lower limit for occupancy factor – T ≥ 20 / ( U W ) – T ≥ 0. unoccupied roof.08 for lower energy accelerators (1000 Gy wk workload) s Not applied to low occupancy locations with no public access – e. machinery room T = 1/10 rather than 1/16 typically used for exterior walls T = 1/10 rather than 1/16 typically used for exterior walls .Hourly Limit for Uncontrolled Areas s s s 0.g.

machine rooms.. etc. Impact increases if higher occupancy than T=1/40 adopted Impact increases if higher occupancy than T=1/40 adopted . unoccupied roofs.02 mSv/wk from individual facility for general public s Occupancy assumptions proposed for general public – T=1/40 for occasional occupancy s Equivalent to T=1/10 occasional for general employees – Similar to P/T required by hourly limit for primary barriers – Slightly increase from T = 1/16 used for secondary barriers – T=1/16 still appropriate for locations with no public occupancy » e.NCRP 134 Impact on Linac Shielding s NCRP 134 distinguishes general employees from public – NCRP 134 maintains NCRP 116 limit of 0.g.02 mSv/wk for both – Limit 25% of 0.

Basic Primary Barrier Calculation Unchanged from NCRP 49 s Unshielded dose calculation S pri s = WU 2 d pri Door T a rg e t R o ta tio n a l P la n e D' A A' Attenuation in tenth-value layers n = s  S pri  log10   P / T TVL1 + (n −1) TVLe D M aze * tC C T arget Is o c e n te r B d p ri Barrier thickness (tc) calculation C' tC = 1 ft Margin in primary barrier thickness is recommended to Margin in primary barrier thickness is recommended to compensate for potential concrete density variation compensate for potential concrete density variation .

3 0.9 26 26 42 42 53 53 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 NCRP 51 Concrete TVL1 TVLe 84 84 94 94 104 104 109 109 117 117 147 147 210 210 292 292 367 323 410 377 445 416 462 432 470 442 483 457 Steel TVL1 TVLe 15 15 19 19 22 22 29 29 33 33 54 51 76 69 91 91 100 100 104 104 108 108 109 109 110 110 110 110 Earth TVL1 TVLe 135 135 151 151 167 167 175 175 188 188 236 236 336 336 468 468 572 572 648 648 720 720 740 740 752 752 773 773 Borated Poly TVL1 TVLe 84 84 94 94 104 104 109 109 117 117 147 147 210 210 292 292 343 343 379 379 379 379 379 379 390 390 401 401 NCRP 49 Nelson & LaRiviere McGinley Estimated from Concrete Anticipate upcoming NCRP report to review and update TVL data Anticipate upcoming NCRP report to review and update TVL data .2 0.3 11.9 2.8 4.9 4.Primary Barrier Photon Tenth-Value Layers (mm) Come from a Variety of Sources MV 0.7 1.9 11.5 1 2 4 6 10 15 18 20 24 Lead TVL1 TVLe 1.25 0.3 8.7 2.8 8.4 0.

Primary Barrier Width s 0.0 ft Field typically not perfectly square (corners are clipped) – 35 cm x 35 cm field size typically used to account for this T a r g e t to N a r r o w P o in t D is t a n c e ( d C ') * w C C T a rg e t Is o c e n te r T a r g e t to N a r r o w P o in t D is t a n c e ( d C ') * w C C T a rg e t Is o c e n te r T a r g e t to N a r r o w P o in t D is t a n c e ( d C ') * T a rg e t Is o c e n te r 1 ft 1 ft 1 ft M e ta l 1 ft C' 1 ft C' 1 ft w C .3 meter margin on each side of beam rotated 45 degrees – Barrier width required assuming 40 cm x 40 cm field size wC = s 0.4 2 d C ' + 1.

02 1.00 1.21 1.00 1.44 Lead 10 MV 1.00 1.00 1.10 1.21 1.00 1.47 18 MV 1.17 1.00 1.08 1.02 1.07 1.42 18 MV 1.00 1.48 Steel 10 MV 1.02 1.20 1.22 4 MV 1.02 1.08 1.04 1.52 Concrete 4 MV 10 MV 1.00 1.00 1.04 1.07 1.07 1.00 1.Slant Factor and Obliquity Factor s Slant Factor – Path from target to protected location diagonally through barrier » Incident angle θ of line with respect to perpendicular – Required barrier thickness reduced by cos(θ ) » Same total distance through barrier to protected location s Scatter causes slant factor to underestimate exit dose – Multiplying thickness by obliquity factor compensates for this Angle 0 30 45 60 70 4 MV 1.04 1.07 1.45 .00 1.28 18 MV 1.03 1.03 1.22 1.20 1.14 1.47 1.20 1.07 1.

Photoneutron Generation Due to Metal in Primary Barrier (Linacs ≥ 10 MV) s Dose-equivalent 0.3 m beyond barrier (McGinley) WU NF −t / TVL −t / TVL 1 P = SN 10 10 3 N t2 + t + 0.305 3 2 – N is neutron production constant (Sv neutron per Gy workload) » 1.7 x 10-4 for steel at 18 MV (from McGinley) s Recent safety survey indicated somewhat higher 3. 1.9 x 10-3 for lead. t2 is metal thickness (m) – X-Ray attenuation prior to metal layer: 10^(-t1 / TVLp) – Neutron attenuation after metal layer: 10^(-t3 / TVLN) .16 m2).8 x 10-4 value for steel at 18 MV is appropriate » N adjusted versus MV based on neutron leakage fraction vs MV – F is field size (conventionally 0.

Patient Photonuclear Dose Due to Metal in Primary Barrier for MV > 10 s Metal in primary barrier can increase patient total body dose if MV > 10 – Lead inside layer approximately doubles patient total body dose – Increases risk of secondary cancer s Concrete or borated polyethylene inside metal in primary barrier is recommended if MV >10 – Each inch of borated poly decreases patient dose from metal barrier photoneutron by approximately factor of 2 s Impact of IMRT on patient photonuclear dose is addressed later Avoid metal as inside layer of primary barrier if MV > 10 Avoid metal as inside layer of primary barrier if MV > 10 .

Secondary Barrier s Patient scatter unshielded dose Sp = a W ( F / 400) 2 2 d sca d sec Door T a rg e t R o ta tio n a l D' P la n e A A' – F is field size in cm2 » typically 1600 – a = scatter fraction for 20 x 20 cm beam D M aze d sca * C T a rg e t Is o c e n te r B d sec s Leakage unshielded dose – Assumes 0.1% leakage fraction tB 1 ft C' SL = W 10 2 d sec −3 .

Leakage Photon Tenth-Value Layers (mm) Also Come from a Variety of Sources MV 4 6 10 15 18 20 24 Lead TVL1 TVLe 53 53 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 Concrete TVL1 TVLe 292 292 341 284 351 320 361 338 363 343 366 345 371 351 Steel TVL1 TVLe 91 91 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 Earth TVL1 TVLe 468 468 546 455 562 512 578 541 581 549 586 552 594 562 Borated Poly TVL1 TVLe 292 292 341 284 351 320 361 338 363 343 366 345 371 351 NCRP 49 Nelson & LaRiviere Kleck & Varian Average Estimated from Concrete .

20% for 10.Neutron Leakage s s Same form as photon leakage calculation Based on dose-equivalent neutron leakage fraction vs MV – 0. 20 and 24 MV – Based on Varian and Siemens neutron leakage data » Assumes quality factor of 10 for absorbed dose s Shielded dose equivalent based on leakage neutron TVLs – 211 mm for concrete – 96 mm for borated polyethylene . 0.04%.002%.15% and 0. 18. 0.10%. 0. 15.

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) s IMRT requires increased monitor units per cGy at isocenter – Typical IMRT ratio is 5 MU per cGy. as high as 10 for some systems s Percent workload with IMRT impacts shielding – 50% typically assumed. 1. 100% if vault is dedicated to IMRT s Account for IMRT by multiplying x-ray leakage by IMRT factor – IMRT Factor = % IMRT x IMRT ratio + (1 .% IMRT) – 3 is typical IMRT factor (50% workload with IMRT ratio of 5) s IMRT factor lower for neutrons if machine is dual energy – e..g.5 if dual energy linac with 50% of treatments below 10 MV » Pessimistic since most IMRT is performed at 6 MV (next chart) .

1% photon leakage s 0.05% required absorbed neutron dose x 20 quality factor – Typical neutron dose equivalent is lower than requirement » 0.IMRT above 10 MV Significantly Increases Patient Photonuclear Dose s Neutrons dominate patient total body dose for high energy linacs – Neutron dose equivalent as high as ten times photon dose » Potentially 1% of workload vs 0.0% of WL – Significantly increases risk of secondary cancer Most IMRT is performed at 6 MV to mitigate increased secondary Most IMRT is performed at 6 MV to mitigate increased secondary cancer risk from photoneutrons cancer risk from photoneutrons .2% of workload s IMRT factor of 5 increases patient incidental dose 5X – Results in typical neutron total body exposure of 0.1 to 0.5 to 1.

Patient Scatter Significant Adjacent to Primary Barrier s Scatter traditionally neglected for lateral barriers – Generally a good assumption – 90 degree scatter has low energy Door T a rg e t R o ta tio n a l P la n e D' A A' s Scatter is significant adjacent to primary barrier – Calculations indicate comparable to leakage – Slant thickness through barrier compensates for the increase in unshielded dose due to scatter » Barrier thickness comparable to lateral is adequate for same P/T D M aze d sca * θ C T a rg e t Is o c e n te r S c a tte r A n g le B S la n t t h ic k n e s s u s e d t o c a lc u l a t e a tte n u a tio n d sec C' A c tu a l b a r r ie r t h ic k n e s s 1 ft .

53E-03 2.73E-02 20 6.39E-04 4.54E-03 5.18E-04 1.59E-03 2.04E-02 1.46E-04 1.61E-04 1.21E-04 150 4.24E-04 8.85E-04 1.77E-03 3.09E-03 1.20E-04 1.81E-04 2.66E-03 6.45E-04 8.04E-02 1.77E-03 2.87E-04 2.76E-04 135 4.39E-03 5.13E-04 8.89E-04 1. Scatter fraction increases as angle decreases Scatter fraction vs MV may increase or decrease – Tends to increase with MV at small scatter angles – Decreases with increasing MV at large scatter angles MV 4 6 10 15 18 20 24 10 1.91E-04 90 6.77E-03 2.35E-03 7.al.05E-03 5.35E-04 3.00E-04 3.73E-03 5.50E-04 3.39E-03 8.66E-02 1.78E-04 1.18E-03 2.24E-04 1.24E-04 1.73E-03 6.23E-04 1.54E-04 4.24E-03 1.14E-04 .91E-04 1.51E-02 1.Patient Scatter Fraction for 400 cm2 Field s s s Based on recent simulation work by Taylor et.79E-03 5.74E-04 1.02E-04 1.64E-04 4.42E-02 1.19E-03 30 2.31E-04 2.52E-02 1.71E-03 Angle (degrees) 45 60 2.26E-04 3.

25 0.6 2.9 90 0.2 0. 50%) appears reasonable » % increase little more than wild guess.7 0.0 5. more research is needed Ambiguity remains as to TVL to use for scatter Ambiguity remains as to TVL to use for scatter .g.6 1.3 s No standardized scatter Tenth-Value Layer – Primary MV rating based on peak MV in spectrum.25 0.7 2.7 Scatter Angle (degrees) 20 45 1.4 0.3 0.8 5. not mean energy – Primary TVL at slightly higher MV (e.2 0.Patient Scatter Energy s Mean Scatter Energy MV 6 10 18 24 0 1.7 2.

capture gammas s Mechanisms calculated at most stressing orientation – Scatter calculations multiplied by 2/3 to compensate for this s Scatter energy relatively low at maze door – Primary 0.Maze Calculation Likely Revised in Upcoming NCRP Report s New method identifies and evaluates specific mechanisms – Patient Scatter. Leakage scatter – Direct leakage – Neutrons.3 MV TVLs used for patient and wall scatter (2 bounces) – Primary 0. Wall Scatter.5 MV TVLs used for leakage scatter (1 bounce) – Scatter is significant typically only for low energy linacs Goal: More-precise calculation avoiding over or under-shielding Goal: More-precise calculation avoiding over or under-shielding .

g.Maze: Patient Scatter s Unshielded dose Sp = s a W ( F / 400) α 0. » a = patient scatter fraction » F = field size in cm^2 » h = room height d d P3 P1 * C T arg et Is o c e n te r B d A w C P2 C = w C h .5 MV scatter fraction » Second bounce fraction » 0..02 per m2 typically used – Other constants as before.5 AC 2 2 2 d P1 d P 2 d P 3 D Door T a rg e t R o ta tio n a l P la n e D' A A' where – α0. e.5 is 0.

005 per m2 for 6 MV » 0.004 per m2 for ≥ 10 MV d d M S2 d S1 – – A1 = beam area (m2) at wall AM = Maze cross section (m2) » dM x room height .Maze: Wall Scatter s Unshielded dose SS where – – = f W α1 A1 α 0.5 AM 2 2 2 d S1 d S 2 d S 3 D Door T a rg e t R o ta tio n a l P la n e D' A A' d S3 * C T arg et Is o c e n te r f = patient transmission α1 = first reflection coefficient » 0.

Maze: Leakage Scatter s Unshielded dose S LS where = W 10 3 α1 AC 2 2 d L1 d L 2 − D D oor T a rg e t R o ta tio n a l P la n e A A' D' d L2 * C T arget Is o c e n te r B – Constants as previously defined A w C C d L1 = w C h .

if maze wall not sufficiently thick * C T a rg e t Is o c e n te r B s C' .Maze: Direct Leakage s Unshielded dose Door SL s = W 10 10 2 dL −3 −t D ' / TVL A tD ' D' θ A' T a rg e t R o ta tio n a l P la n e d D L Same as standard secondary photon leakage calculation Standard neutron leakage not typically used – Use only if it exceeds the maze neutron calculation » e.g..

Maze Neutron Calculation Based on Modified Kersey Method s Unshielded dose equivalent H NT where = W Ln [1+ ( d N 2 −3) / 5 ] 2 d N 1 10 D D oor T a rg e t R o ta tio n a l P la n e D' A A' d N2 * C T arget Is o c e n te r B – Ln is neutron leakage fraction » Same as used for secondary neutron leakage calculation – Modification to Kersey is assuming first tenth-value distance is 3 m instead of 5 m C' d N1 Upcoming NCRP report may recommend a more-complex approach Upcoming NCRP report may recommend a more-complex approach than this than this .

6 inches beyond 4 inches thickness s s .Maze Neutron Shielding s s Modeled as 50% thermal neutrons and 50% fast neutrons 1 inch borated poly effectively eliminates all thermal neutrons Fast neutron TVL is 2.4 inches for the first 4 inches Fast neutron TVL is 3.

6 MeV) – TVL of 61 mm for lead – Limited attenuation also provided by polyethylene (278 mm TVL) Dominates X-Ray dose at maze entrance for high energy linacs Dominates X-Ray dose at maze entrance for high energy linacs .Maze Capture Gammas from Concrete s Gamma rays generated by neutron capture in the maze – Very significant for high energy linacs s Unshielded dose is a factor of 0.2 to 0.5 of the neutron dose equivalent at the treatment room door – Use the conservative factor (0.5) s Capture gammas have moderate energy (3.

Direct-Shielded Door s Neutron Door is simply a secondary barrier – Typically more layers and different materials than a wall » Lead to attenuate leakage photons » Borated polyethylene to attenuate leakage neutrons s Typically sandwiched between layers of lead » Steel covers s Specialized shielding procedure adjacent to door – Compensates for relatively small slant thickness in this location – Vault entry toward isocenter similar to maze – Vault entry away from isocenter is secondary barrier » But with specialized geometry .

Direct-Shielded Door: Far Side of Entrance s Extra material added to corner – Lead to entrance wall – Borated polyethylene or concrete beyond wall P r o te c te d P o in t (1 ft b e y o n d d o o r e n c lo s u re ) I s o c e n te r to F a r S id e o f E n tr a n c e D i s ta n c e Is o c e n te r to D o o r S e c o n d a ry D i s ta n c e s Uses standard secondary barrier calculation Goal: provide same protection as wall or door for path through corner D o o r O v e r la p B e y o n d F a r S id e o f E n tr a n c e 7 .5 " O v e r la p T y p ic a l T y p ic a l Gap 0 .5 " Is o c e n te r T a rg e t R o ta tio n a l P la n e s .

5 " 7 .Direct-Shielded Door: Near Side of Entrance s Geometry similar to short maze – Maze calculation can be used but is likely pessimistic T y p ic a l G ap 0 .5 " T y p ic a l Door O v e r la p N1 s Requires less material than far side of entrance – Lower unshielded dose – Lower energy Is o c e n te r T arg et d d * N2 T a rg e t R o ta tio n a l P la n e P ro te c te d P o in t (1 ft b e y o n d door e n c lo s u r e ) .

and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Ducts s HVAC penetration is located at ceiling level in the vault – For vaults with maze. typically located immediately above door – For direct-shielded doors. Ventilation. at the HVAC duct opening s NCRP 49 recommends that shielding extend at least a factor of three times the width of the HVAC penetration .Shielding for Heating. located in a lateral wall as far away from isocenter as possible s s Ducts shielded with material similar to the door at entrance Material thickness 1/2 to 1/3 that required of the door – Path through material is at a very oblique angle due to penetration location with slant factor between 2 and 3 – Factor of at least 5 reduction in dose at head level (the protected location) vs.

0249 W U Ω1.122 » for 40 x 40 cm beam Y1 h Is o c e n te r s Multiplying by additional factor of two is recommended Primary TVLs used to calculate attenuation * F lo o r T a rg e t s d h Y2 New construction seldom shields solely for skyshine due to New construction seldom shields solely for skyshine due to vigilance required to prevent unauthorized roof access vigilance required to prevent unauthorized roof access .Photon Skyshine s Unshielded dose S sky = where – 0.3 2 d Y21 d Y 2 d Ω 2 m e te r s Ω (steradians) = 0.

and 0. 0.014 times W for 10.4 × 10 −4 H pri Ω Ω 2π Ω = 2.002.Neutron Skyshine s Unshielded dose H sky = where – 5. 0.00013. 0. 20.71 (steradians) typical (target above isocenter) * F lo o r T arg et Is o c e n te r – Hpri is neutron dose-eq in beam (0. and 24 MV.0043. respectively) s U p to 2 0 m e te r s la te r a l d is ta n c e Use factor is not applied since neutrons in all orientations Multiplying by additional factor of two is recommended s . 18. 15.0039.

Primary Goal of Upcoming NCRP Report is Improved Shielding Calculation Accuracy s Very little impact for low energy accelerators – Primary and secondary barrier calculation method unchanged – Very little impact to calculated shielding for given protection limit s Improved accuracy for high-energy accelerators – Avoids extra cost of over design due to pessimistic calculations – Avoid extra cost of retrofitting if inaccurate calculations underestimate required shielding .

” 1998 AAPM Annual Meeting s s s .References s Biggs. Kleck. “Radiation therapy facility shielding design. 70. Chibani. Vol. British Journal of Radiology (BJR) Supplement No. Omar and C. steel.” Health Physics. 527-536. No. J. No 4. Vol 30. Central axis depth dose data for use in radiotherapy. Ma. “Obliquity factors for 60Co and 4. 8:1990-2000. 18 MV X rays for concrete. and lead and angles of incidence between 0º and 70º. Peter J. “Photonuclear dose calculations for high-energy beams from Siemens and Varian linacs. 1996.” Medical Physics. August 2003.C. 1972. 11. 10.

WI: Medical Physics Publishing.1-100 MeV particle accelerator facilities. Washington. 2002. Washington. DC: NCRP. Structural shielding design and evaluation for medical use of x-ray and gamma rays of energies up to 10 MeV. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. NCRP Report 51. Radiation protection design guidelines for 0. 1976. P. Shielding Techniques for Radiation Oncology Facilities.H.References (Continued) s McGinley. Madison. s s . NCRP Report 49. DC: NCRP. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. 2nd ed. 1977.

and P. Rodgers.References (Continued) s National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements..” Health Physics. Rodgers. J. and P. Vol.L. s s s . MD: NCRP. and 25 MeV. “Scattered fractions of dose from 6. 1999. Nelson.” Health Physics. 27-35. 18. “IMRT Shielding Symposium” AAPM Annual Meeting.D.. 1. Neutron Contamination from Medical Accelerators. Vol. and 25 MV linear accelerator X rays in radiotherapy facilities. 1984. Bethesda. J. No. 2001.E. Shobe.R. 76. Taylor. 47. 10. James E. “Primary and leakage radiation calculations at 6. W. LaRiviere. NCRP Report 79. 10. 6: 811-818. No. 1984.

. Shobe. and J. 1442-46. “Scatter fractions from linear accelerators with x-ray energies from 6 to 24 MV. J. 8.L. Vol. Rodgers.References (Continued) s Taylor. 1999.E.. No. 26." Medical Physics. P.

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