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posdcorb (Autosaved)

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POSDCORB – Management process

Planning
Planning means working out broad outline of the things that need to be done and the method to be adopted to accomplish the purpose set for the enterprise. Planning also includes creating, programming and project formulation Planning is identifying a need for action Planning consist of 1. Determining what to do and when and how to do it 2. Defining objectives and determining operations to achieve maximum effectiveness through a process of setting targets 3. Gathering and analysing information 4. Developing alternatives 5. Preparing and communicating plans and decisions Planning calls for creativeness or new thinking Experience of the past is helpful which are gathered through study and observation Planning also calls for innovative approaches Planning is not a one – man’s operation. It involves collective thinking through group activity. Body of experts meet together and explore various courses of action. Ideas are pooled in together through committees and brainstorming sessions When the groups has exhausted its ideas, it goes over the ideas and then rethinks 1. Which of these ideas can be amalgated 2. What more can be added to each idea 3. Which of them needs to be rejected Thus at the end of the exercise there will be a fairly clear idea as what has to be done, when and how. And How will also indicate by whom. After decisions have been made, planning takes on a more technical shape. Decisions have to be elaborated in the form of action to be undertaken by different parts of the organisation. Each objective has to be elaborated into targets ( accomplish by date) There is also identification of alternatives through a process of gathering and analysing information ( PLAN B) 1. Each alternative is evaluated separately and tested for effectiveness, economy and feasibility 2. The process of selection is one of elimination and alternatives that do not satisfy the objectives are rejected. 3. One has to be selected for elaboration into a plan of action and communicated with appropriate decision to those who are to implement them

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National Development Council. Central Social Welfare Board and State social welfare advisory board etc. Policy statements 2. Concrete identification of the population whose social needs and demands are to be met. Social welfare planning is the phase or stage of the total social development which involves: 1. Identifying Social Problems - - - . 4. The stages involved are 1. social welfare planning essentially involves choosing from among the best alternatives the best course of action to achieve maximum output or results.  The various other agencies then guide and execute in the formulation of the policy eg Planning Commission. Since the resources for social welfare are limited while the problems are tremendous. 3. 3. cabinet and the concern ministry.Planning for social welfare in India: Planning for social welfare in India is firmly based on the nature and extent of social problems. finance  Data on education and training institution for social welfare and their functions and nature  Data collected would serve as the base for planning. Specific instruments required to carry out the social activities Planning is not done in isolation and it is for total development – planning that involves social development T. The indicators of the types of social welfare activities that will be performed for these populations. T Thahane defines it as a process of organising national economic and social efforts for the promotion of organising national economic and social effort for the promotion of achievement of clearly defined national development goals. 2. Preplanning  Laying down of social policy  A policy is a main system which provides a framework for the accomplishment of intended objectives  Formulation of policies are made on assumptions depending on the priorities of needs and allocating finances accordingly  The agencies responsible for policy formulation within the union and state governments are the Legislature. private and voluntary agencies for social welfare. geographical distribution and utilisation by the population  Data on available resources: man power. Analysis of the situation  Setting up the baseline to help the planners  Data would be required to analyse the present social situation – Characteristics of the target population: age sex etc  Data on social welfare facilities available: public.

arranged. ethical etc. - ORGANISATION: Organisation is the establishment of the formal structure of authority through which the work is subdivided.  It is the real test of the plan 8. It is also defined as “ arranging a complex tasks into manageable units and defining the formal relationships among the people who are assigned the various task” .  A goal is usually described in terms of :  What is to be attained  The extent to which it is to be attained  The population involved  The geographic areas in which the proposed programme will operate  The length and time required for achieving these goals  The Objective is a precise statement of the ends intended to be achieved. Selection of Priorities:  Resources in the developing countries are limited and insufficient to meet the needs of the people  There is a need for select the pressing and urgent problems  Number of factors that need to be taken into consideration while making priorities are economical. 7. Write up of Formulation Plan  After the goals. Area wise identification of problems is important for fruitful social action 4. social . political. objectives and priorities are decided the next step is write up of the plan  Contain a schedule ( time sequence for the plan to be implemented)  Contain a procedure ( a set of rules for implementing the plan. administrative. technical. 5. Implementation  It is the integral part of the planning process  It requires responsibilities for translating the objectives and social policy into social action.  Problems can be identified base on the statistics collected at the union state and local level. 6. Evaluation  It is to measure the effectiveness of the plan  It measure the degree to which an objective and targets are fulfilled and the quality of the result obtained. Definition of Goal and objectives  Goal is the direction in which the plan is to proceed. defined and coordinated for the defined objective. financial.

territory ( district wise) clients ( women and child. 3. Accounts and Services - - 4. planning and administration)  There are at least three departments that are always present – administration. Span of control  Refers to the subordinates an individual can supervise and control  Control refers to guidance. Degree of centralization and decentralisation  Centralisation is when the authority of major decision are taken by the top managers  Decentralisation is when the lower levels of the organisation take decisions without the approval from the top level managers. 2. There are less opportunities for organisation conflicts if organisational responsibilities are clearly defined 3. products ( micro credit. When the number of individuals increase . Organised groups and organisations are more likely to give satisfaction to the employees and thereby positive results for the organisation Elements of organising 1. Creating clear cut lines of authority and responsibility in an organisation which will help in controlling and leading the organisation. SC/ST) and process( Marketing. they are divided into groups and are given specific tasks to perform Thus organising is required for 1. water and sanitation dept). encouragement and appreciation provided to subordinates . The need for an organisation emerges when one individual cannot perform the necessary task.Organising: It means establishing effective behavioural relationship among persons to be able to work together efficiently and to gain satisfaction in doing selected task under given environmental condition for the purpose of achieving some goal and purpose. Departmentalisation  It refers to the formal structure of the organisation composed of various departments and managerial positions and their relationships to each other  Departments are formed depending on their functions ( planning dept). Division of Labour:  Total work of the organisation is divided into smaller units and distributed among employees  Work is allotted to the person most suited to do it  It allows employees to attain proficiency in their work  Thereby increasing the efficiency of the organisation 2.

Selection:  It involves evaluating and choosing among the candidates  Through interviews. Introduction and Orientation:  The selected candidate is help to fit into the organisation  Introduction to colleagues  Acquainted with responsibilities. collaborating agencies and labour market.  Informed about organisation policies and goals 6. Performance Appraisals  It aims to judge the employee and his/her contribution to the organisation. External factors: policies of the government. placement. Management experts that no superior can control more than five or six subordinates.  It is done on the basis of standards  Employees should have a clear job profile and should know on what basis is he/she being judged  If performance is satisfactory reward must be given  If not corrective action is to be taken. 2. Recruitment:  developing a larger pool of jobs for candidates in line in view with the need of the organisation  through advertisement of the positions available 4. Internal factors: present and future skill needs areas of priorities. Training and Development:  Process of training and development aims at increasing the knowledge and skills of the employees along with attitudinal change  The aim is also to increase the organisations productivity  And also the employees level of job satisfaction 7. donor agencies. Staff of an organisation is selected based on the needs of the organisation and its performance Staffing process 1. it may lead to quality of supervision Staffing Staffing is the management function that deals with the recruitment. 3. training and development of organisation members. . group discussions and skill test 5. financial condition.

Problems within departments can be sorted out by the superiors of their respective organisation 4. - Coordinating It is the process of integrating the objectives and activities of two or more departments in the organisation. 3. work allocation and flow of communication. Informal leadership depends on the personal qualities of the person such as charm.Directing Directing is the managerial function of guiding. Proper identification of objectives and formulation of plans also improve coordination. 1. It standardise routine work which saves the time of managers. political parties and military. 6. Leaders can be formal or informal 2. The leader here is selected or elected and his/her powers are determined and how they are to be exercised. The organisation functioning is governed by written ad formal rules. Formal leaders are formed in Bureaucratic organisations. Personal relationships improves overall coordination within the organisation. Clear cut objectives – known to all managers and employees 2. This will help the various departments with different responsibilities to direct their efforts towards achieving their targets. Informal relationship between employees is important as much as formal. 3. Rules and regulations is another way. It is concern with directing the human efforts towards organisational goal achievement Sometimes directing and leading are seen as one function. Participatory managerial style 4. Eg: if the organisation has a good leader the objectives of the organisation would be achieved as well as leading to the satisfaction of the employees The requirements for successful leadership are: 1. Hierarchy is an important method to achieve coordination 2. Everyone will know what behaviour is expected from them and task will be performed accordingly 5. It gives the organisation a unity of purpose and unity of direction. Unity of direction 5. it contributes to a better work environment and improve the efficiency of the organisation 7. There is a division of work among the various departments. Effective follow up Leadership: it is defined as the relationship in which the person influences others to work together willingly on related task to attain goals devised by the leader and the group. People high in the hierarchy have more authority and responsibility and it regulates the exercise of authority. . supervising and leading people. Meaningful supervision by the superiors of the subordinates 3. intelligence and skills. There are ways to achieve coordination 1.

Budgets are also made on information of the previous experiences. the allocation of funds to various departments takes place. 2. problems faced in implementation and problems related in staff. Finance is the fuel on which the organisation runs. Keep a time period within which the report is done 3. 1. It improves the coordination of the organisation. Need for Budgeting 1. It helps in preventing administrative and financial malpractices. 2. Proper allocation of funds to different departments within the organisation helps prevents conflict and overlapping 6. - Budgeting It is a complete statement regarding the organisations income and expenditure of the past financial year. Budgets are also a source of information. 5. A revised budget may be formulated due to changes in the environment inside the organisation When a budget is made for the first time it is usually an estimate. Establish means by which reporting is done 2.Reporting: Reporting means keeping the superiors informed about work. Budgetary allocations to various activities reveal the priorities of the organisation. Reporting is done at every level. 3. Once budget is approved. It keeps the management informed about the organisations performance. Budgets are made for a year or annually. 2. - . It helps to control the excessive expenditure 4. This is useful to people outside the organisation as well as its employees and supporters. Reporting also included action to be taken on the report. It should be decided as to whom the report should go and in what form 4. Budgeting is controlling of the organisation based on a budget. It also provided an estimate of the sme for the coming financial year It is usually approved by the highest controlling body. It inculcates a sense of responsibility among the employees as they have to report the programme activities to the higher authorities. It helps to measure the performance of the organisation 7. The concern head of departments have to function within the funds allocated to them. the progress of it. Reporting Process 1. It is a way to control an organisation. It allows the management to take corrective action when things go wrong 3. Need for effective reporting: 1. A budget contains the expenditure income and outcome planned for a specific period of time.

discuss the needs of the organisation in the incoming year keeping in view the priorities of the organisation and prepares the budget. It is a process which helps in detecting flaws. 2. The budgeting process makes the managers aware of the objectives of the organisation. Internal : done which is done by the organisation functionaries themselves to assess their progress 2. Monitoring is a direct detention and control over the programmes projects and to help in future planning. Monitoring is with a view to send feedback information for initiating corrective action. its resource base and forecast trends and changes in the external environment. Evaluation can be of two types 1. The extent of participation of clients/community in the various stages of the programme 3. The relevance and the need of the programme. Lastly the process of budget preparation is an educative exercise Managers would review the existing situation. Evaluation and Feedback: It means to assess the value of the organisation rationale for its existence and the contributions it makes for the welfare of the society Evaluation of the programme has to include the following dimensions 1. Monitoring is the simplest method in knowing the status or the progress of the programme. External : which is done by outside agencies like government and donor agencies - - . assist in decision making and in giving directions to the programmes. Availability and quality of the services rendered 5.8. Accessibility 4. Monitoring: Monitoring is an important instrument in the implementation of a programme to ensure its completion within the budgetary allocations and time schedule. 9. Sustainability and financial viability of the programme According to the American Public Health Association defines – Evaluation as the process of determining the value or amount of success achieved in terms of its predetermined objectives.

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