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oxytetracycline,

( ).

()

fluvalinate (Apistan Mauric) 24 35C

coumaphos (Perizin)

bromopropylate (Folbex-VA) 36

malathion 10-12

amitraz (TacTic) 3-4

oxytetracycline 6-10

soulphadiazol

7-8


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Nosema apis.

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(>70C
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(2 ml 60% 1 lt ).
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Mentha crispa () Salvia officinalis (),
(3-4 1 lt ), .

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:

1 1
. 15
(
2-3 200-500 ml ) 21-28 .

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( , VIX,, )

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**( http://bioapiculture.blogspot.com)


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-

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(Varroa jacobsoni),
[Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)]
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70%
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20
Apis melifera,

34

.
osema apis.
1995 Apis
cerana Nosema Nosema ceranae.
2005
.
osema apis . 2006

.
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.

.
50% ,
, , .
.
45-65%.
75%.

.
osema apis, Nosema ceranae Nosematidae
Dissociodihaplophasida Dihaplophasea
Microsporidia.

.
Nosema

Nosema ceranae


. Nosema pyrausta

Ostrina nubialis, Nosema cactoblastis Cactoblastis cactorum Opuntia,
Nosema locustae Nosema acridophagus
, Nosema
grylli,
, Nosema algerae
Nosema kingii,
.

osema apis.

.

.

Nosema ceranae .

Nosema ceranae

. Nosema ceranae
32
, 4 1 .
, osema apis
37C
,
. Nosema ceranae 100%.
15 60C.
Nosema ceranae, osema,
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.

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.
.

35


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.

50%.

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Nosema ceranae

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4-6 30-50 .

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15
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osema apis.


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Nosema ceranae.



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Nosema ceranae
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osema apis. ,
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Nosema ceranae :
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49C 24 . 40C 5
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-
. .
(fumagillin)
Fumidil B ,
Aspergillus fumigatus.


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- Apiherb Nonosz.
.


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46-73% .

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.
, , 1, 2 6.
7.0%, , 0.5% , 2.0% , 1.5% , 52%
8.5 %. .
10 .
3 ,
10C. 40 g ( ).
10 .
- Vita Feed Gold
Beta vulgaris var altissima .

, . .
(1:1) 10 g 100ml.
50C.
2
. (5-25C).
250 ml 5 . Vita Feed Gold
.
- 0,12 mg/gr.
.
(1 g/15l).
.

37

3-4 .
- Protofil .
.

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,
. 40
ml/kg 20 ml/lt. 2-4 250-500 ml.
- Nozevit .
. (20 200 ml).
.
.
- Vetiver oil. Chrysopogon
zizanioides. (1,2 mg/ml).
(khusimol), - (avetivone) - (b-vetivone.) .
-
.
- (Resveratrol) , .
.
(0.01mg/g).
- (Lysozyme)
.
: (0,06 mg/g).
- Nosestat. 4%
. 1 2. 5 ml
. 500-800 ml
3 .
- (5 Kg.
.
,

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.
-
.
,
.

Bacillus Enterococcus
.
S1 S2 (surfactins S1 S2))
Mori2 C4 Bacillus subtilis
1 2 (bacteriocin B1 bacteriocin B2),
DSMZ17511 Enterococcus avium CRL1385
Enterococcus faecium .

.
- 6
ml 100 % 1
10 . .

38


Nosema ceranae

.
- HoneyBHealthy (Cymbopogon citratus)
(Mentha piperita)
.
- 100 ml 10% , 250
ml 150 ml .
-

.
.

.
.
- 125 ml 60100% .
60%

. .

.
- 3%
.
-
Mentha crispa ( ) Salvia
officinalis (),
(3-4 1 l
) .
- aloe vera 15
.
.

26, 12
188
.


(Tom Webster, Kentucky)

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Nosema ,
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field test.
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Nosema.
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N. ceranae,
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chain reaction, PCR
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Varroa jacobsoni.

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(
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18-20
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47C 2-15 . .

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5-6 5
100%.
[5-methyl-2(1-methyl-ethyl)phenol]. 0,5gr
.
.
.

() (85gr )

18-25C.
, 9-10 .
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( 6-10ml 10% ).

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Eucalyptus sp.(), Matricaria


chamomila () Mentha crispa (), 15min 4
Thymus vulgaris () Salvia officinalis (),
2 0,5% 3-4 1lt
.
ApiLife/VAR (74,1% , 16% ,
3,7% , 3,7% , 2,5% ).

Apis cerana (
) ,

-OXALIC ACID


varroa.

3%, 3-4
ml ,
98% .

, , 30- 40%.


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1:1,
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1:1 35 .A
5ml
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100 60 ml , ,
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,
400-900 ppm.

, /

.


The use of drugs to control varroosis in honeybee colonies and
European legislation the current situation, Bee World 2002, Franco
Mutinelli, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Eva
Rademacher, Free University of Berlin, Biology/Chemistry/Pharmacy
Dept.
Control of Varroa Guide by Mark Goodwin and Cliff Van Eaton for the
New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, 2001
Alternative Varroa control,Anton Imdorf and Jean-Daniel Charri6re,
Swiss Bee Research Centre
2004 Imker Freund


(!!!)


(!!!)
Mark Goodwin Cliff Van Eaton,
(120 .) .
( MAF) ( ISBN 0-478-07958-3) Copyright 2001.
http://beedata.com/pop-goodwin.htm.

, ,
,

.

Mark Goodwin & Cliff Van Eaton Horticulture


and Food Research Institute( HortResearch)
.
.

,

. 1999.

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6.3 O

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( (icing
sugar) )

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6.3.1


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0,1% .

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150
.
.

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10% .


fluvalinate

. fluvalinate 800-1000
.

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(wintergreen),
.


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6.3.1.1

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.

.
.


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.
66-98%

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> 12 C >15 C.
.

,
.
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(1,1ppm)
.

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.

.
-
.

( vitex, ).

1. ( vitex, ).

,
.

6cm x4cm 0,5cm .

, 4
4 ml 75%.


8 ml .

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.

8ml
2-3 8 .

2. .

5-7 cm.

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.

4gr .

4gr , 2-3
8 .

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2,5
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12-32 C, 18 C.


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15 ml

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15
15 ml , .

( 24 ml) 1/3 . 8 ml
( ..
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7-8 , 3 .

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30
150 . ,
5-20 13,5
( 2-3
200-500 ml ) 21-28 .

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95%,

12-32 C, 18 C.

(
) !!

FAM-Dispenser-
() .

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: 69 37-47 53 57

FAM-Dispenser Swiss Bee Research Centre


Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux ( FAM Liebefeld)- .

()

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1. 130 ml
70%

2. 2-3 130 ml 70%.


- (
VARROX) -
( ),
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85% 70%
- - (1000ml 85%)
215 ml
.

1. -

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22) 18 .

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(Ruttner & Koeniger, 1979, Santas, et. al., 1983).

39

22. .

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Varroa destructor
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(, , )
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&

, 2001).
Apiguard. Apiguard gel
12 g . ,


15 C.
41

96,6% , 93,4%.
Apiguard .

,
. ,
( ..,
2002).
ApilifeVAR. ApilifeVAR ,
76% , 16,4% , 3,8% 3,8% .
.
(95,2%) 18 C,
24 12 .
(90,7%) ,
12 . (83,1%)
18 C, 24
, 12 .
( &
, 2002).
. 15%
, 96,6%,
.
.

.
, 24 , .
.

. 15%,
, ,
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(, .., 2002).
.
.

42

(80-95%), (
), .
. 100 g 10 g
100 g .
5 cm3, - ,
. 45-50
cm3, 20-25.
. .
100 C . 29
200,15 cm, 22 g 65%
. 4 , 4
.
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120 , .
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44-45 C 4-5
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Trifolium sp. Cymbopogon narbus


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Bacillus larvae.

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100C.
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Thujopsis
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fi (M.Sc. Entomology)
&
Email: s.skareas@attiki-pittas.gr


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19(3): 71-75.
. 2005. .
19 (6): 366-367.
Goodwin M. Van Eaton C. 1999. Elimination of American Foulbrood without the use of drugs. National
Beekeepers Association of New Zealand. Napier, New Zealand.
Lindstrom 2005. Shaking can cure American Foulbrood. fi ,
2005.
Ritter W 2005. The residue free control of bee diseases. fi ,
2005.


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Streptococcus pluton.
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(1gr kg . 1/2kg 4 7 )

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100%
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Archangelica officinalis (110-130g 24


50-60g 130 ), 50%.

in vitro 100% Cridothymus


capitatus, Origanum vulgaris, Satureja thymbra Savia fruticosa 0,05, 0,05,
0,05 0,20 ml ml .

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, 320

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Mayer, D. F., C.A. Johansen, & C. R. Baird. 1996. How


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University.

10. Tomlin C. D. S. (Ed.), 2001. The Pesticide Manual.


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V


LD5O < 40 mg/kg
LD5O = 41-200 mg/kg
LD5O = 201-1,000 mg/kg
LD5O = 1001-5,000 mg/kg
LD5O > 5,000 mg/kg

I
I
III
IV


LD50 < 2g/
LD50 = 2 -10.99g/
LD50 = 11- 100g/
LD50 > 100g/


( 1, 2 ,3) (OARDC/The Ohio State University).

1. :
1 .
2,4-D (Weed-B-Gone*)
abamectin (Zephyr*)
acephate (Orthene*)
azinphos-methyl (Guthion*)
bifenthrin (Capture*)
carbaryl (Sevin*)
carbosulfan (Advantage*)
chlormephos (Dotan*)
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban*, Dursban*)
cyfluthrin (Baythroid*)
d-phenothrin (Sumithrin*)
demeton-s-methyl (Metasystox (i)* (50-%
Premix))
diazinon (Spectracide*)
dichlorvos (DDVP)
dicrotophos (Bibrin*)
dimethoate (Cygon*, De-Fend*)
esfenvalerate (Asana* XL)
ethion (tech) (Ethanox*)
etrimfos (Ekamet*)
fenitrothion (Sumithion*)
fenpropathrin (Farmatox*)
fensulfothion (Dasanit*)
fenthion (Baytex*)
fenvalerate (DMSO) (Belmark*)

flucythrinate (Pay-Off*)
fonofos (Dyfonate*)
heptachlor (Fennotox*)
lindane (Lindane)
malathion (Malathion 50*, Malathion ULV)
methamidophos (Monitor*, Tamaron*)
methidathion (Supracide*)
methiocarb (Mesurol*)
methyl parathion (Penncap-M*)
mevinphos (tech) (Phosdrin*)
monocrotophos (Azodrin*)
naled (Dibrom*)
omethoate (Folimat*)
oxydemethon-methyl (Metasystox-R*)
oxydisulfoton (Disyston S*)
parathion (Bladan*)
permethrin (Ambush*, Pounce*)
phosmet (Imidan*)
phosphamidon (Dimecron*)
propoxur (Baygon*)
pyrazophos (Afugan*)
resmethrin (Chrysron*)
tetrachlorvinphos (Gardona*)
tralomethrin (Scout X-TRA*)

2. (nocotinoids)

3. .

.
.
Acetochlor (Acenit*)
Aclonifen (Challenge*)
allethrin (Pynamin*)
alphacypermethrin (Fastac*)
ametryn(Evik*)
bromopropylate (Acarol*)

fluvalinate (tau-fluvalinate) (Mavrik*, Spur*)


formetanate hydrochloride (Carzol*)
mancozeb (Manzate*, Dithane*, Fore*)
methanearsonic acid (MAA)
neburon (Granurex*, Propuron*)
pebulate (Tillam*)

cinmethylin (Argold*)
crotoxyphos (Ciodrin, Decrotox*)
DCPA (Dacthal*)
diphenamid (Dymid*)
disulfoton (DiSyston*, Ekanon*)
endosulfan (Thiodan*)
endrin (Hexadrin*)
ethoprop (Mocap*)
flufenoxuron (Cascade*)

phorate (Geomet*, Thimet*)


pirimiphos-methyl (Acetellic*)
sethoxydim (Poast*)
sulfosate (Touchdown*)
terbufos (Counter*)
thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate (Evisect*)
thiodicarb (Larvin*, Nivral*))
triforine (Denarin*, Funginex*)

4. . .
2,4-D butoxyethyl ester (Aqua-Kleen*)
2,4,5-T (2,3,5,-T)
alachlor (Lasso*)
aldicarb (Temik*)
aldoxycarb (Standak*)
alloxydim sodium (Kusagard*)
amitraz (Taktic*)
amitrole (Kytrol*)
ammoniacal copper sulfate (Copac*)
anilazine (Dyrene*)
anthraquinone (Corbit*)
atrazine (tech) (AAtrex*)
azadirachtin (Margosan-O*)
azamethiphos (Alfacron*)
azocyclotin (Peropal*)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Gnatrol*)
benomyl (Benlate*)
bentazon (Basagran*)
bitertanol (Baycor*)
Bordeaux mixture (Nutra-Spray*)
bromacil (Hyvar*)
bromadiolone (Boot Hill*, Maki*)
bromofenoxim (Faneron*) (WP)
bromoxynil (Emblem*)
buminafos (Trakephon*)
bupirimate (Nimrod*)
butylate (Sutan+*)
butylate (Anelda* Plus)
captan (Captanex*)
captfol (Haipen*)
carbendazim (Delsene*)
carbetamide (Carbetamex*)
carboxin (Vitavax*)
chinosol (Beltanol L*)
chloramben (Amniben*)
chloranil (Chloranil)
chlorbromuron (Maloran*)
chlordimeform (Chlordimeform)
chlorflurenol (Maintain A*)
chloridazon (Pyramin*)
chlormequat chloride (Cycocel*)
chlorobenzilate (Benzilan*)
chlorophacinone (Caid*, Rozol*)
chloropicrin (Chlor-O-Pic*)
chlorothalonil (Bravo*)
chlorotoluron (Dicuran*)

dazomet (Basamid*)
DCNA (Botran*)
desmetryn (Semeron*)
dibromochloropropane (Nemagon*)
dicamba (Banvel*)
dichlobenil (Casoron*)
dichlofenthion (form) (VC-13 Nemacide*)
dichloroprop-P (Duplosan* DP)
dichlorprop (Polymone*)
diclofop-methyl (Hoelon* 3EC)
dicofol (Kelthane*)
dienochlor (Pentac*)
diflubenzuron (Dimilin*)
dikegulac sodium (Atrimmec*)
dimethirimol (Milcurb*)
diniconazole-M (Spotless*)
dinocap (Karathane*)
diquat dibromide (Reward*)
dithianon (Delan*)
dithiocarbamates (Metam-sodium, Dithane*)
diuron ((Seduron*)
dodemorph acetate (E.C.) (Meltatox*)
dodine (Melprex*)
endothall (Entothal*)
epoxiconazole (OPUS*)
ethephon (Cerone*)
ethidimuron (Ustilan*)
ethion (Ethiol*)
ethirimol (Ethirimol)
ethofumesate (Nortron*)
ethylfluralin (Sonalan*)
fenaminosulf (Lesan*)
fenamiphos (Nemacur*)
fenarimol (Rubigan*)
fenfuram (Pano-ram*)
fenpropimorph (Funbas*)
fentin hydroxide (Brestanid*)
fenuron (Fenuron)
ferbam (Carbamate*)
fluometuron (Cotoran*)
fluorodifen (Preforan*)
fluoroglycofen (Complete*)
folpet (Folpan*)
fosamine ammonium (Krenite*)
fuberidazole (Fuberidazol)
furalaxyl (Fongarid*)

chloroxuron (Tenoran*)
chlorpropham (Taterpex*, Bud Nip*)
clofentezine (Apollo* SC)
copper oxide (Nordox*)
copper oxychloride (form) (Recoup*)
cyanazine (Bladex*)
cycloate (Ro-Neet*)
cycloxydim (Focus*)
cyhexatin (Metaran*)
cyproconazole (Sentinel*)dalapon
(Dalacide*)
daminozide (B-Nine*)
MCPA (Chiptox*, Weedar*)
MCPB (Thistrol*)
mecoprop (Propal*)
mecoprop-p (Duplosan*KV)
MEMC (Bagalol*)
mepiquat chloride (Pix*)
metalaxyl (Ridomil*)
metalaxyl (Apron*, Subdue*)
metaldehyde (Slug N' Snail*)
methamitron (Goltix*)
methazole (Probe*)
methoxychlor (Marlate* -, Dusts toxic)
methyl bromide (Meth-O-Gas*)
Metiram (Polyram* DF)
metobromuron (Patoran*)
metolachlor (Dual*, Pennant*)
metoxuron (Dosanex*)
metribuzin (Sencor*)
monalide (Potablan*)
monolinuron (Aresin*)
monuron (Monuron)
MSMA (Diumate*, Daconate*)
nabam (Spring-Bak*)
napropamide (Devrinol*)
naptalam acid (Alanap*)
naptalam (Alanap*-L, Rescue*)
nicotine (Nicotine)
nitralin (Planavin*)
nitrapyrin (N-Serve*)
nitrofen (Nip*, Tok*)
norflurazon (Evital*, Predict*)
nuarimol (Trimdal*)
oryzalin (Surflan*)
ovex (Sappiran*)
oxycarboxin (Plantvax*)
oxyfluorfen (Goal*)
oxythioquinox (Morestan*)
paraquat (Gramoxone*, Starfire*)
PCNB (Terraclor*, Turfcide*)
pendimethalin (Prowl*)
phosalone (Asofene*, Zolone*)
phenmedipham (Spin-Aid*, Betanal*)
picloram (Grazon*, Tordon*)
pirimicarb (Pirimor*)
PMA (Unisan*)
prochloraz (Abavit*, Omega*)
procymidone (Sumilex*)

gibberellic acid (ProGibb*, Gibrel*)


glyodin (Glyodin)
glyphosate (Round-Up*)
glyphosate (Pondmaster*)
guazatine (Kenopel*)
indole-3-butyric acid (Hormodin*)
iprodione (Chipco*)
Isopropalin (Paarlan*)
isoproturon (Alon*)
lenacil (Venzar*)
linuron (Lorox*)
maneb (Manex*)
profluralin (Tolban*)
prometon (Pramitol*)
prometryn (Caparol*)
pronamide (Kerb*)
propachlor (Ramrod*)
propam (Birgin*)
propamocarb hydrochloride (Banol*,
Prevex*)
propargite (Comite*, Omite*)
propazine (Milo-Pro*, Primatol*P)
propineb (Airone*, Antracol*)
prothiocarb (Previcur*)
pyrethrins (EC toxic, sprays repellant effects)
pyridate (Tough*)
pyroquilon (Coratop*, Fongorene*)
quinclorac (Facet*)
quizalofop-ethyl (Assure*)
rotenone (Prentox*, Prenfish*)
ryania (Natur-Gro R-50)
sabdilla (Sabdilla)
sethoxydim (Poast*, Vantage*)
simazine (Princep*)
sulfur (Uniflow*, Sulfox*, Cosan*)
TCA (TCA)
terbacil (Sinbar*)
terbumeton (Caragard*)
terbutryn (Terbutrex*)
tetradifon (Tedion*)
thiabendazole (Arbortect*, Mertect*)
thiophanate-methyl (Pinnacle*)
thiram (AAtack*, Chipco*)
triadimefon (Bayleton*)
triadimenol (Baytan*)
tribufos (Folex*, DEF*)
trichlamide (Hataclean*)
trichlorfon (Dipterex*, Proxol*)
triclopyr (Garlon*, Pathfinder*, Remedy*)
trietrazine (Trietrazine)
trifluralin (Treflan*)
triphenyltin hydroxide (Brestanid*)
validamycin A (Validacin)
vernolate (Vernam*)
vinclozolin (Curalan*, Ornalin*)
warfarin(Co-Rax*, Cov-R-Tox*)
WSSA (Herbisan* 5(EXD, Sulfasan*)
zineb (Cuprothex*)
ziram (Ziram 76*)

5.
(I, II, III-IV)

I.
Abamectin

Diazinon ()

1-2 es

Dibrom

1.5

Permethrin EC

1 - 2 es

Dimethoate EC

3 es

Cypermethrin EC

>3 es

Deltamethrin EC

Cygon

7 es

Carbofuran SC

7 - 10 es

azinphos-methyl EC

2.5 es

Chlorpyrifos EC

4 - 6 es

Furadan 480 F

5 es

Malathion ULV (225 mL/acre or more)

5.5 es

Methamidophos SL

Acephate WP

> 3 es

Carbaryl WP

3 - 12 es

Carbaryl XLR (more than 1.4 L/ac)

> 1

Guthion

5 es

Lagon

7 es

Temik G (aldicarb) ( 4

Lannate

1.5

Lorsban

3.5

Orthene

2.5

Pyrinex

3.5

Sevin

Sniper

II.
Malathion EC

Endosulfan (more than 0.6 L/acre)

Metasystox-R

0.5

XLR (carbaryl) 1.4 L/acre or less


(not 1:19 dilution)

Decis

Disulfoton (Di-Syston)

2 - 7

Pirimor

0.5

Thiodan

III-IV.
Trichlorfon

3-6

Methomyl

Malathion ULV (85 mL/ac or less)

Oil sprays (superior type)

< 3

Endosulfan 0.6 L/ac or less)

2- 3

Bt (Dipel, Thuricide, etc)

Dicofol (Kelthane)

Fluvalinate (Mavrik)

2. ( H. Cooke, 2000)

2:
-
6. -

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2,4Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( Papaefthimiou et al. 2002).

8. Deltamethrin
( Papaefthimiou & Theofilidis 2001).


(Tasei 2001) . (Thomson 2001).
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(van der Steen 2001).
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14.
BANASZAK J (2002). In Proceedings of the 6th European Bee Conference, Cardiff,
UK, July 1-7, 2002, p. 109-121.
DONOVAN B.J.and ELLIOT G.S. (2001). Honey bee response to high
concentrations of some new spray adjuvants. New Zealand Plant Protection 54:5155 (2001)
COLIN, ME; BELZUNCES, LP (1992) Evidence of synergy between procloraz and
deltamethrin in Apis mellifera L: a convenient biological approach. Pesticide
Science, 36: 115-119
GIURFA m (2003). The amazing mini-brain: lessons from the honey bee. Bee World
84(1): 5-18
PAPAEFTHIMIOU, CH.; THEOPHILIDIS G. (2001). The Cardiotoxic Action of the
Pyrethroid Insecticide Deltamethrin, the azole Fungicide Prochloraz, and Their
Synergy on the Semi- Isolated Heart of the Bee Apis mellifera macedonica.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 69, 77-91 (2001)
PAPAEFTHIMIOU, CH: PAVLIDOU, V., GREGORC, A: THEOPHILIDIS, G
(2002). The action of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the isolated heart of
insect and amphibia. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 11 (2002)
127-140
PILLING E.D. (1995). Mechanism of Synergism between the Pyrethroid InsecticideCyhalothrin and the Imidazole Fungicide Prochloraz, in the honey bee (Apis
mellifera L.) Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 52(1): 1-11
THOMPSON, H.M. (2001). Assessing the toxicity of pesticides to bumblebees
(Bombus sp.) Apidologie 32 (2001) 305-321
VAN DER STEEN J J.M. (2001) Review of the methods to determine the hazard and
toxicity of pesticides to bumblebees. Apidologie 32: 399-406
, (2005)
. , 20, ,
20-21

-

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.
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.


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1. (. )

2. . , , .

3. . .

4. ( )

5. . Lieselotte Gettert (. )

6. . (. )

7. . .
( .3)

8. Effect of lactic acid as the only control method of Varroa mite populations during four
successive years in honeybee colonies with a brood-free period. Brodsgaard C., Hansen
H.,Hansen C. Apiacta 32,1997 p.81

9. Succwssful trapping of Varroa Jacobsoni with drone brood in broodless Apis mellifera
colonies.Calis J. etc Apiacta 32, 1997 p.65

10. Effectiveness and residue levels of 3 methods of menthol application to honey bee
colonies for the control of tracheal mites. Nelson D.etc Apidologie 1993, 24 p.549

11. Efficiency checking of the Varroa jacobsoni control methods by means of oxalic acid.
Imdorf A., Charriere J-D., Bachofen B. Apiacta 32, 1997 p.89

12. A gel formulation of formic acid for the control of parasitic mitew of honey bees.
Feldlaufer M., Pettis J., Kochansky J., Shimanuki H. American Bee Journal 137(9) 1997 p.661

13. Failure of formic acid to control Varroa jacobsoni in a hot climate. Wilson W., Collins
A.M. American Bee Journal 133(12) 1993 p.871

14. Formic acid or Amitra z for spring or fall treatment of Acarapis woodi. Wilson W., Collins
A.M. American Bee Journal 133(12) 1993 p.871

15. Comparison of formic acid sampling with other methods used to detect Varroa mites.
Ellis M., Baxendale F. American Bee Journal 132(12) 1992 p.807

16. Treatment of sealed honey Bee brood with formic acid for control Varroa jacobsoni.
Ingemar F. American Bee Journal 131(5) 1991 p.313

17. Flour dusting controls Varroa disease. Shah F., Shah T. American Bee Journal 128(1) 1988
p.27

18. Varroa jacobsoni in Costa Rica : detection, spread and treatment with formic acid. Veen
J., Calderon Fallas R., Murillo C.A., Arce Arce H. Bee World 79(1) 1998 p.5

19. Diseases and parasites, eradication or management : what strategy for honey bee
health? Nasr M., Kevan P. Bee World 80(2) 1999 p.53

20. Five years of bi-directional genetic selection for honey bees resistant and susceptible to
Varroa gacobsoni. Kulincevic J., Rinderer T., Mladjan V., Buco S. Apidologie 23 1992 p.443

21. Use of essential oils for the control of Varroa jacobsoni in honey bee colonies. Imdorf A.,
Bogdanov S., Ochoa Ibanez R., Calderone N. Apidologie 30 1999 p.209

22. Activites in vitro de plusieurs huiles essentialles sur Bacillus larvae et essai au rucher.
Floris I., Carta C., Moretti MDL. Apidologie 27 1996 p.111

23. Therapy of Varroatosis and its effects Engels W., Rosenkranz P. Apidologie 23,4 1992
p.379

24. Heat treatment of brood combs for Varroa control. Appel H., Bucher R. Apidologie 22,4
1991 p.471

25. Preliminary report on lactic acid winter application as treatment of varroatosis. Kraus B.
Apidologie 22,4 1991 p.473

26. Treatment against varroatosis using compounds of essential oils. Rickli M., Imdorf A.,
Kilchenmann V. Apidologie 22 1991 p.417

27. Effective control of varroatosis using powdered thymol. Chiesa F. Apidologie 22 1991
p.135

28. (1), (2) (3).