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Introduction to Remote Sensing GISC 6325 / GEOS 5325
What is SONAR?
So sound Na navigation and R ranging
A sensor is used to detect objects through the use of high or low frequency sound waves.
Who else uses sonar
Actually nobody but animals use echolocation and that is actually where we learned the technique Bats, whales, and dolphins are some of the best known animals to use echolocation
air.Sound Properties Sound travels (slower than EMR) at 4. . The human ear can detect frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 20.800 fps or 1460 meters per second – we will use 1500 mps.000 Hz. (in elastic mediums . water. or earth NOT in a vacuum) Sound waves are measured in hertz (Hz).
ships – “ping” or emit a burst of acoustic energy. Sound waves returned: Animals – waves sensed through ears (bats) or teeth and bones (whales). seismic – explosions or impact plates. seismic – waves sensed through geo-phones. ultrasound – transducer converts sound to electricity and back. ships – waves sensed by hydrophones or (next) .How does Sonar work Sound wave sent outward: Animals – noises made with their bodies.
.How does Sonar work Any listening system that consist of (1) a hydrophone (2) an electronic receiver (3) a bearing indicator (4) a speaker or headphones.
.Sonar Noise The sound-listening problem for the operator consists primarily of learning to distinguish between : (1) sounds emitted by another ship's machinery through the hull and from the propeller (2) the multitude of other sounds that exist in the ocean.
Sonar Noise .
Navigation and Ranging Issues Depth is determined by dividing travel time of sound by 2 and then multiplying by 1500 mps 12 seconds travel time 12/2 = 6X1500 = 9000 meters deep The Doppler principle applicable to all wave motion was developed by the Austrian physicist. it is lower. if the source is moving away from the observer. Similarly. Frequency of sound appears to increase when an observer moves toward a source and appears to decrease when he moves away from it. the frequency is higher. if the source is moving toward the observer. . Christian Doppler (18031853).
htm The Historic Naval Ship Association http://www.org/doc/sonar/chap1.htm In Depth Consulting – Side Scan Imaging http://www.gov NOAA Office of Coast Survey .noaa.indepthconsulting.Sonar References http://hnsa.nauticalcharts.com/Sonar/Side scan.
What do we use sonar for? First developed in WWII to detect submarines Used to detect icebergs Water depth Locate sunken ships/or other historical objects Military uses it still to detect subs and aim weapons Locate fish or track animals that are being studied Mapping underwater features (we will do this) .
How a map is made A Sonar echo recorder is dragged behind a ship and is called a towfish It sends out a ping … sound travels to the bottom and is reflected back to the hydrophone An instrument on the ship collects and analyzes the data These points of data are combined to create a picture of the seafloor A ship must travel over the area that is being studied multiple times this is called mowing the grass .
A.Sea floor off of L. A mosaic map .
When stitched together along the direction of motion. these slices form an image of the sea bottom within the swath (coverage width) of the beam. . and surveys. The intensity of the acoustic reflections from the seafloor of this fan-shaped beam is recorded in a series of cross-track slices.Types of Imaging Sonar Side-Scan Sonar Systems Used for mapping the sea floor for nautical charts. maritime archeology. bathymetric maps.
Side-Scan Sonar Systems The sound frequencies used in side-scan sonar usually range from 100 to 500 kHz. . and the slope facing to the right is very bright.8 miles) wide. Notice that the volcano casts a shadow to the left. higher frequencies yield better resolution but less range. Each image is 3 km (1. Smaller bumps also cast small shadows making the topography look lumpy.
Used primarily for mapping channels and bathymetry for hydrologic and engineering applications. The output resolution of the data are determined by the footprint size. . and distance between transects. sampling speed. sampling interval.Single-beam Sonar Systems Single beam sonar data are collected along transect lines and typically cannot provide continuous coverage of the seafloor.
and automatically plotted as a bathymetric map with an accuracy of about 5 meters to less than a meter with differential GPS. sometimes up to 120 of them. arranged in a precise geometric pattern on ships’ hulls. The sound bounces off the seafloor at different angles and is received by the ship at slightly different times. “multibeam bathymetry systems” have arrays of 12 kHz transducers. the signals are then processed by computers on board the ship.Multi-beam Sonar Systems Instead of just one transducer pointing down. . converted into water depths. The swath of sound they send out covers a distance on either side of the ship that is equal to about two times the water depth.
Multi-beam Sonar Systems .
5 feet 59 officers and men a pair of eleven-inch Dahlgren smoothbore shell guns on a rotating turret. CSN 275 feet long with a 38. J. CSS Virginia (Merrimac) One of the earliest ironclad fighting ships. M. a Swedish born engineer 172 feet long with a 41.Tale of the Sea USS Monitor A 987-ton armored turret gunboat Designed by John Ericsson. two similar 6-inch Brooke rifles. Designed by Lt.5 foot beam and a draft of 10. and six 9-inch Dahlgren smooth-bore cannons .5 foot beam and a draft of 22 feet 320 officers and men two 7-inch Brooke rifles. Brooke.
unable to retreat downriver. the Captain ordered it blown up. 1862) The two Ironclads clashed in lower Chesapeake Bay around 10:00am. A blast from the 7-in Brooke rifle. Thinking they won the battle. . The Monitor headed for shallow water. 1862. They hammered at each other for four hours with no discernable damage to either ship. The Confederate Ship left the battle scene and headed South to retire. through the turret slit. temporarily blinded the Monitor’s Captain. Later on May 10.Tale of the Sea (March 9.
1862 in the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Hatteras. Swamped by high waves while under tow by Rhode Island. 1862) While the design of Monitor was wellsuited for river combat. This feature probably led to the early loss of the original Monitor. 31. . which foundered during a heavy storm. North Carolina. she sank on December 31.Tale of the Sea (Dec. her low freeboard and heavy turret made her highly unseaworthy in rough waters. 16 of 62 crewmen were lost in the storm.
located 22 wrecks in the area where Monitor had reportedly gone down. The footprint included the size and shape of the hull and armor belt. in August 1973. pilothouse and other deck features. . using sonar. There were numerous searches and occasional claims of discovery. Then.Tale of the Sea USS Monitor For more than a century. the resting place of the USS Monitor remained undiscovered. the location of and details about the turret. All but one site was eventually eliminated from consideration. no one could show proof of the Monitor’s location. as well as the expected sonar signature. however. scientists aboard Duke University’s research vessel Eastward .
investigators were unable to quickly verify its identity.Tale of the Sea USS Monitor This object resembling the Monitor was located approximately 16 miles south-southeast of Cape Hatteras Lighthouse. ." Although the size and shape matched the known dimensions of the Monitor. The wreck was described as "lying in 220 feet of water on a hard sand and shell-strewn floor.
Tale of the Sea USS Monitor During the first week of April 1974. The ship was upsidedown!! . a second cruise to the Monitor site produced detailed photographic and television tape records of the site.
Tale of the Sea USS Monitor The wreck site was designated as the United States' first marine sanctuary. divers from the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary brought to the surface the 30-tonne steam engine. In 1998 the warship's propeller was raised to the surface. On 16 July 2001. .
the revolutionary revolving gun turret was salvaged by the U.S.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and a team of U.Tale of the Sea USS Monitor In 2003. . after 41 days of work. Navy divers.
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