Universitatea „Nicolae Titulescu” Învăţământ la Distanţă Facultatea de Drept Anul I

LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

Lect.univ.dr. Camelia NEAGU

CUPRINS

Introducere ………………………………………

Unitatea de învăţare 1 1.1. Introducere 1.2. Obiective 1.3. Rezumat 1.4. Test de evaluare 1.5. Test de autoevaluare 1.6. Temă de control 1.7. Bibliografie specifica 1.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare Unitatea de învăţare 2 2.1. Introducere 2.2. Obiective 2.3. Rezumat 2.4. Test de evaluare 2.5. Test de autoevaluare 2.6. Temă de control 2.7. Bibliografie specifica 2.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare Unitatea de învăţare 3 3.1. Introducere 3.2. Obiective 3.3. Rezumat 3.4. Test de evaluare 3.5. Test de autoevaluare 3.6. Temă de control 3.7. Bibliografie specifica 3.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare Unitatea de învăţare 4 4.1. Introducere 4.2. Obiective 4.3. Rezumat 4.4. Test de evaluare 4.5. Test de autoevaluare 2

4.6. Temă de control 4.7. Bibliografie specifica 4.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare Unitatea de învăţare 5 5.1. Introducere 5.2. Obiective 5.3. Rezumat 5.4. Test de evaluare 5.5. Test de autoevaluare 5.6. Temă de control 5.7. Bibliografie specifica 5.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare Unitatea de învăţare 6 6.1. Introducere 6.2. Obiective 6.3. Rezumat 6.4. Test de evaluare 6.5. Test de autoevaluare 6.6. Temă de control 6.7. Bibliografie specifica 6.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare Unitatea de învăţare 7 7.1. Introducere 7.2. Obiective 7.3. Rezumat 7.4. Test de evaluare 7.5. Test de autoevaluare 7.6. Temă de control 7.7. Bibliografie specifica 7.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare Unitatea de învăţare 8 8.1. Introducere 8.2. Obiective 8.3. Rezumat 8.4. Test de evaluare 8.5. Test de autoevaluare 8.6. Temă de control 8.7. Bibliografie specifica 8.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

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Temă de control 10.6.7. Rezumat 9.5.6.5. Rezumat 11.6.5.7. Bibliografie specifica 12.7.8. Test de autoevaluare 9.2. Test de autoevaluare 10.4. Obiective 12. Test de autoevaluare 11. Bibliografie specifica 10.7. Test de evaluare 9.6.3. Temă de control 12. Test de evaluare 12.1.8.2.8.1. Introducere 13.2. Rezumat 10. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare Unitatea de învăţare 10 10. Test de autoevaluare 12.4. Obiective 9. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare Unitatea de învăţare 12 12.1. Introducere 11. Obiective 10.5.4. Rezumat 12.1.2. Bibliografie specifica 9. Temă de control 9.3.4.1. Introducere 12. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare Unitatea de învăţare 13 13. Introducere 10.8. Temă de control 11. Bibliografie specifica 11. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare Unitatea de învăţare 11 11.3. Test de evaluare 11. Introducere 9. Test de evaluare 10. Obiective 4 . Obiective 11.2.Unitatea de învăţare 9 9.3.

5. Rezumat 13.6. Temă de control 13. Bibliografie specifica 13.3.4.13.8. Test de evaluare 13.7. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare 5 . Test de autoevaluare 13.

capacitatea de a se adapta procesului de integrare europeană .INTRODUCERE Acest modul se adresează studenţilor Facultăţii de Drept. Cunoştinţele dobândite în cadrul acestui modul vor putea fi folosite alături de cunoştinţele obţinute prin studierea altor discipline din planul de învăţământ al specializării. articol etc. Prin însuşirea conţinutului modulului. Deprinderea competenţelor necesare utilizării limbii engleze în mediul juridic le va permite studenţilor să utilizeze această limbă străină în vederea angajării. în activitatea de cercetare (foarte multe cărţi de specialitate fiind scrise în limba engleză) şi în vederea îndeplinirii viitoarelor sarcinilor de serviciu. Competenţele specifice 1. studenţii vor recapitula noţiuni generale de gramatică a limbii engleze. 3. 2.capacitatea de a învăţa . pe teme de specialitate.capacitatea de a avea un comportament etic şi de a respecta regulile deontologiei profesionale. Competenţe interpersonale: . contribuind împreună cu acestea la formarea unui specialist care să răspundă cerinţelor şi exigenţelor angajatorilor din domeniu. forma de învăţământ la distanţă. studenţii vor dobândi următoarele competenţe generale şi specifice: 1. Totodată. Competenţele generale 6 .capacitatea de a transpune în practică noţiunile dobândite .  achiziţionarea de către studenţi a unui număr cât mai mare de termeni de specialitate. anul 1. Competenţe instrumentale .stăpânirea unui set de termeni juridici de bază în limba engleză .capacitatea de evaluare şi autoevaluare .abilitatea de a lucra independent.capacitatea de a soluţiona probleme profesionale care implică folosirea limbii engleze . Competenţe sistemice: .capacitatea de a lucra în echipă .  însuşirea de către studenţi a cunoştinţelor necesare pentru redactarea unui referat. Cunoaştere şi înţelegere  sistematizarea şi fundamentarea noţiunilor de gramatică a limbii engleze. Obiectivul modulului Modulul Limba engleză are drept obiectiv însuşirea de către studenţi a unui set de termeni juridici de bază (pe care studenţii să îi poată folosi la un interviu de angajare sau în vederea redactării în limba engleză a unor eseuri/ referate/articole sau pentru a traduce texte juridice).capacitatea de a comunica în limba engleză.

Atitudinale  dezvoltarea abilităţii de a gândi şi interpreta în limba engleză noţiunile juridice şi gramaticale învăţate. TIMPURILE VERBULUI (VERB TENSES) (90 de minute) prezintă două timpuri folosite în mod frecvent în limba engleză: prezentul simplu şi prezentul continuu.THE UK . Instrumental – aplicative  dezvoltarea capacităţii de a efectua corect traduceri din limba engleză în limba română şi de a redacta cu acurateţe retroversiuni din limba română în limba engleză. aplicate în limba engleză. atribuţiile Primului Ministru şi ale Cabinetului condus de acesta. 2. Unitatea de învăţare 7 –THE PAST TENSES (90 de minute) prezintă regulile de folosire a trecutului simplu şi trecutului continuu. 3. 7 .A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY (90 de minute) prezintă noţiunile de bază privind rolul şi structura Parlamentului Marii Britanii.THE JUDICIARY (80 de minute) prezintă noţiuni generale privind sistemul judiciar din Marea Britanie. rolul Monarhului în conducerea Statului. În primul semestru se vor studia primele 7 unităţi de învăţare.VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ (90 de minute) prezintă noţiunile de bază privind folosirea corectă a vorbirii indirec te îlimba engleză. folosind termeni de specialitate.  dezvoltarea interesului pentru cunoaşterea vocabularului juridic de specialitate în limba engleză. redactat în limba engleză şi capacitatea de a explica în mod corect termenii juridici folosiţi în textul respectiv. Explicare si interpretare  interpretarea corectă a sensului unui text juridic. Unitatea de învăţare 5 . Unitatea de învăţare 3 . stimularea conversaţiei spontane în vederea dobândirii unei fluenţe convenabile în dialoguri pe teme de specialitate. 4. Unitatea de învăţare 6 . după cum urmează: Unitatea de învăţare 1 – ORDINEA CORECTĂ A CUVINTELOR ÎN LIMBA ENGLEZĂ (60 de minute) Acest capitol expune regulile de organizare a cuvintelor în propoziţie. I+II) Acest modul este structurat în 13 unităţi de învăţare. Structura modulului (sem.VERBUL (THE VERB). două dintre cele cele mai importante timpuri ale limbii engleze. Unitatea de învăţare 4 .THE SOURCES OF ENGLISH LAW (90 de minute) prezintă principalele surse ale legislaţiei din Marea Britanie. Unitatea de învăţare 2 .

 Până la data celui de-al doilea tutorial. după cum urmează: Unitatea de învăţare 8 – COURTS OF LAW IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN (90 de minute) prezintă instanţele de judecată din Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. studenţii vor parcurge unităţile de învăţare 1.THE PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE AND THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS (100 de minute) prezintă regulile de folosire a două timpuri: trecutul perfect simplu (past perfect simple) şi trecutul perfect continuu (past perfect continuous). 6 şi 7. Îşi vor însuşi cunoştinţele prezentate în cadrul unităţilor 5. Unitatea de învăţare 9 – THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE (90 de minute) recapitulează regulile de folosire a unuia dintre cele mai uzuale timpuri ale limbii engleze – prezentul perfect simplu. Pregătirea şi evaluarea studenţilor (sem. 2.În al doilea semestru se vor studia ultimele 6 unităţi de învăţare. 6 şi 7 şi vor rezolva temele de control. Unitatea de învăţare 11 – THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM (90 de minute) prezintă atribuţiile profesionale care îi revin unui avocat în Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. Răspunsurile la exerciţii şi referatele se vor redacta în scris (sunt acceptate şi în formă electronică – document Word) şi vor fi transmise tutorelui. inclusiv. I)  Până la data primului tutorial din semestrul unu. 8 . Unitatea de învăţare 13 – THE EUROPEAN UNION (90 de minute) prezintă studia un scurt istoric privind formarea Uniunii Europene şi rolul principalelor instituţii din cadrul UE. Ponderea referatelor şi lucrărilor de control este de 30%. Îşi vor însuşi cunoştinţele teoretice şi vor răspunde la toate sarcinile incluse în acestea. Unitatea de învăţare 10 – THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS (60 de minute) .recapitulează unul dintre cele mai uzuale timpuri ale limbii engleze – prezentul perfect continuu. Unitatea de învăţare 12 . studenţii vor parcurge unităţile de învăţare 5. Nivelul de pregătire al studenţilor se apreciază astfel:  Lucrare scrisă o traduceri o exerciţii de completare a spaţiilor libere o întrebări de verificare a cunoştinţelor acumulate o exerciţii de parafrazare (rephrasing) o eseu/referat/articol  Evaluarea temelor de control. 3 şi 4. Lucrarea scrisă are o pondere de 70%.

9 şi 10. Răspunsurile la exerciţii şi referatele se vor redacta în scris (sunt acceptate şi în formă electronică – document Word) şi vor fi transmise tutorelui. 9 . studenţii vor parcurge unităţile de învăţare 8. Îşi vor însuşi cunoştinţele teoretice şi vor răspunde la toate sarcinile incluse în acestea. 12 şi 13. Nivelul de pregătire al studenţilor se apreciază astfel:  Lucrare scrisă o traduceri o exerciţii de completare a spaţiilor libere o exerciţii de reformulare (rephrasing) o exerciţii de transformare (de la diateza activă la diateza pasivă sau de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă) o întrebări de verificare a cunoştinţelor acumulate o exerciţii de parafrazare (rephrasing) o eseu/referat/articol  Evaluarea temelor de control.Pregătirea şi evaluarea studenţilor (sem. 12 şi 13 şi vor rezolva temele de control. inclusiv. studenţii vor parcurge unităţile de învăţare 11.  Îşi vor însuşi noţiunile expuse în unităţile 11.  Până la data celui de-al doilea tutorial. Lucrarea scrisă are o pondere de 70%. II)  Până la data primului tutorial din semestrul doi. Ponderea referatelor şi lucrărilor de control este de 30%.

El vorbeşte bine englezeşte. b) Unele părţi de propoziţie în limba română ocupă de obicei alte locuri decât părţile de propoziţie corespunzătoare din limba engleză. poziţia părţilor de propoziţie diferă de cea a cuvintelor englezeşti în două privinţe: a) Limba română are mai multe forme flexionare şi deci locul cuvintelor nu este atât de important. studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să folosească în ordine corectă părţile de propoziţie în limba engleză. direct) 10 00:30 . mod. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 1 oră. Ordinea cuvintelor în propoziţie trebuie studiată şi datorită diferenţelor de topică dintre română şi engleză. iar subiectul nu este exprimat de obicei. aplicate în limba engleză. Introducere Acest capitol expune regulile de organizare a cuvintelor în propoziţie. (Eu) Nu-l văd acolo niciodată. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare După studierea acestei unităţi. Studenţii ar trebui să acorde o atenţie sporită acestui capitol deoarece necunoaşterea regulilor de organizare a cuvintelor în propoziţie atrage după sine comiterea unui număr foarte mare de greşeli de topică în limba engleză.2. În limba română. CONŢINUTUL UNITĂŢII DE ÎNVĂŢARE Folosirea corectă a ORDINII CUVINTELOR ÎN PROPOZIŢIE prezintă o importanţă deosebită în limba engleză. Engleză: Română: He speaks English well.1. 1. verbul românesc fiind marcat formal pentru persoană şi număr: I never see him there (engl. mod) + compl.UNIT I ORDINEA CORECTĂ A CUVINTELOR ÎN LIMBA ENGLEZĂ (Word Order) 1.  să sesiseze poziţia corectă a adverbelor de frecvenţă în propoziţie (observând diferenţele care apar în funcţie de predicat şi de timpurile folosite). Limba engleză este o limba analitică. direct + (Subiect + predicat + circ. de aceea. locul pe care-l ocupă cuvintele în propoziţie are un rol important în identificarea funcţiilor lor sintactice. având puţine forme flexionare. circ. semnalând diferenţele de topică existente între engleză şi română.) Niciodată nu-l văd acolo (română) (Eu) Nu-l văd niciodată acolo. (Subiect + predicat + compl.

…………………………………………………. + Compl. circ. they are placed after this verb: Mr.g.g. sau ** Adverbs of frequency are used between the verb to be and the present participle (with continuous tenses): E. often.g.Exemple 1. circ. de timp)Subiect + Predicat + Compl. 11 . direct + Compl. de loc + (Compl. de timp). circ. (Sometimes) she asks this senior counsel for advice (sometimes). She sometimes asks this senior counsel for advice. circ. indir. observând că în română topica este mult mai flexibilă: (Compl. They are always asking me questions about the day of the crime because they suppose I am the real offender! *** Adverbs of frequency are used between the verb to have and the past participle (with perfect tenses): E. * Usually and sometimes can be placed at the beginning/at the end of the sentence or immediately before the predicate: E. Law students often simulate cases as part of their academic training. Johanson is always on time when he expects a client at the office. Adverbele de frecvenţă (usually*. Comparaţi topica propoziţiei englezeşti cu topica propoziţiei româneşti. 2. She has never agreed with such a clause in the contract! !!! If adverbs of frequency are used with the verb to be. (După cină) le-a spus noapte bună repede în hol (după cină) sau (După cină) le-a spus repede noapte bună în hol (după cină). always) stau înaintea predicatului dacă acesta este exprimat printr-un verb aflat la un timp simplu (deci NU continuu** sau perfect***): She never pleads in criminal cases. sau We usually prepare our pleadings carefully. rarely/seldom. Corectaţi greşelile din propoziţiile de mai jos: I appreciate very much this internship period. never. de mod + Compl. sometimes*. The witness testified yesterday without hesitation. (Usually) We prepare our pleadings carefully (usually). (After dinner) She said good night to them quickly in the hall (after dinner).

Complementele circumstanţiale au o ordine strictă de folosire în limba engleză: C. Completaţi spatiile libere cu prepoziţiile care lipsesc pentru a forma complemente prepoziţionale: 1. 11. 8. a pierdut foarte multe forme flexionare. În schimb. 3. pass me the dictionary. 12 .T(Adverbial of Manner + Adverbial of Place + Adverbial of Time). He still depends….4. Show the album to us. 2. nu se pune niciodată un complement circumstanţial între predicat şi complementul direct/ complementul indirect. She never speaks………this subject. I have written John a letter. Do you agree …. Folosiţi complementului indirect.C. William handed her some pictures. româna şi-a conservat formele flexionare. 5. 4.În limba engleză. …………………………………………… Să ne reamintim Topica limbii engleze este diferită de cea din limba română într-o mare măsură. 6. 7. his parents.L + C. 1. 1. Tell the children this funny story. ceea ce a dus la rigidizarea topicii ei. Ex: Show us the album. Schimbaţi ordinea complementelor. Please. They told us the news. .C. She offered everyone present a copy of the text.M + C. Test de evaluare a cunoştinţelor: to sau for înaintea 00:30 I. during the 1st semester.Următoarele complemente circumstanţiale de timp pot sta la începutul sau la sfârşitul propoziţiei: last week/month/year.C. ca limbă analitică. send your parents my regards. 9. 1. Rezumat . next week/month/year.…………………………………………… She checks her knowledge in this law encyclopedia often.3. Ca limbă sintetică.. me? II. . at noon/at midnight/at weekend. 10. Andrew owes Betty some money. He offered everyone flowers. 2. de aici flexibilitatea topicii româneşti. on Monday/Friday etc. in 2010. 3. this week/month/year. He didn’t forget to buy his sister a ticket. in the future/in the morning/in the afternoon. engleza. Please. Fetch me a glass of water.

11.5. Comunică-ne rezultatul procesului imediat ce-l afli! 4.4. Temă de control I. tribunal 2. resolve disputes. 3. 8. 4. 13 . 6. te rog.6. We/read/the/before/file/must/and/about/forgotten/it/have. Nu este nevoie să-mi înapoiezi cursul de drept constituţional. Test de autoevaluare a cunoştinţelor: I. A body that is appointed to make a judgement or inquiry. A country’s body of judges. Completaţi spaţiile libere cu termenii de mai jos (conform exemplului dat): authority law enforcement agency legislation court lawyers Rule to govern legal action the judiciary Judge legal system tribunal 1. Please. A senior official in a court law. Puneţi în ordinea corespunzătoare cuvintele de mai jos: 1. 12. II. you for half an hour. She waited…. Members of the legal profession. 6. The boy insisted… doing it himself. 4. Descrie-ne tot ce ai văzut ieri la locul faptei. 9. The body or system of rules recognized by a community that are enforceable by established process. 5. 2. 3. The control resulting from following a community’s system of rules. An/by/injured/rescued/from/the/burning /a/dog/was/woman/building. An organization responsible for enforcing the law especially the police. Ţi-l fac cadou. or make other legal decisions. An act or acts passed by a law-making body. 7. look …. citeşte-mi declaraţia martorului. 1. To rule a society and control the behavior of its members. 5. 10. 3. the book I’ve bought. 6. Behavior recognized by a community as binding or enforceable by authority. Unfortunately/caused/year/are/crimes/juveniles/by/every/many. Legal proceedings. Traduceţi următoarele propoziţii în limba engleză: 1. I-am cumpărat săptămâna trecută asistentei noastre un dicţionar explicativ de termeni juridici. Te rog. A/smuggling/building/man/apprehended/in/ was/who/this/dealt with. The/is/about/like/thing/I/this faculty/great/research department/its. 1. Medalia de aur a fost acordată echipei române pentru performanţa ei extraordinară la concursul de procese simulate. 5. 5. 2. An official body that has authority to try criminals.

Judge. 8. He comes (sometimes.Please. – lawyers.Let us know the outcome of the trial as soon as you find it out! 4. – court. Ed. 7.Describe to us everything you saw at the crime scene. – legal action. 6. 2. You can excuse yourself for the reason (hardly). I am working on my graduation project (now).legal system. Andrei. I’ll offer it to you as a gift.You do not have to give me back the constitutional law coursebook. Look at those sentences (tonight). He goes to the seaside (usually. 4. 1. Puneţi complementele circumstanţiale din paranteze la locul potrivit în propoziţie. 1. 10. II. read me the witness’ testimony! 3. – authority. 14 . in July). on Saturdays. I have believed them (never). 12.8. – legislation. Teora. 1.7. 6. Bibliografie specifica Bantaş. 9. . this one is easy (enough).. Essential English. 11. Compania. Răspunsuri la testul de autoevaluare I. 8. He has had his dinner (already). 10. The last lesson was difficult (unusually). 1993 Brookes. 3. 1. He speaks English (in the classroom. precizând funcţia lor sintactică: 1. 5. 7. 3. please! 2. – Rule.tribunal. Ed.II. 9. 2004. 2. 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept. Michael. Treutenaere. – to govern.The golden medal was awarded to the Romanian team for its outstanding performance at the moot competition. Christiane. law enforcement agency. to my place). always). 5. 6. 5.Last week we bought our assistant a legal explanatory dictionary. – the judiciary. His behavior cannot be explained (entirely). 4.

UNIT II THE UK . veţi dobândi noţiunile de bază privind rolul şi structura Parlamentului Marii Britanii. which is the supreme legislative authority in the United Kingdom. Scotland and Wales) and of Northern Ireland. Members of the House of Commons are elected at a General Election.A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy and a unitary state.2. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute. the executive power and the judiciary. They are salaried members elected by universal adult suffrage. The judiciary is represented by the Supreme Court and all the other courts of law in the UK. All four countries of the Kingdom are represented in Parliament at Westminster. rolul Monarhului în conducerea Statului. atribuţiile Primului Ministru şi ale Cabinetului condus de acesta. The Queen represents the people as the Head of State.  să precizeze atribuţiile Monarhului Britanic în guvernarea statului. Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare THE UK .A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY 2. The legislative power is the power of making.  să ofere informaţii generale despre puterea executivă din Marea Britanie. which is made up of Great Britain (England. The House of Commons or the Lower House consists of 650 Members of Parliament (MPs) who each represent a constituency. but the real power lies in Parliament. Introducere Studiind această unitate de învăţare. The Parliament is the legislative body.1. 00:30 15 . studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să ofere informaţii generale despre puterea legislativă din Marea Britanie. precum şi despre alegerile generale din Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. 2. the House of Lords and the House of Commons. altering or repealing the laws and it belongs to Parliament. The three main powers in the British state are: the legislative power. Obiectivele/competențele unităţii de învăţare După studierea acestei unităţi. which must be held every five years. which is constitutionally composed of the Monarch. but it is often held at more frequent intervals.

The Lord Chancellor is the head of the Cabinet of Ministers. passing legislation and examining the actions of the Government. supervises and. though the Prime Minister may call one earlier and if a MP dies or retires a by-election is held in her or his constituency. control and integrate the policies of the government for submission to Parliament. The Government consists of the ministers appointed directly by the Crown on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected from the members to preside over the House immediately after each new Parliament is formed. The Lord High Chancellor and the Law Officers of Great Britain presides over the House of Lords both in legislative capacity and as a final court of appeal. its members consist of a small group of the most important ministers who are selected by the Prime Minister. General Elections are held every five years. He consults and advises the Monarch on government business. to some extent. The size of the Cabinet is about 23 and its main function is to determine. No bill can become law until it has been sanctioned or “read” three times by both Houses and has finally received the royal assent. The Cabinet is the nucleus of government. rules and practices of the United Kingdom have never been codified. from common law and from the conventions of the constitution. The Party which wins the second largest number of seats becomes the official Opposition. The Party which wins sufficient seats at a General Election to command a majority of supporters in the House of Commons forms the Government. He is required to be impartial over parliamentary procedure and the traditional guardian of the rights and privileges of the House of Commons. The Queen reigns but does not rule. …………………………………………………. coordinates the work of the various ministries and departments and is the principal spokesman for the Government in the House of Commons. b.The House of Lords or the Upper House has around 1. The Prime Minister is the Head of the government and presides over meetings of the Cabinet. Norther Ireland is a part of Great Britain. and the archbishops and bishops of the Church of England. The Sovereign formally summons and dissolves Parliament and generally opens new sessions of Parliament with a speech from the throne. The full duration of Parliament is five years. The Lord Chancellor and the Law Officers of the Crown. including the law lords appointed to undertake judicial duties of the House. ……………………………………………… 16 . The Constitutional principles. its leading members are chosen by the Prime Minister (PM) who forms the Cabinet.200 members and is made up of hereditary and life peers and peeresses. Parliament’s main functions are debating. Corectaţi greşelile din propoziţiile de mai jos: a. they derive from state law. MPs win their seats in Parliament by a majority vote.

General ……. 6. 3.4. constituency 1. membrii acestei camere fiind aleşi de Monarh la recomandarea Primului Ministru sau a Camerei Lorzilor. power. The British……. power. The Queen alone can …… Parliament or ……. . a by-election is ….The Lord Chacellor este Președintele Camerei Lorzilor.. convoke. 2. branches. puterea legislativă a statului îi revine exclusiv Parlamentului. dar acesta/aceasta nu poate acţiona decât în limitele impuse de prevederile Constituţiei.În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. . the laws. 4. earlier. Parlamentul este bicameral (the House of Lords & the House of Commons).Rezumat . held. Who are the members of the House of Lords? 17 00:60 . retires. .. What does the Sovereign formally do? 3. …. both. ……. ceea ce înseamnă că Regele/Regina este şeful statului. alegerile generale se organizează o dată la 5 ani. Constitution.În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. What does Parliament consist of? 2. or dissolve it.Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii este o monarhie constituţională. executive. are held every five years.3. belongs to Parliament. repealing. ………. No bill can become …… until it has been …… or read three times by …. 2. the Prime Minister may call one…. in her or his …… II. 5. . . Puterea executivă este reprezentată de Primul Ministru (Şeful Guvernului) şi de Cabinetul de Miniştri (ale cărui şedinţe sunt prezidate de Primul Ministru). Test de evaluare a cunoştinţelor: I. altering. The Speaker is the head of the House of Lords. but. 2. The legislative power.c. ……………………………………… Să ne reamintim -Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii este o monarhie constituţională. of an MP`s term of office is 5 years. the legislative … and the ….În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. . în timp ce the Speaker este Președintele Camerei Comunelor.pentru Camera Lorzilor nu se organizează alegeri. Răspundeţi la următoarele întrebări: 1. or ……. law.. . . elections. the power of making. duration. Houses and has received the royal …. Completaţi spaţiile libere cu cuvintele corespunzătoare: assent. The full …. and if a MP dies or …. sanctioned.În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii.. prorogue. consists of two great ……. that is.

4. 4. a body with authority. The Pleading competition is held … 6. Preşedintele Camerei Comunelor este propus de Guvern după consultări cu opoziţia. such as a court or the legislature. Completaţi spaţiile libere cu adverbele potrivite: annually – mainly – impartially – dangerously – usually – fluently – carefully. In addition to enforcement. Criminal law is … concerned with crimes against the community as a whole. 7.5. At what intervals must a General Election be held? 7. An arrested person will … be granted bail if he cannot be brought before the court within a day.6. În Camera Lorzilor. Primul Ministru alege membrii Guvernului din partidul care câştigă majoritatea locurilor în Parlament. 18 . This is the role of the judiciary.Test de autoevaluare a cunoştinţelor: I. on the other hand the police must make sure the law is observed.. a body of expert lawyers is needed to apply the law. What are the criteria that must be take into account in electing the Speaker? 2. What do the terms peer and peeress mean? 5. 2. is used to govern society and to control the behavior of its members. What does the Speaker do during debates in Parliament? 10. Who becomes the official Opposition? 9. 4. generally found in constitutions and legislation. Traduceţi în limba română următorul text: “Laws can be seen as a set of rules which are meant to govern behavior between people. You must cross the road… He speaks English…. 2. What is the Prime Minister’s first duty? 8. Judges must act … 1. Traduceţi în engleză următoarele propoziţii: 00:60 1. What does the House of Commons consist of? 6. In modern societies. 3. He was fined because he was driving …. autoritatea supremă – Lordul Cancelar – are puteri mai mici ca Preşedintele Camerei Comunelor (The Speaker). 2.. 3. makes the law. II. 5. Temă de control I. the body of judges in a particular country”. the body of official rules and regulations. Law. 5. Membrii Camerei Comunelor reprezintă autoritatea finală în emiterea legilor. Camera Comunelor este formată din 630 membrii salariaţi aleşi prin sufragiu universal de către populaţia adultă.

Ed. pe de altă parte. The Speaker is appointed by the Government after consulting with the opposition. cum ar fi o instanţă judecătorească sau legislatura. un organ al statului învestit cu autoritate. este necesar să existe un grup de specialiști în drept. reprezentat de totalitatea judecătorilor dintr-o ţară. 1.II.8. What is the difference between a constitutional monarchy and an absolute monarchy? 2. has less authority in comparison with the Speaker. Bibliografie specifica Brookes. Christiane. 19 .wikipedia. In the House of Lords. information from Wikipedia): 1. 4. II. the supreme authority. Michael. The members of the House of Commons represent the final authority in passing the laws. The House of Commons is made up of 630 salaried members. privită ca o sumă de reguli şi regulamente. 2004. 2. Putem considera că legile reprezintă un set de reguli menite să controleze comportamentul oamenilor. Acesta este rolul sistemului judiciar. În societăţile moderne. 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept. The Prime Minister appoints the members of the Government from the party that won the majority of seats in Parliament. I. http://en. emite legi. Answer to the following questions (using. Give examples of other constitutional monarchies.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy Răspunsuri la testul de autoevaluare 2. if necessary. 5. Compania. poliţia trebuie să se asigure că legea este respectată. What does it mean that the Queen reigns but does not rule? 2. este folosită pentru a guverna societatea şi pentru a controla comportamentul membrilor acesteia. 3. Treutenaere.7. elected by universal adult suffrage. Pentru ca legea să fie aplicată. Legea. the Lord Chancellor.

Unde este Dan? Folosirea timpurilor în vorbirea directă nu este afectată de timpul predicatului din propoziţia principală: He is saying. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute. Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ Există două posibilităţi de redare a spuselor cuiva: prin vorbire directă şi indirectă. He has said. Vorbirea indirectă este folosită frecvent în limbajul de zi cu zi. veţi putea revizui/vă veți putea consolida noţiunile de bază privind folosirea corectă a vorbirii indirecte în limba engleză.UNIT III VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ (Direct and Indirect Speech) 3. Introducere În această unitate de învăţare. iar buna cunoaştere a acesteia este strâns legată de regulile concordanţei timpurilor.1. În vorbirea directă (Direct speech) se reproduc întocmai cuvintele persoanei care le-a rostit: He asked me: “Where is Dan?” M-a întrebat: . fără a reproduce totdeauna întocmai cuvintele sale: John said to Peter. În vorbirea indirectă (Indirect/Reported speech) o a treia persoană redă spusele cuiva. specifice limbii engleze. 00:45 20 . 3. “I’ve just arrived”. He said. studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să folosească în mod corect vorbirea indirectă în limba engleză  să evite greşelile frecvente de concordanţă a timpurilor.”I’ll see you tomorrow”. Obiectivele/competenţele unităţii de învăţare După studierea acestei unităţi de învăţare. ”Shall I meet you at the station tomorrow?” John suggested that he should meet Peter at the station the next day.”I met her last night”.2.

Brown said to his wife:”I’ve been very busy today”. 21 . b. Specifice. Propoziţiile interogative  Verbul to say este înlocuit cu verbe ca: to ask. interogativă.  În celelalte cazuri to say devine tell + complement indirect Cathy said she didn’t understand the lesson.The day before . B.Transformarea vorbirii directe în vorbire indirectă (change from Direct to Indirect Speech). exclamativă. au loc anumite schimbări atât în propoziţia principală cât şi în propoziția completivă directă: Modificările sunt de două feluri: A. reflexiv si posesiv se schimbă după înţeles: persoana I şi a II-a devin persoana III-a. Pronumele/adjectivele demonstrative şi adverbele de loc şi timp sunt înlocuite cu altele care exprimă depărtarea: This – that These – those Here – there Now – then Today Yesterday The day before yesterday Tomorrow The day after tomorrow Next week Last week A year ago . to wonder. A. to know. Helen said to me. Pronumele personal. Folosirea timpurilor în vorbirea indirectă Present devine Past Past Tense devine Past Perfect Present Perfect Tense devine Past Perfect Past Perfect rămâne neschimbat Future devine Future-in-the-Past Exemplu: Mr.The next day/ following day .In two days’ time . to inquire. b. Mr. Brown told his wife that he had been very busy that day. procedeu frecvent utilizat în conversaţie. “Why is Tom angry?”. Modificările specifice se referă la verbele care trebuie folosite în fiecare fel de propoziţie reprodusă (enunţiativă. to want.The next/following week . Generale.That day . a. caracteristice fiecărui tip de propoziţie: enunţiativă. B. imperativă). Când spusele cuiva sunt trecute de la vorbirea directă la cea indirectă. imperativă. interogativă.  pronumele rămâne neschimbat când vorbitorul îşi reproduce propriile lui cuvinte. exclamativă.Two days before . care afectează orice fel de enunţ reprodus. Modificările generale a. Cathy told the teacher she didn’t understand the question.A year before/ the previous year c.The previous week/ the week before . Propoziţiile enunţiative  Verbul to say când nu este urmat de complement indirect se păstrează.

”Don’t interrupt the speaker please”. how…. to wonder. ”Sit down. folosind verbe specifice (reporting verbs) în acest scop: to ask. În schimb. Propoziţiile imperative  Ele devin în vorbirea indirectă propoziţii infinitive Afirmative: He said. whether. d. The lawyer wondered how he has entered the room.Propoziţia secundară se va introduce cu conjuncţia if. 22 . Mother exclaimed that it was very kind of him to help them with their luggage. Negative: He said. He told Peter to sit down. Exclamaţiile cu what…. to exclaim. The witness swore he will say the truth. vorbirea indirectă nu este marcată prin ghilimele. when. He wanted to know when they would leave. 2. the students asked their professor. Schimbările de timp în propoziţiile interogative au loc la fel ca în cele enunţiative: Where have you been?” “What is Tom doing?” “When will you leave?” He wanted to know where we had been. deoarece în limba engleză nu se foloseşte linia de dialog. to say. c. to offer etc. where. Ah! Devin completive directe introduse de that: “How very kind of him to help us with our luggage!” mother said. . 3.  Verbul la imperativ se transformă în verb la infinitiv cu to/not to. to underline. Peter”. Vorbirea directă este marcată prin ghilimele. Să ne reamintim Vorbirea indirectă reproducere spusele unei persoane. to order. Propoziţiile exclamative  Ele devin propoziţii enunţiative în vorbirea indirectă. Corectaţi greşelile în frazele de mai jos: 1. We will become good practitioners when we will start working in law firm or in the Bar. The students wanted to know whether their professor would attend their meeting. He asked them not to interrupt the speaker. ”Would you attend our meeting?”.Helen wondered why Tom was angry. He wanted to know what Tom was doing. how. Oh!. to comment.

Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la vorbirea indirectă. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la vorbirea indirectă operând schimbările de timp şi adverbe.3. “Has Paul left any message for me?” 3. 4. “Behave yourself. “What are you studying?” 2. “I don’t like to be late”. “I’ll be very busy next week”. sau He told me/us (that) … 1.de compl. Rezumat Trecerea de la vorbirea directă la cea indirectă presupune efectuarea următoarelor modificări: .circ. 10. II. tell. 7. promise. “I know what the teacher will say”. . 3. 9. “If you work hard. Peter. The teacher has said to the students. “I shall try to finish this today”. . Voia să ştie de ce prietenii mei au plecat aşa devreme. Traduceţi următoarele propoziţii în limba engleză.de persoană (pers. “I can’t answer this question. Test de autoevaluare: I. 5. de timp/loc (now => then.de timp (toate timpurile coboară cu o treaptă: prezentul devine trecut. “We haven’t done our homework”. 5. “We’ve never been here before”. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii în vorbirea indirectă folosind în propoziţia principală verbe la Past Tense (say. 2. după un verb la Past Tense: He said (That)…. a 3-a). John and Tom are saying. “I want to have a look at your homework”. “Why should I do this?” 8. “These exercises are too difficult for us”. “They are having an English class now”. Our teacher says. “I’ll be back in half an hour”. you will succeed”. în timp ce viitorul cu will se transformă în viitor-în-trecut). 2.1 => pers. 3. . 5. “I’ll give you an answer as soon as I can”.4. iar trecutul devine trecut perfect. “I talked to them yesterday”.” 4. Test de evaluare: I.de pronume demonstrativ (this => that. 6. it’s too difficult for me”. 3. advise): 00:45 1. I always say. They always say. order. 8. these => those) 3.5. now!” II. 23 . făcând schimbările de pronume necesare: 1. “We watched TV last night”. ask. wonder. “Let’s play tennis. 6. 7. “I don’t take sugar in my tea”. 1.). here => there etc. “Could you make up this prescription for me?” 4. “I read this book a long time ago”.3. “What a lovely day!” 6. Doris is saying.

He promised to be back in half an hour. 8. She exclaimed what a lovely day it was. Christiane. She asked if Paul had left any message for her. 3. To take an oath 6. Solicitor General 9. După ce aţi tradus propoziţiile de mai sus în limba engleză. Treutenaere.7. Barrister 2. Funcţionarul ne-a sfătuit să citim cu atenţie instrucţiunile înainte să deschidem cutia. Minister of Justice 7. The teacher asked the students whether they (had) understood the lessond or not. 5. Judge 5. She asked me what I was studying. They said that they would have arrived on time unless they had missed the bus. 4. He told me that he does not/did not take sugar in his tea. apoi alcătuiţi câte o propoziţie cu fiecare din ele: 1. treceţi propoziţiile în vorbirea directă. to pursue 10. He asked whether I could make up that prescription for him. II. He asked why he should do that. Daţi echivalentul românesc la fiecare din cuvintele de mai jos. 3. 3. 1993 Brookes. Profesorul i-a întrebat pe studenţi dacă au înţeles lecţia sau nu. Essential English. The doctor told us that no one was allowed to talk to the patient till the next day. 1.2. Teora. 4. Ed. II. Bibliografie: Bantaş. Compania. 2004. He wanted to know why my friends had left so early. 5. 4. 2. Solicitor 3. Michael. 7.6. Răspunsuri la testul de autoevaluare: I. Attorney General 8. Law graduates 3. Andrei. Doctorul ne-a spus ca nimeni nu are voie sa vorbească cu pacientul până a doua zi. 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept. 24 . Ed. 2. 3. Prosecutor 4. Ei au spus ca ar fi ajuns la timp dacă n-ar fi pierdut autobuzul. The clerk advised us to carefully read the instructions before opening the box. Temă de control: I. She suggested playing tennis then. 5. 6. 1.

00:30 25 . Introducere În această unitate de învăţare. Judicial Precedent is the principle of justice enforced in English law by the rule of stare decisis (keep to what has been decided previously).2.UNIT IV THE SOURCES OF ENGLISH LAW 4. whether reduced to writing or not.1. The judge may simply be obliged to consider the former decision as part of the material on which his present could be based or he may be obliged to decide in the same way as that in which the previous case was decided. The rules of common law have been evolved inductively from decision to decision involving similar facts. for more of their law derives from judicial precedents than from legislative enactment. English law is. dobândind o mai bună înţelegere a câtorva principii fundamentale specifice pentru dreptul anglo-saxon. După studierea acestei unităţi. to a large extent. studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să precizeze sursele principale ale legislaţiei britanice. based on case-law. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute. The expression “written” law signifies any law that is formally enacted. A distinctive feature of the English system is that. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare 4. and the expression “unwritten” law signifies all unacted law. Two principal sources of law are worth to be mentioned: Legislation and Judicial Precedent. Legislation is enacted law and it was studied at Constitutional Law (Constitution and Government). In England unwritten law is predominant. veţi studia principalele surse ale legislaţiei din Marea Britanie. his position in the legal system is central. So another feature of the English system is the doctrine of the binding case. Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare From the aspect of their sources. laws are traditionally divided into two main categories: they may be written or unwritten. cunoscut sub numele de common law. because the English judge has power to make new law. In the latter case the precedent is said to be “binding”.

Corectaţi greşelile în enunţurile de mai jos: The common law system is specific for France and Belgium.. care a fost pronunţat cu mult timp în urmă. …. Rezumat In sistemul de drept anglo-saxon. formed the basis of all Israelite legislation. Puneţi cuvintele de mai jos în spaţiile libere ale textului : Common Law Napoleonic Code Roman Law The Ten Commandments 00:60 ….3.4. In this way the Anglo-Norman rulers created a system of centralized courts that operated under a single set of laws that replaced rules laid down by earlier societies. evolved from the tribal and local laws in England.. was still largely a blend of custom and interpretation by magistrates of the will of the gods. dreptul cutumiar este un important izvor al dreptului. Să ne reamintim În sistemul de drept anglo-saxon. cutume și tradiții juridice. refers to the entire body of French law. …. Common-law se constituie din: hotarârile judecatorești. which evolved in the 8th century BC. 4. But they do not exercise their discretion in an arbitrary way. but over the time it involved the courts in law-making that was responsive to changes in society. The judges have a field of choice in making their decisions. jurisprudenta (case-law) este un important izvor de drept. 26 . they rest their judgments upon general principles. and criminal law.Cases of “first impression” are based upon facts. commercial. O cauză poate fi soluţionată pe baza unui precedent judiciar. …. Test de evaluare: I. 4. The judicial precedent does not ensure a homogenous jurisprudence in the UK. . It began with common Customs. contained in five codes dealing with civil. Judecatorul este un creator al legii. The administration of justice is not a simple process of matching precedents. Romanian law is primarily based on case-law. They can also be found in the laws of other ancient peoples. which bear no resemblance to the facts of any previous case. el nu doar interpretează legea.

function and powers. to state the cause = a-şi apăra cauza 7. Translate into Romanian. To put up To go down To make up for To break up To cut down To make up (a quarrel) To turn down 1. 8. so he has to … for his absence.  The Legislative: composition. Temă de control: I. You have to … with your new job.5. 5. 7. You have to … your expenses. of liberty = a priva pe cineva de libertate 2. II. I hear prices have already … 3. He has missed for a month. I’m sorry for being late but my car … 4.6. II. 2.II. to give evidence = a depune mărturie 4. 4. You cannot … their invitation to dinner. Test de autoevaluare: I. Many foreign tourists … at the hotel in Brasov. a dictionary (you can check your answers by reading the Romanian Constitution): 27 . if necessary. relationship with other state organs. to deprive smb. 6. to discharge a defendant = a pune în libertate un acuzat 10. 10. Descrieţi sistemul de guvernare din România în comparaţie cu cel din Anglia. to plead not-guilty = a pleda pentru nevinovăţie 9. function and powers. School … in June. Explain the principle of the judicial precedent. to make an appeal = a face recurs 3.  The Executive: composition. to punish with imprisonment = a pedepsi cu închisoarea 8. function and powers. I’m happy that they … their quarrel. Urmăriţi în descrierea dumneavoastră următoarele puncte:  The Head of State: appointment. relationship with other state organs. relationship with other state organs. to pass a sentence = a pronunţa o sentinţă. to comply with a decision = a se supune unei hotărâri 5. I don’t like her because she … on people. Alcătuiţi zece propoziţii folosind următorii termeni: 1. to impose a fine = a impune o amendă 6. Completaţi spatiile libere cu verbele cu particulă separabilă de mai jos: To break down To look down upon smb. using. 9. 4.

Compania. o) the organization of local public administration. Editura Lumina Lex. Essential English. Precedents are binding so they must be followed. 73 (1) Parliament passes constitutional. t) the other fields for which the Constitution stipulates the enactment of organic laws. the Public Ministry. organic. j) the statute of public servants.7. p) the general rules covering labour relations. 2004. and social protection. Christiane. Bucureşti.Art. Regia autonomă „Monitorul Oficial”. I. 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept. as well as the general rules on local autonomy. Teora. f) the state of partial or total mobilization of the armed forces and the state of war. The common law has developed by each and every new precedent adopted by the courts of law. r) the status of national minorities in Romania. the courts of law. m) the general legal status of property and inheritance.8. Bibliografie: Bantaş. the establishment of their emoluments and other rights. and ordinary laws. When delivering a 28 . and the Court of Audit. A judicial precedent is a decision passed by the court and used as a source for future decision making. employers' associations. k) the contentious business falling within the competence of administrative courts. (Constitution of Romania) 4. i) the granting of amnesty or collective pardon. l) the organization and functioning of the Superior Council of Magistracy. c) the statute of Deputies and Senators. g) the state of siege and emergency. Andrei. n) the general organization of education. (2) Constitutional laws shall be pertaining to the revision of the Constitution. the organization and functioning of the Permanent Electoral Authority. and financing of political parties. Bucureşti. d) the organization and holding of referendum. and the execution thereof. penalties. s) the general statutory rules of religious cults. Răspunsuri temă de autoevaluare: 4. Ed. trade unions. 2003 Brookes. e) the organization of the Government and of the Supreme Council of National Defence. (3) Organic laws shall regulate: a) the electoral system. territory. Michael. functioning. h) criminal offences. Treutenaere. Ed. b) the organization. 2003 Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez. 1993 Constituţia României.

the judge presents the facts of the case. You need to give evidence in order to support your accusations. The defendant was discharged after the witness testified in his favour. he decided to call several colleagues to testify in his favour. He was deprived of liberty after having committed the murder. The ratio decidendi (the legal reasoning or ground for the judicial decision) is binding on later courts under the system of judicial precedent. The policeman imposed a fine for driving under influence (DUI).judgment. In order to state his cause. The client decided to make an appeal at the advice of his lawyer. explains the law that is applicable to the facts and then passes the sentence. He pleaded not-guilty because he knew he was innocent. It is compulsory for the defendant to comply with the judge’s decision. the judge passed the sentence. 29 . Any murderer is punished with imprisonment. II. As soon as the verdict was returned.

5. o evoluţie. never. adverbele folosite sunt: now.: I always teach English. altfel spus. o Pentru adevăruri general valabile.2. E.UNIT V VERBUL (THE VERB) Timpurile verbului (Verb Tenses) 5.1. studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să deprindă folosirea corectă a prezentului simplu şi continuu  să evite confuziile dintre cele două timpuri.prezentul simplu . trecut sau viitor). aşa cum este percepută aceasta de vorbitor. For minor offences. the police normally fine the offender.g. once/twice/three times a week. în ce segment de timp este plasată acțiunea (prezent. adverbele cu care este cel mai des întâlnit sunt : usually. 00:30  Timpul present continuu (Present Tense Continuous) o Se foloseşte pentru acţiuni în desfăşurare în momentul vorbirii. Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare Categoria gramaticală a timpului (Tense) se referă la ordinea evenimentelor în timp. o Pentru acţiuni care reflectă un proces.prezentul continuu. today. often. 30 . ever. etc. se vor revizui două timpuri folosite în mod frecvent în limba engleză: . seldom. at the moment. every day/month/week/year. Introducere În această unitate de învăţare. o Pentru o stare sau acţiune permanentă. TIMPUL PREZENT  Timpul prezent simplu (Present Tense Simple) o Se foloseşte pentru acţiuni repetate. frecvente în cazul vorbitorilor de română Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 de minute. cu caracter obişnuit sau permanent. Obiectivele/competențele unităţii de învăţare După studierea acestei unităţi de învăţare. Este foarte important ca vorbitorul să sesizeze din ce perspectivă este prezentată acțiunea sau. o dezvoltare. generally. He works in a bank. frequently.

now. N. to think.B. to belong to. – ing E. to prefer  Verbe care arată posesia: To own.acţiuni temporare -acţiuni viitoare planificate. to expect. to possess. 31 . perfect şi perfect continuu. Să ne reamintim Spre deosebire de limba română. may. to doubt. Rezumat Prezentul simplu se foloseşte pentru a exprima: . to desire. 5. to smell.acţiuni repetate. “What are you doing tonight?” I’m visiting my mother tomorrow. to dislike. to notice  Verbe care arată sentimente: To love. obişnuite . to hold.3.o Se mai foloseşte cu valoare de viitor. to hate. to see. to have Dar: To have se poate folosi la aspectul continuu dacă nu se referă la posesie: I’m having lunch. Aspectul continuu al verbului indică faptul că o acţiune este în curs de desfăşurare la un moment dat. : Look ! It is raining. to remember. must. când intervine voinţa vorbitorului. to taste. de exemplu). to find. to owe. to believe. Prezentul continuu se foloseşte pentru a exprima: . to forget. continuu. to mean. o Format din: To be (present) + vb. shall. It is getting dark.g. I’m studying. dare). to wish. Verbe care nu se folosesc la aspectul continuu :  Verbe care arată percepţii senzoriale : To feel. în timp ce aspectul simplu face referire la acţiuni care se petrec în mod obişnuit şi nu la un moment dat. to understand.adevăruri general-valabile . to trust.acţiuni care se află în curs de derulare în momentul de faţă . to intend. to like. to hear. to keep. will.  Verbe care arată procese mentale: To know.acţiuni viitoare care sunt parte a unui program oficial (a se vedea mersul trenurilor. verbul englezesc are patru aspecte: simplu.  Verbele modale (can. to touch. need.

We (to translate) the lesson now. To bring an action … somebody. To be entitled … compensation. To accuse someone of something. … this paper (to belong) to you? 5. 5. She (to like) swimming. He always (to work) at home on Saturdays. 7. To sentence someone … a punishment. Do not disturb the manager now. 3. 2. 4. I usually (to write) for an hour or two every evening. To comply … a decision. … you (to understand) me now? 4. 4. Alegeţi forma corectă a verbelor date în paranteză (prezentul simplu sau continuu): 1. 2. I (to drink) tea every morning. 00:60 5. To claim damages … something. Ce prepoziţii folosiţi cu aceste expresii ? 1. 3.5. 3. My passport (to expire) on 30th of October this year. 9. 6. 00:45 32 . Mai jos aveţi câteva expresii tipice folosite în limbajul de drept. I (to want) to know how to cross a check. 5. 2. To be guilty … an offence. I (not to work) today.Corectaţi greşelile din enunţurile de mai jos: The smuggler is thinking that no one has noticed him while crossing the border with the stolen jewels.4. II. I (to write) a letter now.Folosiţi aceste expresii în propoziţii alcătuite de dumneavoastră. Test de evaluare: I. To be liable … something. 5. 6. Where … you (to work) this week? In Bucharest or in New York? 8. 10. What … you (to do) next week? 9. . The court clerk is hating to work for so many hours in court every day. 8. Alegeţi forma corectă a verbelor date în paranteză (prezentul simplu sau continuu): 1. I (to work) now. To fine someone … something. Leave me alone. To bring a case … someone. he discusses with the secretary. Test de autoevaluare: I. 7.

and students are encouraged to consider broader questions such as ethical judgement. Mergem la teatru sau la opera o dată pe lună. 33 . Candidates intending to read law need not to have studied only particular subject at school. Compania. many do not. Câte ore de engleză aveţi pe săptămână? 2. Christiane. Cine este bărbatul cu care vorbeşte în acest moment ? 7. Essential English. 6. Although many undergraduates who read law do so with the intention of practicing. 8. 2. Mergeţi la birou în fiecare dimineaţă ? 4. II. The telephone (to ring) at the moment. Andrei. Bibliografie: Bantaş.10. Ed. Verişoara mea lucrează la o firmă de publicitate. Treutenaere. There are opportunities to study the history of law and to consider the subject in its wider social context. 3. 5. Temă de control: I. Nu-mi permit să mi-o cumpăr. 2003 Brookes. Editura Lumina Lex. 6. Teora. preferring instead to go into administration. Traduceţi în engleză: 1. 1988-1989). 1993 Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez. Când se deschide banca ? 5.6. The emphasis is on principle and technique. Casa aceasta îmi aparţine. Calculatorul nu face niciodată greşeli. Săptămâna aceasta lucrez numai după-amiază. Astăzi lansăm pe piaţă un nou produs. Ed. 3. II. 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept. Despre ce discutaţi acum? De ce nu sunteţi atenţi? 5. 2004. Îmi vizitez părinţii în fiecare săptămână. Cresc preţurile. political liberty and social control. Luna aceasta totul este mai scump. 5. Preţul acestei cărţi este foarte mare. It is as common for undergraduates to have a scientific or mathematical background at A-level as it is for them to have studied history or languages.Traduceţi în engleză: 00:45 1. 9. Bucureşti. industrial management or accountancy.7. Skills of interpretation and logical reasoning are developed. Michael. Traduceţi următorul text în română : “The Law Course at Cambridge is intended to give a grounding in the principles of law viewed from an academic rather than a vocational perspective. In Anglia plouă destul de des. 4.” (Cambridge University Prospectus.

The house belongs to me. 8. 9. What are you doing next week? 9. When does the bank open? 34 . My cousin works for an advertising company. 3. 3. I drink tea every morning. He always works at home on Saturdays.8. It often rains in England. How many English classes do you have a week? 2. Do you go to the office every morning? 4. I am writing a letter now. Do you understand me now? 4. 10. Prices are higher and higher. 6. 2.5. We go to the theatre or to the opera once a month. Where are you working this week? In Bucharest or in New York? 8. 5. 6. 7. 1. Traduceţi în engleză: 1. 5. Who is the man she is talking to right now? 7. The telephone is ringing at the moment. II. This month everything is more expensive. She likes swimming. I am not working today. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare: I. We are translating the lesson now.

duties and obligations of individual members of the community. and his judicial independence is guaranteed.The High Court of Cassation and Justice. Judges are appointed by the Crown. the Secretary of the State for Scotland. 00:20 35 . curți de apel-courts of appeal și ICCJ.UNIT VI THE JUDICIARY 6. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 80 minute. There is. A feature common to all systems of law in Britain is that there is no complete code.K. veţi studia câteva noţiuni generale privind sistemul judiciar din Marea Britanie. Totodată.1. Most prosecutions in England and Wales are initiated and conducted by the police. and the Minister of Home Affairs for Northern Ireland. on the advice of the Prime Minister. the Secretary of State for Scotland. a similarity between the separate systems of England and Wales and of Northern Ireland. The sources of law include Acts of Parliament and subordinate legislation made under powers conferred by Parliament and a large amount of “unwritten” or common law. A judge holds office until he retires.2. Magistrates are appointed on behalf of the Crown by the Lord Chancellor. There is no single body of law in the U. 6. tribunale-tribunals. veţi avea ca temă de casă studierea a două articole din Constituţia României privind statutul judecătorilor în ţara noastră. studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să ofere informaţii generale cu privire la puterea judecătorească din Marea Britanie  să expună modul de ierarhizare a instanţelor de judecată din ţara noastră (judecătorii – courts of first instance. or the Governor of Northern Ireland. however. precum și curți cu jurisdicție specială-special courts/courts with special jurisdiction). Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare Responsibility for the administration of the juridical system lies with the Lord Chancellor and with the Home Secretary. Introducere În această unitate de învăţare. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare După studierea acestei unităţi. Another feature is the distinction between Criminal law concerned with the wrongs against community and Civil law concerned with the rights. în setul de exerciţii de la sfârşitul unităţii de învăţare.

 To hold office. …………………………………………………………………………… 6.  Minister of Home Affairs. …………………………………………………………………………. 6. Throughout the U.  Criminal law.  To prosecute.  Decisions of the courts. Judecătorii numiţi de Coroană. sunt independenţi şi inamovibili. In Northern Ireland it is controlled by an Inspector General. ………………………………………………………………………… Acts of Parliament are not considered sources of law in the UK.  To be charged. Să ne reaminitim Numirea magistraţilor se face în Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii de către Monarh. 00:60 36 .  To be granted bail.  To be brought before the court.  On behalf of.  To be concerned with. Scoţiei şi Irlandei de Nord răspund de buna administrare a justiţiei în Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. he will usually be granted bail.3.K. Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos: In the UK magistrates are appointed on behalf of the Crown by the Speaker. Judecătorii sunt independenţi şi inamovibili (irremovable). The Prime Minister does not have any role in appointing judges in the UK. the police make the preliminary investigations but the Public Prosecutor decides whether or not to prosecute. Cercetarea penală este desfăşurată de organele de poliţie judiciară. he must be charged and brought before the court with the least possible delay.Daţi echivalentele româneşti la următoarele cuvinte şi expresii apoi alcătuiţi propoziţii cu ele:  Responsibility lies with.4. Rezumat Lordul Cancelar împreună cu Miniştrii de interne ai Angliei. la sugestia Primului Ministru britanic. la recomandarea Primului Ministru.  Civil law. it is the law that as soon as anyone is arrested. If he cannot be brought before the court within a day. Temă propusă pentru evaluare: I.The police service in Great Britain is linked with the local government and subject to the influence and control of the Home Secretary and the Secretary of State for Scotland. In Scotland.

b. c. house.britannia.” (http://www. To summon 8. a. a. the senior group making the major policy decisions. a. can become law until it has been sanctioned or “read” three times by both houses and received the royal assent. d. a Bill becomes an Act of Parliament when it has received the …. c. c. j. Speaker. h. bill. The second largest party forms the official Opposition. d. Suffrage 4. House of Lords 7. f. consent. b. c. with its own leader and 'shadow cabinet'. The…. Lord Chancellor. electoral roll. a.The three parts of the Parliament are the monarch. b.com/gov/gov4. c. Prime Minister.html) 37 . people. general election. About 20 ministers make up the Cabinet. To resign 5. b. bishops 7. d. b. c. Ministers are collectively responsible for government decisions and individually responsible for de decisions adopted by their own departments. b. a. peer 4. act. Archbishop 9.The President of the House of Lords is called the … a. ratification. by-election. enactment 3. ministries. d. assent. e. of both Houses of Parliament and the Sovereign. c. Generally.. To appoint a. election 6. Alegeţi cuvântul corect şi completaţi spatiile libere: 1. lords and … a. ratification II. g. civil service. met urgently at 10 Downing Street to decide Government policy on the economic crisis. i. commons. code. county. Temă propusă pentru autoevaluare: I. If an MP dies or retires or is given a peerage a … is held on his or her constituency. d. The Queen appoints its leader as Prime Minister. d.II. Minister of Home Affairs 10.5. c. As head of the Government the Prime Minister appoints about 100 ministers.No…. d. To be entitled to vote 2. Cabinet of Ministers 2. The House of Commons consists of 650 Members of Parliament who each represent a …. Traduceţi în română: “The Government is formed by the party with majority support in the Commons. state. b. Constituency 6. Alegeţi echivalentele româneşti pentru cuvintele şi expresiile englezeşti: 1. constituency 5. Circumscripţie electorală Sufragiu Alegeri parţiale A avea drept de vot A demisiona Ministru de interne Camera lorzilor A convoca A numi (într-o funcţie) Arhiepiscop 6. b. government. By-elections 3.

7. – constituency.html) 38 . impartial.bill. (3) The office of a judge shall be incompatible with any other public or private office. and sanctions against judges shall only be within the competence of the Superior Council of Magistracy.byelections. (The Romanian Constitution) 6. Miniştrii răspund în mod colectiv de deciziile guvernamentale adoptate şi în mod individual de deciziile adoptate de Ministerul pe care îl conduc. 6. Ca şef al Guvernului. . except for academic activities. and equal for all. ARTICLE 125 (1) The judges appointed by the President of Romania shall be irremovable.” (http://www. – assent . 1993 Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez. Primul Ministru numeşte în funcţie aproximativ 100 de miniştri.Lord Chancellor. 1. Al doilea partid ca mărime formează Opoziţia. 5. transfer of. Christiane. Teora.Cabinet of Ministers. Editura Lumina Lex. (2) Justice shall be one. (3) Judges shall be independent and subject only to the law. Compania. Ed. Treutenaere. (2) The appointment proposals. 2003 Brookes. 6. II. under the terms of its organic law. Bucureşti. . care are propriul ei lider şi în cadrul căruia se constituie un <<guvern din umbră>>. . 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept. 4. 2004.6. iar grupul constituit din cei mai experimentaţi miniştri adoptă cele mai importante decizii politice. Temă de control: Traduceţi în română următoarele fragmente din Constituţia României: ARTICLE 124 (1) Justice shall be rendered in the name of the law. Aproximativ 20 dintre aceştia formează Cabinetul de Miniştri. Bibliografie: Bantaş. Michael. 3.britannia.6. Liderul acestui partid este numit în funcţia de Prim-Ministru de Regină. according to the law. ”Guvernul este constituit din membrii partidului care se bucură de cea mai mare susţinere în Camera Comunelor. Essential English. as well as the promotion.com/gov/gov4. 2. Ed. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare: I. Andrei. . – commons. 7.8.

studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să folosească în mod corect trecutul simplu şi continuu  să evite confuziile care apar în momentul folosirii celor două timpuri. Introducere În această unitate de învăţare. două dintre cele cele mai importante timpuri ale limbii engleze. Infinitive: to look Simple past: looked Verbs ending in e add d only: Infinitive: to love Simple past: loved Irregular verbs vary in their simple past form: Infinitive: to see.2. Obiectivele/competențele unităţii de învăţare: După studierea acestei unităţi. 7. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute. The same form is used for all persons in affirmative even if we have a regular or irregular verb.1. Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare A. I worked We worked I spoke We spoke You worked You worked You spoke You spoke He/she worked They worked He/she spoke They spoke 2. Past tense: saw spoke left 00:60 to eat ate The simple past form of each irregular verb therefore must be learnt. The negative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with: did + not (didn’t) + the infinitive I did not work We did not work You did not work You did not work He/she/it did not work They did not work I did not speak We did not speak You did not speak You did not speak He/she/it did not speak They did not speak 39 .THE SIMPLE PAST The Simple Past Tense in regular verbs is formed by adding ed to the infinitive. 1. confuzii frecvente în cazul vorbitorilor de română. to leave. to speak.UNIT VII THE PAST TENSES 7. veţi recapitula trecutul simplu şi trecutul continuu.

taste.g. desire. He always carried an umbrella. were) + the present participle (ing) C. I met him yesterday.  Verbs expressing feelings and emotions: admire. She never drank wine. look. hate.  It is also used for an action whose time is not given but which occupied a period of time now terminated: e. appreciate.3. 40 .g.  The simple past is used in conditional sentences for the use of the unreal past: e. If I lived near my office I’d be in time for work (but I don’t live near my office). When did you meet him last? I bought this car in London (here the action took place at a definite time though this time is not mentioned). fear. He worked in that bank for four years (but he doesn’t work there now). hear. Affirmative I was speaking You were speaking He/she/it was speaking We were speaking You were speaking They were speaking Negative I was not speaking You were not speaking He/she/it was not speaking We were not speaking You were not speaking They were not speaking Interrogative Was I speaking? Were you speaking? Was he/she/it speaking? Were we speaking? Were you speaking? Were they speaking? Some of the verbs cannot be used in the continuous tenses:  Verbs of senses: feel. adore. dislike. want. observe. If I were you I’d go to see a doctor (but I am not you). like. The interrogative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with: did + subject + infinitive Did I work? Did you work? Did he/she/it work? Did we work? Did you work? Did they work? Did I speak? Did you speak? Did he/she/it speak? Did we speak? Did you speak? Did they speak? 4. see. as link verbs.g. wish. notice. smell. love. Negative interrogative is formed with: didn’t + subject + infinitive Didn’t I work? Didn’t we work? Didn’t you work? Didn’t you work? Didn’t he/she/it work? Didn’t they work? Didn’t I speak? Didn’t we speak? Didn’t you speak? Didn’t you speak? Didn’t he/she/it speak? Didn’t they speak? Past Tense is used for the relation of past events:  It is used for actions completed in the past at a definite time: e. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE This tense is formed by: The past tense of the verb to be (was. B. Did you ever hear Maria Callas sing?  The simple past is also used for a past habit: e.g.

g. .acţiuni încheiate într-o perioadă de timp trecută. verbul englezesc are patru aspecte: simplu. forget.  Verbs of possession: belong.g. expect. în timp ce aspectul simplu face referire la acţiuni care se petrec în mod obişnuit şi nu la un moment dat.descrierea unor secvenţe din trecut. possess. What were you doing before you came here? Sounds more polite than: What did you do before you came here? Să ne reaminitim Spre deosebire de limba română. . which could either be regarded as points in time or as periods. owe.g. in the afternoon. At eight he was having breakfast. believe.  Used with a point in time. assume.  Used without a time expression it can indicate a gradual development. Trecutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima: . it expresses an action which began before that time and probably continued after: e.o condiţie ireală (în Condiţionalele de tipul II). mean. .g.o acţiune aflată în desfăşurare în trecut şi întreruptă de o altă acţiune. 7. o This tense is normally used in this way with a time expression such as today. în acelaşi timp. trust. Between one and two I was doing the shopping and walking the dog.acţiuni obişnuite. the continuous often appears more polite than the simple past: e.3.o acţiune care se afla în continuă desfăşurare la un moment dat în trecut. A girl was playing the piano.  Used in descriptions: e. Rezumat Trecutul simplu este folosit pentru a exprima: . perfect şi perfect continuu.  It can be also used as a past equivalent of the present continuous: Direct speech: He said: “I am living in London”. Main uses of the past continuous tense:  The past continuous is used for past actions which continued for some time but whose limits are not known. . . o In questions about how a period was spent.acţiuni care s-au aflat în desfăşurare în trecut. recognise. know. . think. last night.acţiuni care s-au desfăşurat de-a lungul unei perioade de timp încheiate (cu prepoziţia for).  We may also use past continuous for apparently parallel actions: e. suppose. own. a cat was sleeping in front of it. Verbs of mental activity: agree. continuu. Aspectul continuu al verbului indică faptul că o acţiune este în curs de desfăşurare la un moment dat. A wood fire was burning. repetate din trecut (cu adverbe de frecvenţă). Indirect speech: He said he was living in London. 41 .

7. But someone (bring) him a glass of water and after a few minutes he (be able) to continue. 7. I (be) sorry that I (have to) leave the party early.00 p. 2.4. because there (not be) any train for London at that time. 3. “London”. Mrs. 6. The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work).” ”Who (be) tried?” ”A man called Tom Brown. Test de evaluare: Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or past continuous tense: 1. 6. because I (enjoy) myself. 7. Test de autoevaluare: I.” 2. While he (make) his speech. 9. 42 . The muggers hid in the old building when the police officers approached the scene of the crime. the minister suddenly (feel) faint. We heard a terrible noise.” ”Was he acquitted?” ”I don’t know. Put the verbs in the following sentences into: a) the negative. 7. I sent it to the laundry. 4. 3.5.m. who (smoke) a cigarette. (have) no time to put it out. The police caught the thief. I (ask) her where she (go) and she (say). So he (throw) it into the desk and (hope) for the best. The teacher (come) into the classroom unusually early and one of the boys. I just (write) a cheque when I (remember) that I (have) nothing in the bank. ”I (take) my friend to a murder trial the other day. 2. but I don’t think she (speak) the truth. His wife came at 8. A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk. When we arrived at court. At 3 a. 10. 5. She found her watch. 4. He (wear) blue overalls and black shoes. 8. 8. 9. As we (come) here. “You (smoke) when I (come) in?” he (ask). The action of the play took place in Italy.Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos: 1. His son wrote a novel. the witness testified so we could listen to his testimony. I read a chapter of that novel last night. They still (listen) to the evidence when we (leave). b) the interrogative: 1.m. They lent you enough money. They broadcast an appeal for money. When I last (see) her she (hurry) along the road to the station. a policeman (stop) us. 5. He (say) that he (look) for some stolen property and (ask) if he could search the car. Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) she (think) that someone (try) to get into the house. 10.

5. Which optional course did you choose for this semester? 2. Where did you write the homework task for today? 3. 2004. Christiane. Compania. 3. When I □ went back □ was going back into the lounge. 1993 Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez. Where did you meet your best friend/colleague? 9. It was Tom. and □ was going □ went to make a cup of coffee for him. When did you write this homework? 8. Ed. What was Tom doing while Bill was fishing? □ He sat on the bank and waited. Alice □ visited □ was visiting her mother at that time. “I □ made □ was making coffee for you”. How much did the books for the 1st year of study cost you? 5. Essential English. Editura Lumina Lex.7. Bucureşti. Teora. it was half past eight. Did you lend the English course book to anyone last week? 4. Tom looked □ at □ for the clock. Who (m) did you consult with when you decided to take up studying law? 10. Temă de control: Choose the right answer: 1. 2003 Brookes. Andrei. Bibliografie: Bantaş. What did you do when your husband called? □ I put the book down. 4. “What □ did you do □ were you doing in the kitchen □ at □ all that time?” he asked me. Where did you hear about our law faculty? 7. Treutenaere. 7. □ I was reading a book. When did this academic year begin? 6. 7. Answer the following questions: 1. 6. I □ read □ was reading a book. The door bell □ rang □ was ringing at about eight o’clock. I □ wasn’t finding □ couldn’t find the coffee and I spent ten minutes looking □ at □ for it. 2. 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept. When he □ was calling □ called. First.II. □ He was swimming in the river. How many options did you have when you decided to become a student at this university? 7. I □ told □ said him. but I □ put down □ was putting down my book. Then □ I’ve □ I’d found it □ I couldn’t find □ wasn’t finding the coffee-pot. Ed. 43 . and I never know where □ she puts anything □ does she put anything. 8. Michael.6.

His son did not write a novel.00 p. Did you hear a terrible noise? 4. A friend of mine told me about it. Did the police catch the thief? 3. (Possible answers): 1. Did you read a chapter of that novel last night? 6.m. 5. Did the action of the play take place in Italy? 8. We did not hear a terrible noise. His wife did not come at 8. I did not send it to the laundry. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare: I. 44 . Yes. b) the interrogative: 1. They did not lend you enough money. 7. I discussed with my parents. 2. I did. Did you send it to the laundry? 10. 10. It cost me about 200 RON. I wrote it last evening. I met him/her at the Informatics laboratory. I lent it to my deskmate.8. Did they broadcast an appeal for money? 2. It began on the 3rd of October. Did she find her watch? 9. They did not broadcast an appeal for money. Did they lend you enough money? II.00 p. I did not read a chapter of that novel last night. I had two options. 3. Did his wife come at 8. Put the verbs in the following sentences into: a) the negative. I chose English as an optional course for this semester. 8. Did his son write a novel? 5.m. The action of the play did not take place in Italy. 9. The police did not catch the thief. 6.7. She did not find her watch.? 7. I wrote the homework task for today in the library. 4.

Magistrates Courts try less serious offences. Totodată. If they all agree. at Liverpool and Manchester. The Courts of Quarter Session sit at least four times a year in the counties and boroughs. In England and Wales they include: a. The courts concerned with civil jurisdiction in England and Wales are: 45 . 2. There are such Courts of Assize in London. All trials at quarter session and assizes are held with a jury. 8. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute. vom analiza instanţele de judecată din Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. Courts of Quarter Session try most of the serious offences. If the accused is found guilty. b.1. They are presided over by High Court judges. These institutions are: Criminal Courts. studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să dobândească informaţii generale cu privire la ierarhizarea instanţelor de judecată din Marea Britanie  să expună modul de ierarhizare a instanţelor de judecată din ţara noastră. vom expune. 00:30 1.UNIT VIII COURTS OF LAW IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN 8. they have reached a unanimous verdict. CIVIL COURTS are concerned with rights. c. la sfârşitul capitolului.2. at the Old Bailey. Central Criminal Court. These Courts are presided over by a bench of justices under a chairman. When they have heard the evidence and the judge’s summing-up. These Courts are branches of High Court. Civil Courts and Appelate Courts. Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare In the English System three different types of institutions have been set up to resolve legal problems. Courts of Assize generally try the gravest offences. The Jury is made up of twelve ordinary people aged between 18 and 65. instanţele de judecată din ţara noastră. he or she has the right to appeal and ask for the case to be heard by a higher court. Introducere În această unitate de învăţare. CRIMINAL COURTS are concerned with wrongs against community. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare După studierea acestei unităţi. They consist of two to seven unpaid or “lay” magistrates known as Justices of the peace. duties and obligations of individual members of the community between themselves. they retire to a special room to decide whether to return a verdict of guilty or no guilty. în limba engleză.

a. în: Magistrates Courts. Admiralty Division and the Queen’s Bench Division. Magistrates Courts are mainly related to domestic proceedings. the Probate Division. They have limited civil jurisdiction. ………………………………………………………………………………. b. În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. ………………………………………………………………………………. 46 . the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal (the most important appeals) and a few appeals are heard before the House of Lords. this one being the ultimate court of appeal in civil cases. the Divorce Division. 2.. Courts of Quarter Session. The High Court forms part of the Supreme Court of Judicature. Să ne reaminitim Modul de ierarhizare a instanţelor de judecată din Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii este diferit de cel din ţara noastră. The High Court is divided into: the Chancery Division. County Courts where the most ordinary civil actions are heard and tried. as for instance: the House of Lords and the Court of Appeal. 3. Magistrates Courts try very serious offences. c. Courts of Assize. In Scotland.APPEALS They may be heard in the High Court. In Courts of First Instance cases are heard again for a better judgment thereof. iar cele penale. civil cases of first instance are heard at the Sheriff Courts (they correspond to the County Courts in England and Wales) and the Outer House of the Court of Session (this one is the supreme court in Scotland). cauzele civile se judecă în următoarele instanţe: Magistrates Courts. There is also another classification of these institutions: Courts of First Instance in which cases are heard for the first time. Appelate Courts in which people appeal for reconsideration of the decisions of the Courts of First Instance. County Courts. As to the latest legal journals there are many English Courts which exercise purely civil or criminal cases and some others hear both criminal and civil cases. Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos: 1. Courts of Assize.

Answer the following questions: 00:50 1.4. the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal şi The House of Lords. în cadrul cărora lucrează Judecătorii de pace (Justices of the Peace). What are the courts of civil jurisdiction in England. the gravest.Magistrates Courts (pentru infracţiuni minore). Where may appeals be heard? II. 2. 1. . Assize Court. Lawyers often divide the law and the legal system into two: criminal law and civil law. Classify the following terms into the appropriate column below.8. The Central Criminal Court in London at the Old Bailey is an ……….One way of classifying and understanding the law is by subject matter. Magistrates’ Courts ………… the less serious …………. Appeals may be ……….. in the High Court. Court of Judicature. 5. 3.Courts of Quarter Session (pentru majoritatea infracţiunilor grave) . Supreme. cauzele penale se judecă în următoarele instanţe: .Courts of Assize (infracţiunile deosebit de grave). All trials at ………. held. Wales and Scotland? 3. e) instanţe militare. d) tribunale specializate.Fill in the blanks with the missing words: try.. sessions and assizes are ………. offences. Cauzele civile se judecă în următoarele instanţe: -Magistrates Courts (conflicte familiale) -County Courts (majoritatea litigiilor civile) . 4. of the High Court presided ……… by High Court judges. Test de evaluare: I. Rezumat În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. quarter... with a jury. branches. Apelurile şi recursurile se judecă în: The High Court. offences. . Justiţia se realizează prin următoarele instanţe judecătoreşti: a) Înalta Curte de Casaţie şi Justiţie. These Courts are ………. heard. 6. Two terms can appear in both columns: 47 .3. Legea 304/2004) 8. f) judecătorii.The High Court.Courts of Assize try ……. The High Court forms ……. 7. . over. What are the main criminal courts in England and Wales and what do they try? 2. III. part.” (v. of the ……. c) tribunale. b) curţi de apel. ”În România.

Civil Law One category is the criminal law – the law dealing with crime. Now complete the following text contrasting criminal and civil law by choosing the words/phrases above. but usually appeal is only allowed on matters of legal importance. who takes over the case from the __________ (2) who have already decided _______ (3) the defendant (or ________) (4) with specified crimes. Choose from the following to complete the description that refers to each Court: Court of Justice of the European Communities House of Lords Court of Appeal Magistrates Court Crown Court High Court. the defendant normally pays the plaintiff __________ (money) (11). 3. Claims of lesser value will start in a County Court. 48 .5. the basic division between criminal and civil law is reflected in the court system. There are 250 of these around the country. Civil Division County Court 1. meaning that one is more sure than not). 2. The civil law includes the law of _______ (5) and ______ (6). Every jurisdiction organises the administration of justice in different ways. Test de autoevaluare I. They can also deal with divorce and bankruptcy matters. ________ (9) in order to win ______ (10). In England. the __________ (7). there can be an appeal to the ________ on fact or law. Criminal Law vs. From the Court of Appeal. The case is instituted by the prosecutor. The civil law is much more wideranging.compensation / contract/ crime / damages / family law / intellectual property / plaintiff / police / private individual / prosecution / the accused/ the defendant / theft / to bring a case / to bring an action / to fine/ to charge someone with something Criminal To charge someone with something Plaintiff Civil 8. II. In a civil case. A case is called a _________(1). Matters of important legal dispute arising in the Crown Court may be appealed to the __________. normally a _________ (8) or company. If the case is proven (on the balance of probabilities. Criminal Division High Court.

by way of the contentious business falling within the competence of administrative courts. nr. the case is sent for trial in one of over 400 _______ . is guaranteed.4. 49 .6. More substantial civil claims (over around £ 25. by which the European Community was established. 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept. as well as the military command acts. 7. If the case involves a serious crime. Christiane. In less serious criminal cases (which comprise over 90% of criminal cases). Essential English. judging contentious business have jurisdiction to solve the applications filed by persons aggrieved by statutory orders or.7. Michael. 1993 Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez. Bibliografie: Bantaş. (3) The High Court of Cassation and Justice shall provide a unitary interpretation and implementation of the law by the other courts of law. 5. Bucureşti. Teora. Editura Lumina Lex. it is possible to appeal from a County Court or the High Court to the ______. as the case may be. Partea I. courts of law specialized in certain matters may be set up. By means of an organic law.000) are heard in the ________. (6) The judicial control of administrative acts of the public authorities. Temă de control Translate into Romanian: ARTICLE 126 (1) Justice shall be administered by the High Court of Cassation and Justice. Ed. The administrative courts. and the regulation for its functioning shall be set up in an organic law. 2003 LEGEA Nr. Under the system of appeals in civil cases. Bucureşti. 2004. except for those regarding relations with the Parliament. it is heard in the ______. (2) The jurisdiction of the courts of law and the judging procedure shall only be stipulated by law. according to its competence. Ed. Compania. 304 privind organizarea judiciară din 28 iunie 2004. Regia autonomă „Monitorul Oficial”. republicată în Monitorul Oficial al României. 6. The __________ was set up under the Treaty of Rome 1957. of persons outside the magistracy. The court can overrule all other courts on matters of Community law. 2003 Brookes. and the other courts of law set up by the law. 8. (The Romanian Constitution) 8. allowing the participation. by provisions in statutory orders declared unconstitutional. (4) The composition of the High Court of Cassation and Justice. Treutenaere. (5) It is prohibited to establish extraordinary courts of law. 827 din 13 septembrie 2005 Constituţia României. Andrei. as the case may be. 8.

Criminal Division. 7. 6. . – damages. . . II. . 4.Court of Appeal. – brings an action. – to charge. 10. 5.Crown Court.High Court. 3. – the accused.House of Lords. 8. 8.8. 3. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare: I. . 50 .8. . 9.Magistrates Courts. . .prosecution.County Court. 2. – intellectual property. – private individual. 2. 1. Civil Division. – family law. 4.plaintiff. 7. 6. 1. .Court of Justice of the European Communities.compensation. 11. 5. . . .High Court.police.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare The Present Perfect Tense is formed with: The present tense of HAVE + the past participle of the verb to be conjugated 00:45 For the regular verbs the past participle has exactly the same form as the simple past.UNIT IX THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE 9. studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să folosească în mod corect prezentul perfect simplu sesizând particularităţile de folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la trecutul simplu  să identifice situaţiile de folosire a prezentului perfect simplu în vorbirea curentă.2. In irregular verbs. The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary. Prin folosirea acestui timp. the past participle varies. se recapitulează unul dintre cele mai uzuale timpuri ale limbii engleze – presentul perfect simplu. dificultate care se datorează. Affirmative I have looked You have looked He/she/it has looked We have looked You have looked They have looked Negative I have not looked You have not looked He/she/it has not looked We have not looked You have not looked They have not looked Interrogative Have I looked? Have you looked? Has he/she/it looked? Have we looked? Have you looked? Have they looked? 51 . posibilității de a traduce în română prezentul perfect englezesc fie prin prezentul simplu. se remarcă un grad sporit de dificultate pe care îl presupune folosirea corectă a acestui timp. în parte. The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary and the subject. De asemenea. 9. Introducere În această unitate de învăţare. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare După studierea acestei unităţi. vorbitorul stabileşte o legătură între trecut şi prezent în sensul generării unui efect prezent de către o cauză trecută sau în sensul continuării unei situaţii de fapt în viaţa cuiva/a unei comunităţi etc.1. fie prin perfectul compus.

I have smoked since I left school (I still smoke). The Use of Present Perfect a) it is used with just for a recently completed action: He has just gone out. occasionally. this afternoon only up to about one o’clock or five o’clock. We lived here for ten years (but we don’t live there now).  actions expressed by the present perfect + yet usually have results in the present. etc.  lately. always. I haven’t had it yet. He has been in the army for two years (He is still in the army).  the action usually begins in the past and continues past the time of speaking in the present.Negative interrogative: has he/she it not looked? etc. provided the connection with the present is still maintained. Have you seen him today? – Yes. e) it is used for actions occurring in an incomplete period:  the incomplete period may be indicated by today or this morning / afternoon / evening / week / month / year / century. This is the worst book I have ever read. Have you had breakfast? – No. newspapers and television and radio reports. since. It has been very cold lately but it’s just beginning to get warmer.  for used with the present perfect denotes a period of time extending into the present: 52 . He has had a lot of luck lately.  it can be used similarly with ever. the action finishes at the time of speaking: I haven’t seen you for ages (but I see you now). because after that this morning or this afternoon becomes a completed period. c) recent actions in the present perfect often have results in the present: The lift has broken down (we have to use the stairs). recently used with the present perfect also indicate an incomplete period of time: He has recently bought this house. Has the postman come this morning? Note: the present perfect can be used with this morning. d) it can also be used for actions which occur in the past. and actions occurring in it must be put into the simple past. all day/night/week/all the time. often. never. several times: I have never been to London. that is that the action could be repeated in the present: Ann Cox has written a number of short stories (that is she is still alive and can write more). letters. Just must be placed between the auxiliary and the main verb.  for used with the simple past denotes a terminated period of time.  sometimes. b) it is used for past actions whose time is not definite: I have read the instructions but I don’t understand them. This tense may be said to be a sort of mixture of present and past. He has always answered my letters. I have. He hasn’t come yet (so we are still waiting for him). It implies a strong connection with the present and is mainly used in conversations. f) it is used for an action which lasts throughout an incomplete period:  time expressions include for.

adverbe de timp de genul: recently. 53 .3.  it is also used in letters: I am so sorry I haven’t written to you but I’ve been very busy lately as my husband has been away. prezentul perfect simplu nu va indica niciodată cu precizie momentul în care loc o acţiune. Right: He met him yesterday OR Right: He has met him (=> they have talked etc. Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos: 1. this year. prezentul perfect simplu foloseşte. 9.) – no information is given as to when this happened.g. I never imagined that working in a law firm can be so tiring. this month. i. the fact that they saw each other. I have often thought that I should have emigrated. h) note that a conversation about a past action often begins with a question and answer in the present perfect: Where have you been? ~ I’ve been to the pictures. g) it is also used with the verbs to be. always. Since 2009 she studies EU law at our university. faptul că o situaţie/stare de fapt durează de un anumit timp: We have been students for a few weeks. to see. Rezumat Acţiunea exprimată prin prezentul simplu poate indica faptul că producerea acesteia generează un efect prezent. today. never. lately/of late etc. to know.e. Să ne reamintim Presentul perfect simplu este o combinaţie între trecut şi prezent. de regulă. this week. to believe: I have been here for a quarter of an hour.We have lived in London for ten years (and we still live there). E. He has prepared his speech. but only to the result of the action. Spre deosebire de timpul trecut. They have had this business since 2008. Din contra. (=> he cannot appear in court) !!! prezentul perfect nu se foloseşte niciodată pe lângă un adverb de timp trecut: Wrong: He has met him yesterday. so far. adesea. aşa cum arată şi numele lui. (=> he is ready to speak) The prisoner has fallen ill. 3. Prezentul perfect simplu indică. Did you win any important case recently? 2. ever.

” 5.9. so I suppose someone (buy) it. 10. but he (tell) Mary that he’d be in for dinner. ”I just (be) to the film War and Peace. 00:45 1. I (phone) you twice yesterday and (get) no answer. You (see) it?” ”No.g. a motor cycle (run) into a lorry.” 2. Test de evaluare: Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past tense e. You (see) what (happen)? Yes. he (lose) elections.”You (see) today’s paper?” ”No.” ”He (not be) elected. Pitt.” ”He (write) anything else?” 11.”That house (be) empty for a year. What are all those people looking at? There (be) an accident.” 6. I_______. I______ Yes.”Who you (vote) for at the last election?” ”I (vote) for Mr.30 and she (not phone) yet. two convicted murderers (escape) from the prison down the road.” 7. 54 .” ”When Tolstoy (write) it?” ”He (write) it in 1868.4.”When that war (begin)?” ”It (begin) in 1914 and (last) for four years. 3. 9.” ”What he (do) before he (come) here?” ”I think he (be) in prison.” 4.” ”I (read) it when I (be) at school.”Where is Tom?” ”I (not see) him today. I did. He (serve) in the First World War. (be) he?” ”No. but it is now 12. She (say) that she’d phone me this morning. anything interesting (happen)?” ”Yes. You (see) Mary on Monday? ~ Did you see Mary on Monday? Yes.” ”But they just (take) down the “For sale” sign. Is it like the book?” ”I (not read) the book.”How long you (know) your new assistant?” ”I (know) him for two years.” 8.

This is the most difficult case _____________________ a) I ever had b) I have ever had c) I've ever had to do. of course I am angry with you! a) listened. a) has been b) was c) had been 8. a) I talked b) I've talked c) I didn't talked 6. 00:30 9. That's the best pleading ______________ a) I've ever heardb) I didn't hear c) I used to hear 4. a) you haven't written b) you didn't write c) you don't write. 5. Father: I am very anxious about her. Don’t worry. I haven't asked b) didn't listen. so she ______ (be) away from home for three. a) rised falled b) rose fell c) have risen have fallen 9.9. You ____________ to a question ____________. When ________________ the firm? a) have you joined b) did you joined c) did you join 2. B. I’m sure the doctor _____ (detain) her. a) We have concluded b) We concluded c) We haven't concluded 7. I've asked. John: When ______you _____ it? Mike: I ______it last night.6. It's obvious that ________________ this report. Test de autoevaluare Insert the Past or the Present Perfect Tense: A. The reason she looks so sad is that she _______________ proved guilty in court. John: ______ you_____ (write) a letter to your friend at last? Mike: Yes. ___________________ to him last week. ______________ a binding contract last year and it is still valid. Father: But it’s 9 o’clock now. I_______. 10. ___________________ in Paris? a) Did you ever worked b) Have you ever worked c) worked you 3. Father: ________Jane______(come) home? Mother: Not yet. I asked c) haven't listened. Choose the right answer: 1. When _____she_____ (leave)? Mother: She ______ (leave) home at 6 o’clock and she _____(go) straight to the dentist. 55 . The number of customers ________ in 2009 but then _____in 2010.5. John: And why _______ you not _____(send) it yet? Mike: I ______ (leave) it at home in the morning and I ______ (be) busy since I ________ (return) home.

Andrei. Teora. Father: I am very anxious about her. B. I’m sure the doctor has detained her. John: And why have you not sent it yet? Mike: I left it at home in the morning and I have been busy since I returned home. I have. Bibliografie: Bantaş. Don’t worry.7. 1993 9.9. Essential English. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare: A. When did she leave? Mother: She left home at 6 o’clock and she went straight to the dentist.8. 56 . John: Have you written a letter to your friend at last? Mike: Yes. Ed. so she has been away from home for three. Father: But it’s 9 o’clock now. Father: Has Jane come home? Mother: Not yet. John: When did you write it? Mike: I wrote it last night.

1.2. care continuă în momentul vorbirii. trebuie precizat faptul că prezentul perfect continuu se foloseşte cu verbe care exprimă acţiuni propriu-zise şi nu stări/situaţii de viaţă (aşa cum se întâmplă în cazul prezentului perfect simplu). Acest timp precizează durata de când se desfăşoară o acţiune începută în trecut. se recapitulează unul dintre cele mai uzuale timpuri ale limbii engleze – prezentul perfect continuu. which began in the past and is still continuing or has only just finished. The beginning of the action in the past is pointed out by since and the duration is represented by for. 57 . De asemenea. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 60 minute. studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să folosească în mod corect prezentul perfect continuu sesizând particularităţile de folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la prezentul perfect simplu  să identifice situaţiile de folosire a prezentului perfect continuu în vorbirea curentă. Introducere În această unitate de învăţare. 10. etc The Use of Present Perfect Continuous tense This tense is used for an action. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare După studierea acestei unităţi. Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare FORM: the present perfect of the verb to be + the present participle Affirmative: I have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working I have not been working You have not been working He/she/it has not been working We have been working You have been working They have been working We have not been working You have not been working They have not been working 00:30 Negative: Negative interrogative: Have I not been working?/ Haven’t I been working.UNIT X THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS 10.

There is. did you cry? 3. hear. -Verbs expressing emotion: admire. Verbs not normally used in continuous tenses are: -Verbs of senses: feel. means: “this is how I’ve spent the last hour”. -Verbs of mental activity: agree. Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos: 1. observe. look. stare.Note that the present perfect continuous expresses an action. respect. Have you been knowing your manager for a long time? 2. perf. hate. know. adore.3. Rezumat Prezentul perfect simplu indică situaţii/stări care durează de ceva vreme în viaţa cuiva.simple They have been working hard for drawing up the report for 2 days – De 2 zile. however. recognize. Your eyes look red.perf. it is clear that someone is drinking from it for some time. cont. which is apparently uninterrupted. it does not mean that the job is completed. expect. a difference between a single action in the simple present perfect and an action in the present perfect continuous: a) I’ve polished the car. fear. love. assume. Test de evaluare Complete the sentences with the Simple or Continuous form of the Present Perfect Tense of the verbs in brackets. The underlined adverbs should be put in their correct position: 00:30 58 . Să ne reamintim Prezentul perfect continuu se foloseşte pentru a măsura de cât timp se petrece o acţiune care a început în trecut şi care continuă în momentul de faţă. iar prezentul perfect continuu indică acţiuni propriu-zise care durează de ceva vreme (ele continuând inclusive în momentul vorbirii). means that the job has been completed. Where have you been? ~ I’ve been downtown. Look at the level of water in the bottle. 10. we do not use it when we mention the number of time a thing has been done. Comparaţi: She has been a prosecutor for 2 years. listen. ei lucrează intens la redactarea raportului (the verb to work indicates an action and not a state) – pres. appreciate. realize. believe. dislike. notice. forget. (the verb to be is a verb of state) – El este procuror de 2 ani – pres. Have you known him for a long time? I haven’t seen her for ages.4. smell. see. b) I’ve been polishing the car. The level is lower and lower day by day. 10.

You (not to finish) that book yet? You (to read) it for more than a week. 8. Essential English. Ed. 10. I (expect) him to call for the past two hours. 5. You look very upset. Jane: Yes. 3. Bibliografie: Bantaş. But then he ______ (feel) worse.El a stat în închisoare timp de un an.I already (to write) the letter. I wonder if Tom (to forget) my number. 3. Prietenul meu traduce legislaţia din 1999. 5. Ar trebui s-o publici ! 2. Don’t you think we should stop? 10.6. I’m sorry we’re late. Temă de control: Fill in the gaps with the right tense (past tense simple. 9. Simple and Continuous: 1. 1993 Vianu. 7. 9. 6.We (to argue) about this for two hours now. At first doctors ________(say) it was the flu.7. Ed. Andrei. Mother writes he ______(be) ill for more than a week already. Teora. Au plecat la facultate acum trei ore şi încă nu s-au întors. 1996. 10.Încerc să iau legătura cu el de mai bine de o săptămână. We always (to live) in a flat.1. Lidia. Angela: Ill again! He________(be) ill last month. English with a Key. A: How long (to know) you the truth? B: I only just (to find out) but I (to find out) a lot of other things just recently. Test de autoevaluare: Translate into English. Unde ai mai fost de când ai sosit în Bucureşti? 10. present perfect simple) Jane: Look! I ________just_____ (receive) a letter from mother. nu-i aşa? 4. 2. I hope. so it will seem strange we move into a house with a garden round it. and they ______(take) him to the hospital. 59 . Angela: _______anything______ (happen)? Jane: Brother _______(fall) ill. A: What you (to do) for the last half hour? B: I (to sit) here working at this problem. 8. so perhaps you would post it for me.Eu n-am mai citit o povestire aşa de interesantă. 10. Am studiat dreptul timp de patru ani iar în prezent mă pregătesc pentru a obţine o diplomă de masterat. What (to happen)? 4. Teora. How you (to keep)? Well. În ultima vreme am fost atât de ocupat că am şi uitat ce m-ai rugat.5. You (to wait) long? 7. but the doctors told her he would soon be well again. 6.Sora ta s-a schimbat mult în ultima vreme. Nu l-am mai văzut de când a terminat facultatea. using the Present Perfect Tense.

Recently I have been so busy that I have forgotten what you asked me to do.M degree. My friend has been translating legislation since 1999. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare: 1. Your sister has changed a lot lately. 7.10. They left the faculty 3 hours ago and they have not returned yet. 5. I studied law for four years and now I am preparing to obtain an LL. You should publish it! 2. 6. He stayed in prison for a year.8. 60 . 3. 8. I have never read such an interesting story. 9. Where have you been since you arrived in Bucharest? 10. I haven’t seen him since he graduated the faculty. I have been trying to get in touch with him for more than a week. didn’t he? 4.

The oldest one is the Inner Temple. 00:30 61 . vom studia atribuţiile profesionale care îi revin unui avocat în Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. Lincoln’s Inn. the Middle Temple and the Inner Temple.UNIT XI THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM 11. a proceeding known as “taking the silk”. Most higher judicial appointments are made from common barristers who have become Queen’s Counsels. he must become a member of the Inns of Court. They perform all routine cases. the newest of them. 11. Introducere În această unitate de învăţare. built in 1880. but disciplinary powers are vested exclusively in the Senate of the Inns of Court. Lincoln’s Inn is entirely frequented by chancery lawyers. but when they have to take a case to the central courts. Half of the barristers in Britain work in one of the four Inns of Court – Gray’s Inn. A barrister is required to have reached an accepted educational standard and to have passed the legal examinations conducted by the Council of Legal Education. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute. Finally. which has produced the largest number of judges.2. A barrister who has a substantial junior practice may apply to the Lord Chancellor for a patent appointing him Queen’s Counsel. Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare The Victorian prestige of the law is expressed in the Royal Courts of Justice. they must employ a barrister to plead. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare După studierea acestei unităţi. Solicitors are allowed to deal directly with the public. is known for its number of provincial barristers. and Gray’s Inn. Their professional conduct is subject to the scrutiny of the General Council of the Bar. Both have been conservative and resistant to change as their votes in the House of Lords showed. The conservatism of English lawyers is reinforced by their strict division into solicitors and barristers.1. The Law and the Church are powerfully interlocked with the History of Britain. studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să precizeze atribuţiile profesionale care îi revin unui avocat membru al baroului (barrister) şi unui avocat consultant (solicitor)  să îşi însuşească în mod corect terminologia juridică necesară pentru a descrie atribuţiile care îi revin fiecăreia din aceste profesii.

A prospective solicitor is considered suitable by the appropriate committee of the Law Society. într-adevăr. A barrister usually assists a solicitor in court.3. există trei categorii de avocaţi: . Once a solicitor is qualified.Queen’s Counsel 11. soluţiona în instanţă litigii minore. Rezumat Cele trei categorii de avocaţi existente În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii presupun parcurgerea unor etape profesionale de instruire şi stagiatură diferite. Un avocat pledant (barrister) reprezintă clienţii în instanţele de judecată. he is required to attend a course of studies at a recognised law school. An articled clerk must pass the necessary examinations held by the Law Society and unless he has been a barrister or is a law graduate of a university. 62 .solicitor . Să ne reamintim În Marea Britanie. Avocaţii consultanţi (solicitors) nu susţin examenul de intrare în Barou. Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos: A solicitor is a member of the Bar. spre deosebire de avocaţii pledanţi (barristers). Acesta poate ţine cont de sugestiile avocaţilor consultanţi. Avocaţii consultanţi redactează contracte/testamente pentru clienţi sau rezolvă sarcinile de rutină dintr-o firmă de avocatură. Procesul prin care un avocat pledant devine avocat emerit poartă numele de taking the silk.barrister . ei pot oferi sugestii avocaţilor pledanţi în ceea ce priveşte soluţionarea anumitor litigii. totodată. The articles last for three or five years and this depends upon the educational qualifications of the student. he may become a member of the Law Society. De asemenea. Avocaţii consultanţi pot. utile şi pertinente. A Queen’s Counsel is a lawyer with little practice in court. which is a professional organisation of solicitors. Avocaţii emeriţi (Queen’s Counsels) reprezintă treapta profesională cea mai înaltă la care poate ajunge un avocat în Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. dacă apreciază că ele sunt. He/she must enter into “articles of clerkship” with a practising solicitor of not less than five years standing before he can begin his/her professional career.

What does a solicitor become. Complete the terms (1-7) with the words or expression (A-G). once he/she is qualified? 14. What is the conservatism of English lawyers reinforced by? 3. Who may apply to the Lord Chancellor for a patent appointing him/her Queen’s Counsel? 8. How are the English lawyers divided? 4. Temă de evaluare: I. 1.11. Whom are the legal examinations conducted by? 7. By whom must a prospective solicitor be considered suitable? 9. What is the Victorian prestige of the law expressed? 2.Answer the following questions: 1. Then match each profession to its definition (I-VII). What lawyers are allowed to plead? 5. known (10) as ____________. Where do half of the barristers in Britain work? 15. What educational standard is a barrister required to have reached? 6. he or she may become a senior barrister. What authority holds the necessary examinations? 12. Two basic patterns emerge. a trainee lawyer usually serves a period of (2)______________.5. What is an articled clerk required to attend? 13.Choose one of the words or expressions in the following list to fill in the blanks in the text: a) advocacy d) called to the Bar g) practising solicitor j) Queen’s Counsel m) wig and pen folk b) articled clerks e) gown h) professional training k) standing n) wigs c) barristers’ chambers f) graduated in law i) pupillage l) taking the silk After having (1)______________. The traditional dress of barristers and judges has earned members of the legal profession the generic term (14)__________.4. 11. This promotion is called (11)_________. How many years standing must the practising solicitor have when entering into the articles of clerkship? 10. What does the term article depend upon? 11. What institution has produced the largest number of judges in Great Britain? 00:60 II. Attorney A. Anyone wishing to specialize in (5)_____________ in order to become a barrister must first undergo a period of (6)______________ in (7)____________ after being (8)_________. Temă de autoevaluare: I. to the justices 63 . The majority of lawyers work as (3)____________ before becoming (4)________________. because of the silk (12)___________ they wear in court as well as their (13)________. If a junior barrister has several years’ (9)_________.

Using the translations of the following Romanian words. VII. Justice 3. taking the silk 6. clerk 6. Bibliografie: Bantaş. judecători de pace a pronunţa o sentinţă asistenţă juridică drept constituţional competenţa unui tribunal 11. 64 . V. prosecutor E. the Minister of Justice. Teora. prospective solicitor 3. Compania. A senior barrister appointed by the Crown. Christiane. II. Treutenaere. Essential English. 2003 Brookes. to depend upon 7. Counsel D. In the USA. adviser I. make-up sentences in Past tense (simple or continuous). to conduct an examination 9. A lawyer with at least five years’ standing appointed to assist magistrates in court.2. VI. Editura Lumina Lex. Someone whose principal function is to sit as a magistrate in the magistrates’ court.7. to attend a course at a law school 11. A lawyer who appears in lower courts to assist defendants who should otherwise be unrepresented. 1993 Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez. Crown 5. Someone employed by a firm to help settle legal matters. 5. Temă de control: Make-up sentences with the following words and phrases: 1. of the Peace C.6. legal 4. society 8. 1. IV. to apply to 10. General F. II. solicitor G. Ed. Bucureşti. Andrei. 2. 3. Those responsible for prosecuting in the lower courts (Magistrates Courts). Michael. to enter into articles of clerkship 5. standing 4. to deal with 2. Ed. 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept. 4. Queen’s B. III. duty 7. 2004. the principal law officer of the Crown. In Great Britain.

11.8. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare: I. 1. Attorney General – VII; 2. Justice of the Peace – VI; 3. legal adviser – II; 4. Crown prosecutor – IV; 5. – clerk to the justices – III; 6. – duty solicitor – V; 7. Queen’s Counsel – I. II. (possible examples) 1. Justices of the Peace work in Magistrates Courts. 2. The judge passed the sentence after a careful analysis of the trial facts and circumstances. 3. Legal advice is offered to all defendants, as provided by the law. 4. Constitutional law is studied in the 1st academic year. 5. This case is within the jurisdiction of this court.

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UNIT XII THE PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE AND THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS
12.1. Introducere În această unitate de învăţare, vom studia două timpuri: trecutul perfect simplu (past perfect simple) şi trecutul perfect continuu (past perfect continuous). Vom observa că trecutul perfect simplu (care corespunde mai-mult-caperfectului românesc) se traduce în română fie printr-o formă de perfect compus fie printr-o formă de mai-mult-ca-perfect fie printr-o formă de imperfect. Trecutul perfect continuu se traduce în română prin imperfect. 12.2. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să folosească în mod corect trecutul perfect simplu sesizând particularităţile de folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la trecutul simplu  să identifice situaţiile de folosire a trecutului perfect simplu în vorbirea curentă  să folosească în mod corect trecutul perfect continuu sesizând particularităţile de folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la trecutul perfect simplu  să identifice situaţiile de folosire a trecutului perfect continuu în vorbirea curentă. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 100 minute. Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE It is formed with: Had + the past participle Affirmative: I had looked You had looked He/she/it had looked I had not looked/ hadn’t looked You had not looked We had looked 00:30 You had looked They had looked We had not looked You had not looked

Negative:

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Interrogative:

He/she/it had not looked Had I looked? Had you looked? Had he/she/it looked?

They had not looked Had we looked? Had you looked? Had they looked?

Negativeinterrogative:

Had I not looked? / Hadn’t I looked? Etc.

The Past Perfect Tense is used to show that one action was completed before another action in the past. Let us take two examples: Pedro learned English. – and – He came to England. Both these actions took place in the past, so we use the Simple Past learned and came. But suppose we want to show that one of these actions took place before the other one. Suppose we want to say that Pedro learned English before he came to England. Then we use the Past Perfect Tense for the action that took place first, and we use the Simple Past Tense for the other action. 1. Pedro had learned English before he came to England. 2. Mrs. Thompson came to tell us she had made the coffee. 3. After she had chatted for a little time, Mrs. Beck went to see about the dinner. 4. The Past Perfect can be used with till, until and before to emphasize the completion of an action. 5. He did not wait till we had finished our meal. 6. It was a very expensive town. Before we had been here a week we had spent all our money. 7. He had stayed in his father’s firm till his father died. Then he had started his own business and was now a very successful man.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS FORM: Had been + present participle The form is the same for all persons: Affirmative: I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they had been working. Negative: I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they had not/ hadn’t been working
00:30

Interrogative: Had I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they been working? Negative–interrogative: Had I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they not/hadn’t been working? It is not used with verbs, which are not used in the continuous forms, except with want and sometimes wish. The boy was delighted with his new bike. He had been wanting one for a long time.

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Trecutul perfect continuu măsoară de cât timp dura o acţiune propriu-zisă (nu o stare/situaţie) care a început în trecut şi care a continuat până la un moment dat în trecut. When we arrived. 12. It is now six and he was tired because he had been working since dawn 2. When the action began before the time of speaking in the past. 2. The lights hardly (to go out) when a strange noise was heard. Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos: 1. Rezumat Trecutul perfect simplu exprimă o acţiune care s-a petrecut înainte de altă acţiune din trecut. Trecutul perfect continuu se foloseşte mai ales pentru a preciza de cât timp se petrecea o acţiune la un moment dat în trecut.3. 3. Temă de evaluare: I. He had been repairing the engine (tells us how he had spent the previous hour/half hour. But there is a difference between a single action in the simple past perfect and an action in the past perfect continuous: By six o’clock he had repaired the engine (this job had been completed).m. ……………………………………………………………………… Să ne reamintim Trecutul perfect simplu se foloseşte mai ales pentru a exprima anterioritatea unei acțiuni din trecut faţă de un moment trecut/altă acţiune din trecut. we can often use either form: It was now six and he was tired because he had worked since dawn. It does not tell us whether or not the job was completed). or stopped just before it. etc. 00:40 68 . Trecutul perfect simplu măsoară de când dura/a durat o situaţie/o stare care a început în trecut şi care a continuat până la un moment dat în trecut. At 11 a. and continued up to that time. the jury already returned the verdict. The trial started at 9 a.The Use of Past Perfect Continuous Tense 1.4. 3. He told me that he never (to meet) you. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Perfect Tense: 1. (we arrived too late) ……………………………………………………………………… 2. They (to be married) for five years when they finally had a child. A repeated action in the past can sometimes be expressed as a continuous action by the past perfect continuous: He had been trying to get her on the phone. 12.m. the judge was hearing the witnesses’ testimonies for 2 hours.

3. 9. “This is the first time I have driven one”. 9. Although they (not to see) each other for a long time. 10. Când am ajuns acasă. Read and retell: “A woman is in a hurry and takes a taxi. 8. 12. 4. ma’am” answers the taxi driver”. be careful! This is the first time I’ve been in a taxi. 4. Mary bought tickets for the theatre that evening. 2. 7. Ne plimbam prin parc de o jumătate de oră. Rewrite the sentences. 2. 5. 6. The motorist (discover) to his relief that he (not to take) the wrong road after all. the plane already (to arrive). When Queen Victoria (die) in 1901. Noi am locuit la Cluj timp de doi ani înainte de a ne muta la Bucureşti.4. Once they (settle) the agenda. “That’s all right.5. using the Past Simple or Past Perfect of the verbs in brackets as appropriate: 1. trams and policemen. când i-am întâlnit pe prietenii noştri. 3. mi-a arătat traducerea pe care o făcea de la ora 5. The policeman wanted to know why she (to come) to that bank. The taxi goes at great speed and narrowly misses some lamp posts. the committee (circulate) it to all members of the company. 5. we all felt very hungry. The woman is frightened and says to the taxi driver: “Please. As we (not to eat) yet. Ieri pe vremea aceasta călătoream cu maşina de o oră. He (go) on holidays. II. I (call) at the manager’s office. I (write) to the suppliers asking why the goods (not to arrive) yet. 8. Nothing (move-passive) in the room until after the police (take) photographs. A predat franceza timp de un an înainte de a începe să predea engleza. She answered my question after I (to repeat) it four times. she (reign) for over 60 years. 6. She told me that they (to see) that film by Friday. 10. 69 . None of his teachers (understand) how he (manage) to fail the examination. We (get down) to business as soon as we (introduce – passive) to each other. Temă de autoevaluare : Translate the following sentences into English: 1. The scientist suddenly (see) the answer to the problem that (occupy) his mind for the last two months. The results last year (be) better than anyone (expect).6. At last my secretary handed me the letters she (to type). When he got to the airport. but (discover) I just (miss) him. 7. Temă de control: I. They (reply) to say that they already (send – passive). 5. 12.

This time yesterday Mary was doing her morning exercises. This time yesterday they were visiting the National Gallery of Art. This time yesterday he had been translating an article for half an hour. Răspunsuri la tema de autoevaluare: 1. English with a Key. We had been walking in the park for half an hour when we met our friends. 4. 3. Change the following sentences.II. We had lived in Cluj for two years before we moved to Bucharest. 2. as to the pattern below: Model: This time yesterday he was translating an article. 5. 70 . Ed. 5. This time yesterday I had been driving for 1 hour.7. This time yesterday they were travelling by motor coach. This time yesterday she was practising in the language laboratory. She had taught French for 1 year before she started teaching English. This time yesterday they were making the arrangements for accommodation. When I arrived home. 11.8. Andrei. 12. 4. This time yesterday the secretary was typing the last page of the report. This time yesterday we were getting about the city. Bibliografie: Bantaş. 3. 9. 6. Ed. 1993 Vianu. 10. 1996. Teora. Essential English. Teora. 7. 8. Mi-a spus că tocmai s-a întors de la birou unde a avut o zi obositoare. 12. Lidia. he showed me translation which he had been writing since 5 o΄ clock. This time yesterday my grandfather was working in the garden. 1. 2. This time yesterday they were drawing up a report for that case. This time yesterday she was translating an article from Romanian into English.

the head of state of the country. Ireland and Denmark joined in 1972. Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare The Treaty of Rome in 1957 established the European Economic Community (now referred to as the European Union).UNIT XIII THE EUROPEAN UNION 13. Germany. Under this system. It has its own executive. Following the Treaty of Rome. When the Council of Ministers is considering finance matters. Components of the European Union The parallel of the Union acting as a single nation now extends beyond preliminary objectives. Initially. Italy and the Benelux Countries (Belgium. The Presidency of the Council rotates between the 27 members of the Union every six months. The Executive of the EU is made up of the Council of Ministers. secretariat and judiciary. When the UK held presidency in the first six months of 1993. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare După studierea acestei unităţi. 1958. the aims were to abolish all internal quotas and tariffs and to impose a common external tariff on countries outside the Union. the Netherlands and Luxembourg). 13. This programme succeeded in reducing tariffs and quotas in the coal and steel markets between the participating countries. legislative.2. Prime Minister Major also held the office of President of the Council of Ministers of 00:30 71 . the Union acted as one country.1. Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute. which sought to promote co-operation between Coal and Steel companies in Europe. It remained in this form until Britain. It arose from the success of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). also assumes the title President of the Council of Ministers of the European Union. The Union was extended further by admission of Greece in 1981 and then Spain. This is composed of elected politicians from each of the member countries. studentul trebuie să fie capabil:  să furnizeze informaţii cu privire la istoricul UE şi al principalelor instituţii din cadrul Uniunii Europene. which holds the presidency. The objectives of the EU have changed over the years. the EU became a reality on January 1. vom studia un scurt istoric privind formarea Uniunii Europene şi rolul principalelor instituţii din cadrul UE. this is the Chancellor of Exchequer). Introducere În această unitate de învăţare. These measures meant that as far as imports and exports went. it will be made up of all the Finance Ministers (in the UK. The founder members of the EU were France. The Heads of State meet as the Council of Ministers when particularly important items are under consideration. Portugal and Austria.

its role has been criticised........... Luxemburg şi Olanda......... the EU became a reality on January 1...... MEPs sit in the Parliament according to their political leanings rather than nationality..... The legislative is in Strasbourg..........the European Union........ The number of MEPs from each member country depends upon its size... The Commission is controlled by a President and a number of Commissioners...... Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos: 1..... The larger countries send two Commissioners to Brussels and the smaller ones.... France and is called the European Parliament....... Italy... The European judiciary is the European Court of Justice. ........... 72 ....... the Netherlands and Spain.... Following the Treaty of Rome...... the employees of the Commission are not elected – they are the European equivalent of civil servants... Germany................... It must endorse and authorise EU policy and any applications for membership or significant change................... The UK.. în vederea prevenirii unui nou război în zona europeană... ... Because the EU is not a state as such........... pe care l-au semnat următoarele ţări: Franţa.... It is presided over by 27 judges (at least one from each country) and an overall President...... Germany................ The longer term plans for EU include closer links between the member countries and this will involve a more prominent role for Strasbourg..................... the Parliament does not assume the same degree of power that a national Parliament does........ whereas Luxembourg sends just 6.............. The Secretariat or Administration is based in Brussels and is called the European Commission............ . The European Commission is the highest authority in the EU.............. Rolul CECO este de a partaja resursele de oţel şi cărbune ale statelor membre..... Belgia.......... Italia......... France and Italy each send over 80 MEPs to Strasbourg.... elected from among the judges..... The Council of Ministers is the highest authority in the EU.. This is composed of over 500 elected Members of the European Parliament (MEPs)... just one..... Unlike the Council of Ministers........ Să ne reamintim Prin Tratatul de la Roma (1957) a luat fiinţă Comunitatea Economică Europeană (European Economic Community) Comunitatea Europeană a Cărbunelui şi Oţelului (1951) a fost instituită prin Tratatul de la Paris... 3..... the UK..... 1955.... Because the Parliament has little authority over the affairs of the EU (it does not control the finance budget or key political areas)...... 2.... Like in the UK.. amend or reject.. The Commission is also responsible for drafting and proposing legislation for the Council of Ministers to vote and approve............. Germania de Vest...... The founder members of the EU were France............

Numărul de parlamentari din fiecare ţară depinde de mărimea ţării respective: astfel ţări ca Franţa. în timp ce Luxemburgul are doar 6. Parlamentul îşi va mari rolul pe viitor. One of the first goals of the EU was to impose a common external tariff on countries. Translate the following text into English: Parlamentul European este format din peste 500 de parlamentari aleşi în funcţie de orientările lor politice.şi asumă acelaşi grad de autoritate ca un parlament intern. În UE.3. iar cea de a doua verifică modul în care se efectuează finanţarea activităţilor Uniunii. Ireland and Britain were among the founder members of the EU. pe plan internaţional. Parlamentul nu. Germania. Decide whether the following statements are true or false: a. o putere economic şi politică. Ţările membre UE sunt naţiuni independente şi suverane. Ele îşi exercită o parte din suveranitate în comun cu scopul de a deveni. 00:60 II. e. Italia. which do not belong to the Union. Deoarece Uniunea Europeană nu are un statut propriu-zis de stat. Criticism regarding the European Parliament has focussed on the way it handles problems of finance and key policy areas. există trei instituţii principale:    Parlamentul European care reprezintă cetăţenii UE şi este ales direct de către aceştia. Cea dintâi veghează la respectarea dreptului european. în ansamblu. Temă de evaluare: I. 13.13. 13. pe măsură ce se vor dezvolta legături mai apropiate între ţările membre. The head of State of the country holding the presidency automatically becomes President of the Council of Ministers of the EU. where the Administration is based. Each country sends one Commissioner to Brussels. The text will help you: rotates Authority domestic authorise elected abolish as far as assume 73 . Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place below. pot trimite chiar peste 80 de parlamentari. Rezumat Uniunea Europeană nu este federaţie (cum este cazul SUA). Consiliul Uniunii Europene care reprezintă statele membre Comisia Europeană care susţine interesele Uniunii.5. b. Un rol esenţial îl joacă şi: Curtea de Justiţie şi Curtea de Conturi. d. c. Temă de autoevaluare I.4.

Initially. 13.8. . EU policy and any applications for membership.The Parliament has the duty to debate and draft legislation. the Council of Ministers is the highest f)……………. assume. politicians from each of the member countries.As the chief of domestic executive you are entitled to sign this document.to draft legislation . Compania. 2003 http://europa.6. Andrei. Michael. 1993 Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez. domestic. 13. Because the EU is not a state as such. It must endorse and g)…………….An elected candidate can hold the presidency for 5 years. the aims of the EU were to a)………. The Council of Ministers is composed of c)…………. II.This young man held office of the department for 2 years. . Editura Lumina Lex. Bibliografie: Bantaş. the Parliament does not h)……………. Treutenaere. Temă de control Write an essay using the material in your text above with the following title: “Romania on the way to full European Integration”. authority. 74 . Ed.to hold the presidency .to hold office of . Ed. II. g. all internal quotas and tariffs. (possible examples) .The American Constitution has been amended for 27 times so far.domestic executive .The Queen endorses the policy of the Government. 2004. Essential English. elected. Bucureşti.to amend .eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/index_ro. as far as. authorize. c. . d.htm Brookes. the same degree of power that a national Parliament does. Use the following words and phrases in sentences of your own: .Civil servants . e. As in the case of the e)…………. .political leanings ..to abolish . . executive. 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept. a.7. The Presidency of the Council d) …………… between the fifteen members of the Union every six months. f. rotates.Death penalty was abolished in Romania in 1991. in the EU. Christiane. .. Teora. Răspunsuri la tema de autoevaluare: I. abolish. These measures meant that b) ………… imports and exports went. 13. h.internal quotas and tariffs. the Union acted as one country.to endorse the policy . b.

.The statute of the civil servants is regulated by law. 75 .The EEC tried to abolish internal quotas and tariffs.You can join our organization no matter what political leanings you have. ..

IRREGULAR VERBS INFINITIVE to arise to awake to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bid to bind to bite to bleed to blow to break to breed to bring to build to burn to burst to buy to cast to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to know to lay to lead to leave to lend to let to lie to lose to make to mean to meet to pay to put to read PAST TENSE arose awoke/awaked was/were bore beat became began bent bid bound bit bled blew broke bred brought built burnt burst bought cast caught chose came cost crept cut knew laid led left lent let lay lost made meant met paid put read PAST PARTICIPLE arisen awaked been borne born beaten become begun bent bid bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought built burnt burst bought cast caught chosen come cost crept cut known laid led left lent let lain lost made meant met paid put read TRANSLATION INTO ROMANIAN a se ridica a se trezi a fi a purta a naşte a bate a deveni a începe a îndoi a ruga a lega a muşca a sângera a sufla a sparge a creşte a educa a aduce a clădi a arde a crăpa a cumpăra a arunca a prinde a alege a veni a costa a se târî a tăia a şti a pune a conduce a lăsa a împrumuta a lăsa a zăcea a pierde a face a însemna a întâlni a plăti a pune a citi 76 .

to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to send to set to shake to shoot to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to sleep to speak to spend to spring to stand to steal to stick to strike to swear to sweep to swim to take to teach to tear to tell to think to throw to understand to wake to wear to weep to win to wind to write rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set shook shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept spoke spent sprang stood stole stuck struck swore swept swam took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore wept won wound wrote ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set shaken shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept spoken spent sprung stood stolen stuck struck sworn swept swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn wept won wound written a călări a suna a răsări a alerga a spune a vedea a căuta a vinde a trimite a pune a scutura a împuşca a arăta a se strânge a închide a cânta a se scufunda a şedea a dormi a vorbi a cheltui a izvorî a sta a fura a lipi a lovi a jura a mătura a înota a lua a învăţa a rupe a spune a se gândi a arunca a înţelege a se trezi a purta a plânge a câştiga a răsuci a scrie 77 .

Bucureşti. Lumina. 827 din 13 septembrie 2005 Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. A. Michael. Ed. Lidia. 1979 Sinteze de gramatică engleză. Ed.J. Oxford University Press. Regia autonomă „Monitorul Oficial”. Dicţionar român-englez. Simona Thomson. Martinet. Bucureşti.BIBLIOGRAPHY Constituţia României. Sibiu. Oscar Print. Violeta Engleza de afaceri. Covalliati Publishing House. Longman. republicată în Monitorul Oficial al României. Bucureşti. http://en. Sofia. Teora. Compania.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/index_ro. Press. 1996 Colectiv. Ed. Eckersley. Ed. Ed. Uranus.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy http://europa. 1999 Essential English. Ed.htm 78 . Bucureşti. Ed. * Bucureşti. co-ordinated by the British Council. Romania. 1993 1000 de cuvinte . nr. Bucureşti. 1990 English for Law. 2004 Brookes. C. Vianu. 1982 Bantaş. Năstăsescu.E. Treutenaere.cheie în Drept. Ed. Emanuel Niculescu. Ed. 1999 A Practical English Grammar. Thousib. 1998 Să vorbim englezeşte.wikipedia. Teora. Christiane English for Business. 2003 English with a Key. Foreign Languages. Ed. Eficient. A. Ştiinţifică. Bucureşti. Adrian Oprescu. 2001. 2003 LEGEA Nr. Fulvia.V. Partea I. 1964 Limba engleză pentru studenţii facultăţilor de drept şi pentru jurişti. Gălăţeanu – Fărnoagă Giorgiana Gălăţeanu – Fărnoagă Giorgiana Beizadea. Coziana Marina Leviţchi. LEX. 304 privind organizarea judiciară din 28 iunie 2004. Albatros. 1994 Limba engleză pentru jurişti. Andrei Essential English. Leon Merealbe. 1966 Exerciţii de gramatică engleză. Turcu. Ed. Bucureşti.

Bucureşti. Vladimir.page?id=371 – for the online translation of the Romanian Constitution http://www. 79 .html OPTIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY Brooks. Hutchinson. Editura Teora. Editura Lumina Lex. Michael. Hanga. Wesley.ro/pls/dic/site. Bucureşti. David. Engleza pentru jurişti.http://www.cdep. 2003. Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez. 2003. Holden.britannia.com/gov/gov4.

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