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In the preliminary design of a speed governor for a hoist, the two spheres of equal mass m s slide along the horizontal rotating rod of diameter R and the mass of rod is m r . The initial distance from the rotating axis is L, rotating freely at an angular velocity of ω o , as shown in Figure Q1.
Figure Q1 L
Diameter of rod, R Mass of rod, mr
Mass of sphere, ms
a. Consider the rod and model it as a cylinder of length L and mass m. Derive the equation for the mass moment of inertia about the y-y axis: [10 marks] b. After the spheres are released they move to the ends of the rod. Determine an expression relating the initial angular velocity ωo to the final angular velocity ωf , after the spheres are released and fixed at the ends of the rod at a distance 2L from the y-y axis. [10 marks] c. Given the mass of each sphere is 5kg, diameter of rod is 25mm, L=0.5m and ω o = 300rev / min . Find the new angular velocity, ωf (Density of rod is 7800kgm-3). [5 marks]
Q2. A pipe manufacturer produces short lengths of seamless thick-walled pipes of external diameter of 250mm with a wall thickness of 25mm. In the packaging process, one section of pipe is transferred to a lower floor at a single time by rolling on an incline plane of 15º from a vertical height of 3m.
2 a. Given that the polar mass moment of inertia of a uniform disk is equal to mr
prove that the mass moment of inertia for a hollow pipe about the longitudinal axis is, m 2 2 I= ro + ri , 2
where m is the actual mass of the pipe section, ro is the external radius and ri is the internal radius. [5 marks] b. Draw the free body diagram of the pipe on the slope. [3 marks] c. and find the linear and angular accelerations. Assume no slipping. [7 marks] d. In the interest of raising productivity in the packaging process i.e. to increase the rate of transfer of pipes between the two floors, the angle of inclination is suggested to increase. In order to prevent abrasion on the pipe surface due to slipping, find the angle of the incline plane when slipping begins. Take the coefficient of friction to be 0.3. [10 marks]
Q3. In a traffic accident, a passenger car collided head-on with a truck at a crossroads. The front end of the car is crushed 0.75m across full width whilst the truck has very little (negligible) damage. The mass of the car is 950kg. The car manufacturer investigated the crashed car and produces a linear force-deflection relationship shown in Table Q3. A skid mark of length 25m leading to the impact was observed at the scene.
Force (kN) 8 58 108 158 208 258 308
Depth of crush (mm) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
a. Find the force-deflection relationship equation of the form y=mx+C and calculate the velocity of the car at impact. [10 marks] b. It was estimated that the initial velocity at the start of skid was 97km/hr, calculate the deceleration. Assume the deceleration is constant from the start of skid to impact. [5 marks] c. The car manufacturer decided to improve the minor impact car safety by using a spring bumper for a 1000kg car. The spring bumper is specified to bring a car to stop from a speed of 10km/hr in a distance equal to 150mm of spring deformation. Specify the required spring stiffness k for each of the two springs behind the bumper. Assume the springs are undeformed at start. [10 marks]