1952—How to Make Hats

by Ruby Carnahan

Table of Contents
5—Equipment Needed 6, 7—Description of Basic Materials 8, 9, 10—Fundamental Stitches 11—Steaming and Pressing 12—Cutting and Joining a Bias 13—How to Take Head Measurements 14—Patterns for Headsize

15, 16—How to Cut Patterns 17—Making Patterns for Ready Made Frames 18, 19—Making Wire Frames 20—Fabrics Used to Cover Frames and Foundation 21, 22—Blocking Material for Covering Frames 23—Blocking a Round or a Square Crown of Elastic Net 24—Gluing Material to Frames 25—Covering a Wire Frame 26—Sailor Pattern and its Many Variations 27—Making a Basic Sailor Frame 28, 29—Covering a Basic Sailor Frame 30—Bias Covered Basic Sailor 31—Making a Pattern of a Rolled Brim Breton Sailor 32, 33—Covering a Breton Sailor 34—Pattern for a Basic Sailor 35—Making a Pill Box Frame 36—How to Cover a Pill Box Frame 37—Pattern for Pill Box 38—Half Hat 39—Hat Anchorage 40—Non-Headsize Hat 41—Fabric Hat with Three Piece Sectional Crown and Draped Brim. Pattern 42—Fabric Hat and Pattern 43—Fabric Bag 44—Pattern for Fabric Bag 45, 46—Hat Linings and Headbands

47—Materials Used to Make Straw Hats 48, 49—Using a Buckram Frame as a Block for a Straw Braid Hat 50—Making a Straw Braid Hat in One Piece 51, 52—Making Straw Braid Crowns and Brims on Wood Hat Blocks 53—Making Straw Braid Pill Box on a Block 54, 55, 56—Hat Made of 5" Straw Banding 57—Blocking Rough Straw Bodies 58—Blocking a Leghorn Straw Body 59—Blocking Straw Bodies of Baku Sisal Shantung 60—Cleaning and Remodeling Straw and Fabric Hats 61, 62—Materials Used to Make Felt Hats 63—How to Block a Felt Body on a One Piece Block 64, 65—Blocking Felt Crown and Brim on Separate Blocks 66, 67—Blocking a Fur Felt Body Using Combination of a Blocked Crown and Brim Cut from a Pattern 68, 69—Blocking a Felt Hood into a Tapered Brim 70—Crescent Felt Hat 71—Pattern for Crescent Felt Hat 72—Fringed Felt Casual Hat 73—Pattern for Fringed Felt Casual Hat 74—Fringed Felt Bag 75—Pattern for Fringed Felt Bag 76, 77—Felt Pattern Hat a Three Piece Crown and Felt Brim 78, 79—Pattern for Felt Hat Three Piece Crown 80—Felt Pattern Hat

81—Pattern for Felt Hat 82—Berets 83, 84—Beaded Velvet Beret 85, 86—Pattern for Beaded Beret 87—Beaded Velvet Bag to Match Beret 88—Pattern for Beaded Velvet Bag 89, 90—Wool Felt Beret 91—Pattern for Small Beret 92, 93—Stitched Beret and Matching Bag 94—Stitched Bag to Match Beret 95, 96—Beret Made of Wool Material 97—Child's Beret of Felt 98—Pattern for Child's Beret 99—Sectional Beret 100, 101, 102—Pattern for Sectional Beret 103, 104—Stitched Casual Hat and Bag 105—Stitched Casual Hat 106—Pattern for Stitched Casual Hat 107, 108, 109, 110—Stitched Bag to Match Casual Hat 111, 112—Pattern for Stitched Bag 113, 114—Casual Ribbon Hat 115—Pattern for Ribbon Hat 116—Ribbon Bag 117—Pattern for Ribbon Bag 118—Flowered Hat 119, 120—Helmet 121—Calot (open or closed crown)

122, 151—Pattern for Calot 123—Scalloped Calot 124—Pattern for Scalloped Calot 125, 126—Turbans 127, 128—Fur Hats 129—Pattern for Fur Brim 130—Maline Pom Pom 131—Pattern for Maline Pom Pom 132—Hat Trimmings and their Application 133, 134—How to Apply Trimmings 135—Self Trimmings 136—Patterns for Trimmings 137—Ribbon Ornaments 138, 139—Ribbon Bows 140—Ribbon Cocarde 141—Hat Pins 142—Wedding Veils 143—Bridesmaid Hats 144—Fabric Covered Buckles 145—Patterns for Buckles 146, 147—Pique or Felt Bonnet 148, 149—Pattern for Bonnet 150—Cleaning and Remodeling Methods 152, 153—Pattern for Hand Bag

Equipment Needed
STEAMER

Steam is required for every type of hat made. An electric steamer made does very well (Illus. I). especially for

Millinery is very desirable, however a teakettle with a steam spout

IRON
A plain iron may be used with a damp cloth to steam press. A steam iron is used extensively by many for steam pressing (Illus. 2). Steam irons become coated with lime, often making them almost useless, unless they are cleaned by putting 1/4 cup of vinegar and 1/2 cup of water in iron and letting it steam through iron. Then pour out and put in a cup of vinegar and let iron stand for a while to remove all the lime deposit. Pour off and fill your iron with distilled water, ready for use.

UTILITY HEAD BLOCK
Utility head block No. 796 (Illus. 3) in your headsize is necessary for steaming and blocking crowns. If you intend to make hats for others, it will be necessary to have the headblocks in sizes and half sizes from 21 to 23 inclusive.

UTILITY BRIM BLOCK
The most practical brim block to have is Utility Brim Block No. 1514x (Illus. 4) in the 6" brim. This block may be had in a 4" brim also. One side of the brim block is flat for blocking flat brims, the other side of block is

curved for blocking Bretons or for a mushroom brim. Head band block on this brim block is movable (Illus. 5), making it possible for

the headsize to be changed to any size, by applying correct headsize band block on brim. Order brim block in your correct headsize.

HEADBAND BLOCKS
Headband blocks may be had in all headsizes.

MAKING YOUR OWN BLOCK
Use a ready-made frame, or a frame you have made, reinforced with frame wire around brim edge and headsize, also reinforce the brim front, back and sides with wire braces. Have all wiring on under side of blocking side. When frame has been satisfactorily reinforced with wire, paint frame with a preparation called U-Block-lt and let frame dry. Then proceed to block over frame just as you would block over a wooden block, using push pins, etc. Frames prepared in this manner cannot be used near heat or a flame (this warning is printed on the can of U-Block-lt). Dip the felt in hot water and roll in a towel to wring dry, then place the felt over the block and stretch and smooth felt, pinning as you stretch. Allow felt to dry on block. You will find this method of using hot water on felt will be just as satisfactory as if felt were wrapped in a damp towel for several hours and then steamed and stretched on block.

Description of Basic Material Used in Millinery
ELASTIC NET (ILLUS. 1)
A coarse mesh material. Used for making frames cut from patterns, or can be steamed and blocked into a frame. Sold by the yard in black or white.

BUCKRAM (ILLUS. 2)
A very stiff material also used for frame making, and for foundation for trimmings, such as buckles and various other fabric-covered ornaments. Sold by the yard in black or white.

WILLOW (ILLUS. 3)
A material much like buckram, a little finer grade than buckram and used to better advantage for molding on blocks or on wire frames when copying a hat. Sold by the sheet in cream color.

HONEY COMB (ILLUS. 4)
A cotton (coarse) mesh material, slightly sized, used for turban or crown foundations, or where some stiffness is required. Sold by the yard in black, white and some colors.

CRINOLINE (ILLUS. 5)
A light weight fine mesh material, often used with honey comb when making turban foundations. Use a layer of honey comb and then a layer of crinoline. Sold by the yard in black and white.

SIZED CHIFFON (ILLUS. 6)
A sheer stiff material also used like crinoline or horiey comb. This material also can be steamed and molded for turban foundations. Often used for hat linings. Sold by the yard in black, white and some colors.

HEADSIZE RIBBONS (ILLUS. 7)
Saw-tooth grosgrain ribbon No. 5 is used for head bands. This ribbon will keep its shape when it has been swirled or blocked before sewing in hat headsize. Black, grey or brown are standard colors for winter hats, white or blue for summer hats. Recently, bright contrasting colored headbands in hats have been very popular, for both summer and winter hats.

PAPER COVERED WIRE

Available in several weights. Heavy weight wire is used for wiring buckram frames. Light weight wire is used for wiring facings, etc. Sold in rolls in black and white.

SILK COVERED WIRE
Available in several weights. Heavy weight wire is used for making wire frames and for wiring straw hat brims. Where wire will be visible, silk covered wire can be dyed to match the color of any material. Light weight silk wire is used for wiring lace bows, etc. Sold in some colors and black and white.

STEEL WIRE
Used for sailor brims or any brim which is to be perfectly flat; steel wire will not bend.

RIBBON WIRE
Used to wire ribbon for bows. Sold in black and white.

TIE WIRE
Used for tying cross wires when making a wire frame. Also used for branching flowers and tying loops of ribbon bows together. Sold in green, white and black.

WIRE JOINERS
Used to join ends of wire. A small hollow metal tube, about one-half inch long.

STRAW SIZING AND FELT SIZING
Sizing is used as a stiffener for straw and felt hats. However there are two kinds of sizing, straw sizing is used for straw, and felt sizing is used for felts. Hats steamed and blocked of straw or of felt, must be thoroughly dry before sizing is applied. If more stiffness is desired, a second coat of sizing may be applied after first coat of sizing is dry. There is an all purpose sizing on the market which may be used for either straw or felt.

OTHER EQUIPMENT
• SANDPAPER FOR CLEANING FELTS • HEAVY PAPER FOR PATTERNS • TISSUE PAPER FOR PATTERNS

• SMALL PAINT BRUSH FOR APPLYING SIZING • SOFT BRUSH • WHISK BROOM • WIRE JOINERS • MILLINERY GLUE • FELT SIZING • STRAW SIZING • BLACK AND WHITE PAPER-COVERED WIRE • BLACK AND WHITE SILK-COVERED WIRE • STEEL WIRE • BLACK AND WHITE RIBBON WIRE • TIE WIRE • SMALL PADDED BOARD FOR PRESSING • PRESSING PADS AND CLOTHS • ASSORTED MILLINERY NEEDLES, NO. 3 - NO. 9 • TAPE MEASURE • THIMBLE • PENCIL • TAILOR'S CHALK • PINS • RULER • SCISSORS • MILLINERY THREAD NO. 24 IN BLACK AND WHITE • HEAVY DUTY THREAD NO. 40 IN COLORS • CORD FOR TYING MATERIALS ON BLOCKS • PUSH PINS FOR PINNING MATERIALS ON BLOCKS • NIPPERS FOR CUTTING WIRE.

HAT LABELS
Individual names on tapes to sew in the headband in crown of hats, may be purchased from any of the

Millinery Supply Houses. They are made to order, and require several weeks for delivery. Sold by the hundred and cost is nominal.

Fundamental Stitches Used in Millinery
PRACTICE STITCHES
Neat even stitches and faultless workmanship is required to make a professional looking hat. Every stitch must be practiced until perfection is achieved. It is necessary to know where and when to use the different stitches when making a hat which can only be learned by continuous practice and application.

PICK STITCH
Pick stitch is a tiny even stitch about 1/16" apart. Used on some brim edges and around crowns.

FURRING STITCH
Used to join felt or fur edges together. Hold two edges of felt together and sew over and over. When seam is finished it will be flat and almost invisible.

TIE STITCH
Used to fasten trimmings and veilings on hat. Slip needle through material at No. 1 and bring needle back through at No. 2, tie ends and clip thread close to where you have thread tied.

BASTING STITCH
Take one small stitch and then a long stitch for basting. When removing the basting stitches clip

the thread in a long stitch in several places and pull threads out, instead of trying to pull entire basting thread out.

SLIP STITCHING
Slip stitching is used where invisible sewing is desired on facings and folds, etc. Begin slip stitch by taking a tiny stitch through material and then a long stitch through turned edge of fold.

RUNNING STITCH
This is the simplest stitch used in sewing, and is used where a strong stitch is unnecessary, for example, gathering shirring and tucking. To make stitches, pass the needle through material, taking several small stitches at a time, before drawing needle through material.

SHIRRING
Use running stitches making them the same length on both sides. Continue making stitches until you have finished the row, then draw material together to form even gathering.

OVERCASTING STITCH
Used to sew down edges of material and to apply wire in some places. Sew with close straight stitches, bringing the needle over and over toward you. Do not take stitches too deep or draw thread too tight.

BUTTON HOLE STITCH
Used to sew wire on frames, etc. Take several over casting stitches then bring needle down to right depth from wrong side having thread behind the eye and under the point of the needle.

CROSS STITCH

Used to hold down raw edges of material and to sew in name labels. Work from left to right crossing threads at each stitch.

BACK STITCH
Used to sew two pieces of material together where strength is required. The needle is inserted at the end of the last stitch and brought out the length of a stitch farther on.

Steaming and Pressing
PRESSING SEAMS, DARTS, ETC. (ILLUS. 1)
Use a pressing cloth over seams, dampen seam with a sponge, press lightly, lifting cloth up quickly to allow steam to escape.

STEAMING VELVET OR OTHER PILE FABRIC WITH A STEAM IRON (ILLUS. 2)
Hold steaming iron just above material, on the wrong side, allowing only steam to touch material. Never let iron touch material.

STEAMING VELVET OR OTHER PILE FABRIC WITH A PLAIN IRON (ILLUS. 3)
Stand a hot iron on end and cover iron with a damp cloth. Pass wrong side of velvet over steaming cloth on iron. Do not hold velvet too tightly as finger marks will show.

STEAMING STRAW BRAID ON FRAME (ILLUS. 4)
Baste straw braid to frame and gently pass frame through steam for a few seconds. Keep turning frame while steaming. Be careful not to use too much steam when steaming on a frame. Too much steam will cause frame to collapse.

STEAMING STRAW BRAID ON A BLOCK (ILLUS. 5)
Pin straw braid on block, press braid gently with a steam iron. Let straw braid dry on block. Some braids must be pressed under a pressing cloth.

STEAMING FELTS

AND PRESSING

Steam felt crowns over a teakettle when blocking. Use a steam iron, or a damp cloth and iron, to steam, stretch and flatten a felt brim. Place felt brim on pressing board and cover with a damp cloth, press with a hot iron lifting cloth and iron when felt becomes soft and pliable enough to stretch with your fingers. Continue in this manner until felt is stretched sufficiently. (Illus. 6)

Cutting and Joining a Bias
CUTTING A BIAS (ILLUS. 1)

For a true bias, fold material so that the crosswise thread meets the lengthwise thread, or selvedge of material. Fold and cut the material as shown in illustration.

A BIAS JOINING (ILLUS. 2)
Join bias by sewing seam as shown in illustration, cut off small pointed ends at seam edge. Steam seam open.

CUTTING A BIAS FOLD (ILLUS. 3)
When finishing edge bias fold, cut fold length of brim, with only one of bias fold on the bias. wider than the desired fold. (Stretching a bias in width). of hat brim with a to fit around edge joining. Join ends Cut fold 1/2" width for finished length reduces its

How to Take Head Measurements
MEASURING AROUND HEAD (ILLUS. 1)
Hats that fit the head are called headsize hats. Exact headsize measurements are required when making headsize hats. Start with tape line at center of forehead on hair line. Run tape line around head, under bulge at back of head and back to front to meet tape line again. This measurement is

your correct head-size. Average headsize measurements range from 21" to 23" in half sizes.

MEASURING HEAD FROM BACK TO FRONT (ILLUS. 2)
Decide where you will wear hat, back or forward on head. Mark and start tape line on mark, run tape line over top of head and just over bulge on back of head. This is the back to front measurement and usually measures 9 1/2" to I0 1/2".

MEASURING HEAD FROM SIDE TO SIDE (ILLUS. 3)
Start tape line where edge of headsize will start over ears and run tape line over head to same point on opposite side over ear. This is the side to side measurement and usually measures 10" to 10 1/2".

NON-HEADSIZE HAT MEASUREMENTS
Non-headsize hats fit any size head. Head sizes measure from 18" to 21" dependent on style trend. A season when non-headsize hats are very fashionable, they become very extreme, are perched high on the head with a 12" headsize. The smaller the hat the smaller the headsize on non-headsize hats.

Headsize Pattern

Trace each headsize pattern and make individual patterns of heavy cardboard. Always use your correct headsize pattern. Bottom of utility block can be usedf to block headsize. Remember—bottom of head block is 1" smaller than top.

How to Cut Patterns

BRIM

SAILOR PATTERN

Take a square of paper the diameter of the hat from back to front. (Illus. 1) Fold paper in half and fold again in quarters, (Illus. 2) forming a square one fourth size of original square. Fold square of paper diagonally (Illus. 3) fold after fold, (Illus. 4) until the shortest length appears on top (Illus. 5). Cut off ends as marked (Illus. 6), then open paper and it will be a circle of paper (Illus. 7); use this circle for the brim pattern.

SAILOR WITH AN EVEN BRIM

Trace your and exact headsize pattern on page 14 cut out of paste board. Place this

headsize pattern in center of brim pattern and draw a line around headsize on brim pattern, cut out headsize on this line. Measure width of brim desired, from head-size to brim edge and draw a line around brim. Cut off excess on this line. Mark back and front on pattern.

SHORT BACKED SAILOR
Start with a circle paper pattern, mark exact width brim is to be in back from edge of brim to headsize. Place your correct headsize pattern on this line, extending headsize pattern toward the front (Illus. 9) Measure each side of brim from edge of headsize pattern to edge of brim. Be sure the headsize pattern is in the center of the brim pattern. Mark around headsize pattern on brim pattern and cut out headsize on this line. Mark back and front of brim on pattern.

SAILOR CROWN
Use your correct headsize pattern for top of crown pattern. The side crown is a bias piece the length of headsize measurement, with a 2" allowance for lapping ends. Width of bias side crown piece is determined by height crown is to be.

NON-HEADSIZE SAILOR
Start with sailor brim pattern and use your correct headsize Utility Block No. 796 to mark headsize on pattern. Place bottom

of block in center of pattern for an even brim or back for a short back and draw a line around bottom of block on pattern, just as you did when using headsize pattern. The bottom of Utility Block is 1" smaller than your headsize and is oval in shape. Size of headsize can be reduced from there if desired.

Making Patterns for Ready Made Frames
BRIM PATTERNS
Cut a circle of paper larger than frame and pin to under side of frame, easing paper in to fit frame, pinning in darts or adding gores where needed. Draw a line around brim edge and headsize on paper pattern. Mark back and front of pattern. Remove pattern, cut off excess if darts have been pinned in or mark where gores are needed and pin in extra pieces. Cut off excess paper on line around edge of brim and around headsize. When cutting material from pattern allow 1/2" on material. Mark back and front on pattern.

CROWN PATTERNS
Cut a circle of paper larger than top of crown and pin to crown, back, front and sides. Draw a line on paper around edge of crown, remove paper from crown and cut on line. Side crown is a bias piece. Allow 1/2" when cutting material.

ROUND CROWN PATTERN
When covering a buckram frame that has a round crown with a fabric such as velvet, satin, wool or pique, cut a paper pattern to fit crown.

TO CUT PATTERN
Pin a strip of paper 3" wide to center of buckram crown from headsize in back to headsize in front. Pin a piece of paper

on side of crown to fit side crown and pin to center strip of paper. Trim off all excess paper. Mark back and front of pattern Use this pattern to cut material for covering round crown.

BLOCKING MATERIAL FOR ROUND CROWN
When using a material that stretches to cover a round crown, a pattern is not needed, as material is stretched, steamed and blocked on utility head block, allowed to dry and then removed from block and placed on buckram crown. Instructions on Page 21.

MAKING A BERET PATTERN (ILLUS. 1 AND 2)
A Beret is two brims put together and a headsize cut in the facing brim. When you learn to use this simple method, you can make a pattern of any type Beret, also using your own individuality in styling Beret. Brim can be square, round, scalloped, darts taken in brim, etc. Any of these suggestions will change the style of the Beret. Cut two circles of paper a little larger than Beret is to be. Place your correct headsize pattern in center or toward the back (depending on whether Beret is to have an even brim or a short back brim), draw a line around headsize pattern on paper pattern facing. If darts have been taken on pattern, mark on pattern. Pin pattern together in back and slip facing pattern on Utility block. Pin top paper circle to facing around brim edge. Try pattern and make any necessary adjustments. Cut off all excess paper on brim edge or on darts if any. Be sure brims fit exactly, when pattern is unpinned. Mark back and front of pattern on top and facing of pattern.

Making Wire Frames
PRACTICE WITH WIRE AND NIPPERS
Wire frames have many uses and can be purchased in the Millinery Supply House. However it is wise to know how to make a wire frame as sometimes it is impossible to find the style of frame wanted. You will find this knowledge valuable when making alterations that require wire changes. Much practice is needed in the use of nippers and wire before you really make a frame. (Illus. 1) Practice until you can turn one wire over another securely and silk on wire is not damaged and no point is felt where wire is cut off. Frame wires must be immovable when frame is finished. Also practice using tie wire. There are two ways to make a wire frame, by measurement or over a buckram frame for guide. When making a wire frame over a buckram frame, start at headsize, fitting wires to exactly fit frame, turning and tying wires as above. When round brim wire is on and support wires have been turned over, remove wire frame from buckram frame.

SUPPORT BRIM WIRES
(Illus. 2) Support wires on brim include center wire from back to front, support wires from side to side, and diagonal support wires left side and diagonal support wires right side.

ROUND BRIM WIRES
Round wires on brim include circumference edge wire, head-size wire and several divisional wires depending on size of frame.

MAKING FRAME FROM MEASUREMENTS
(Illus. 3) For brim cut out two headsize wires to fit head (Illus. 3a), lap ends of wire and tie with tie wire. Cut eight support wires. Start in center of headsize wire (Illus. 3b) turn front support wire over headsize wire, pinch securely with nippers. Place second headsize wire 1" below first headsize wire and turn front support wire over this headsize wire and pinch together with nippers (Illus. 3c). Then add back support wire and side support wires in the same way (Illus. 3d). Between these support wires add diagonal support wires in the same way (Illus. 3e).

ROUND BRIM WIRES
Cut round wires, place over suppprt wires an even distance apart, and tie wire each place where divisional wire crosses round wire. Turn support wires over brim wire. Pinch with

nippers until secure.

ROUND CROWN AND SQUARE CROWN
(Illus. 4) Cut four support wires correct length, tie together in center securely (Illus. 4a) with tie wire and spread support wires. Cut three round wires and place each one over the spread support wires an even distance apart and tie with tie wire at each place support wire crosses round wire (Illus. 4b). Measure wire for bottom crown correct size and turn support wires over round wire and pinch with nippers until secure (Illus. 4c). Square

crown is made the same as round crown, only support wires are bent at crown edge and round wire is tied at bend.

FABRICS USED TO COVER FRAMES AND FOUNDATIONS
• • • • • • • • • • • •

VELVET MOIRE SATIN CREPE JERSEY STRAW CLOTH BROCADE TWEED LAME WOOLEN MATERIALS TAFFETA COTTON MATERIALS ALL OF THE ABOVE MATERIALS AND MANY MORE ARE

USED TO COVER FRAMES AND FOUNDATIONS. VELVET HAS A NAP. ALWAYS CUT EACH PIECE OF VELVET WITH THE NAP RUNNING IN THE SAME DIRECTION. SATIN AND MANY OTHER MATERIALS THAT HAVE A SHEEN SHOULD BE CUT WITH EACH PIECE RUNNING THE SAME WAY, TO PREVENT MATERIAL COLORS FROM APPEARING DIFFERENT.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COVERING FRAMES AND FOUNDATIONS ARE GIVEN ON FOLLOWING PAGES.

Blocking Material for Covering Frames
BLOCKING MATERIAL FOR COVERING FRAMES
This requires material which can be stretched. Often an entire hat—crown, brim and facing—can be covered with one piece of blocked material. If a large frame is to be covered, crown and top brim may be covered with one piece of material and a bias facing used to cover under side of brim. This method of covering a frame does not require a pattern. Only used with stretchable material.

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • •

Utility block No. 796 in correct headsize 1/2 yard of material Straw cloth, jersey or any other stretchable material

BLOCKING
(Illus. 1) Place 1/2 yard of material on block with a corner of material in front. Pin material down to block in front, back and on each side. Steam over a teakettle, pulling and pinning material to extreme bottom of block until material is free from wrinkles and fits smoothly around bottom of block. Use ordinary straight pins to pin material to block (push pins may leave holes in material stretched to the extent that this method requires). Wear a thimble to push straight pins into block. After pin is pushed through material into

block, bend pin down flat. Let dry and mark front on material before removing material from block.

MATERIAL TO

FITTING FRAME

(Illus. 2) Place blocked material on crown of frame, pinning the front of material to the front of frame. Smooth material and pin all around bottom of crown, then sew material to bottom of crown with tiny pick stitches, very close together. Pull material out over brim and pin material to brim edge (Illus. 3). Sew around brim edge with tiny close-together pick stitches. If frame is small enough to be covered in one piece, pull material in to headsize on under side of frame and sew around inside of crown (Illus. 4). Cut off excess material around headsize.

USING A SEPARATE BRIM FACING
Steam and block material as directed and use for crown and top of brim. After sewing blocked material around bottom of crown and over edge of brim, cut off excess material around brim just outside of sewing (Illus. 5). Cut a bias piece of material 2" wider than brim facing measures. (Illus. 6) Pin this bias piece of material around edge of brim, stretching material to fit smooth and tight. Pin ends together, making a bias seam. Remove bias piece from brim, stitch and press seam open and replace on brim with seam In back. Again pin facing around edge of brim.

WIRING BRIM EDGE
(Illus. 7) Fit a wire around edge of brim and join with a wire joiner. Remove a few pins at a time from facing on brim edge, turn material over wire and repin to brim edge. Continue until facing has been turned over wire and pinned all around edge of brim. Sew facing to brim under wire using a back stitch. Pull facing in at headsize and sew to frame around headsize. Cut off any excess material and finish headsize with a lining and headband. Instructions for linings and headbands on page 45.

Blocking a Round or a Square Crown of Elastic Net
BLOCKING SQUARE CROWN
Use the small end of Utility Head Block. Fit a heavy piece of cardboard over small end of block, and fasten cardboard to block with Scotch tape. Wet felt, and block.

BLOCKING ROUND CROWN
Use the large end of Utility Head Block. Use same method for blocking both crowns.

CUTTING CROWN (ILLUS. 1)
Cut a square of elastic net 14" x 15" and dampen thoroughly. Place on crown block, pin to block, front, back and sides. Have a point of net on either side of front and back.

STEAMING CROWN (ILLUS. 2)
Hold block over steam and pull each corner of elastic down and pin to bottom of block. Tie a blocking cord tight around block. Mark back and front of crown and let dry on block.

TRIMMING OFF BOTTOM OF CROWN (ILLUS. 3)
Measure and mark depth of crown on net. Slip a corset stay or a nail file under edge of net to loosen crown from block, and remove crown. Cut off excess net around bottom of crown on mark.

WIRING CROWN (ILLUS. 4)
Measure a wire to fit bottom of crown and join ends of wire with a wire joiner. Sew wire around bottom of crown, using a button hole stitch. Cut a 2" bias strip of crinoline (stretch bias strip of crinoline before using), fold over wired edge of crown and baste crinoline to net.

Gluing Material to Frames
GLUING MATERIAL TO FRAMES
Use Milliner's Glue when gluing materials. Milliner's Glue can be purchased at any Millinery Supply House. Apply glue with a small paint brush: some brands of glue have a brush in glue container.

HOW TO GLUE MATERIAL TO FRAME

Cover surface of frame where material is to be applied with glue and allow to stand about five minutes. Then apply another coat of glue to frame and firmly smooth material over glued surface, pressing and smoothing a small area at a time (Illus. 2). Be sure material has adhered to frame on each space glued, before going on to the next space. When all material has been glued to frame, allow to dry thoroughly.

GLUING MATERIALS TOGETHER
When gluing any kind of fabrics together, put the glue on both pieces of fabric and press glued sides together.

TESTING MATERIALS TO BE GLUED
It is wise to first test materials to be glued. Cut a small piece of elastic net and apply glue, then cut a small piece of material to be glued and smooth material over glued elastic net. Let dry. If material will not take glue, spots will appear on sample when dry.

Covering a Wire Frame
METHOD FOR COVERING PLAIN WIRE FRAME
(Illus. 1) If a sheer material is used to cover a wire frame, the wire frame can be dyed the same color as the material with Rit Dye. This will eliminate winding the frame wire. With the exception of the wire on brim edge, the wire is

wound. Use the same method as used for covering buckram frames, cutting brim covering from a pattern, pinning top brim fabric to brim, and sewing to brim wire, then pin facing to under side of brim around edge and at headsize. Finish brim edge with a bias fold or with wired velvet tubing.

BIAS FOLD
Cut a 2'" bias strip of material, (either velvet or matching material). Fold bias strip double and place over wire on brim edge, stretch bias piece and pin all around brirn, join ends of bias strip and make a bias seam. Remove, stitch,and press seam open. Return to brim again pinning fold all around edge of brim. Turn raw edges of fold under 1/4" on each side and slip stitch.

VELVET TUBING
Measure two wires to fit edge of brim, run each wire through a piece of velvet tubing and stretch velvet tubing on wire. Join wire with a wire joiner, turn one edge under and lap stretched velvet tubing ends and sew together neatly. Pin tubing around brim edge and slip stitch. Place tubing on top edge of brim and one on facing of brim.

METHOD OF WINDING WIRE FRAME
Cut 1" strips of veiling or maline the same color as material used for hat. Start in back and wind each wire as illustrated.

COVERING WIRE FRAME ON THE BIAS
Run a tape line from top at headsize to brim edge and continue over edge of brim to headsize on facing. Add 2" to this measurement and cut a bias piece of material width of this measurement. Fold bias piece double and place over wire on edge of brim. Stretch and pin around edge of brim and join ends together with a bias seam. Remove from brim and sew together. Press seam open. Put back over wire brim, steam and stretch top and bottom into headsize until free from wrinkles. Pin and sew top and bottom separately around headsize.

Sailor Pattern and its Many Variations
The preceding pages teach you how to cut sailor patterns. The following hats all start with the Sailor pattern.

CLOCHE (ILLUS. 1)
Use sailor pattern cut open in back, lapping one side of brim over the other until desired scoop is attained. Allow 2" for lapping. Measure desired brim width and cut off excess material around brim edge.

MUSHROOM (ILLUS. 2)
Mushroom is a sailor slashed at even intervals and small gores added around edge of brim and rolled down to form a scooped brim edge.

BRETON SAILOR (ILLUS. 2)
A Breton Sailor brim is made the same as a mushroom brim only the brim is turned up.

TRICORN (ILLUS. 3)
A Tricorn is a sailor turned up on three sides.

BICORN (ILLUS. 4)
A Bicorn is the front. a sailor turned up across

PROFILE HAT (ILLUS. 5)

A Profile hat is a sailor turned up on the side.

PILL BOX (ILLUS. 6)
A Pill Box is a sailor crown.

BERET (ILLUS. 7)
A Beret is two sailor brims sewn together around edge of brim and a headsize cut in the facing brim.

Making a Basic Sailor Frame
MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • • •

1/2 yard of elastic net frame wire wire joiners heavy thread No. 24

DESCRIPTION
Make a sailor frame pattern following instructions on page 15. Or use the sailor frame pattern in book on page 34. Always remember to use your correct headsize when making a pattern.

SAILOR BRIM
Place pattern on elastic net and mark around pattern brim and Cut out brim edge headsize (Illus. 1. on line drawn, do

not cut out headsize. (Illus. 2) Slash inside headsize line from back to front, and from side to side and then slash every 1/2" around headsize. Bend elastic net segments back 1" to line around headsize and cut off excess. Mark back and front of brim.

SAILOR CROWN
Place crown tip pattern on elastic net, mark around pattern and cut out crown tip on line. Cut a bias piece of elastic net for side crown. The width of bias piece will depend on height of crown, usually 2" to 2 3/4". Mark back and front of crown.

WIRING SAILOR FRAME

(Illus. 3) Cut a wire to fit sailor brim and join ends of wire with a wire joiner. Sew wire on edge of brim frame using a button hole stitch. Cut two pieces of wire to fit crown tip and join ends of wire with a wire joiner. Sew one wire on edge of crown tip (Illus. 4). Hold one edge of bias elastic net, bias side crown, to wired crown tip. (Illus. 5) Overcast side crown to crown tip, lapping ends of side crown in back and sew. Sew wire around bottom of side crown using a button hole stitch.

BINDING WIRED EDGES OF FRAME
(Illus. 6 and 7) Cut bias strips of (stretch before crinoline 2" wide using), fold over

wired edges and baste to frame.

SEWING CROWN AND BRIM TOGETHER
Match markings on crown and brim, slip crown over headsize on brim and sew together (Illus. 8). Instructions for covering frames page 28.

Covering a Basic Sailor Frame
DESCRIPTION
Use the same sailor pattern for cutting fabric covering that you used to make sailor frame. Instructions for making frame page 27. If covering a ready-made frame, make a paper pattern of frame and use to cut fabric covering.

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • •

1/2 yard of material is required to cover a sailor frame if edge of brim is to be finished with a wire. 3/4 of a yard is required if brim is to be finished with a bias fold. Lining and ribbon headband.

CUTTING MATERIAL
(Illus. 1) Place brim pattern on bias of material and mark around brim

edge and headsize. Allow 1/2" on brim edge when cutting out material. (Do not cut material out on line around headsize). Slash material inside the line from back to front and from side to side, and every half inch around headsize just to the line. Mark back and front. Cut out two brim pieces just alike.

COVERING BRIM
Put brim piece on top of frame brim, pulling it over the frame crown and down on brim. Match front and back markings on frame and material (Illus. 2). Extend material 1/2" on brim edge. Turn material over brim edge 1/2". Pin and sew to under side of frame (Illus. 3), catching material to frame. Place facing piece of material on under side of brim, match markings on frame and material and extend material 1/2" on brim edge. Pin facing to frame around brim edge and headsize.

FINISHING BRIM EDGE
Measure a wire to fit around edge of brim and join with a wire joiner. Turn edge of facing material over wire, slightly stretching material until facing is smooth, and free from wrinkles. Pin facing around edge of brim and sew to frame under wire, using a back stitch (Illus. 4). If there seems to be too much material to turn over wire, trim off excess amount before turning material over wire.

FINISHING BRIM EDGE WITH A BIAS FOLD
(Illus. 5) Cut a bias piece of material 3" wide, stretch and pin this bias fold around edge of brim

wrong side out. Join ends of fold together on the bias. Remove fold from brim, stitch and press seam open. With seam on fold in back, pin edge of fold right side out on edge of brim and sew to brim using a back stitch. Turn fold over edge of brim and pin around brim edge, turn raw edge of fold under. Pin fold to facing on under side of brim. Sew fold to facing using a slip stitch.

COVERING CROWN
Place crown pattern on the bias of material, mark around pattern on material. Mark front of crown on material and allow 1/2" when cutting out material (Illus. 6). Place material on crown top with mark in front. Pin front, back and sides of material to crown, stretching material slightly as you pin. Turn material over crown edge 1/2" and sew to side crown (Illus. 7).

COVERING SIDE CROWN
(Illus. 8) Measure the depth of side crown on frame, and cut a bias piece of material 2" wider than side crown measures. Stretch and pin bias piece around top of crown and join ends together on the bias. Remove bias piece from crown. Stitch and press seam open. Turn bias piece to right side and slip over crown. Turn material under 1" around top of crown

and turn balance of material up around bottom of crown. Do not sew material around top or bottom of crown. Finish headsize with a lining and a swirled ribbon headband. Instructions for linings and headbands page 45.

Bias Covered Basic Sailor
Make a basic sailor frame (page 27) or use a ready made sailor frame. A bias covered basic sailor requires half to three quarters of a yard of material for covering frame, depending on size of frame. Cover crown and brim separately, then sew crown to brim.

TOP OF CROWN
Cut a 10" square of material to fit top crown, having one point of material in front and pin front back and sides to top of crown, stretching material as you pin. Turn material over edge of crown 1/2" and sew to side crown. Cut off excess material around crown under stitching.

SIDE CROWN
Cut a bias piece of material 2" wider than frame side crown measures. Pin one edge of bias piece around top of crown stretching bias as you pin. Pin ends together on the bias, remove from crown, stitch and press seam open. Return bias piece to

side crown with seam in back. Turn material under 1" around top of crown, balance of material turn over bottom edge of crown and sew to inside of crown. Mark back and front of crown.

BIAS BRIM
Measure a bias piece to fit around brim, fold in half lengthwise and turn over brim. Stretch and pin to fit brim. Pin bias ends together,

remove from brim, stitch and press seam open. Fold bias lengthwise and return to brim (be sure brim edge is in center of fold). Pin around brim edge (Illus. 1). Pull top of material into headsize and sew (Illus. 2), then remove pins on brim edge and pull material on facing into headsize and sew. Mark back and front of brim.

SEWING CROWN TO BRIM
Match marking on crown and brim, pin and sew crown to brim (Illus. 3).

LINING SAILOR
Requires a lining and headband. Instructions page 45.

Making a Pattern of a Rolled Brim Breton Sailor
DESCRIPTION
To cut the material for covering a frame with a rolled or curved brim, make a paper pattern of the brim. To get every detail and curve of frame, use 2" strips of thin paper, and make an exact pattern of brim, then lay the pattern made of paper strips on a piece of paper and cut out pattern in one piece. This

method is very satisfactory when working with any curved detail on frame.

MAKING PATTERN OF PAPER STRIPS
(Illus. 1) Start in back of frame on facing side of brim, pin paper strips 2" wide to frame, from brim edge to headsize, pinning papers at brim edge, in center of brim and at headsize. Continue pinning strips around brim, lapping papers slightly on brim edge increasing lapping at headsize to fit frame. (Illus. 2) When entire facing is covered with paper strips (Illus. 3) draw a line on paper around edge of brim and around headsize. (Illus. 4) To remove paper pattern made of paper strips from frame, carefully unpin each strip of paper, one at a time from frame around edge of brim, slipping pins back in holes in paper strips, and pinning them together again. Unpin papers on entire brim and around headsize in this manner. When entire pattern has been removed from frame cut off excess paper on brim edge and around headsize on line drawn.

MAKING SECOND PATTERN
(Illus. 5) Place pattern made of strips of

paper on a large piece of paper. Be sure pattern is perfectly flat and smooth, then pin pattern to paper and draw a line around brim edge and headsize and each side in back of pattern (Illus. 6). Mark back and front and cut out pattern on line drawn around headsize and brim. Allow 1/2" on brim edge and at headsize when cutting out material.

Covering a Breton Sailor
DESCRIPTION
A Breton Sailor has a rolled brim, requiring an exact paper pattern to be made of the brim. The pattern is used to cut covering for frame. Material is then pinned to curved side on brim edge and smoothed over curved side of frame that has been smeared with Milliners Glue. Be sure that material has adhered to curved side of frame and is thoroughly dry before putting on the facing material. For pattern cutting instructions refer to page 31 For gluing instructions refer to page 24.

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • • •

1/2 yard of material for covering frame Breton frame 3/4 yard of grosgrain headband ribbon One hat lining

COVERING A ROUND CROWN
(Illus. 1) Cut a square of material large enough to cover crown and pin to head block back, front and sides.

Hold block over steam and pull down points of material back, front and sides until all wrinkles are worked out of material. Pin material around bottom of block. (Illus. 2) When material is dry, lift off block and slip onto frame crown. (Illus. 3) Sew around bottom of crown and cut off excess material. Mark back and front of crown.

CUTTING MATERIAL FOR BRIM
(Illus. 4) Place pattern on material and mark around pattern, allow 1/2" and cut out two brim pieces, one for top of brim and one for facing of brim. Join brim pieces together in back, stitch and steam press seam open.

PINNING AND GLUING MATERIAL TO FRAME
(Illus. 5) Smear framewith Milliners Glue. (Illus. 6) Pin material on top of back, and follow instructions. Turn edge 1/4" and sew. 1/2" of material to extend around edge of brim. (Illus. 7) Measure a wire to fit edge of brim and join wire with a wire joiner. Turn edge of facing material over wire, and pin around edge of brim. frame, seam in gluing material over brim

Pin facing material,seam in back,to frame, allowing

(Illus. 8) Sew facing to brim under wire using a back stitch. Finish headsize with a lining and a swirled headband ribbon. Instructions for linings and headband ribbons page 45.

Select any picture to view an enlargement in a new window

Pattern for a Basic Sailor
Draw line around headsize on material. Do not cut out on this line. Slash material from back to front and from side to side to line around headsize.

Select any picture to view an enlargement in a new window

Pattern for a Basic Sailor
Draw line around headsize on material. Do not cut out on this line. Slash material from back to front and from side to side to line around headsize.

Select any picture to view an enlargement in a new window

Making a Pill Box Frame
PILL BOX CROWN (ILLUS. 1)
Use correct headsize pattern on page 14 for top of crown. Place pattern on a piece of elastic net, mark around pattern and cut out elastic net on line marked. Mark back and front of crown. (Use pencil or tailor's chalk for marking).

PILL BOX SIDE CROWN
Decide height you want Pill Box to be, and cut a bias piece of elastic net the length of your headsize measurement, and allow 2" for lapping. Cut width of bias piece to correspond with height Pill Box is to be.

WIRING TOP OF PILL BOX (ILLUS. 2)

Measure a wire to fit top of Pill Box frame, join ends of wire with a wire joiner, and sew wire around edge, using a button hole stitch.

SEWING SIDE CROWN TO TOP OF PILL BOX
(Illus. 3) Hold edge piece to wired top piece together. Lap ends of bias side crown and sew flat. of bias side crown and overcast

WIRING BOTTOM OF PILL BOX (ILLUS. 4)
Measure a wire to fit bottom of Pill Box frame, join ends of wire with a wire joiner. Sew wire around bottom of frame using a button hole stitch.

BINDING WIRES ON PILL BOX FRAME
Cut a 2" bias strip of crinoline (stretch bias strip of crinoline before using). Fold crinoline over wired edges and baste crinoline to frame.

NON-HEADSIZE PILL BOX FRAME
Decide on size non-headsize Pill Box is to be, and decrease pattern for top to correspond in size, with that exception, follow instructions above for making nonheadsize Pill Box frame. Instructions for covering Pill Box frame page 36.

How to Cover a Pill Box Frame

HOW TO COVER A PILL BOX
Make a Pill Box frame (page 35) or use a ready-made Pill Box frame. Pill Box Hat requires half yard of material for covering frame.

TOP OF CROWN
(Illus. 1) Cut 13" square of material and lay on top of crown. Pin front, back and sides to crown top, stretching material as you pin. Turn material over 1/2" and baste to side Cut off excess material under basting. edge of crown crown (lilus. 2). around crown

SIDE CROWN
(Illus. 3) Cut a bias piece of material 2" wider than frame side crown measures. Pin one edge of bias piece to top of crown, stretching bias as you pin. Pin ends together seam, stitch and press Return bias piece to side in back. Turn material top of crown, and balance making a bias seam open. crown with seam under 1" around of material turn

over bottom edge of crown and sew to inside of crown. (Illus. 4).

LINING PILL BOX
Requires a lining and headband. Instructions page 45.

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Pill Box Pattern

Half Hat
HALF HAT FRAME
(Illus. 1) Cut a bias piece of elastic net 5" x 11 1/2", dampen and place on Utility Block (head block). Pull into shape from side to side and pin to block with push pins. Let dry on block. Measure a wire and sew on edge of frame, using a buttonhole stitch. Join ends of wire with a joiner. (Illus. 2) Cut 2" strips of crinoline (stretch crinoline strips before using) and fold over wired edge and baste. (Illus. 3) Pin a metal bicycle clip on each side of frame underneath. Baste a strip of crinoline over each clip and stitch clips. crinoline around

The bicycle clip holds hat secure on head and can be purchased in any Millinery Supply House.

COVERING HALF HAT FRAME
(Illus. 4) Cut a 7" bias piece of material, pin to one end of frame, stretch material over top of frame and pin to other end. (Illus. 5) Turn edge of frame and sew to material over under side.

LINING HALF HAT
(Illus. 6) Fit a bias piece of lining material to under side of frame and sew around edge. (Illus. 7) Finish with a blocked grosgrain ribbon band inside edge of frame.

TRIMMING HALF HAT
(Illus. 8) Use bows or flowers for trimming each side of half hat or entire hat frame can be covered with leaves. Each leaf sewn on with a pearl bead and a small piece of veiling is all the trimming required.

Hat Anchorage

DESCRIPTION
Non-headsize hats and other small hats require an anchorage to keep hat on head.

ELASTIC ANCHORAGE (ILLUS. 1)
Use a piece of thin rolled silk elastic. Measure elastic from side to side of hat stretching slightly. Sew at each side of headsize. Finish headsize with a swirled ribbon headband.

WOUND WIRE (ILLUS. 2)
Cut a wire 17" long, turn a loop in each end of wire and sew to each side of headsize. Use 1/2" wide ribbon or strips of felt and sew one end to wire at headsize. Wind around wire tight to other side of headsize and sew to opposite wire. Finish headsize with a swirled ribbon headband.

WIRE IN TUBING
(Illus. 3) Make a 1/4" tubing of felt or ribbon and run wire through tubing and sew to either side of headsize. (Illus. 4) Cut material 1/2" wide, fold in half and stitch together for tubing.

WIRE LOOP
For a loop anchorage, make a half yard of 1/4" tubing of matching material. Slip wire into tubing and turn wire at end of tubing, making a 14" loop, join ends of wire with a wire joiner. (Illus. 5) Fit balance of wire around inside of headsize and sew.

SHIRRED RIBBON WITH ELASTIC

Measure two pieces of 1/2" ribbon, one and a half lengths of elastic piece being used. Stitch ribbon together on each side and run elastic through center of ribbon and sew on either side of headsize.

SIDE CLAMP ANCHORAGE
Run a wire through 1 1/8 yds. of velvet tubing (or wind with No. 3 grosgrain ribbon). Join wire with a wire joiner. Lap tubing ends and sew together. Measure 4" from this joining and bend wire into a 7" loop and sew together. Measure 12 1/2" and make another 7" loop and sew together. Bend these loops, or tabs, to fit head, as shown in (Illus.6). Sew tubing around head size of hat. These tabs are a new form of decoration besides serving their purpose of holding hat in place. The tabs may be trimmed with flowers or bows.

VELVET ROLL
Measure paper rope to fit headsize. Cut and sew together. Do not lap ends of paper rope. Cut a bias strip of material the length and width of the rope, allowing extra width for stretching and turning seam. Stretch material around rope and pin. Lap ends of material and sew. Turn edge of material under and slip stitch. Sew covered rope around head size. Paper rope comes in several thicknesses.

Non Headsize Hats
DESCRIPTION
A non-headsize hat always has a small headsize, measuring from 18" to 21" and some seasons when non-headsize hats are very

fashionable they become very extreme with the headsize measuring only 12" and worn perched high on the head, tilted forward. One-fourth to three-eighths of a yard of material is required depending on size of hat. An anchorage of elastic or a matching band of material is necessary to hold hat on head. Hat anchorages on page 39.

NON-HEADSIZE PILL BOX FRAME (ILLUS. 1)
Decide on size Non-headsize Pill Box is to be, and cut pattern for top to correspond in size, then follow instruction "How to Make a Pill Box Frame" page 35. Instructions for covering Pill Box Frame page 36.

NON-HEADSIZE SAILOR (ILLUS. 2)
Decide on size Non-headsize Sailor is to be and reduce or increase Non-headsize Sailor pattern to correspond, then follow instructions "Basic Sailor Buckram Frame" page 27. Instructions for covering Basic Sailor Frame page 28.

Fabric Hat with Three-Piece Sectional Crown, Plain or Draped Brim
Trace pattern on page 78-79 Place each piece of pattern on fold of paper and cut double.

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • • • • •

1 yd. wool 3/4 yd. crinoline. 3/4 yd. soft taffeta 1 bicycle clip 1/2 yd. blocking felt 3/4 yd. headband ribbon.

12 rings

CRINOLINE FOUNDATION
Mark around pattern on crinoline. Mark notches on crinoline and cut out. (Illus. 1) Match notches on pieces 2 and 3 and baste together. Stitch on machine. (Illus. 2) Join pieces together with seam in back. (Illus. 3) Match markings on pieces 1 and 2, baste together and stitch. (Illus. 4) Place crinoline foundation on correct head-size utility block. (Illus. 5) Steam and pull foundation down to fit block. Pin foundation to block around the bottom and let dry.

MAKING CROWN OF FABRIC

Cut and sew fabric same as above. Baste each side of seams down flat and stitch on machine. Place crown on utility block wrong side out. Steam press seams and pin around bottom of crown to block and let dry. (Illus. 6) Slip fabric crown over crinoline foundation and baste together. Place crown measure desired depth on block and of crown from

back to front and from side to side. (Illus. 7) Mark depth around crown with a basting thread. Cut off excess material 1/2" below this mark.

DRAPED BRIM
The above crown may be used with a brim of elastic net covered with the same fabric. Cut a bias strip of elastic net, 8" x 36", and fold in half lengthwise. Pin and drape this strip around utility block until you have desired brim style, then steam elastic net to keep shape and allow to dry. Mark front of brim. Pin elastic net brim and crown together and try on, making any necessary adjustments on brim. Remove elastic net brim from crown. Lay elastic net brim on material and cut material to correspond with elastic net. Baste material and elastic net together. Fold brim back into shape and pin to utility block. Slip crown on block over brim. Match markings on crown and brim and pin together. Sew around headsize. Make lining from same crown pattern and slip inside crown. Finish around

headsize with a swirled ribbon headband. (Illus. 8). (Illus. 9).

Plain Brim Fabric Hat

Lay brim pattern on crinoline and blocking felt. Cut out one of each, (Illus. 1). Lay brim pattern on wool material and cut out two brims, one for top of brim and one for facing brim, (Illus. 2). Place wool brims right sides together and baste around outer edge to crinoline and felt brims and stitch, (Illus. 3). Fit brim to head and pin ends of brim together in back, (Illus. 4). Stitch and steam press seam open, (Illus. 5). Turn one side of wool brim over from top all around brim Steam press brim. Pull brim over wool crown on block and pin together around headsize, (Illus. 7). and baste 1/4" edge, (Illus. 6).

Try hat on and make any adjustments

necessary. Sew crown and brim together, (Illus. 8). Cut off any excess material around headsize. Make hat lining to match bag lining and finish with ribbon headband.

TRIM WITH A COVERED BICYCLE CLIP
Stitch two pieces of ribbon together. Slip bicycle clip in groove and adjust for hat trim, (Illus. 9).

Fabric Bag to Match Hat

CUTTING
Cut two sections of No. 1 and two sections of No. 2 of wool, crinoline and blocking felt. Cut two tab facings of wool material extending 1" below notch. Cut two on pattern). sections of

No. 1 and two sections of No. 2 of lining material (just to notch

SEWING
Baste crinoline and felt to wrong side of wool sections, 1 and 2. Baste tab facings at top of bag and stitch, (Illus. 3). Turn wool tab facings over and

baste around top of tabs; stitch and press. Baste bag sections

together, making a 1/4" seam, (Illus. 4). Stitch and press seams open. Cut a strip of material 24" long and 1" wide. Stitch flat and press, (Illus. 5). Cut strip into twelve 2" pieces. Slip a ring in center of each 2" piece, fold material over ring and sew ends to bag. Sew four rings on each side of bag and two on each tab, (Illus. 6). Cut I 1/2 yds. of cord in half and run each piece through rings to close bag, (Illus. 7).

LINING
Baste and stitch lining together. Place a square of cardboard to fit bottom of bag. Slip lining in bag, turn in 1/2" and slip stitch to bag.

Bag Pattern for Fabric Hat

Hat Linings and Headbands

DESCRIPTION
Hats made on a buckram frame require a lining and a headband ribbon to finish headsize. Felt hats require a headband ribbon only to finish headsize. Use soft taffeta or crepe for hat linings. Use No. 5 Saw-tooth Grosgrain ribbon for headbands.

BLOCKED LININGS FOR ROUND CROWNS
(llus. 1) Cut a 14" square of lining material and put on Utility Block. Pin back, front and sides to block. (Illus. 2) Hold block over steam pulling down points on either side of back and front until lining fits block, and is free from wrinkles. Pin lining to block each step as you stretch and steam (Illus. 3). Let lining dry on block then remove and slip lining into crown. Pin and sew around, headsize, cutting off excess material. Finish headsize with a swirled headband ribbon.

LINING MADE FROM A PATTERN FOR SQUARE CROWNS
(Illus. 4) Cut a circle of lining material to fit top of crown. Notch front, back and side of circle. Cut a bias strip of

lining material the width of side crown and length of headsize measurement. Fold this strip of material into quarters, notch, join ends and sew together. (Illus. 5) Match notches on bias strip with notches on circle, baste together and stitch. Slip lining into crown, pin and baste around headsize. Cut off excess material and finish with a swirled headband ribbon.

HEADBAND RIBBONS
Saw-Tooth grosgrain ribbon No. 5 is used to finish the headsize of hats. This ribbon will retain its shape when blocked or swirled, which is very important. Allow 3/4 of a yard of ribbon for a hat, as ribbon shrinks some when swirled.

SWIRLED RIBBON HEADBAND
Dampen ribbon and press into a circle, using a regular iron, (Illus. 6) if a steam iron is used, ribbon does not need dampening. Pin the large side of the ribbon circle to headsize, letting the small side of ribbon circle extend into headsize. Turn ribbon under and lap ends to finish ribbon headband.

BLOCKED RIBBON HEADBAND
(Illus. 7) Put hat on Utility Block and draw a line on block around headsize, then

remove hat. Wet a piece of on line drawn on block, push pins) one edge of and turning ribbon to fit block (Illus. 9). headband ribbon. Starting in back pin (Illus. 8) (with ribbon, stretching

When dry remove ribbon and pin into headsize of hat, and sew using invisible stitch (Illus. 10).

RIBBON HEADBAND FOR BERET
Do not swirl headband ribbon for headband must measure headsize measurement been lapped and joined, ribbon into Beret head-size (Illus. 11). Divide ribbon headband into quarters and mark, then divide beret headsize into quarters and mark, match marks on Beret headsize with marks on ribbon headband and pin and sew ribbon around Beret headsize (Illus. 12). If ribbon headband is larger than Beret headsize, stretch Beret headsize to fit ribbon, if ribbon headband is smaller than Beret headsize hold headsize in to fit ribbon. After ribbon headband has been sewn flat around Beret head-size, dampen ribbon headband and turn ribbon headband up into Beret headsize (Illus. 13), then pull Beret over Utility block and let ribbon headband dry on block. Berets. Ribbon your exact after ends have before pinning

SEWING IN SWIRLED HEADBAND RIBBONS
When sewing in a headband on a Beret use an overcast stitch on edge of ribbon. For all other headbands use a small stitch in a rib of the ribbon on the outside and slant needle into hat headsize taking a long stitch on underside. Continue in this manner, a long and a short stitch until entire headband has been sewn around headsize.

Materials Used to Make Straw Hats

STRAW BRAIDS
• • • • •

PLAIN STRAW BRAID. . . MADE ON A BLOCK OR OVER A FRAME ROUGH STRAW BRAID. . .MADE ON A BLOCK TUSCAN BRAID. . .MADE ON A BLOCK STRAW BANDING. . .CROWN MADE ON A FOUNDATION STRAW CLOTH. . .MADE ON A FRAME

STRAW BODIES
• • • • • • • •

BAKU. . .MADE ON A BLOCK SISAL. . .MADE ON A BLOCK SHANTUNG. . .MADE ON A BLOCK LEGHORN. . .CROWN BLOCKED AND BRIM WIRED ROUGH STRAW. . .CROWN BLOCKED AND BRIM WIRED HORSEHAIR. . .CROWN BLOCKED AND BRIM WIRED MILAN. . .REQUIRES A PROFESSIONAL BLOCKER PANAMA. . . REQUIRES A PROFESSIONAL

BLOCKER INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE ABOVE STRAWS ARE GIVEN ON THE FOLLOWING PAGES, EXCEPT PANAMA AND MILAN WHICH REQUIRE A PROFESSIONAL BLOCKER

Using a Buckram Frame as a Block for a Straw Braid Hat Making Crown and Brim Separate

Any style frame may be used as a block to shape straw braid. The braid is basted to the frame and steamed. The rows of braid are then sewn together. Care must be taken not to sew braid to frame. Basting threads are cut and removed and braid is sized and allowed to dry on frame. Finished braid hat is then removed from frame.

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• •

Buckram frame. 8 to 10 yards of 1" straw braid. Wrap straw braid in damp towel for several hours

before using.

MARKING FRAME
When crown and brim are to be made separately, mark back, front and sides at bottom of frame crown with a colored thread. Also mark frame brim at headsize edge to match marking on crown. Then separate crown from brim.

MAKING STRAW CROWN

Wind thread around one end of straw and manipulate straw into a circle, slightly lapping one row of straw over the other. (Illus. 1) Sew two rows into circle and without cutting straw off baste this circle on top of crown. Continue basting each .row of braid to frame until top of crown is covered, then slightly pull braid and continue, basting braid to side crown, until bottom of crown is reached. Run last row of braid off on a slant and cut braid off (Illus. 2). Steam straw crown slightly over tea-kettle and sew rows of braid together, using small stitches concealed in the straw, be careful not to sew through braid to frame. Clip and remove all basting threads, except at bottom of crown. Apply a coat of straw sizing and allow to dry. Mark bottom of straw crown to correspond with markings on frame. Remove basting threads at bottom of crown and slip straw crown off frame.

MAKING STRAW BRIM
(Illus. 3) Start in back on brim edge and baste straw braid to frame, slightly pulling and lapping each row, until headsize is reached. Turn braid up around headsize 1/2" run braid off on a slant and cut off. Steam brim over teakettle and sew rows of braid together, using small stitches concealed in the straw. Mark straw brim at headsize to correspond with markings on frame brim. Cut and remove basting threads, except around brim edge. Apply straw sizing and let dry. Remove bastings on brim edge and slip straw brim off frame.

WIRING BRIM EDGE

Measure a wire to fit brim edge and join with a wire joiner. Pin wire around brim edge on under side, and sew wire to straw. Start in back and fit a row of braid over wire on under side of brim, turn end under and lap braid. Sew row of braid around under side of brim edge. Apply a coat of straw sizing and let dry.

SEWING CROWN AND BRIM TOGETHER
(Illus. 4) Match markings on crown and brim. Pin together and sew crown to brim around headsize. Finish headsize with a swirled headband ribbon. Instructions for swirled headband on page 45.

Making a Straw Braid Hat in One Piece Using a Buckram Frame for a Block
MATERIAL REQUIRED
• •

Hat frame. 8 to 10 yards of 1" straw braid.

BASTING STRAW BRAID TO FRAME
WRAP STRAW BRAID IN A DAMP TOWEL FOR SEVERAL HOURS BEFORE USING. (Illus. 1) Starting in back, baste braid on top side of frame on brim

edge, lapping each row of braid slightly, pulling braid just a little as you baste. Continue in this manner until top of crown is reached. Last row will have an elongated shape instead of round. Slip end of braid on top under last row, cut off braid and baste flat.

STEAMING AND SEWING BRAID
Pass braid side of frame through steam from a teakettle several times (do not hold frame still in steam at any time) Keep it moving as too much steam in one spot will cause frame to collapse. (Illus. 2) Sew each row together while on frame, using small stitches concealed in straw being careful not to sew through to buckram frame. When braid is thoroughly dry, clip basting and remove basting threads except around brim edge of frame. Apply a coat of straw sizing to straw and allow to dry thoroughly on frame. When thoroughly dry clip basting on brim edge and remove from frame.

WIRING BRIM EDGE OF HAT
Measure a piece of wire to fit brim edge and join wire with a wire joiner. Pin wire on under side of straw brim and whip stitch wire to braid (Illus. 3). Fit a row of straw braid over wire on under side, starting braid in back, turn ends of braid under and sew around brim edge (Illus. 4). Steam this row of braid slightly, let dry and apply a coat of straw sizing to entire under side of brim and allow to dry thoroughly.

HEADSIZE FINISH

Finish around headsize with a swirled headband ribbon. Instructions for swirled headband ribbon page 45.

Making Straw Braid Crowns and Brims on Wood Hat Blocks
MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • •

8 to 10 yards of 1" straw braid. Utility brim block with correct headsize band block for brim. Utility head block in correct headsize for crown.

BLOCKING BRIM
Wrap straw in damp towel for several hours before using. (Illus. 1) Measure brim on brim block for brim edge around block. (Illus. 2) Starting in back and using push pins, pin first row of braid to block on this line. Lap each row of braid slightly until headsize is reached (Illus. 3). Turn braid up 1/2" on headband block and cut braid off (Illus. 4). Slip straight pins into braid and remove push pins, desired width of and draw a line

except around brim edge. Press carefully with an iron and a damp cloth (Illus. 5). Be sure iron is not too hot. (Illus. 6) Tie a cord tight around headsize over straw and let straw brim dry on block. Mark back and front of brim. When thoroughly dry, remove brim from block and sew each row of braid together, concealing stitches in braid. Measure a wire to fit brim edge and join with a wire joiner. Pin wire to facing of brim and whip wire to braid around brim edge. Fit a row of braid over wire and sew braid around brim edge. Steam this row of braid slightly. Return brim to block and pin down. Apply a coat of straw sizing and allow brim to dry on block.

BLOCKING CROWN
Measure head from back to front and from side to side for desired depth of crown. Mark measurements on crown block and draw a line around block, (Illus. 7) Wind one end of the straw braid manipulate braid about two rows of top of block. rows of braid to with thread and into a circle. Sew braid, then pin to Continue pinning block, lapping

each row slightly and pulling braid to fit block, until crown is desired depth. (Illus. 8) Cut braid off on a slant and run last row of braid off to nothing. Slip straight pins into straw and remove push pins. Press slightly with an iron and damp cloth and let dry on block. Mark back and front of crown. When dry, remove from block and sew each row of braid, concealing stitches in straw. Again place crown on

block and pin to block around the bottom with push pins (Illus. 9). Apply a coat of straw sizing and let crown dry on block.

SEWING CROWN AND BRIM TOGETHER
Match front and back markings on crown and brim, pin together, then sew crown to brim around headsize. Finish head-size with a swirled ribbon headband. If tuscan or any other lacey braid is used (Illus. 10a), run wire for brim edge through velvet tubing. (Illus. 10b) Join wire ends with a joiner then neatly finish lap ends of tubing with several slip 10c) Pin velvet tubing to under side of brim and slip stitch tubing to straw. (Illus. 11) stitches. (Illus.

Making Straw Braid Pill Box on a Block
MATERIAL REQUIRED
• •

Four to six yards of 1" straw braid. Use a square crown block correct headsize for blocking braid.

DAMPEN BRAID
Wrap straw braid in a damp cloth for several hours before using.

TOP OF CROWN
Wind one end of straw with a thread, fold slightly lap and manipulate braid, sewing braid into a circle for about two rows of braid, fasten thread. Pin braid to top center of block.

SIDE CROWN
Continue pulling and fitting braid, lapping each row slightly, until top of block is covered with braid, then pull braid as you start to pin braid to side crown and continue pinning and lapping each row of braid slightly until desired measurement is reached on side crown, usually 2 1/2" dependent entirely on current style. Use push pins to pin braid to block, then baste braid. Remove push pins.

STEAM BRAID ON BLOCK
Carefully steam braid on block by holding block over steaming tea kettle for several minutes. Allow braid to dry on block.

SEWING BRAID
Take straw off block and sew each row of braid together with matching thread, concealing stitches in straw. Remove basting.

SIZING STRAW
After sewing braid return to block and pin bottom row of braid to block. Slightly steam again and allow to thoroughly dry on block. Then apply a coat of straw sizing and let straw dry on block. Finish inside of hat with a swirled headband.

NON-HEADSIZE PILL BOX
For a Non-headsize pill box use a 21" headsize block or smaller. Instructions for swirled headband on page 45.

Hat Made of 5" Straw Banding

DESCRIPTION
5" straw banding comes in many different colors and color combinations. It can be used for trimming or for making an entire hat. The crown of a straw banding hat is made on a blocked foundation. A tapered crown block is most satisfactory for blocking the foundation. Brims may be blocked in sailor, mushroom or breton shape. Beautiful draped hats can be made of 5" straw banding by thoroughly wetting braid and shaping crown on round head block and then draping brim around crown, allowing it to dry on block and applying straw sizing.

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • • •

2 1/2 to 3 yards of 5" straw banding. 1/3 yard of starched georgette for blocked foundation. Utility brim block No. 1514X. Tapered crown block

BLOCKED FOUNDATION
Instructions for blocking crown foundation on page 21.

CROWN
(Illus. 1) Place blocked georgette foundation on block. Measure two strips of banding to fit top of crown, allowing two inches on each strip for turning over side crown. Stitch strips together and press 2) Pin banding to with seam in center banding over edge to foundation one inch from top of crown. Measure a piece of banding to fit side crown. Stitch ends together and press seam open. Put side crown on block with seam in back. (Illus. 3) Pin to foundation and sew around top of crown. Trim off excess foundation material 1" below bottom of crown, turn under and sew to banding around bottom of side crown. Apply straw sizing and let dry on block. Mark front of crown. seam open. (Illus. top of foundation top of crown. Turn of crown and sew,

BRIM
(Illus. 4) Mark desired width of brim on flat side of brim block and draw a line around block for brim edge.

(Illus. 5) Measure a wire to fit line on block. (Illus. 6) Join ends of wire with a joiner. (Illus. 7) Measure a piece of straw banding to fit around wire. To measure straw banding, turn edge over wire and pin, stretch banding tight and pin to wire all the way around. Allow 3" for seam. Remove banding from wire and stitch ends together. Press seam open. Turn each side of seam under and sew down by hand. Press. (Illus. 8) Turn this piece of banding over wire 1/4" and sew around wire. (Illus. 9) Pin wired edge of banding to block along the line and steam press banding into headsize. Tie a blocking cord over straw around headsize on block and let dry. Apply straw sizing to brim and let dry on block. Mark front of brim.

SEWING CROWN AND BRIM TOGETHER
(Illus. 10) Match front markings on crown and brim, pin together, then sew crown to brim around headsize. Finish headsize with a swirled ribbon headband.

MUSHROOM BRIM
Follow instructions for sailor brim. To block brim in mushroom shape, (Illus. 11) pin wired edge of banding on curved side of brim block.

(Illus. 12) Steam press banding into headsize and tie blocking cord around headsize. Finish same as sailor brim.

BRETON BRIM
Measure straw banding and wire in the same manner as for sailor brim. DO NOT pin brim edge to block, and do not join wire ends until hat is finished. Place banding on block, steam around headsize and tie a blocking cord around headsize. (Illus. 13) Curve brim banding up and pull in wire on edge until brim has desired roll. (Illus. 14) Join ends of wire with a joiner. Finish same as sailor brim.

TRIMMING SUGGESTIONS FOR STRAWS
Large or small flowers, pearls or other beads, velvet bows, gros-grain ribbon, veiling, maline pompoms or ribbon cocardes may be used to trim straws. Small flowers may be placed around brim or large roses placed at back of hat or maline pompoms at the side, etc.

Blocking Rough Straw Bodies

BLOCKING ROUGH STRAW BODIES
(Illus. 1) Rough straw bodies can be

made into hats without blocking. Simply wire the brim edge and sew a headband ribbon inside crown around headsize. (Illus. 2) When this method is used, hat brim will be large and the same size all around. To make the brim shorter in back, block the crown, drape and fold back of brim until desired effect is achieved. To separate crown from brim or make brim smaller on a rough straw body, pull out and cut off cord running between braid rows. Another method is to measure desired depth of crown and draw a line on straw around crown, measure desired width of brim and draw a line on straw around brim. Machine stitch on line around crown and brim. Cut straw off 1/4" outside of machine stitching.

BLOCKING STRAW CROWN
Wrap straw body in a damp cloth for several hours before blocking. Tuck back of brim, at headsize, inside crown and pin. Taper tuck off to nothing on sides of brim. (Illus. 3) Steam press crown around headsize, pressing in any folds, and let dry on block. Apply a coat of straw sizing and let dry on block. Mark front of hat.

BLOCKING BRIM
(Illus. 4) Steam press any tucks in brim. Pin brim to flat side of utility brim block and steam press. Let dry on block. Apply a coat of straw sizing and let dry on block. Mark back and front of brim.

WIRING BRIM EDGE
Measure a wire to fit around brim about 2" inside of outer edge. Run wire through velvet tubing. Join ends of wire with a joiner, pull velvet tubing tight on wire and join tubing. To join tubing, lap one end of

tubing over the other, turn raw edge under and sew. Pin wired tubing around underside of brim and sew, taking a long stitch through tubing and a short stitch through straw (lllus. 5). Finish headsize with a swirled ribbon headband.

Blocking a Leghorn Straw Body
BLOCKING CROWN
Pin crown on Utility headblock, steam and press until crown fits block. Measure desired depth of crown from back to front and from side to side and draw a line on straw around block. (Illus .1) Cut off excess straw 1" below the line. Mark back and front of crown.

BLOCKING BRIM
Slip leghorn brim on brim block, with correct headband block size, and allow straw to turn up 1" around headsize. (Illus. 2) Pin brim down to block around headsize, and lay a damp cloth over straw and press thoroughly around headsize. (Illus. 3) Pin brim down to block around edge of brim. Measure and mark exact size brim is to be and draw a line around brim on straw. Cut off excess straw on this line. Mark back and front of brim.

FINISHING BRIM WITH A BIAS FOLD
Measure a wire to fit edge of brim and join wire with a wire joiner, and sew wire around edge of straw brim, using an

overcast stitch. Cut a 3" bias piece of velvet or silk. Stretch and pin one edge of the bias piece around the edge of brim and join ends on the bias. Remove bias piece and stitch joining on machine and steam press seam open. Return bias piece to brim, and pin around edge, with bias joining seam in back of brim. Sew bias piece to brim using a back stitch. (Illus. 4) Turn bias piece over edge of brim, and turn raw edge of fold under. Pin fold around under side of brim and sew, using a ilip stitch.

SEWING CROWN AND BRIM TOGETHER
(Illus. 5) Match markings on brim and crown and pin together, and sew crown to brim around headsize. Finish headsize with a swirled headband ribbon. Instructions for swirled headband page 45.

Blocking Straw Bodies of Baku, Sisal, Shantung

SIZING
Glue sizing straw bodies is a professional method and is entirely optional. Good results are obtained without glue sizing straw bodies. Baku, sisal and shantung straw bodies may be dipped in glue sizing and allowed to dry over night before using.

BLOCKING CROWN

(Illus. 1) Wet straw body until soft and pliable. Place on block, stretching and pulling straw until all fullness has been worked out and crown is free from wrinkles. Pin around bottom of block and tie a blocking cord over straw around block at bottom of crown. Allow to dry thoroughly. (Illus. 2) Measure desired depth of crown from back to front and from side to side and draw a line around crown on straw. Remove crown from block and stitch on line around crown on sewing machine. Cut off excess straw around crown 1/2" below stitching.

BLOCKING BRIM
Stretch straw brim out on a flat surface, working out fullness and smoothing out all wrinkles. Turn straw up 1/2" on headband block and pin to block around headsize. (Illus. 3) Measure desired width of brim from headsize to brim edge and draw a line around brim edge on straw. Remove from block and machine stitch on line. Cut off excess straw 1/2" outside stitching.

FINISHING BRIM WITH PLAIN HEM
Measure a wire to fit around stitching on brim. Join ends of wire with a joiner. Turn straw brim edge over wire 1/2" to underside. Baste and stitch around brim edge.

FINISHING BRIM WITH RIBBON EDGE
Use 3" wide grosgrain ribbon. Dampen, fold and lightly press and swirl ribbon. Stretch and pin edge of ribbon to brim edge, easing or stretching ribbon to fit where

necessary. Lap one end of ribbon over the other in back. Sew ribbon to straw using a back stitch. Turn ribbon over brim edge and pin to underside. (Illus. 4) Sew around brim with small stitches on outside of ribbon and slanting needle as you go through to take the next stitch.

Cleaning and Remodeling Straw Hats

REMODELING STRAW CROWNS
Straw braid crowns can be raised by reblocking and adding several rows of braid to bottom of crown, or lowered by removing several rows of braid around bottom of crown. Square straw crowns can be made round by reblocking on a round utility block head block. Round crowns can be made square by fitting a pasteboard to small end of utility head block, and securing pasteboard to block with adhesive tape, then reblock crown on this end of block.

REMODELING STRAW BRIMS
Straw brims can be made smaller by cutting off around brim edge, or made larger by adding a taffeta or velvet fold around brim edge, or a row of hair braid. If brim is a flat sailor type and a scooped effect would bring hat up to date or be more becoming, cut brim open at center back and lap one side over the other, turning straw edge under and stitch flat.

CLEANING STRAWS

Baku, shantung, or any other straw that will take water can be washed. Remove all ribbons and wires and scrub straw with a brush and lukewarm soapsuds. Rinse in lukewarm water. Reblock straw while still wet, using the same method of blocking as for new straw. When dry after blocking, apply a coat of straw sizing. If the straw is colored, use sizing of the same color. This will renew faded straw. Many straws can be dyed another color. To freshen a Milan hat, pin brim to a hard surface and steam press into shape. Let dry and size with sizing of the same color. Many straw braids can be cleaned by wiping off with cleaning fluid. Steam press, pin hat to a flat surface and let dry. Apply a coat of straw sizing and let dry.

CLEANING FABRIC HATS
Clean fabric hats by dipping a small pad into cleaning fluid and rubbing it over hat surface. Steam velvet hats lightly over a steaming teakettle and brush with a soft brush.

Materials Used to Make Felt Hats
FELT HOOD (ILLUS. 1)
A felt hood is shaped like an elongated crown and is used to block small hats and to make pattern hats.

FELT BODY (ILLUS. 2)
A felt body has a semi-shaped crown and a brim and is used when brimmed hat, and can be blocking a blocked on a block

or used in a combination of blocking the crown and using a pattern for the brim.

FELT SKIRTING
Skirting is available in lengths and is also a fur felt, used for turbans and small draped hats. Usually requires a foundation.

WOOL FELT BY THE YARD
Wool felt by the yard is used for Berets and many casual stitched hats and bags. A foundation is often required.

FELTS
• • • •

Fur felt Velour Soleil Melusine

Are available in hoods and bodies. Hoods are used to make the smaller hats and the felt body is used when making a brimmed hat. Fur felt is made from Belgian Hares, is the most satisfactory felt to work with, is soft and pliable, does not become stiff when steam and water is applied, and can be made over season after season. The initial cost is greater than wool felt, but the fact that it is so much more satisfactory to work with and can be used over, makes it the better buy. Wool felts are a cheaper felt and become very stiff when steam or water is applied, making it almost impossible to use wool felt more than one season.

STEAMING AND PRESSING FELTS
(Illus. 3) Felts require steam and heat to allow stretching and smoothing to fit block.

Put felt on block, hold over steaming teakettle and as each spot of felt becomes hot and moist, pull, stretch and pin felt to block. (Illus. 4). When stretching felt for brims or pattern cutting, lay a damp cloth over 'felt and press. When felt becomes hot and moist it is more pliable and can easily be stretched. (Illus. 5)

TO POLISH FELT WHEN FINISHED
Wet pressing cloth and wring dry. Roll cloth into a thick pad and place under hot iron. When pad is steaming hot, smooth it over felt surfaces with a circular motion. Continue heating pad and rubbing over felt until entire surface has been polished.

How to Block a Felt Body on a One-Piece Block
DESCRIPTION
Many different style blocks, used to block felt hats are manufactured. Some blocks are made in several sections and some are made in one solid piece. The same procedure used for blocking felt on a one-piece block is used when blocking felt on a block made in sections, with the exception of removing felt from block when felt is dry. To remove felt from the one-piece block, remove pins and blocking cords around brim and bottom of crown. Slip felt hat off block. To remove felt from a block made in sections, unpin felt from block and remove blocking cords, slip hand under block and remove one section of block at a time, until all sections of block have been removed from felt hat.

BLOCKING FELT CROWN
Wrap fur felt body in a damp cloth for several blocking. (Illus. 1) Pull hours before felt body over

crown on block, steam, pull and stretch felt, until all wrinkles have been removed and felt fits crown block perfectly. Pin felt around bottom of crown (with push pins) and tie a blocking cord around bottom of crown on block (Illus. 2).

BLOCKING FELT BRIM
Pull brim of felt body over block brim, steam, pull and stretch felt until all wrinkles have been removed and felt fits brim block perfectly. Pin felt to block around edge of brim (with push pins) and tie a blocking cord over felt in groove on brim edge of block. (Illus. 3) Draw a line on felt around edge of brim and mark back and front of hat. Let dry on block.

WIRING BRIM EDGE
To remove felt from block, untie cords around brim edge and bottom of crown. Trim excess felt on edge of brim 1/4" from line. Measure wire to fit brim edge and join wire with a wire joiner. Turn felt on brim edge over wire 1/4" and pin felt to facing, and sew using a small overcast stitch (Illus. 4). Finish headsize with a swirled ribbon headband. Instructions for headband page 45.

Blocking Felt Crown and Brim on Separate Blocks

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • • •

Utility head block in correct headsize Utility brim block with correct headsize Fur felt body 3/4 of a yard of headband ribbon

BLOCKING CROWN
Wrap felt body in a damp cloth for several hours before blocking. (Illus. 1) Pull felt body on Utility head block, steam, pull and stretch felt until all wrinkles have been removed and felt fits block perfectly. Pin felt to block (with push pins). (Illus. 2) Measure your head from back to front and from side to side, the depth crown is to be. Mark these measurements on felt, and draw a line around block on felt. Mark back and front of crown. (Illus. 3) When felt crown is dry, remove crown from block and cut off excess felt on crown 1/2" below line on felt.

BLOCKING BRIM
Use felt piece cut off from bottom of crown for the brim. Dampen. (Illus. 4) Put felt piece on Utility brim block. Turn felt up 1/2" around headsize on block. Pin felt to block around headsize. Steam, pull and stretch felt out on brim block as much as possible and pin edge of brim to block.

(Illus. 5) Lay a damp cloth on felt brim and steam press felt around headsize until all wrinkles have been removed from felt brim and felt fits headsize on brim perfectly. Illus. 6. Measure width brim is to be in front, back and each side and draw a line on felt (with tailors chalk) cut off excess felt 1/4" below line.

WIRING BRIM EDGE
(Illus. 7) Measure a wire to fit edge of felt brim and join wire with a wire joiner. (Illus. 8) Turn felt over wire 1/4" brim. Pin and sew of brim using a edge. around edge of felt to under side small overcast

stitch. Pin wired brim on block again and steam wired

SEWING CROWN AND BRIM TOGETHER
(Illus. 9) Match markings on crown and brim, pin crown over brim headsize. Sew crown to brim around headsize using a small overcast stitch. Finish headsize with a swirled ribbon headband. Instructions for headband ribbon on page 45.

Blocking a Fur Felt Body Using Combination of a Blocked Crown and Brim Cut from a Pattern
MATERIAL REQUIRED

• • • • •

Fur felt body Utility head block in your correct headsize Brim pattern—instructions pattern making page 17. 3/4 of a yard of headband ribbon Utility brim block

BLOCKING FELT CROWN
Wrap felt body in a damp cloth for several hours before blocking. Pull felt body over Utility head block, steam, pull and stretch felt down until all wrinkles have been removed and felt fits crown block perfectly. Pin felt to block (with push pins) and tie a blocking cord around block over felt. Let felt dry on block (Illus. 1). Measure your head from back to front the depth crown is to be and from side to side and mark these measurements on felt, and draw a line around block on felt. Mark back and front of crown on felt. When felt crown is dry, remove crown from block and cut off excess felt on crown 1/2" below line on felt.

MAKING FELT BRIM
(Illus. 2) Use felt cut off from crown for brim, cut open at narrowest place. Lay felt on a pressing board and cover with a damp cloth, steam press (Illus. 3), stretching felt as you press until felt is stretched enough to fit brim pattern.

(Illus. 4) Place brim pattern on felt, and mark around pattern with tailor's chalk) on felt. Cut out felt brim 1/2" from this line. Mark back and front of brim on felt. (Illus. 5) Sew back using a slip brim on Utility 1/2" of felt to turn headsize on block. (Illus. 6) Cover felt brim with a damp cloth and press felt into headsize. Tie a blocking cord around headsize on block over felt and pin brim edge of felt to brim block (using push pins). Let brim dry on block (Illus. 7) Remove felt brim from block, match markings on brim and crown. Slip crown over headsize on brim and sew crown and brim together, using a small overcast stitch (Illus. 8). brim together in furring stitch, and brim block; allow up around

WIRING BRIM
Measure a wire to fit edge of brim and join wire with a wire joiner. Turn felt brim edge over wire 1/4" and pin around brim. Sew felt to under side of brim using a small overcast stitch. Finish headsize with a swirled headband.

Blocking a Felt Hood into a Tapered Brim
MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • •

Fur felt hood Utility head block in correct headsize 3/4 of a yard of headband ribbon

BLOCKING CROWN
Wrap felt in a damp cloth for several hours tefore blocking. Pull felt hood over Utility block, steam, pull and stretch felt down, until all wrinkles have been removed and felt fits head block perfectly. Pin felt to block (with push pins) and tie a blocking cord around block over felt. Let felt crown dry on block. Mark back and front of crown. Measure your head from back to front and from side to side, depth crown is to be, and mark these measurements on felt. Draw a line around block on felt. When crown is dry remove crown from block and cut off excess felt on bottom of crown 1/2" below line.

MAKING A PATTERN FOR A FELT BRIM
(Illus. 1) Put blocked felt crown on Utility head block. Use a bias piece of crinoline to make brim pattern, pinning one edge of crinoline to bottom of felt crown, stretching crinoline slightly as you pin. (Use push pins). (Illus. 2) Adjust and manipulate crinoline brim pattern, until you are satisfied that brim will be becoming to you. Then mark crown where brim starts and ends, draw a line around headsize and brim edge on crinoline pattern. (Illus. 3)

Remove pattern and cut off excess crinoline on line around headsize and brim edge. Use this crinoline pattern to cut out felt brim. Using the principles given above, many smart and unusual brims can be created.

CUTTING OUT FELT BRIM
Use the piece of felt cut off from the blocked crown for the brim. Cut this piece open at the narrowest place, and lay on a pressing board, cover with a damp cloth and steam. Stretch felt until it is large enough for pattern to fit on the felt (Illus. 4). Place crinoline brim pattern on felt and mark around pattern. Remove pattern and cut out felt on line drawn. Match markings on crown and brim and (Illus. 5) slip brim under crown on block, pin together. Remove from block and sew crown and brim together using a small overcast stitch. Then (Illus. 6) put hat back on Utility head block and thoroughly steam crown and brim, pulling crown down to fit block. Pin crown around bottom to block, let dry on block (Illus. 7). Finish headsize with a swirled ribbon Instructions for headband page 45. headband. ribbon

Crescent Felt Hat
REQUIREMENTS
• • •

Large felt hood 7 yards of 1/4" braid 3/4 yard headband ribbon Use pattern on page 71.

CUTTING PATTERN
Trace and cut out 9 crescent sections and mark top of each section like pattern. Cut out one piece of pattern trim.

CUTTING FELT
Cut one side of felt hood open from bottom to top, steam press felt hood flat as possible. (Illus. 1) Arrange the 9 crescent pieces of pattern and one piece for trim on felt. Mark around pattern on felt (with tailor's chalk) and mark top of each crescent, and cut out felt on line.

SEWING AND BLOCKING FELT
(Illus. 2) Sew braid around curved side of each crescent, on both sides and around piece for trim. (Illus. 3) Fold trim piece on line and crescent piece to trim. correct Utility headsize block. (Illus. 4) Fit, lap and pin each crescent section together evenly to fit block. pin top of each Place on your

(Illus. 5) Steam and let dry on block. (Illus. 6) Remove from block and sew each crescent section together on inside edge of braid.

FINISH HEADSIZE
Finish headsize with a swirled headband ribbon.

Crescent Felt Hat Pattern

Fringed Felt Casual Hat
MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR HAT AND BAG

1/2 yard of wool felt

FRINGED FELT CASUAL HAT
Make this hat of any color wool

felt or use a combination of color, using one color felt for hat and a contrasting color felt for fringe trimming.

CUTTING FABRICS
Use pattern on page 73 for hat. Lay pattern on a double piece of felt and mark around pattern on felt and cut out. Mark back and front on each piece of felt and mark side seams as indicated on pattern.

ASSEMBLING
(Illus. 1) Match notches on center pieces, baste together and stitch. Steam seam open, and (Illus. 2) stitch each side of seam flat. Trim off excess material on seams. (Illus. 3) Match front of each side piece to front of center piece, and baste together on side seam. Stitch and steam press seam stitch each side seams. open and (Illus. 4) seam flat. Trim

FRINGE TRIMMING
(Illus. 5) Cut a strip of felt 1"x36". Fringe one side of felt 1/2" fringe 1/16" wide. back seam of hat of felt around hat Baste and stitch Cut two strips of felt 1" x 3". Fringe each side of these strips of felt 3/8" deep. (Illus. 7) deep and make (Illus. 6) Start at and fit fringe strip to underside. felt strip to hat.

Gather down center of each strip and sew into a little felt pom pom. Pin each rounded flap in front to back seam, mark, and sew together with pom pom (Illus. 8).

Pattern for Fringed Felt Casual Hat

Fringed Felt Bag
FRINGED FELT BAG PATTERN TO MATCH FRINGED CASUAL HAT
Use pattern on page 75 for bag. pattern marked No. 1 on a fold of cut pattern double. Use pattern 2 single. Place pattern No. 1 on felt around pattern on felt and cut out two Place pattern marked No. 2 on felt, around pattern on felt and cut out two Place paper and marked No. and mark pieces. mark pieces. Cut

three strips of felt 1" x 27" and fringe on side of felt strip 1/2"

deep (refer to hat Illus. 5 and 7). Cut one strip of felt 1/4" x 18" for loops on bag. Cut two strips of felt 1/2" x 18" for draw strings to run through loops on bag.

ASSEMBLING BAG
Slip felt fringed strip between No. 1 felt pieces extending fringed edge and baste both pieces together (Illus. 1). Cut strip of felt for loops into 2" pieces, fold double and baste two inches apart around top of bag (Illus. 2). Baste and stitch fringed strips of felt all around both pieces marked No. 2 and stitch, then baste one on each side of bag at top over loops, sewing through loops, and stitch (Illus. 3). Pull one draw string strip of felt through loops back. Pull second draw through loops and back Finish ends of draw fringed tassels (Illus. 4). from one side and string of felt on opposite side. strings with small

Pattern for Fringed Felt Bag

Felt Pattern hat a Three-Piece Crown and Felt Brim
MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • •

Use a large 14"x 16" fur felt hood Pattern on page 78-79 3/4 of a yard of headband ribbon Place crown pattern pieces on a fold of paper, trace

and cut pattern double. When making three-piece crown of fur felt, a crinoline foundation is not required. Trace and cut each piece of brim pattern

CUTTING AND SEWING CROWN
Wrap felt hood in a damp towel for several hours before blocking. (Illus. 1) Cut felt open on one side from bottom to top, and lay felt out flat on a pressing board and cover felt with a damp cloth. Steam press felt,, stretching felt as you steam press. Place all pieces of pattern on felt before marking. Mark around pattern (using tailor's chalk), cut out felt on this line. (Illus. 2) Join ends of No. 2 piece of felt, stitch and steam press seam open (Illus. 3).

(Illus. 4) Sew each side of seam by hand, using pick stitches close to

seam. (Illus. 5) Match notches and join No. 2 and No. 1 pieces of felt, stitch (Illus. 6) and steam press seam open. Sew each side of seam down by hand, using pick stitches close to seam. (Illus. 7) Join ends of No. 3 piece of felt, stitch and steam press seam open (Illus. 3). Sew each side of seam by hand using pick stitches close to seam (Illus. 4). Match notches and join No. 2 and No. 3 pieces of felt, stitch and steam press seam open (Illus. 3). Sew each side of seam by hand using pick stitches close to seam (Illus. 4).

STEAMING AND FITTING CROWN
Put felt crown on utility head block wrong side out. Steam and pull felt down to fit block, and pin crown to block. (Illus. 8) Measure your head from back to front and from side to side the depth felt crown is to be and mark these measurements on felt. Draw a line around block on felt (Illus. 9). When crown is dry

remove crown and trim off excess felt on crown 1/2" below line (Illus. 10). This crown can be used with many different styled brims.

BRIM FOR THREE PIECE CROWN
Lay each piece of brim pattern on felt and mark around pattern (using tailor's chalk) on felt and cut out on line. Sew brim pieces together, back and front, using a furring stitch. Press front and back of brim flat with a steam iron or damp cloth and iron.

WIRING BRIM
Measure a wire to fit edge of brim and join wire with a wire joiner. Turn felt on edge over wire 1/4" with joiner in back. Baste around edge of brim. Sew down using an overcast stitch.

SEWING CROWN AND BRIM TOGETHER
Match front markings on brim and crown, pin together. Sew together. Turn seam around headsize up and slip hat on Utility block and steam and pin to block and let dry. Finish headsize with a swirled headband. Instructions on page 45.

Three-Piece Crown and Brim Pattern

Felt Pattern Hat
MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • •

one 16" fur felt hood 3/4 yd. headband ribbon. Pattern on Page 81

CUTTING
Wrap felt in a damp cloth for felt hood up one side Lay felt flat on pull into a flat piece. out felt on this line, (Illus. 1). several hours. Cut to extreme tip. board, steam and Pin pattern pieces

on felt; mark around pattern on felt with tailor's chalk, cut

SEWING
Match notches on No. 1 and No. 3 and baste together, making a 1/4" seam, stitch. Steam press seam open, and remove bastings, (Illus. 2). Match notches and baste to No. 2. press seam open, (Illus. 3). Use a small pad underneath felt when pressing this Stitch and steam

seam open, (Illus. 4). Finish headsize with a blocked headband. Instructions for blocked headband on page 46.

Pattern for Felt Hat

BERETS
THIS VERSATILE HAT IS USED FROM SEASON TO SEASON IN SOME FORM. MATERIALS USED TO MAKE A BERET ARE UNLIMITED. ALWAYS BECOMING AND A STYLE FOR ALL AGES. SEVERAL DIFFERENT PATTERNS FOR BERETS AND DIRECTIONS TO MAKE THEM ARE GIVEN ON FOLLOWING PAGES.

Beaded Velvet Beret
• •

Use beret pattern, page 85 Beret beading pattern.

MATERIAL REQUIRED

3/4 yard of rayon velvet. Millinery velvet, taffeta, faille or felt may also be used for beaded berets. 3/4 yard of crinoline. If beret is to be made of felt, the crinoline is not required. 1 sheet of sheet wadding. Small piece of silk elastic net. Place pattern on crinoline.

• • •

MARKING AND CUTTING
Using tailor's chalk or pencil, mark around pattern on crinoline and cut out. (Illus. 1) Pin and baste crinoline to sheet wadding and cut out. (Illus. 2) Place sheet wadding and crinoline on wrong side of velvet with sheet wadding next to the velvet. Baste sheet wadding and crinoline to the velvet and cut out.

SEWING
(Illus. 3) Sewing through all three pieces (velvet, crinoline and sheet wadding), baste dart in top of beret. Stitch dart and steam seam open. (Illus. 4) Baste seam in

back of bottom part of beret. Stitch and steam seam open. Match markings. Place right sides of top and bottom of beret together and baste around edge (Illus. 5), stitch. Turn beret right side out and steam seam around brim edge until smooth and even. (Illus. before lining. 6) Bead beret

BEADING
Trace beading pattern on tissue paper and cut out. Pin plain edge of pattern on edge of beret with design edge pointing toward the center and starting in back. If beret is cut and seamed exactly like pattern, twelve designs fit around brim. Pin design pattern on top edge of beret and baste around design. Baste design on underside of beret to correspond with top. Sew any kind of beads desired on beret, following design basting threads.

LINING
Lay same beret pattern on taffeta, mark around pattern and cut out. Seam dart in top part of beret and stitch seam in bottom part. Place right sides of top and bottom together and stitch around edge. Slip lining into beret and baste to headsize.

FINISHING
(Illus. 7) Finish headsize

with a ribbon headband. Do not swirl ribbon. Dampen ribbon slightly and place beret on block until ribbon headband dries. Instructions for beret headband page 46.

Beaded Beret Pattern
Half of pattern. Trace and join section 2 to section 4. Facing pattern. Trace section 1 and 2 and join.

Beaded Velvet Bag to Match Beret
MARKING AND CUTTING
Lay bag pattern on crinoline and mark around pattern on crinoline. Make three sections like pattern. Pin crinoline pieces to sheet wadding and cut out. Lay sheet wadding and crinoline on wrong side of velvet, with sheet wadding next to the velvet. (Illus. 1) Baste sheet wadding and crinoline to the velvet and cut out. (Illus. 2) Cut three pieces of bag beading pattern out of elastic net. Lap each piece and join, making three circles of elastic

net. Cut a strip of elastic net 2" wide and 15" long.

SEWING
(Illus. 3) Baste two side seams together and stitch. (Illus. 4) Then stitch third side up 2" from bottom. (Illus. 5) Baste bottom seams together and stitch. Steam press seams open.

BEADING
(Illus. 6) Cover outside of with velvet and circles, making beads. Slip these circles over corner of bag and sew down to bag (Illus. 7). elastic net circles bead around four rows of

HANDLE
(Illus. 8) Cover both sides of 15" strip of elastic net with velvet and insert at bag and sew to bag firmly. top opening of

ZIPPER
(Illus. 9) Insert a 6" zipper in opening in third side of bag.

LINING
Using bag pattern, cut lining in three pieces. Sew two side seams of lining and stitch third side up 2" from bottom. Place lining in bag.

(Illus. 10) Turn lining in along opening and hem around zipper.

Pattern for Beaded Velvet Bag

Wool Felt Beret
MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • •

Use Beret Pattern on page 85 1/2 yard of felt is required to make the beret 3/4 yard of grosgrain ribbon for headband

CUTTING PATTERN AND MATERIAL

(Illus. 1) Place pattern on a fold of paper and cut out. Cut two of these patterns, and on one pattern cut out headsize as marked on pattern. (Illus. 2) Mark pattern. (Illus. (3 and 3a) Place pattern on felt and mark around felt with tailor's chalk and cut out. back and front of

SEWING BERET TOGETHER
(Illus. 4) Baste dart in top of Beret, stitch and press seam open.

(Illus. 4a) Baste seam in facing brim of Beret and stitch (Illus. 5) and press seam open (Illus. 6). (Illus. 7) Place right sides of top brim and facing brim of Beret together. Baste around brim edge, (Illus. 8) stitch and remove basting Beret to right side. (Illus. 9) Slip a piece of paper rope large enough to fit around edge of beret brim inside Beret and hold over steam, threads. Turn

manipulating edge of beret with fingers until edge around brim is smooth and even. Instructions for Beret headband page 46.

BERET WITH A BAND
Follow above instructions for Beret except headband finish. (Illus. 10) Cut a felt band double the width you want band to be and your headsize length. Join ends of band together with a furring stitch. Fold band lengthwise and 11). Fold band again into quarters (Illus. 12) and mark. Fold Beret headsize into quarters and mark. Have seams on Beret together, on band and Beret together and stitch on band and seam match markings headsize, pin (Illus. 13). steam press (Illus.

Pattern for Small Beret

Stitched Beret and Matching Bag
MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR BERET AND BAG
• • • • •

1 yard of foundation felt 1 yard of fabric 6 spools of cotton thread for stitching 3/4 yard of ribbon for headband Use Beret pattern page 85.

FOUNDATION FOR BERET
Felt must be shrunk before using. This is done by placing a damp cloth over the felt and ironing (Illus. 1). Do this on both sides of felt, then remove cloth and iron felt dry. Be careful not to stretch the felt. (Illus. 2) Pin pattern on foundation felt. Using tailor's chalk, mark around entire pattern, including headsize. Mark back seam, notches and darts on felt. Cut out (except headsize) allowing 1/2" for seams.

CUTTING BERET
Place foundation felt on wrong side of beret fabric on the bias (back to front). Place foundation felt pattern, with pencil lines up, on wrong side of

beret fabric on the bias (back to front). (Illus. 3) Baste felt foundation to fabric on the line around outer brim, headsize and all openings. Mark all notches. Cut out fabric.

STITCHING
(Illus. 4) Machine stitch design on felt side of top and bottom pieces as

follows: (Illus. 5) divide top and (Illus. 6) bottom pieces into quarters, stitch from brim edge to center. Fill in each quarter section with rows of even stitching, including headsize. Machine foot is a good measure for distances between rows of stitching. Press on felt side using a damp cloth.

ASSEMBLING BRIMS
(Illus. 7) Baste and stitch center back seams and darts. Trim and press seams open. Clip darts to point. Match notches on brim edges, baste and stitch brims together. Be sure this seam is stitched evenly. Trim off each seam separately 1/8" from stitching. Cut out around headsize 1" inside line. Turn beret right side out. Place a round pressing pad inside beret and steam press seam around brim edge. Steam headsize, pulling and stretching material to fit your correct headsize Utility Block. More material may have to be cut around headsize. Be careful not to cut out too much, however, since felt will stretch.

HEADBAND

Refer to page 46 for Beret headband.

Stitched Bag to Match Beret
Use 3-cornered bag pattern, page 88.

CUTTING BAG
Place pattern on foundation felt and cut out three identical sections. Baste these three felt sections to wrong side of material and cut out.

STITCHING
(Illus. 8) Machine stitch each section on felt side from outer edge to center. Fill in each section with rows of even stitching the same distance apart as stitching on beret. Steam press each section. (Illus. 9) Sew the three sections together, stitching two seams from top to bottom. Stitch the third side up from bottom for 1/2" and down from top for 1/2". Insert a zipper in this side opening . Stitch three seams together to form bottom of bag and turn bag inside out. Steam and press all seams open.

BAG HANDLE
(Illus. 10] Cut a strip of material 4" wide and 15" long for handle. Fold strip together lengthwise on wrong side and stitch. Pull fold through to right side. Fold strip in half and pin ends in opening at top of bag. Turn top of bag in 1/4" and sew securely around handle by hand.

LINING
Cut lining and assemble exactly like outside of bag. Press and slip into bag. Turn edges of lining under around zipper and slip stitch.

Beret Made of Wool Material
BERET MADE OF WOOL MATERIAL
Use pattern on page 91 Place pattern on a fold of paper and cut pattern double. Cut two brim patterns, one a solid pattern for top beret brim, and one brim pattern for facing, with headsize cut out on correct headsize line, marked on pattern, either small, medium or large. Place headband pattern on a fold of paper and cut length of headband to correspond with beret pattern headsize. Mark back and front of pattern on brims and on band.

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • • • •

1/3 yard of foundation felt. Shrink felt before using. 1/3 of a yard of silk lining 1/3 yard of wool material 3/4 of a yard of headsize ribbon Strip of buckram 1" x 24"

CUTTING MATERIALS

(Illus. 1) Place brim pattern on foundation felt, mark around pattern on felt and cut out felt. (Illus. 2) Baste felt brims to material and cut out material. (Illus. 3) Place brim patterns on lining material and cut out lining. Place headband pattern on material and cut out material.

SEWING BERET TOGETHER
(Illus. 4) Pin brims together on wrong side and baste a 1/4" seam around brim edge and stitch. Turn Beret to right side. Use a paper rope pad to fit inside beret brim edge. Steam edge of beret thoroughly over this paper pad, remove paper pad when beret is dry. Baste lining brim pieces together and slip into Beret and baste together around headsize. (Illus. 5) Join ends of headband together. Stitch and press seam open. Fold lengthwise and press. Baste over buckram strip. Measure headband into quarters and mark. Measure Beret headsize into quarters and mark. Pin seam on band to back of Beret. Match marking on band with markings on Beret headsize, pin and baste to Beret. Finish headsize with a headband.

See instructions for Beret headband on page 46.

Beret Made of Wool Material

BERET MADE OF WOOL MATERIAL
Use pattern on page 91 Place pattern on a fold of paper and cut pattern double. Cut two brim patterns, one a solid pattern for top beret brim, and one brim pattern for facing, with headsize cut out on correct headsize line, marked on pattern, either small, medium or large. Place headband pattern on a fold of paper and cut length of headband to correspond with beret pattern headsize. Mark back and front of pattern on brims and on band.

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • • • •

1/3 yard of foundation felt. Shrink felt before using. 1/3 of a yard of silk lining 1/3 yard of wool material 3/4 of a yard of headsize ribbon Strip of buckram 1" x 24"

CUTTING MATERIALS
(Illus. 1) Place brim pattern on foundation felt, mark around pattern on felt and cut out felt.

(Illus. 2) Baste felt brims to material and cut out material. (Illus. 3) Place brim patterns on lining material and Place on material and cut out material. cut out lining. headband pattern

SEWING BERET TOGETHER
(Illus. 4) Pin brims together on wrong side and baste a 1/4" seam around brim edge and stitch. Turn Beret to right side. Use a paper rope pad to fit inside beret brim edge. Steam edge of beret thoroughly over this paper pad, remove paper pad when beret is dry. Baste lining brim pieces together and slip into Beret and baste together around headsize. (Illus. 5) Join ends of headband together. Stitch and press seam open. Fold lengthwise and press. Baste over buckram strip. Measure headband into quarters and mark. Measure Beret headsize into quarters and mark. Pin seam on band to back of Beret. Match marking on band with markings on Beret headsize, pin and baste to Beret. Finish headsize with a headband. See instructions for Beret headband on page 46.

Child's Beret of Felt
MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • •

Use pattern for child's Beret Place pattern on fold of paper and cut both pieces double. 1/3 of a yard of felt.

MARKING AND CUTTING FELT
(Illus. 1) Place pattern on felt and mark around pattern on felt with tailor's chalk. Notch material to match notches on pattern. No. 1 piece of pattern cut out two of felt. No. 2 piece of pattern cut out one of felt.

BERET SIDE CROWN
(Illus. 2) Match notches and baste No. 1 pieces together. Stitch seam open and press seam open. Baste on each side of seam and stitch flat.

SEWING SIDE CROWN TO TOP
Match notches and baste No. 1 and No. 2 pieces together. Stitch and press seam open. Baste each side of seam open and stitch seam flat.

CUTTING AND SEWING BAND
Cut a strip of felt 1 1/4" wide and 1" longer than your head measurement. Join seam making a 1/2" seam. Stitch and press seam open. Divide felt strip into quarters and

mark. Divide Beret headsize into quarters and mark. Pin felt strip (with seam in back) to headsize. Match markings, baste together and stitch. Turn balance of strip under and stitch.

Pattern for Child's Beret

Sectional Beret

REQUIREMENTS
• • • •

1/4 yard of material 1/4 yard lining 1/4 yard unsized elastic net 3/4 yard ribbon headband

CUTTING BERET SECTIONS
Trace and cut out pattern sections. Mark and number each section, exactly like pattern in book.

(Illus. 1) Lay pattern sections on unsized elastic net, draw a line around pattern sections on net, also mark net exactly as pattern is marked. Baste each section of elastic net on wrong side of material, and cut out material. Cut out ten sections of lining.

JOINING BERET
(Illus. 2) Join No. 10 section and No. 1 section, seam sides marked F together, making a 1/4" seam. (Illus. 3) Stitch and press seam open. (Illus. 4) Continue adding sections according to numbers, joining No. 2 to No. 1 until all sections have been sewn together and seams steamed open. Stitch each section and press seam open before adding next section. Join, baste and stitch lining in same order as above. Press lining. Place in hat with seams facing elastic net.

FINISHING HEADSIZE
(Illus. 5) Turn bottom around headsize up 1/4", slip on Utility head block and steam around headsize patting material around headsize. Allow to dry on block. Finish inside headsize with a swirled headband ribbon.

Pattern for Sectional Beret
100,

101, 102—Pattern for Sectional Beret

Stitched Casual Hat and Bag

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • • • •

3/4 yard of fabric 1 yard of foundation felt 1/4 yard of lining Ribbon headband 3 spools of thread for stitching

STITCHED CASUAL HAT AND BAG
Four piece crown pattern on page 113 can be used instead of six piece crown if desired. Any material can be used to make this hat and bag; wool, silk, velvet or cotton material. Shrink foundation felt before using.

CUTTING CASUAL HAT CROWN
Lay pattern for crown sections on felt. Draw a line around pattern on felt and cut out six sections. Lay these felt sections on fabric as pattern indicates. Baste around each section and cut out fabric.

STITCHING CROWN
(Illus. 1) Start rows of stitching at bottom of each section. Stitch to top of section and then down to bottom of section again, continue stitching row after row until section is entirely filled with stitching. Use machine foot to gage distance between rows of stitching. Fill each section with stitching before joining together. (Illus. 2) Baste each section of crown together starting at top and basting down. Then stitch on machine and trim seams close on each section.

BLOCKING CROWN
Pull crown on correct headsize block wrong side out. Steam press seams open then steam crown smoothing out wrinkles and pulling

crown down to fit block. Pin to block around bottom of crown. Let dry on block. (Illus. 3) Measure and mark depth and width crown is to be and run a basting thread around crown on these marks. Mark back and front of crown. Increase or decrease brim pattern at back seam and lay brim pattern on felt. Mark around pattern on felt allowing 1/2" for seams and cut out felt. Lay felt on wrong side of fabric on the bias and baste felt and fabric together and cut out. Now lay fabric side of brim on right side of material on the bias, baste together (Illus. 4) and cut out.

STITCHING BRIM
(Illus. 5) Stitch all three pieces together around brim edge on machine. Trim seam and remove basting. (Illus. 6) Open brim and join together in back, seaming top side of felt and fabric and facing side of fabrics together in one continuous seam. (Illus. 7) Turn facing fabric over felt side of brim and baste around brim edge. Steam press brim. Stitch, starting 1/4" from edge of brim for first row of stitching and continue stitching row after row (Illus. 8) until headsize line is reached. Mark front of brim.

ASSEMBLING CROWN AND BRIM

(Illus. 9) Have crown on block and slip brim over crown. Match markings on crown and brim and pin brim to crown on basting line around crown. Make any adjustments necessary before stitching crown and brim together. (Illus. 10) Trim off excess material inside headsize.

LINING AND HEADBAND
Cut six crown sections of lining, join and stitch sections together. Steam press lining on block and slip inside crown and baste around headsize. Finish headsize with a swirled headband.

Pattern for Stitched Casual Hat

Stitched Bag to Match Casual Hat
STITCHED BAG TO MATCH CASUAL HAT
Lay pattern on toundation felt. Mark around pattern and mark notches on felt. Cut out felt and baste felt pieces to fabric allowing 1/2". Cut out fabric. (Illus. 1) Stitch each piece on felt side using width of machine foot as distance between rows of stitching. Start on outer edge of each piece and stitch row after row until center of each piece is reached. Steam press pieces.

ASSEMBLING EACH PIECE
Match notches on side pieces with center piece, baste and stitch together. Turn edge of fabric on handle and bag flap over and hem to felt.

LINING BAG
(Illus. 2) Cut a lining like pattern. Baste and stitch together. Press and slip lining into bag. Baste lining around handle, flap and plain side of bag top. (Illus. 3) Sew button to bag and loop to flap for bag closing.

Pattern for Stitched Bag to Match Casual Hat
107, 108, 109, 110— Stitched Bag to Match Casual Hat

.

Ribbon Hat and Bag
CASUAL RIBBON HAT AND BAG
Use ribbon hat pattern on page 114 Use ribbon bag pattern on page 116

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• •

3 bolts of 1" ribbon 1 yard of crinoline Cut six sections of crinoline from crown pattern.

CROWN

(Illus. 1) Baste ribbon flat on crinoline, slightly lapping each row. (Illus. 2) Cut off each row of ribbon even with each row of ribbon to crinoline. (Illus. 3) Join each section with a 1/4" seam. Be sure points of sections meet evenly on crinoline. Stitch

top of crown. (Illus. 4) Place crown wrong side out on utility block and press seams open (Illus. 5). (Illus. 6) Turn crown right side out, place an utility block. Steam and pull crown down to fit block, pinning to block around the bottom. Let dry on block. Mark back and front of crown.

BRIM
Cut two brim sections of crinoline from brim pattern. (Illus. 7) Starting in back, baste ribbon to crinoline from brim edge to headsize, slightly lapping each row. Increase lapping each row of ribbon at headsize to fit crinoline. Join brim in back with a narrow seam. Press seam

open. Mark back and front of brim. Make facing in the same way. (Illus. 8) Baste top and bottom brims together on wrong side and stitch. Turn brim right side out and press. Place brim on utility block. Match markings on crown and brim and pin together. Baste brim to crown, then stitch around headsize (Illus. 9).

LINING
Using thin silk, follow same pattern for lining. Stitch sections together. Steam on block and let dry. (See illustrations 3 and 4.) Remove lining from block and slip into ribbon crown. Baste around headsize. Finish headsize with a swirled headband.

TRIMMING
(Illus. 10) Trim with flat tailored bows on either side of crown. This hat can be folded for traveling convenience.

Pattern for Ribbon Hat

Ribbon Bag to Match Hat
CUTTING AND SEWING
Cut four sections of crinoline. Baste ribbon to each piece of crinoline, lapping each row slightly. Trim ribbon to fit crinoline. Stitch each row of ribbon flat on crinoline. (Illus. 1) Baste four sections together, then stitch, making a 1/4" seam. Press seams open.

LINING
Follow same pattern for lining. Stitch four sections together. Slip lining over bag and turn bag right side out. (Illus. 2) Baste lining to ribbon around top of bag.

FINISHING TOP OF BAG
(Illus. 3) Baste two rows of ribbon around top inside of bag. Baste first row on inside over lining edge, then baste another row around the top of that row. (Illus. 4) Add two rows of ribbon on outside of bag around top. of one section, turn end and baste one row to section. Cut ribbon off Starting in center of ribbon under center of opposite and turn under.

Take another length of ribbon, turn end under and starting where first ribbon left off baste second ribbon to opposite section. Cut ribbon off and turn under. Baste another row of ribbon around top of one piece. Stitch each row of ribbon flat.

DRAW STRINGS
(Illus. 5) Fold two 30" lengths of ribbon in half and stitch flat. Draw one piece through opening in ribbon, around bag and out through same opening. (Illus. 6) Draw the other piece of ribbon through opposite opening, around bag and out through same opening. Finish ends of ribbon strips and join strips together.

Ribbon Bag Pattern

Flowered Hat
DESCRIPTION
Hats made entirely of flowers may be made on buckram frames, wire frames or on nylon foundations. Small flowers are used when the entire hat is to be made of flowers although turbans or very small hats are sometimes made of larger flowers. Bunches of flowers are taken apart and each flower is sewn or tacked to the hat separately. When making an entire hat of flowers, remember not to use too large a frame or the hat will be top heavy.

FLOWERED HAT MADE ON BUCKRAM
Cover buckram frame with thin taffeta in the same color as the flowers. Pin flowers to frame just close enough together to cover foundation. Sew flowers to frame by tacking in center of flower. If petals need to be sewn to frame, tack edge of petal only. Avoid sewing flowers on too tightly. If buckram frame has a brim, plain taffeta facing on underside of brim is pretty and may be done after all the flowers have been sewn on crown and top of brim.

FLOWERED HAT MADE ON WIRE FRAME
First cover wire frame with sized georgette. Tack flowers to georgette in the same manner as above. In this kind of hat, flowers are also sewn to facing on underside of brim.

FLOWERED HAT MADE ON NYLON FOUNDATION
Arrange and pin flowers on foundation. Bind edge of foundation.

Helmet
HELMET
The following instructions apply to both helmet patterns. Any kind of material may be used. Wool, tweed, satin, taffeta and pique are most satisfactory. Trace pattern and lay on fold of paper and cut double.

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • •

3/8 yard of material for outside of helmet 3/8 yard of crinoline for foundation 3/8 yard of sized georgette for lining

CUTTING AND
Lay pattern on and cut out. Mark piece of material 1) Match notches together, making a seam on machine. headsize block, outside. Pull until smooth, and around the bottom.

SEWING
sized georgette and notch each like pattern. (Illus. and baste pieces 1/4" seam. Stitch Place on correct with seams on material down pin to block

(Illus. 2) Press thoroughly with a steam iron and let dry on block. To remove from block, slip a corset stay between block and material and carefully loosen material from block. Cut, sew and block crinoline foundation in the same manner. Now cut out material for outside of helmet. Match notches and baste pieces together, making a 1/4" seam. Stitch seam on machine. (Illus. 3) Turn each side of seam flat and baste down, then stitch down each side of seam. Block as above, being sure to smooth out all wrinkles, and let dry on block.

ASSEMBLING HELMET
Place georgette lining on block with seams on outside. Place crinoline foundation on block over georgette. Now put outside material on block, over the crinoline, with seams on the inside. (Illus. 4) Pin through all three pieces to block and steam again. Turn under, baste edges around bottom of helmet and

steam. (Illus. 5) When dry, remove from block and slip stitch edge around bottom of helmet (Illus. 6)

Pattern for Helmet

Calot—Open or Closed Crown
CALOT—OPEN OR CROWN
This calot may be material, fur or felt, velvet, wool, cotton, etc.

CLOSED
made of any pique, taffeta,

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • • •

3/8 yard of material for outside of calot 3/8 yard of crinoline for foundation 3/8 yard of lining material 3/4 yard of ribbon for headband

FOUNDATION
Lay pattern on crinoline. Mark around pattern on crinoline and cut out. (Illus. 1) Baste seams together as indicated on pattern, then stitch.

When making open crown calot, turn edge under around opening and baste flat. If crown is closed, cut crinoline circle like pattern circle. Baste circle on calot and stitch. (Illus. 2) Pull this crinoline foundation on correct headsize block. Steam foundation, pulling and pinning it down to fit block.

COVERING FOUNDATION
Lay calot for covering. Mark fabric and cut out. like foundation. pattern on fabric around pattern on Baste and stitch Place on block

wrong side out and steam press all seams open. Remove from block, turn right side out and slip covering over foundation. Pin crinoline foundation and fabric foundation together. Turn edge around face under and hem to underside. (Illus. 3) Steam this edge.

LINING
Cut lining from same pattern and sew together as described above. Place lining on block and steam press. Remove from block and slip lining inside calot. Turn lining edges under and slip stitch around edge.

FELT CALOT MADE FROM THIS PATTERN
Use a small felt hood. Wrap felt hood in a damp cloth for several hours before blocking. Pull felt hood over block and steam until soft and pliable, pulling felt down to fit block. Pin felt to block around the bottom and let dry on block. Cut a crinoline foundation from pattern as explained. Sew and block foundation as above. When felt

is dry, slip blocked crinoline foundation over felt on block and mark around crinoline on felt with tailor's chalk. (Illus. 4) Remove felt from block and cut off excess felt on this line. Turn edge under 1/2" around face and hem to under side. Block a headband ribbon and sew around inside headsize.

Brim pattern for Felt Calot
Cut open bottom of felt hood and press flat. Place brim pattern on felt. Mark around pattern with tailor's chalk and cut out. Using the same pattern, cut out two more identical sections (three brim sections in all). Bind each section with No. 3 grosgrain ribbon (instructions for ribbon binding on page 59). Adjust and pin each section around crown as pictured and sew.

Pattern for Calot

Scalloped Calot
MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • • •

3/8 yard any material 3/8 yard crinoline 3/8 yard sized honeycomb 1 yard bead trimming

CUTTING CALOT
Cut three large sections and three small sections of material, crinoline and honeycomb for lining.

SEWING
(Illus. 1) Lay material sections on corresponding crinoline sections and baste together. Join sections together alternately—a large section and a small section—and stitch, making a 1/4" seam.

BLOCKING
Pull on headblock with material side next to block. (Illus. 2) Steam press each seam open and pin bottom edge of calot to block. Allow to dry on block. (Illus. 3) When dry, remove from block and baste 1/4" hem around each scallop. Steam press hem.

LINING
Stitch lining sections together alternately as above. Pull lining over block and steam press each seam open. Pm bottom edge of lining to

block and let dry on block. When dry, slip calot on block over lining, matching scallops of calot and lining, and pin together. Turn edge of lining under around scallops and slip stitch lining to bottom of calot. (Illus. 4) Pin pearl trimming around edge of scallops and sew, using overcast stitch.

Pattern for Scalloped Calot

Turbans
TURBANS
A Draped Turban can be made of almost any material that will drape into soft,folds and is entirely dependent on the clever draping for style. To drape a professional looking Turban requires real skill to manipulate and design the material into a smart becoming hat. Gives the Designer an opportunity to express creative ability. To make a draped Turban you start from the

headband, then the foundation and then the Turban is draped last. Material is draped and sewn to the foundation last.

MATERIAL REQUIRED
• • • • •

1 to 1 1/2 yards of material 1/2 yard of sized georgette 1/2 yard of crinoline 1 yard headband ribbon Utility headblock in the correct headsize

HOW TO MEASURE HEAD FOR FOUNDATION
Decide where turban is to be worn on head. (Illus. 1) Start a tape measure at that point and measure over the top of head to hollow at back of head. Measure desired depth of turban on head from side to side. Mark back to front measurement and side to side measurement on block. Also mark eye line measurement on block. (Eye line is any indentation around face line of turban.) To measure eye line, start tape measure at top center of head and measure to where indentation is desired and mark this measurement on block. Draw line around block to mark these measurements.

HEADBAND
Use No. 5 grosgrain sawtooth ribbon. Wet ribbon and squeeze dry (Illus. 2). Start ribbon in back of block with bottom edge of ribbon on the line. Pull and stretch ribbon and pin around block, turning ribbon over at eye line (Illus. 3) and

continuing around block until ribbon meets in back. Turn ribbon under at back.

FOUNDATION
Place sized georgette over block on the bias (Illus. 4). (Run bias from back to front.) Steam, pull down and pin georgette to ribbon headband. Sew to center of headband all the way around. Cut off excess georgette just below sewing on headband. Repeat same process with a layer of crinoline over georgette. Steam, block and pin crinoline to headband and sew. Cut off excess crinoline and let foundation dry on block. Cut a square 14" x 15" of material used to cover turban. Pin and block over foundation in the same manner used to make foundation, sewing to headband and cutting off excess material.

DRAPING TURBAN
(Illus. 5) Cut a bias piece of material used to cover turban 12" x 36" for drape and baste to a bias piece of georgette. Then use your own idea pinning and draping bias material until desired effect is accomplished. Tuck ends of drape under folds to finish and tack on foundation. Steam each fold and slip stitch drape around bottom of drape to headband. (Illus. 6) If a rolled edge around turban is desired, use a piece of paper rope inside bias strip and wrap bias material around paper rope, crushing material as you twist it around. Taper off ends of paper rope and tack to foundation, then tack roll to foundation. Two colors used to drape turban roll is very effective. Cut two bias strips of material and wrap around roll alternating colors.

Turban does not need another lining or headband.

>Fur

Hats

FUR HATS
Fur hats can be made on a buckram frame or combined with felt. If the entire hat is to be made of fur, be sure to choose a small or medium frame. Fur has a tendency to make a hat bulky. If a larger hat is desired, combine fur and felt or velvet, or any other cloth and fur combination. Use only short nap fur. Fluffy furs are desirable only as trimming and even then use sparingly. To look professional, fur hats require time and expert workmanship.

PERSIAN LAMB HAT
Follow directions on page 64 for blocking felt crown. Trace pattern on page 129 for fur brim and fur ornament. Lay pattern on a fold of paper and cut pattern double. Open pattern and lay flat on a piece of elastic net (Illus. 1). Mark around pattern on net and cut out elastic net on line marked. Slash elastic net every 1/2" around headsize (Illus. 2). Whip stitch a strong frame wire around edge of elastic net brim and strip of crinoline over frame (Illus. 3). (Do not headsize.) stretch a 1/2" bias wire and baste to wire frame around

MAKING FUR BRIM
(Illus. 4) Dampen pelt side of fur with a sponge and stretch fur as much as possible without tearing pelt. Tack fur down to a board and let fur dry. Pin brim pattern on pelt side of fur on board and draw a line around pattern on pelt. (Illus. 5) Carefully run a sharp razor blade through pelt on line marked and gently pull fur pieces apart.

MAKING FUR BRIM
(Illus. 6) Sew silk tape around fur brim edge, using an overcast stitch. Pin fur brim on top side of frame turning tape over edge of frame and sewing tape to frame (Illus. 7). Make fur brim facing the same as top brim, with tape. On the facing and sew down on pelt. (Illus. 8) Pin facing of fur to frame and slip stitch fur brim together (Illus. 9) around brim edge. binding fur edge turn tape under

ASSEMBLING FUR BRIM AND FELT CROWN
(Illus. 10) Mark center of fur brim and center of felt crown. Slip fur brim under felt crown on block and pin crown and brim

together. Sew crown and brim together taking small invisible stitches on felt side.

FUR ORNAMENT FOR PERSIAN LAMB HAT
(Illus. 11) Trace ornament pattern and cut out. Lay pattern on sized elastic net and cut out. Wire entire edge (Illus. 12) and bind edge with crinoline. (Illus. 13) Use pattern to cut fur, cutting fur in same manner as for brim. Sew silk tape around edge of fur (Illus. 14). Sew one side of fur to ornament foundation, sewing tape to foundation (Illus. 15). Sew tape fur down on both sides of second piece of (Illus. 16) and pin to other side of ornament. Slip stitch both pieces of fur together all around the edge of ornament. Sew ornament as illustrated 17.

Pattern for Fur Brim

Maline Pom Pom
DESCRIPTION
Maline Pom Pom can be made larger or smaller by adjusting the size of the circle pattern used to cut maline circles. Pattern given in book for maline pom pom is an 8" circle and makes a large maline pom pom.

MATERIAL REQUIRED TO MAKE MALINE POM POM
• •

Four yards of maline in one color Two yards of each color if two colors are used.

FOLDING AND CUTTING MALINE
(Illus. 1) Open maline to full width and fold maline over 8" and continue folding maline over and over every 8" until entire piece of maline has been folded.

(Illus. 2) Place circle pattern on maline and cut around circle pattern through all thicknesses of maline. Repeat across width of folded maline, cutting out maline circles through all thicknesses until entire piece of folded maline has been cut in circles.

FOLDING AND SEWING POM POM
(Illus. 3) Pin two maline circles together, fold circles in half and then fold circles in quarters and pin. Repeat until all maline circles have been folded, and pinned. (Illus. 4) Sew maline folded circles together (alternating a closed side of folded maline circle and an open side of folded maline circle) on point until all maline circles have been sewn to Pom Pom.

USING TWO COLORS IN POM POM
(Illus. 5) Open each piece of colored maline to full width, and put both pieces of maline together. (Illus. 6) Fold maline back and forth every eight inches, instead of over and over as when making Pom Pom of one color maline. Cut out maline circles the same as above.

When folding maline circles, have one circle of each color together, then fold and proceed as above.

Pattern for Maline Pom Pom

Hat Trimmings and their Applications
• • • • • • • •

HOW TO APPLY HAT TRIMMINGS MAKING HAT PINS SEVERAL DIFFERENT HAT TRIMMINGS MAKING RIBBON AND TAFFETA BOWS MAKING A MALINE POM POM MAKING A RIBBON COCARDE MAKING BUCKLES MAKING RIBBON HAT BANDS

MAKING RIBBON ORNAMENTS

Wedding Veils and Bridesmaids Hats
• • • •

FORMAL WEDDING VEILS INFORMAL WEDDING VEILS TIARAS BRIDESMAID HATS

How to Apply Trimmings
WINGS
To tack a wing on a hat as a trimming, sew wire on wing to hat. Then tack through wing underneath a feather on the wings, tie threads on underside. Always pin trimming on hat before sewing. Try hat on, make proper adjustments and then sew.

FLOWERS
Flowers are pinned on hat. Then try on hat, make adjustments and sew stem of flower to hat. Tack under a petal of flower using a tie tack. To make an entire hat of flowers each flower is sewn on separately usually in the center of flower. Leaves are tacked on the very edge of leaf with the same color green thread and a tie tack stitch is used.

BEADS
Beads are applied to felts by slipping the needle through a layer of the felt, but not through to other side of felt as stitches must not show. Felt is very easily beaded. When beading a velvet hat cover side you are going to bead with velvet first then sew on beads. Then cover other side of hat with velvet.

VEILS
Usually one yard of veiling is required for the average hat. However are very small and require only % of a some veils yard.

Sometimes the veiling is too wide for a particular hat. In this event cut off some of the width of the veiling, using the side that has been cut at the top of the hat, turning in the cut part and sewing or tacking in place, on hat. If a small visor veil is used, swirl veiling with a steam iron and let veil dry before sewing in hat. Then cut off all excess veiling inside headsize, after veil has been sewn in hat. To drape a veil on a hat, pin center of veiling to center of hat. Put hat on Utility head block and drape and fold veiling until desired effect is attained. Gather ends of veiling, (cutting off any excess) wind ends of veil with a thread and tuck ends of veiling under edge of crown or brim or under any fold, here use your

own individuality. Ends of veiling may have narrow velvet ribbon sewn on and veil tied at the back of hat.

BIRD CAGE VEIL
MATERIAL REQUIRED

3/4 yd. 18" veiling. Gather ends of veiling together,

starting 3" from each end at top of veil and slant shirring to other end of veil (Illus. 1). Bottom of veil will be 27" and top of veil will be 21". to fit around front adjust ends of veil (Illus. 2). Crush tissue paper up under front of veil and pass through steam, pushing paper against veil as you steam (Illus. 3). For a veil with tab ends, use 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 yds. of is adjusted on hat, veil and sew beads, (Illus. 4). veiling. After veil gather in ends of buttons, or some Gather top of veil of crown and on hat and tack

other trim to veil ends, lapping veil ends at back of hat

Self Trimmings

SELF TRIMMINGS
Trace pattern No. 1. Lay pattern on elastic net. Mark around pattern and cut out elastic net foundation. Lay pattern on a double piece of fabric. Mark around pattern on fabric and allow 1/2" and cut out fabric. (Illus. 1) Turn fabric over edge of foundation and sew fabric down around edge of foundation. Baste fabric piece to other side, turn in edge of fabric and slip stitch around edge of 2). (Illus. 3). Start 1/4" from outer edge of ornament and machine stitch row after row following outline of ornament until entire ornament surface is covered with rows of stitching. Steam press ornament. To make this ornament of felt cut out two pieces of felt like pattern and glue felt pieces together with Milliner's Glue. Trace pattern No. 2 and lay pattern on crinoline. Mark around pattern on crinoline and cut out. (Illus. 4) Baste crinoline on wrong side of a double piece of fabric around outer edge and stitch on machine. Pull ornament right side out and baste around (Illus. 5) and stitch. (Illus. 6) Stitch center of ornament as illustration. edge of ornament foundation (Illus.

TO MAKE TUBING FOR CENTER OF ORNAMENT
Cut a bias strip of fabric 1" wide. Fold strip lengthwise and stitch together down center of strip. Attach bodkin as Illustration 7 and pull cording to right side. (Do not cut off seam in tubing as it acts as a padding in tubing when pulled to right side.) Cut tubing into 2 1/4" strips. Turn one end of tubing in with scissors and sew other end of strip in center of ornament.

QUILL ORNAMENT
Use pattern No. 3. Make Quill ornament, the same as No. 2. (Illus. 9) Sew Quill Feeler in center of ornament by pushing needle through side of Quill Feeler and through center to other side of it, and into fabric as Illustration 9a.

Patterns for Self Trimmings

Ribbon Ornaments
PLEATED RIBBON ORNAMENT MATERIAL REQUIRED

1 1/2 to 2 yards of 1 1/2" grosgrain ribbon, depending on size of ornament. Any width ribbon may be used.

PLEATING RIBBON
(Illus. 1) Make a 1/4" pleat in ribbon and sew in lower corner. (Illus. 2) Make another pleat in ribbon and fold pleat almost even with first pleat and corner, sewing sew in lower through all

thicknesses of ribbon. Repeat until you have enough ribbon pleated to make the size circle you want. (Illus. 3) Join ends of pleated ribbon to form a circle. (Illus. 4) Cut two pieces of ribbon on the bias center of ribbon back of ornament. and slip through circle. Sew to

RIBBON BANDS FOR CASUAL HAT BRIMS RIBBON BAND NO. 1
Use 1 1/2" yards of 1 1/2" grosgrain ribbon for band. Fold ribbon over 1" and tack on underside of fold

(Illus. 5). Turn each side of fold under on right side of band, making a point in

center of each fold (Illus. 6). Sew point down (Illus. 7) with a large bead. Continue making ribbon folds 2" apart around entire band (Illus. 8) turning each side of fold under and sewing with a bead as described. Tack ribbon band around crown of any casual hat.

RIBBON BAND NO. 2
Use two widths of ribbon for this band, and two colors 3/4" of a yard of 1 1/2" grosgrain ribbon and 1 1/2 yards of 3/4" grosgrain ribbon in a contrasting color. (Illus. 9) Fold narrow ribbon on a bias slant over wider ribbon and tack each fold to wide ribbon band at top and bottom (Illus. 10).

Ribbon Bows
WIRING RIBBON FOR BOWS
Ribbon wire is used to wire ribbon, is available in black or white. Use black for dark ribbons

and white for light ribbons. For some bows the ribbon wire is sewn in the center of the ribbon, on the wrong side (Illus. 1). Use thread in same color as ribbon to sew wire. Take a stitch through wire and ribbon on the wrong side of ribbon and a long stitch on underneath side of ribbon, through ribbon wire (Illus. 2).

Ribbon is also wired on the edge of ribbon (Illus. 3), stitching ribbon wire down one side of ribbon and turning ribbon over once to cover the wire (Illus. 4).

WIRING TAFFETA BOWS
Cut (taffeta bought by the yard) into strips as wide as you want bows to be, allowing 1/2" on each side for hemming. Turn taffeta edge over 1/4" (Illus. 5) then turn over again 1/4" (Illus. 6) and stitch on machine. Do this to each side of taffeta strips. Run through then make bows. a fine piece of lace wire these grooves (Illus. 7)

LOOP BOWS
Divide amount of ribbon you are using in half and start with one end, gather together and sew (Illus. 8).

(Illus. 9) Loop ribbon under keeping end on top. (Illus. 10) Loop next loop under again and let this end come from underneath. (Illus. 11) Cut a small piece of ribbon and crush through and over center to back of bow and sew.

BUTTERFLY BOW
Make three loops on each side making one loop on one side longer (Illus. 12). After bow is completed and a soft piece of ribbon crushed in center of bow and sewn on back side of bow (llus. 13). Cut the center long loop open on the bias (Illus. 14).

TAILORED BOW
D i vide and mark loop and end, lay ribbon for each flat and sew

having one on each side, like illustration 15 or several like Illustration 16. If you are having several loops on each side graduate loops having first loop longest. However measure each loop on each side of bow and mark before starting. Finish center of bow with a

small piece of folded ribbon sewn on back side of bow (Illus. 17).

Ribbon Cocarde
RIBBON COCARDE
Use any width grosgrain ribbon to make Cocarde. 1 1/2 to 2 yards of ribbon is required to make ribbon Cocarde, depending on size desired.

MAKING RIBBON COCARDE (Illus. 1 and 2) Turn ribbon down on each side to make a point, then fold ribbon in center (Illus. 3), bringing these folded sides together, sew in lower point. Turn ribbon back and turn side down making a point again, (Illus. 4 and 5)
and folding in center bringing folded sides together (Illus. 6)

and sew in lower point (Illus. 7). Repeat in

this manner until you have enough folded ribbon points to make the size Ribbon Cocarde you want (Illus. 8). Cut ribbon off and join ends and sew together in lower corner.

Hat Pins
FRINGED FELT HAT PINS
For each hat pin cut a strip of felt 2" x 1 1/2". Slash one side of felt strip very close together and 3/4" deep, making a fringed edge. (Illus. 1) Wrap the other side of felt strip around the head of a small hat pin, lap end over and sew felt flat. Also take a few stitches at bottom of fringed felt and pull thread tight and fasten securely, forming a tassel of felt on pin (Illus. 2).

LARGE ORNAMENTAL HAT PINS
(Illus. 3). Cut a piece of lining 2" x 2" and fold lengthwise. Sew each side and bottom together. Slip a hat pin through top opening, let pin protrude at bottom. Stuff bag with cotton and sew top together. Cut material for outside covering of hat pin same as above, sew together, slip over hat pin base (Illus. 4). Gather material around bottom of pin and sew securely. Bead these pins elaborately and use for trimming.

SMALL MATCHING HAT PINS
Cut circles of lining, gather around bottom and stuff circle with cotton (Illus. 5).

Slip hat pin head in (Illus. 6) draw, gather together, and fasten (Illus. 7). Cut matching hat material as above and slip over hat pin base, gather around pin and fasten (Illus. 8). securely

FELT PINS
Cut felt in small circles, squares or oblong shapes. Sew two pieces same shape together 1/4" from edge of felt (Illus. 10). Stuff center with cotton (Illus. 11) and slip hat pin head between felt pieces. Sew securely around pin (Illus. 12).

Wedding Veils
WEDDING VEILS
Bridal Illusion is a filmy net used for wedding veils. A formal wedding veil requires six yards of veiling to make veil. Finished formal wedding veil is about five yards long.

An informal wedding veil requires three yards veiling and is usually made fingertip length. Bridal Illusion is 108" wide and requires one width in correct length to make veil. Edges of veiling do not require a finish, however lace may be used to finish edges if desired. Bridal Illusion is available in white and egg shell.

TIARAS
Many beautiful Tiaras ready made may be purchased in the Millinery Supply Houses, or you can make your own Tiaras. Purchase a wire Tiara frame and wind the wires of frame with strips of net. Cut a piece of net double and a few inches wider than frame measures. Fold net double in length, measure a 1" heading and shirr net. Pin shirring on brim wire with heading extended around edge of brim, having a piece of the net on both sides of frame. Make a shirring in net at each wire on frame on both sides, and sew net to frame on these wires.

TO MAKE VEIL
Open veiling to full width. Fold one corner of veiling over one yard and make several rows of shirring on edge of fold. Pin shirred veiling to back of Tiara frame and pull shirring threads to fit frame and tie. Sew veiling through shirring to Tiara on this wire. Trim points on veiling round, at bottom and top of veil.

Bridesmaid Hats

BRIDESMAID HATS HORSEHAIR HAT
Horsehair hats are always attractive and may be had in many beautiful shades, and are very inexpensive. To block a horsehair body follow directions for blocking rough straw bodies.

FLOWERED BAND
(Illus. 1) Purchase a metal clip in any Millinery supply house. Wind metal clip with 1/2" grosgrain ribbon and tack ribbon. Separate flowers from a bunch and pin around top of clip and and sew large bunches of side of clip. Clip will fit sew (Illus. 2). Pin flowers on either head securely.

HALF HATS
Half hats are very popular for bridesmaid hats and any material can be used to make this hat. Silk or velvet to match dress can be used to make half hat, or it can be made of flowers or tulle. Instructions for half hat on page 38.

OPEN OR CLOSED CROWN CALOT
Calot is also a very popular hat for bridesmaids, is a very youthful hat and can be made of almost any material and has endless possibilities. Calot pattern on page 121.

Fabric-Covered Buckles
FABRIC COVERED BUCKLES
Place buckle pattern on elastic net and draw around pattern on net and cut out. (Illus. 1) Wire outer edge of buckle foundation if a stiff buckle is desired, cover wire with a bias crinoline strip. For a soft buckle do not wire foundation.

TO COVER BUCKLE FOUNDATION
Place pattern on a double piece of fabric, mark around pattern on fabric, allow 1/4" and cut out, on outside edge only. (Illus. 3) Turn fabric over edge of foundation and sew to other side of foundation. (Illus. 4) Slash fabric in center openings of buckle from side to side. Clip fabric in corners of openings and turn fabric side of foundation and stitches do not come through to right side of buckle. Baste fabric to other side of buckle, turning in edges of fabric (Illus. 5) around outer edge of buckle and slip stitching. Slash center openings and turn fabric under and slip stitch (Illus. 6). through to other sew. Be sure

TO MAKE A BUCKLE
Place a buckle

OF FELT
pattern on a piece

of felt and mark around pattern on felt and cut out two pieces alike. Glue buckle pieces together with Milliners glue.

Patterns for Buckles

Felt Bonnet
(This Hat can be made out of Felt or Pique. Two sets of directions and material lists follow.)

FELT BONNET MATERIALS
• • • •

3/8 yd. of Felt, 36" wide. Sawtooth grograin ribbon to match, 5/8" wide, 3/4 yd. 1 yd. of cording for ties. Needle and matching thread.

PIQUE BONNET MATERIALS
• • •

Pique, 1/2 yd. Muslin, 3/8 yd. Crinolin, 3/8 yd.

• •

Cording, 1 yd. Sawtooth headband ribbon

PATTERNS
These are given actual size. For every 1/2" decrease or increase of headsize, take off or add 1/4" on each side seam.

CUTTING DIRECTIONS FOR FELT
(1) Trace pattern—using smooth tissue paper— place pattern, marked on fold, directly on fold of paper and do not cut fold. (2) Place pattern on material and cut out. Cut cording in two equal pieces.

CUTTING DIRECTIONS FOR PIQUE
(1) Lay crown pattern on pique and cut out. (2) Lay crown pattern on crinoline and cut out. (3) Lay crown pattern on muslin and cut out. (4) Lay brim pattern on pique and cut out two brims of pique. (5) Lay brim pattern on crinoline and cut out one brim.

SEWING DIRECTIONS FOR FELT
(1) Fold each dart on back section—match markings—baste and stitch. Cut along fold of dart and press open. (2) Place top section to back—right edge of center seam edge of sides together.

Edges even—baste and stitch seam and press open. (3) Turn brim edge in 3/8 in. baste and stitch. Steam press. (4) Clip in along inner brim edge edge every 1/2 inch. With right sides together match center fronts of brim and crown, baste together and stitch. (5) Pin headband ribbon— starting in center back. Pin ribbon around head-size— lapping end of ribbon. Stitch close to edge of ribbon. Dampen ribbon and turn headband to inside of headsize. (6) Place cording ends to each brim illustration. Stitch points—turn other scissor points. Tie illustrated. point as shown in cord securely to end of cord in with cords as

SEWING FOR PIQUE

DIRECTIONS

Baste crinoline crown pieces to wrong side of pique crown pieces then baste and stitch crown pieces together. Press seams open. Lay pique brim pieces right sides together, then lay crinoline brim on and baste. Stitch brim around outer

edge. Turn brim to right side, open corners and insert cords, baste and stitch brim around outer edge 1/8" from edge. Press. Join crown to brim and stitch. Stitch crown lining together and slip into crown. Sew lining around headsize and sew in headband ribbon. For blocking when complete, one method is to sew two shoulder pads together to form a simple hat blocking pad. See Fig. 8.

Pattern for Bonnet

Cleaning and Remodeling Methods

CLEANING AND REMODELING FELTS
Light colored felts can be washed. Use white soap flakes and lukewarm water. Rinse felts in lukewarm water, and reblock while wet. Remove ribbon crown bands, headsize ribbons and wire around brims before washing felts. Separate crowns and brims before reblocking felts. If felts have been stitched on machine around crown or brims, cut crowns from brims on machine stitching. Many felts will tear on perforations made by machine stitching when being reblocked. Reblock old felts using the same methods as are used to block new felts. When felt is dry apply a thin coat of felt sizing and let felt remain on block until sizing is dry. Rewire brim edge, sew crown and brim together and finish headsize with a swirled ribbon headband. Dark colored fur felts can be washed also, usually a tissue paper pad and cleaning fluid rubbed over felt is all that is required. The felt can then be wrapped in a damp cloth for several hours before re-blocking. Remove ribbon bands and wires before cleaning and proceed the same as for felt that has been washed. To freshen felts, place hat on block and brush felt while holding over steam. Let hat dry on block. To remove spots from light colored felts, rub No. 0000 sandpaper over spot on felt lightly, being careful not to rub too hard.

CLEANING HAT TRIMMINGS
To clean ostrich feathers, dip feather in naphtha or cleaning fluid, then hold feather over steam to fluff flues. To re-curl ostrich feathers use the back of scissors or some dull instrument, carefully pulling instrument over each flue, just as you would curl the ends of ribbon on a gift package. Do this gently as feather flues break very easily.

To clean wings and other fancy feathers, wipe them off with a cloth dipped in cleaning fluid. Glue any loose feathers. Flowers ran be steamed after wiping off with cleaning fluid and re-gluing any loose petals. Veils should be smoothed, pressed and coated with fabric sizing or pressed between sheets of waxed paper, then rolled on a paper roll when not in use.

Over Shoulder Bag
OVER SHOULDER BAG
Trace and Cut Bag Pattern: Place all pieces of bag pattern on foundation felt and material. Cut out. Cut #2 piece double, both felt and material. Mark and notch each piece as pattern is marked.

Baste material and felt together. Cut #2 piece out of elastic net and cut in half lengthwise. Also cut a piece of elastic net 9" x 2" for bottom of bag. Match markings and stitch side seams on #1 piece together. Match markings and stitch #2 pieces. Turn to right side, press and slip a piece of elastic net in each cuff and baste each cuff to top of bag. Stitch #3 piece flat, press and baste to each side of bag at top and stitch. Make a facing to fit top of bag 3" wide. On the right side of this facing stitch a piece of material 9 1/2" x 1 1/4" on each side, making a groove for Facile Spring Fastener, Style K'B, 11" long. Baste and stitch facing around top of bag. Turn over and baste to inside of bag. Slip elastic net in bottom of bag and sew to felt. Slip lining in bag and hem to facing. Slip spring fastener in bag.

Facile Fastener's special patented handbag closure simplifies the construction of handbags at home or in school projects. The hinged corners of the fasteners come apart for insertion in sleeves sewn into purse and are easily assembled to form a solid and substantial closure that will last indefinitely.

End of book.

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