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Published by: Zina_Ghotra_9253 on Apr 01, 2012
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Date 09-09-2011 | 1

Evolution, Motivation, and Emotions

Introduction to Psychology, PSBE1-01 Chapters 3 & 6

Date 09-09-2011 | 2

Nature vs. Nurture Debate
› Do your genes determine your traits, talents, abilities, etc., or do these depend more on your environment?

Date 09-09-2011 | 3

Three big topics
› Evolution (Chapter 3) › Motivation, emotions (Chapter 6) › Learning (Chapter 4)


which can be the same or different › Some are dominant. some recessive › In the simplest case. one from each parent 2 alleles. great diversity can be generated Date 09-09-2011 | 5 Combining genes Traits of Peas Traits of Dogs Date 09-09-2011 | 6 How much do genes explain? › Genotype Set of genes an organism has › Phenotype Observable traits an organism has › Twins Monozygotic twins: same genes Dizygotic twins: 50% of the same genes 2 .8-9-2011 Date 09-09-2011 | 4 Inherited Traits › Two pairs of chromosomes. A recessive gene is expressed only when both alleles are recessive Across many generations. a dominant gene is expressed if it is present.

8-9-2011 Date 09-09-2011 | 7 Controlling nature or nurture • Control for genetic similarity while varying environment? Monozygotic twins.the first wives were both called "Linda" and the second wives were both called "Betty. › Both were fingernail biters and suffered from migraine headaches. Jim and Jim were separated at birth and adopted by different families. › Both enjoyed leaving love notes to his wife throughout the house." › One Jim had named his son "James Allan" and the other Jim had named his son "James Alan. Date 09-09-2011 | 9 Inferences about heredity › Compare traits A. › Both Jims smoked Salem cigarettes and drank Miller Lite beer. raised separately Different environment • Control for environment while varying genetic similarity? Monozygotic twins Genetically identical Dizygotic twins or siblings Adopted siblings Genetically unrelated Date 09-09-2011 | 8 Uncanny twin story › Both had a dog named "Toy. and C: what could account for the relationships in each. B. genes or environment? Environment Gene Weak Relationship 3 ." › Both had driven his light-blue Chevrolet to Pas Grille beach in Florida for family vacations. › Both Jims had at one time held part-time posts as sheriffs. same house Same environment Monozygotic twins." › Both had been married two times .

8-9-2011 Date 09-09-2011 | 10 Learning from twin research? Genetic influences on sexual orientation 100 Concordance rate is the likelyhood of one person in a pair showing the same phenotype as the other person 90 80 concordance rate 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Monozygotic Group Dizygotic 65. & Martin. and some are not › Perhaps some traits represent an interaction between genes and environment › Sex Reassignment Native Language Eye Color Intelligence Weight Gender Happiness Date 09-09-2011 | 12 Selective breeding 4 . 1993 Date 09-09-2011 | 11 Can heritability differ by trait? › Perhaps some traits are inherited.8 30. Diamond.4 Created from Whitham.

› The more seasons a bird lives. the more chances it has to reproduce. by mating the fast ones with other fast ones. Date 09-09-2011 | 14 Darwin’s insight › Charles Darwin didn’t know anything about DNA › He made an elegant observation Selective breeding occurs in nature. how many generations are needed differentiate.8-9-2011 Date 09-09-2011 | 13 Example: Selective Breeding › Can you breed rats to run through a maze faster? › Yes. › What causes some trait to be preferred over another? Environmental pressures. Date 09-09-2011 | 15 Natural Selection › Suppose a bird dies before it reproduces. and slow with slow › Notice though. 5 .

Date 09-09-2011 | 18 A discussion question › Take this to the pub this weekend: Do you think that extreme talent is due mostly to nature or to nurture? W. Mozart 6 . or random.assuming that anything “natural” must also be good Also.8-9-2011 Date 09-09-2011 | 16 Do Psychologists Study Genes? Vole Date 09-09-2011 | 17 Deterministic fallacyassuming that anything influenced by genes is not also influenced by environmental or cultural factors Naturalistic fallacy. side effects.A. traits can be vestigal.

occurs before a reward is received › Reinforcement Effects that a reward has in promoting learning Date 09-09-2011 | 21 Example: Hunger › A regulatory drive. 7 . physical discomfort all help individuals stay alive . companionship. thirst.8-9-2011 Date 09-09-2011 | 19 Motivation › Motivation is fueled by drives Some drives promote survival . is very scarce.Drive to achieve. especially high-calorie food. Date 09-09-2011 | 20 Reward’s components › Liking Feeling of pleasure that occurs when one receives a reward › Wanting Desire to obtain a reward. drive for self-esteem › Fulfilling drives is promoted by rewards North-American Shakers. food is necessary for survival › Modern hunger drive = caveman hunger drive? › We eat as though food. enable a species to thrive Some drives are more cognitive .Avoiding hunger.Desires for sex.

8-9-2011 Date 09-09-2011 | 22 How does appetite work? › Feedback control. achievement › Arousal is a state of alertness caused by the activity of the central nervous system › Ranges from unconscious to high stress. anxiety Yerkes-Dodson Law 8 . and eating eventually decreases hunger signal › Signal is determined by calories in stomach › But brain is the regulator Arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus releases neurotransmitters that induce and suppress hunger Hormone leptin is secreted in proportion to the amount of stored fat Date 09-09-2011 | 23 Is appetite all biological? › Environmental cues stimulate appetite Sensory-specific satiety Plate-size studies › Early experiences could effect weight Set-point theory: adult body weight is “set” early in life › The brain and environment interact to produce eating habits. but also selfesteem. but weight seems to be strongly influenced by genes › Why we like what we like Date 09-09-2011 | 24 Arousal and behavior › Drives not only for survival.hunger promotes eating.

8-9-2011 Date 09-09-2011 | 25 Emotional expressions Date 09-09-2011 | 26 Which emotions? Date 09-09-2011 | 27 How is emotion experienced? Consider Fear: 9 .

To better communicate our thoughts and intentions. Scary Bridge Date 09-09-2011 | 30 Do emotions promote survival? What do you think? Are there any adaptive reasons why we experience emotion? 1. To prevent us from fighting futile battles 10 .8-9-2011 Date 09-09-2011 | 28 Faked facial expressions Lab-induced facial expressions: do they provoke emotional experiences? • Subjective feelings • Physical symptoms Date 09-09-2011 | 29 Are you afraid or excited? › Participants in the study were males who happened to be there. even without language 3. Participant is approached on the scary bridge. › Variables: Researcher is either an attractive female. receive a debriefing form. To promote attachment to other people 2. Participants fill in a survey. or a male. or on solid ground.

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