1. 2.



4. 5.



deletion for the same. It maintains the details of customer payments. product receipts. products and also updating. The primary features of the project entitled "ONLINE SHOPPING" are high accuracy. addition of new customers. And also it uses database tables Representing entities and relationships between entities. It also stores the details of invoices generated by customer and payments made by them with all Payments details like credit card.SYNOPSIS The Project entitled "ONLINE SHOPPING" is a web-based application Software developed in JAVA LANGUAGE using Java as front end on Pentium machine. The main aim of "ONLINE SHOPPING" is to improve the services of Customers and vendors. . design flexibility and easy availability.

The Server process the customers and the items are shipped to the address submitted by them. the details of the items are brought forward from the database for the customer view based on the selection through the menu and the database of all the products are updated at the end of each transaction. The application which is deployed at the customer database.OVERVIEW OF ONLINE SHOPPING The central concept of the application is to allow the customer to shop virtually using the Internet and allow customers to buy the items and articles of their desire from the store. several reports could be generated as per the security. Once the authorized personnel feed the relevant data into the system. The information pertaining to the products are stores on an RDBMS at the server side (store). The application was designed into two modules first Os for the customers who wish to buy the articles. . Data entry into the application can be done through various screens designed for various levels of users. Second is for the storekeepers who maintains and updates the information pertaining to the articles and those of the customers? The end user of this product is a departmental store where the application is hosted on the web and the administrator maintains the database.



.2 using Java as front end and it could run only on Java 1. handling customers and product receipts. updating of stores. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SYSTEM AND THE PROJECT ONLINE SHOPPING is developed in Java 1.PROBLEM DEFINITION To develop a web-based application to improve the service to the customers and merchant which in turn increases the sales and profit in "ONLINE SHOPPING" GOALS FOR THE SYSTEM AND THE PROJECT The system is capable of maintaining details of various customers.2. Products and storing all the day to day transactions such as generation of shipment address bills.2 and onward versions. vendors.



The String and String Buffer Classes is a thorough lesson on the use of both types of strings. The Java Language Package The Java language package. System and Runtime These two classes provide let your . The classes in this package are grouped as follows: Object The granddaddy of all classes--the class from which all others inherit. Float Integer and Long. also known as java. Character. contains classes that are core to the Java language. Data Type Wrappers A collection of classes used to wrap variables of a primitive data type: Boolean.The Java Packages Eight packages comprise the standard Java development environment.lang. Strings Two classes that implement character data. and Double.

Threads The Thread. Thread Death and Thread Group classes supplement the multi-threading capabilities so important to the Java language. The java. System provides a system-independent programming interface to system resources and Runtime gives you direct system-specific access to the runtime environment. Runnable makes it convenient for Java class to be active without sub classing the Thread class. Exceptions are .lang package also defines the runnable interface. Through an example-oriented approach Threads of Control will teach you about Java threads. Classes The Class provides a runtime description of a class and the Class Loader class allows you to load classes into your program during runtime. Using System Resources Describes both the System and Runtime classes and their methods. Math The Math class provides a library of math routines and values such as pi. the program throws an object. Error. Exception.programs use system resources. which indicates what the problem was and the state of the interpreter when the error occurred. and Throwable When an error occurs in a Java program. Only objects that derive from the throwable class can be thrown. There are two main subclasses of Throwable: Exception and Error.

Vector. and Error classes. Stack. The Java I/O Package The Java I/O Package (java.lang Packages defines and implements the generic Process class. The java. and numerous Subclasses of Exception and Error that represent specific Problems. The classes and interfaces defined In java. No other packages are automatically imported. and Hash table) a useful object for tokenizing a string and another for manipulating calendar provides a set of input and Output streams used to read and write data to files or other Input and output sources. Handling Error Using Exceptions shows you how to use exceptions in your Java programs to handle errors. The java.util. . The Java Utility Package This Java package. Errors are used for more catastrophic errors--normal programs should not catch errors.a form of Throwable that "normal" programs may try to catch. The compiler automatically imports this package for you. Among them are several generic data structures (Dictionary. are covered fully in Input and Output Streams.lang package contains the Throwable. Process Process objects represent the system process that is created when you use Runtime to execute system commands. java. contains a collection of utility classes.

The java. a connection to a URL.awt. including a client-server example and an example that uses datagrams. The Abstract Window Toolkit Packages Three packages comprise the Abstract Window Toolkit: Java.image. The java. Custom Networking and Security has several examples using these classes.util classes aren't covered separately in this tutorial although some examples use these package contains classes and interface definitions that implement various networking capabilities. The Classes in this package include a class that implement a URL. a socket connection.peer. AWT Package .util package also contains the Observer interface and Observable class. and java.awt. which allow objects to notify one another when they change. Included in this Package is the Audio Clip interface which provides a very high level abstraction of audio. You can use these classes to implement clientserver applications and other networking communication applications. Writing Applets explains the ins and outs of developing your own applets. The Java Networking Package The java. and a datagram packet.awt. The Applet Package This package contains the Applet class -the class that you must subclass if you're writing an applet. java.

awt. AWT Image Package The java. cropping. .peer package contains classes and interfaces that connect platformindependent AWT components to their platformdependent implementation (such as Motif widgets or Microsoft Windows controls).The java.awt.image package contains classes and interfaces for managing image data. buttons. such as setting the color model.awt package provides graphical user interface (GUI) elements that are used to get input from and display information to the user. These elements include windows. color filtering. and text items. Creating a User Interface covers all three of the AWT packages. scrollbars. AWT Peer Package The java. and grabbing snapshots of the screen. setting pixel values.

anyone who has spent hours chasing a memory leak cost by a printer bug will be very happy .. As for the second point. How simple Java makes onerous tasks will like opening a socket connection. The single biggest difference between Java has a pointer model that eliminates the possibility of overwriting memory and corrupting data. • Robust Java is intended for writing programs that must be readable in a Variety ways. Anyone who has tries to do Internet programming using another language will revel. The Java compiler detects many problems that in other languages would only show up at runtime. We have found the networking capabilities of Java to be both strong and easy to use.FEATURES OF JAVA • Distributed Java has an extensive library of routines for coping with TCP/IP protocols like HTTP and FTP Java applications can open and access across the Net via URLs with the same ease as when accessing local file system.. and eliminating situations that are error prone. later dynamic checking. Java puts a lot of emphasis on early checking for possible problems.

memory outside its own process Secure 3.with this feature of Java. Rather they ere designed to be both easy to any machine and easily translated into native machine code on the fly. 2. for example. for like lists. You need not pointers for everyday constructs like string and arrays. the UCSD Pascal system did the . Corrupting space. Reading or writing local files when invoked through a security-conscious class loader like Web browser. Java is intended to be used in networked/distributed environment toward that end.the compiled code is executable on many processors.The Java compiler does this by generating byte code instructions which have nothing to do with a particular computer architecture. And you have always-complete safety. Overrunning the runtime stack. given the presence of Java runtime system. Java enables the contraction of virus-free. Since you can never access a bad pointer or make memory allocation errors.. Architecture Neutral The compiler generates an architecture neutral object file format. Java gives you the best of both worlds. temper-free systems. a lot of emphasis has been placed on security.. You have the power of pointers if you need it. Here is a sample of what Java’s security features are supposed to keep a Java programming from doing: 1. Twenty years ago.

For example. there is an abstract window class and implementations of it UNIX. By using bytecodes. int can mean a 16-bit integer. The only restriction is that it must have at least as many bytes int and cannot have more bytes than a long int. For example. Interpreted The Java interpreters can execute Java byte codes directly on any machine to which the interpreter has been ported. And the codes have been designed to translate easily into actual machine instructions. even before that. performance takes major hit. a 32-bit integer. ultimately. Nicholas Worth’s original implementation of Pascal used the same approach. One problem is that the JDK is fairly slow at compiling your source code to the bytecodes that will. and the Macintosh. as is the behavior of arithmetic on them. or any size the compiler vendor likes. The designers of Java did an excellent job developing a byte code instruction set those workers well on today’s most common computer architectures. In C/C++. Windows. an int in Java is always a 32-bit integer. The sizes of the primitive’s data types are specified. they are no "implementation dependent" aspects of the specifications. The libraries that are a part of the system define portable interfaces. be interpreted in the . Since linking is a more incremental and lightweight process. the development process can be much more rapid and explanatory.same thing in a commercial product and. Portable Unlike C and C++.

It was designed to adapt to an evolving environment. In Java. and calling them again. there are situations higher performance is required. The bytecodes can be translated on fly into machine code for the particular CPU the application is running on. catching the results. just-intime compilers can give you a 10-or even 20-fold speedup for some programs and will almost always be significantly faster than the Java Interpreter. . This speeds up code once. finding out run time type information is straightforward. This speed up the loop tremendously since once has to do the interpretation only once. Although still slightly slower than a true native code compiler.current version.. Libraries can freely add new methods and instance variables without any effect on their clients. A prime example is code that is downloaded from the Internet to run in browser. Java is more dynamic language than C or C++. and the calling them again. High Performance While the performance of interpreted bytecodes is usually more than adequate.. Multithreaded In a number of ways. These work by compiling the byte codes Into native code once. caching the results. Instead there are just-intime (jit) compilers. Native code compilers for Java are not yet generally available. if needed.. if needed. This is an important feature in those situations where code needs to be added to a running program.

It was built around a model that had these features. Supports Networks centric computing.Java based products could eliminate these by giving the users only those features of a product that the user needs at a time.Applets should be downloadable on to a client machine as and when required. Supports Active X also. Integrating web based sound and graphics into applications is simplified by using methods in Applet class. Supports CORBA& DCOM-Java supports Common Object Request Broken Architecture (CORBA) and Distributed Common Object Model (DCOM). This ensures that certain standards for object Programming are net. Some additional features are explaining below Dynamic downloading of applets. Some of the features of this model we have seen like the object oriented. JAVA APPLETS Applets are a common way of writing Java applications. They appear as part of HTML documents . architecture neutral.Java should be able to support low cost Network computers.PARADIGM OF JAVA Java as a programming language evolved keeping in view certain criteria and features. The remaining features of a product can remain on the server itself. Applets are essentially program that run from within a browser. secure etc. Elimination of fatter phenomenon . robust.

Internet and Intranet based software also reduces the problems of LAN accesses to software instead of accessing a disk by way of a network-mounted disk. Applets run only from with in Java-Enabled browsers such as NETSCAPE.8 k or higher on relatively fast computers. Another large problem is local file access. Loading the applet from the users local disk storage can alleviate this. ADVANTAGES OF APPLETS: There are several advantages using Applets. but without a classic window frame. If the applet was loaded from an http the same way that pictures are presented. The most obvious is that you only need one copy of your production class files on an HTML server. This enables due to keep in constant touch your users. no local files can be read or written to on the client machines. the Java Applet is a complete running program. and INTERNET EXPLOSER. The range of programs that can be written as an APPLET are reduced because of security limitations imposed by the target browser. This reduces the nightmare of distributing and installing software by the tape or disk. An Applet is just like a widow application. hot Java. but this defeats any . DISADVANTAGES OF APPLET: Running your application from a web browser is not necessarily a good thing. It also helps if uses have an Internet connection of 28. Files are accessed through http and FTP. The major difference is that instead of a static graphics. WEB pages can also be used as a method of presenting help to your users as well as keeping them informed about the latest changes to your programs. Target users must be running a version of web browser that supports that Java.

Any Java based graphical application can be easily converted into an applet. If an applet is loaded from networked machine.WindowComponent Frame Object Container Panel Applet of the web-based earlier. APPLET LIFE CYCLE: There are four methods framework to build the applet that give the . Only that machine can be communicated with a via a socket connection this prevents the applet from communicating to other machines on web. This id because both frame and applet are executed from the container class. applet advantages mention Applets have reduced network access. This security restriction is alleviated if the applet is loaded from the users local disk.

Init () Start () Stop () Destroy () Init (): - Used for initial setup such as defining Layout, passing parameters and other initializations. Start (): - This is called immediately after init () start () is called each time user return to the pea or when the page is deconified. Unlike start, init is called only once. Stop (): - This method is called when the user moves off the page on which the Applet sits or when it is iconified. If an applet if not doing time consuming activities like performing animation, this need not be implemented. Destroy (): - This method is called when the browser shuts down. It is used to re-claim resources. JAVA VS C++: The syntax of Java looks very much like C+ +. Compared to c++, Java used similar syntax for if and loops structures. The notion of a constructor is all very similar to what C++ has. The following are some of the differences of Java over C++. If you understand these differences you will see why Java is such a beneficial programming language. •Compare to C++ Java runs 20 times because of platform independents. •Every thing must be in a class. global functions or global data. slower

There are no If you want

the equivalent of global, make static methods and static data within a class. There are no structures or enumeration or unions. Only class. •The Char type uses the international 16-bit. Unicode character set, so it can automatically represent most national characters. • All non-primitive types can only be created using new. All primitive types can only be created directly, without new. There are wrapper classes for all primitive classes so you can create equivalent heap-based objects with new •Java has no Preprocessors. If you want to use classes in another library, you say import and the name of the library. There are no preprocessor-like macros. •There are no Java pointers in the sense of C and C++. When you create an object with new, you get back a reference. For example String s = new String ("peers"); •Java has no templates or other implementation of parameterized types. There is a set of containers : Vectors, stacks and Hash table that hold object references, and through which you can satisfy your container needs, but these containers are not designed for efficiently like the C++ standard template library(STL) •Java has built-in support for comment document action, so the source code file can also contain its own documentation, which is stripped out and reformatted into HTML using an apart program. This is boon for documentation maintenance and use. •Java has standard libraries for solving specific tasks. C++ relies on non-standard

third-party libraries.

These tasks include


Networking Database Connection (via JDBC) Multithreading Distributed Objects (via RMI and CORBA) Compression Commerce

The availability and standard nature of these libraries allow for more rapid application development. •Generally, Java is more robust, via •Object handles initialized to null •Handles are always checked and exceptions are thrown for failure •all array accesses are checked for bounds violations •Automatic garbage collection prevents memory leaks •Clean, relatively fool-proof exception handling •bytecodes verification of network applets

What is JDBC and Why JDBC? JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) is a front-tool for connecting to a server and is similar to ODBC in the respect. However, JDBC can connect only Java clients and uses ODBC for the connectivity. JDBC is essentially a lowlevel Application, Programming Interface. It is called a low-level API since any data

Writing these type drivers is easier compare to writing other drivers 2. All Java JDBC Net Drivers: A JDBC net drivers which uses a common network protocol to connect to an intermediate server. which is turn employees native calls to connect to the data base. This is useful in case of Java application that can run only on some specific platforms.manipulation. 1. They are classified based on how they access data from the database.Native Jdbc driver: A JDBC driver. which are industry standard as of now. each having their own suitability aspects. JDBC Driver types: There are four types of JDBC drivers each having its own functionality. The Jdbc calls in to equaling ODBC calls using the native methods. would make an application truly portable across the databases. Since ODBC provides for connection to any type of database that is ODBC compliant. 3. to connect a number of databases simultaneously. storage and retrieval has to be done by the program itself. This approach is a recommended once since using ODBC drivers. . JDBC-ODBC bridge driver: A bridge driver provided with JDBC can convert. it is very simple matter. Some tools that provide a higher level abstraction are expected shortly. Please note that. which is partly written in Java and most of each. This approach is used for applets where the request must go through the intermediate server. they do not substitute one another. implemented using native methods to access the database.

JDBC Driver Manager 2. JDBC Driver 3. Native Protocol ALL Java Drivers: This type of Jdbc driver is written completely in Java and can access the database by making use of native protocols of the database. Applications. is shown below. Uses Native Calls to uses special Uses native net protocols net protocols . JDBC ARCHITECTURE: JDBC architecture Components of JDBC are 1. This method of data access is suitable in case of Intranets were carry every thing can run as an application instead of an applet. JDB-ODBC Bridge 4.JDBC Native Driver JDBC Application ODBC Driver Manager ODBC Bridge DRIVER JDBC JDBC NET Native Protocol Jdbc driver 4.

which depends on the type of Jdbc Driver we are using.Access The data to accessthe to access the base database database DATA BASE JDBC Driver Manager: . However. each driver should be registered with the driver Manager.Function of the driver manager is to findout available drivers in the system and connects the application to the appropriate database. JDBC-ODBC Bridge: Sunsoft provides a special JDBC Driver called JDBC-ODBC bridge driver.Function of the JDBC Driver is to accept the SQL calls from the application and convert them into native calls to the database. which can be used to connect to any existing database. Whenever a connection is requested. that is ODBC complaint. to help the driver manager identify different types of drivers. in this process it may take help some other drivers or even servers. it is possible that the total functionality of the database server could be built into the driver itself. However. APPLICATION: Application is a Java Program that needs the information to be modified in . Also. JDBC Driver: .

some database information. The client software request an object or transaction from the server software. clients and servers are very common. suppose you are using a word processing program to edit files on another compute. or wants to retrieve the SERVLETS: Client and Servers To understand the World Wide Web and Server Side programming must understand the division between Web clients and Web servers and how HTTP facilities the interaction between the two. On the World Wide Web . Your computer would be the client because it is requesting the files from another computer. which either handles the request an object or transaction from the server software. although this not always the case. A server typically runs on a different machine than the client. The other computer would be the server because it is handling your computer's request. the object is sent back to the client software. a server handles request from various clients. Putting in simple words. If the request is handled. The interaction between the two usually begins on the client side. For example. With networked computers. which either handles the request or denies it.

It also gives a quick introduction to . If the above said server are Java Enabled Web Severs. HTTP is defaulted at port 80 and in case of Servlets it is defaulted at 8080 that could be changed. however. Some of the most common browsers are Netscape Navigator. The process of viewing a document on the web starts when a web browser sends a request to web server in http request headers.server are known as webservers. Web browser’s request documents from web servers. for the preceding example. In the case of Servlets we would refer to a URL with a default port at 8080.An Invitation to Servlets: This session provides answer to the questions "What is Servlets" shows typical uses for Servlets. such as the name of the file being requested. and clients are known as Webbrowsers. In fact. Internet Explorer. As you learn Servlets. you wouldn't. The Web server receives and views the http request headers for any relevant information. 1. and NCA's Mosaic. allowing you to view documents on the World Wide Web. The web browser then uses the HTTP response headers to determine how to display the file or data being returned by the web server. Like most software companies that distribute Web Browsers. So why use any server side scripting? Well. It is just a simple example CGI script. you will see that it allows you to extend the functionality of Web documents to produce dynamic and interactive pages. and sends back the file with HTTP response headers. you don't gain advantage from making it a server side script. these companies also distribute Web server software (in our case we uses JWS Java Web Browser). WHY USE SERVLETS? You may have noticed that the preceding CGI example could just as easily been a simple HTML file.

e. which comply strictly. for an online shopping chart system which manages shopping charts for many concurrent customers and maps every request to the right customer. •Managing state information on top of the stateless HTTP. •Providing synergic content.g. Typical uses for HTTP Servlets include: •Processing and/or storing data submitted an HTML form. It will not work with Servlet engines. Servlets are not tied to a specific clientserver protocol but they are most commonly used with Http and the word "SERVLET" is often used in the meaning of "HTTP Servlets". What is Servlets? Servlets are modules of Java code that run in a server application to answer client requests. Since Servlets are written in the highly portable Java Language and follow a standard framework.0 of the Servlet API.servlet. to version 2.g.HTTP and its implementation in the HttpSetvlet class.0 or 2.servlet and javax. Servlets make use of the Java standard extension classes in the packages javax. e.http (extension of the Servlets framework for Servlets that answer HTTP requests). they provide a means to create server extensions in a server and operating system independent way.1 . The Servlet Environment: Inter-Servlet communication The inter Servlet communication method which is described in this section can only be used with Servlet engines which implement version 1. returning the results of a database query to the client.

A class literal FooServlet (as used in a type cast like "FooServlet foo ((FooServlet) context.Servlets are not alone in a web server.Servelet but in a subclass thereof can. which are not declared in javax. Methods. After obtaining the reference to another Servlet that Servlets methods can be called. which are loaded by a Servlet class loader. Note that in Java the identity of a class is not only defined by the class name but also by the Class Loader by which it was loaded. They have access to other Servlets in the same Servlet context (usually a Servlet directory). This means that classes. Only a classloader object with all loaded classes can be replaced. Web servers usually load each Servlet with a different class loader.getServlet ("FooServlet")") which is used in class BarServlet is different from the class literal FooServlet as used in FooServlet . Note that this method can throw a ServletException because it may need to load and initialize the requested ServletException if this was not already done.servletContext.servlet. A Servlet can get a list of all othg3r Servlets in the Servlet context by calling get Servlet Names on the Servlet Context object. represented by an instance of javax.servlet. cannot be used for inter-Servlet communication. This is necessary to reload Servlets on the fly because single classes cannot be replaced in the running JVM. The Servlet Context is available through the Servlet Config object's get Servlet context method. A Servlet for a known name (probably obtained through getServletNames) is returned by getServlet. called by casting the returned object to the required class type.

these classes are usually located in the class path (as defined by the CLASSPATH environment variable) Sharing Data between Servlets Version 2. a Servlet The ServletContext class has several for accessing the shared objects: methods Public void setAttributes (string name.g. which . Object) adds a new object or replaces an old object by the specified name. In addition to the user-defined attributes there may also be predefined attributes. In a Web Server.fooservlet.fooservlet could have an attribute com. Public Object getAtributes (String name) returns the name object or null if the attribute does not The attribute name should follow the same naming convention as a package name (e. Just like a custom ServletRequest attribute an object which is stored as a ServletContext attribute should also be serializable to allow attributes to be shared by Servlets which are running in different JVMS on different machines in a load balancing server environment. as you’ll see below) by binding the objects to the ServletContext object which is shared by several Servlets. A way to overcome 5this problem is using a supercalss or and interface which is loaded by the system loader and thus shared by all Servlets. which is written in Java.1 of the Servlet API offers a new way of sharing named objects between all the Servlets in a Servlets in Servlet context (and also other

except for JSDK providing supporting for the other servers like IIS and other third party vendors. The separation of Servlets into Servlet contexts depends on the Servlet engine. The Servlet Context objects of a Servlet with a known local URL can be retrieved with the method public Servlet Context getContext (String unipath) of the Servlets own Servlet Context. just like Applets and Applications.servlet. They can also be worked out with Java Web Server. Both JSDK and JWS follow the same rules. Compiling Servlets Servlets can be compiled with the JDK and other Java compilers.http are not included with the compiler or your Servlet engine you have to install them separately by downloading the JSDK (Java Servlet Development Kit) and including the JSDK classes in your CLASSPATH environment variable. Public environment getAtributes name () returns an Enumeration of the names of all available attributes.are specific to the Servlet engine and provide additional information about a Servlet (Context) environment. Public void remove Attribute (String name) removes the attributes with the specified name if it exists.servlet and javax. This method returns null if there is no Servlet for the specified path or if this Servlet is not allowed to get the Servlet Context for the specified path due to security restrictions. . If the Servlet packages javax.

satellite links etc.Introduction to world wide web Internet: The Internet is a network. After that computers in government and universities were voluntarily linked. These Wan's are connected via telephone line. This quickly spread to other institutions around the world where today there are an estimated 20 million computers linked together. The Internet first began in 1969 when the United States Department of Defense researched ways of communication via decentralized computer networks. In 1960s this was explored revolution all aspects of human-information interaction. Its consists of thousands of interconnected networks consisting of different types of computers. The internet stemmed from the concept of universal database: data that would not only be accessible to people around the world. It is the worldwide access to people and information. . When a group of LAN's are connected together they are called Wan’s. Importantly these LAN's are connected to form Wan’s through special computers called Routers. The job of a Router is to provide a link from one network to other where networks can be LAN’s to form Wan’s to become even larger Wan's. but information that would link easily to others pieces of information so that the relevant data can be quickly found by a user. UNDERSTANDING INTERNET A network in which computers are connected using cables or some other direct media are said to be in LAN.

The web realize on three mechanism to make the resources readily available to the widest possible audience: 1. Protocols. for easy resources (E. Hypertext.: .http).URLs) locating 2. INTRODUCTION TO HTML WHAT IS World Wide Web? The World Wide Web is a network of information resources. A Uniform name is scheme for resources on the web (E.HTML) navigation among The ties between the three mechanisms are .g. for access to named resources over the web (E.HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: If Internet being accessed through a telephone line Then we need •A computer with minimum requirements •A modem •A telephone Taking a first issue of computers with minimum requirements may put everyone wondering what could be the requirements? It would be safe enough to use the 486 or higher processors for a computer to be fast enough with at least 16MB to 64MB MEMORY.: .g. 3.: .g.

w3. etc. Fragment Identifiers the . residing on the machine www. please send E-mail to <A href="mailto:Joe@ Accessible Via the path" TR/Prhtml4/cover. The name resource. Introduction to URLs Every resource available on the web-TML document. or "URL" URLs typically consist of three pieces: 1.. Consider the URL that designates current html specification: http://www. Here is another example if a URL. For all comments. given as a path.> JoeCool</a>... image.apparent throughout this specification. Has an address that may be an encoded by a Uniform Resource Locator.w3. The naming scheme of the mechanism used to access the resource. Other schemes you may see in HTML documents include "mailto " for E-mail and FTP for The name of the resource itself. 2.html This URL may be read as follows: They’re a document available via an http protocol. • This one refers to a User's mailbox: This is text.html". video clips. of the machine hosting the 3.

•Form submission •Frames •Citing an external reference." means one level up in the hierarchy defined by the path). •Referring to metadata conventions describing a URLs refer to a location within a resource. Its path generally refers to a resource on the same on the same machine as the current document. Relative URLs A relative URL doesn't contain any naming scheme information. Relative URLs may contain relative path components (". •Image maps. URLs play a role in these situations: •Linking to another document or resource. This kind of URL ends with "#" followed by an anchor identifier (called the "fragment identifier")..html"> Supplies </a> In HTML. and may contain fragment identifiers. What is HTML? .ame. As an example of relative URL resolution. The relative URL in the following markup for a hypertext link: <A href="supplies. assume we have the base URL http://www. •Linking to an external style sheet for inclusion in a page. Relative URLs are resolved to full URLs using a base URL.html. •Images objects and applets for inclusion in a page.

lists. HTML has been extended in a number of ways. This has motivated joint work on specification for HTML.To publish information for global distribution. Retrieve online information via hypertext links. photos. one needs a universally understood language. The publishing language used by the World Web is HTML (from HyperTextMarkupLanguage). Include spreadsheets. sound clip. and other applications directly in their documents. Design forms for conducting transaction with remote services. etc. and popularized by the Mosaic browser developed at NCSA. The Web depends on Web page others and vendors sharing the same conventions for HTML. A brief History of HTML HTML was originally developed by Tim Berners-Lee while at CERN. During the course of the 1990s it has blossomed with the explosive growth of the Web. ordering products. making reservations.0] (1995) . text. etc. HTML+(1993) and [HTML 3.0 (November 1995) was developed under the aegis of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to codify common practice in late 1994. HTML 2. tables. a kind of publishing mother tongue that all computers may potentially understand. During this time. for use in searching for information. video clips. at the click of a button. HTML gives authors the means to: Publish online documents with headings.

Most people agree that HTML documents should work well across different browsers and platforms.Despite never receiving consensus in standard discussions. HTML has been developed with the vision that all manner of devices should be able to use information on the Web. If the effort is not made. cellular telephones. there is much greater risk that the Web will evolve into a proprietary world of incompatible formats. Achieving interoperability lowers costs to content provides since that must develop only one version of a document. ultimately reducing the Web's commercial potential for all participants.proposed much richer versions of HTML. frames. offering improved accessibility for people with disabilities. hand held devices. richer tables. HTML 4. embedding objects.0 HTML 4. PCs with graphics displays of varying resolution and color depths. and so on. Internalization This version of HTML has been designed with the help of experts in the field of international -libation. The efforts of the World Wide Web Consortium’s Html working group to codify common practice in 1996 resulted in HTML 3. and enhancements to forms.2(January 1997). improved support for right to left and mixed direction text. these drafts led to the adoption of a range of new features. scripting. computers with high or low bandwidth.0 extends HTML with mechanism for style sheets. so that document may be written in every language and web transported easily . devices for speech for output and input.

Making it easier to provide descriptions of images for browsers. which deals with the internationalization of HTML. This is the world's most inclusive standard dealing with issues of the representation of international characters. HTML now offers greater support for diverse human languages within a document. HTML has been designed to make Web pages more accessible to those with physical limitations. and other world language issues. etc. punctuation. HTML 4. test direction. This allows for more effective indexing of documents for search engines.around the world. One important step has been the adoption of the ISO? IEC: 10646 Standard (ISO10646) as the document character set for HTML. it is crucial that the underlying technologies be appropriate to their specific needs. higher-quality typography. alternate non-visual . better text-to-text-speech conversion.0 developments in the area of accessibility include: Encouraging the use of style sheets to achieve layout effect. Accessibility As the Web community grows and its members diversify in their abilities and skills. This has been accomplished by incorporating [RFC2070]. correct hyphenation. Providing labels for form fields.

authors and had limited control over rendering. video.g. specialized applications. HTML 3. alignment. Before the advent of style sheets. Providing the ability to associate a longer text description with an HTML element. sound. mathematics. etc. They give both authors and users control over the presentation of documents-font information.Providing labeled hierarchical groupings for form fields. It also allows authors to specify a hierarchy of alternate renderings for user agents that don't support a specific rendering. The mechanism for associating a style sheet with a document is independent of the style sheet language. The OBJECT element (together with its more specific ancestor elements IMG and APPLET) provides a mechanism for including images. Style Sheets Style Sheets simplify HTML markup and largely relieve HTML of the responsibilities of presentation. Compound Documents HTML now offers a standard mechanism for embedding generic media objects and applications in HTML documents. and other objects in a document.. colors. The ability of designers to recommend column widths allows user agents to display table data incrementally as it arrives rather than waiting for the entire table before rendering.2 included a number of . Tables Authors now have greater control over structure and layout (e. column groups).

home page is the page a browser loads. and text color. Also. However. images. the default homepage for a browser can be changed. COMPONENTS OF WWW: WEBPAGE: The part of the Web the user sees the front-end" is known as a Web page. Authors also exploited tables and images as a means for laying out pages. Home page is the entry point for that particular WWW site. the World Wide Web consortium will eventually phases out many of HTML's presentation elements and attributes. sore to an entirely different site. made up of links. However. These documents are usually coded in HyperTextMarkupLanguage (HTML) HOME PAGE: Home page is the first page of web documents. navigation tools text. Every browser has its own home page. The relatively long time it takes for users to upgrade their browser’s means that these features will continue to be used for some time.attributes and elements offering control over alignment. etc. since style sheets often more powerful presentation mechanisms. Web documents are files of information residing at a Web site. LINK: A link can be anything on a page such as text or graphics. font size. WEB SITES: - . is a gateway to another page within the sight.

called hyper links. which is a computer design to "serve" the file up to the user in a proper format. HEPERTEXT: The operation web realizes on hypertext as its means of interacting with users. The user's computer is a terminal. WEB SERVERS: Web sites are housed on a server. Hypertext is basically the same regular textit can be stored read.A group of related pages is a site. Servers run all the time and wait for users to request information. In this way. These programs usually . This new text would themselves have links and a connection to others documents. institutions. The web gets its name. GATEWAY PROGRAMS: Programs that accept and process request from a web server and generate new web pages. These programs add a new level of interactivity on the web not possible by simple HTML documents. etc maintain the web sites. Continually selecting Hypertext is like taking a free-associative tool of information. They are the pages to go on he Web. or end point. Government agencies. It is also refer to as the "Back-end" and is actually software that runs at a web site and returns web documents upon request by the web browser. hypertext links. in fact. searched or editedwith an important extension: Hypertext contains connections with in the text to other documents. from the interdependent network of server’s worldwide. individuals. Companies. in this network. can create a complex virtual web of connections.

It is a fast. also critical to the WWW proposal was the development of new protocol. object oriented protocol called hypertext transfer Protocol Handle Client Requests . stateless. While the World Wide Web encompasses previously existing protocols such as GOPHER and FTP.Server SERVER Client Client SERVER handle requests to run a certain program or access information from a database. PROTOCAL: A protocol is a set of rules for two computers to use when transferring data. especially design for the needs of a distributed hypertext system.

Server .

SYSTEM SPECIFICATION The application ONLINE designed into two modules SHOPPING was the and the 1. BUSSINESS PROCESS MODEL The end-user of this product is a . For the customers who wish to buy articles? 2. For the storekeeper who maintains updates the information pertaining to articles and those of the customers.

He selects the desired product. and customer details. Bill is send by merchant the address specified by the customer. The central concept of the application is to allow the Customer to shop virtually using . After filling order form merchant shipped the product to address specified by the Customer.departmental store where the application is hosted on the web and the administrator maintains the database. and also maintain the product details in the database. after that customer gives the credit card number. the details of the items are brought forward from the database for the customers view based on the selection through the menu and the database of all the products are updated at the end of each transaction. Here marchant can be stored the customer shipped address. Every time he has access the insertion Updating and deletion when and where ever he wants. Data entry into the application can be done through various screens designed for various levels of users. If the customer wants to buy the product he wants to enter into the shopping chart. after that he enter in to the order form he fills the order form. Initially marchant enter with login. Once the authorized personnel feed relevant data into the system. The application which is deployed at the departmental stores will automate the customer details that are appended to the customers database. several reports could be generated as per the security. which is maintained in database.

The purpose of a browser becomes to act as a presentation engine. file would occupy less space than any other graphics file but. It left to the browser how information should be displayed. fonts. The information pertaining to the products are stored on an RDBMS at the server side (store). The Server processes the customer's request and the items are shipped to the address submitted by them. The purpose of HTML is to specify how the text should be processed. having the addresses of those . etc. which can be added to the content of a document as an aid processing. sizes & fonts it would be subjected to a specific environment> Secondly as the number of users grow day by day one should think of minimizing the amount of information to be passed from one system to the other. color. If HTML would be a language having instructions about the colors. there will be no explicit instructions about the size.the Internet and allow customers to buy the items and articles of their desire form the store.. HTML is a formal set of specifications used to define information. The importance of HTML lies with Internet because one doesn’t know about the end user since there are different user types on the NET. Within Hyper text there will be an indication of the start and end of the paragraph. Hence HTML would contain plan ext. to interpret HTML & display the contents in appropriate manner. It will contain the basic information about the link but no specifications about how to display the highlight the link.

The goal of design process is to provide a blue print for implementation. A data dictionary explicitly represents the relationships among data objects and the constrains on the elements of the data structure. planning out and specifying the externally observable characteristics of the software product. A data dictionary should be established and used to define both data and program design. These are explained in the following section. The . DATA DESIGN: The primary activity during data design is to select logical representations of data objects identified during requirement analysis and software analysis. SYSTEM DESIGN Design of software involves conceiving. testing and maintenance activities. The purpose of feasibility is not to solve the problem but to determine if the problem is worth solving.locations. If hypertext one must send information for displaying the text and these instructions are embedded in the text itself. architectural design and user interface design in the design process. Feasibility study is a high level capsule version of the entire system analysis and design process. FESIBILITY STUDY: Feasibility study is conducted once the problem is clearly understood. We have data design. The objective is to determine quickly at a minimum expense how to solve a problem.

1. Technical Feasibility: The project entitles "Project Monitoring System" is technically feasibility because of the below mentioned feature. the machine and manpower utilization are expected to go up by 80-90% approximately. With this software. because precious time can be wanted by manually. 3. . Thus the existing software Java is a powerful language. It provides the high level of reliability. 1. All these make Java an appropriate language for this project. Operational Feasibility: In this project. the management will know the details of each project where he may be presented and the data will be maintained as decentralized and if any inquires for that particular contract can be known as per their requirements and necessaries. Economical Feasibility 3. 2. Technical Feasibility 2. The costs incurred of not creating the system are set to be great.system has been tested for feasibility in the following points. The project was developed in Java which Graphical User Interface. Operational Feasibility. availability and compatibility. Economical Feasibility: The computerized system will help in automate the selection leading the profits and details of the organization.

The most crucial stage in achieving a new successful system and in giving confidence on the new system for the users that it will work efficiently and effectively. For this. The required hardware software acquisition is carried out. investigation of the current system and its constraints on implementation. The more complex the system being implemented. of and The be and new is TESTING: The testing phase is an important part of . It involves careful planning. system may require some software to developed. design of methods to achieve the change over and an evaluation of change over methods a part from planning. The system can be implemented only after thorough testing is done and if it is found to work according to the specification.Implementation: Implementation is the stage where the theoretical design is turned into a working system. The implementation phase comprises several activities. programs are written tested. The user then changes over to his fully tested system and the old system discontinued. the more involved will be the systems analysis and design effort required just for implementation. Two major tasks of preparing the implementation are education and training of the users and testing of the system.

It need not be the case. Unit testing is the important and major part of the project. validity and also determine any missing operations and to verify whether the objectives have been met. So errors are rectified easily in particular module and program clarity is increased. causing serious development. Errors are noted down and corrected immediately. A module can have inadvertent. It is the process of finding errors and missing operations and also a complete verification to determine whether the objectives are met and the user requirements are satisfied. This is due to poor interfacing. . adverse effect on any other or on the global data structures. Software steps: testing is carried out in three The first includes unit testing. which may results in data being lost across an interface. In this project entire system is divided into several modules and is developed individually. the software whose modules when run individually and showing perfect results. where in each module is tested to provide its correctness. will also show perfect results when run as a whole. So unit testing is conducted to individual modules. The second step includes Integration testing. Here also some modifications were. In the completion of the project it is satisfied fully by the end user. The individual modules are clipped under this major module and tested again and verified the results. The final step involves validation and testing which determines which the software functions as the user expected.

In house developed projects produced tones of thousand soft program source statements. Four types of changes are encountered during the maintenance phase. Corrective maintenance changes the software to correct defects. All of these programs. modified as user requirements changed. These activities were collectively called software Maintenance. Software configuration management is a set of tracking and control activities that began when a software project . grieve libraries of computer software began to expand. adaptations required as the software's environment evolves.Maintenance and Enhancement AS the number of computer based systems. and changes due to enhancements brought about by changing customer requirements. or adapted to new hardware that was purchased. all of those source statements-had to be corrected when false were detected. Correction Adaptation Enhancement Prevention Correction: Even with the best quality assurance activities is lightly that the customer will uncover defects in the software. Software products purchased from the outside added hundreds of thousands of new statements. The maintenance phase focuses on change that is associated with error correction. Maintenance is a set of software Engineering activities that occur after software has been delivered to the customer and put into operation. A dark cloud appeared on the horizon.

external product characteristics) for which the software was developed is likely to change. and reengineering an application for use. ADAPTATION: Over time. We may define maintenance by describing four activities that are undertaken after a program is released for use: Corrective Maintenance Adaptive Maintenance Perfective Maintenance or Enhancement Preventive maintenance or reengineering Only about 20 percent of all maintenance work are spent "fixing mistakes". Perceptive maintenance extends the software beyond its original function requirements. the original environment (E>G.begins and terminates only when the software is taken out of the operation. Computer software deteriorates due to and because of this. CPU. operating system. making enhancements requested by users. The remaining 80 percent are spent adapting existing systems to changes in their external environment. preventive . PREVENTION: change. the customer/user will recognize additional functions that will provide benefit.. business rules. Adaptive maintenance results in modification to the software to accommodate change to its external environment. ENHANCEMENT: As software is used.

often called software re engineering. In essence. SCM activities are developed to Identify change. Software configuration management (SCM) is an umbrella activity that is applied throughout the software process. Ensure that implemented. change to is being that may properly have an others .maintenance. adapted. preventive maintenance makes changes to computer programs so that they can be more easily corrected. and enhanced. Control chug. Report change interest. must be conducted to enable the software to serve the needs of its end users.


TABLES Table Name: PRODUCT ----------------------------------------------------Column Name Type ----------------------------------------------------Product Id Int Product Name Varchar Product Type Varchar UnitPrice Float .

Quantity Varchar Units in stock Int Units on Order Int ----------------------------------------------------Table Name: CUSTOMER -----------------------------------------------Column Name Type -----------------------------------------------Order Number Int Order Date Date CustomerName Varchar BillAddress Varchar ShippingAddress Varchar PhoneNumber Varchar Email-Id Varchar Amount Float Shipped Status Varchar ------------------------------------------ Table Name: PRODTABLE -----------------------------------------------Column Name Type -----------------------------------------------ProdId Int ProductName Varchar Price Float .

-----------------------------------------------Table Name: CREDITCARD -----------------------------------------------Column Name Type -----------------------------------------------CardType Varchar CardNumber Varchar ------------------------------------------------ .


Merchant Customer CONTEXT DIAGRAM Product details Enhance Update Delete Order Customer Details FIRST LEVEL DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MARCHANT .

Merchant Enhance stores LOGIN TO ENHANCE STORES Merchant Details Store Details .

Merchant Delete Or Update FIRST LEVEL DATA FLOW LOGIN TO ENHANCE STORES DIAGRAM FOR MARCHANT Merchant Details Updated store Details .

Customer Product type FIRST LEVEL DATAFLOW PROCESSING ON PRODUCTS DIAGRAM FOR CUSTOMER Product details Customer Details Amount Payable .

Customer Order Bill Specified by AddressShipment the Customer SECOND LEVEL SHIPMENT DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR BILL Product details Shipment Address .



The Proper consideration has been given through out the development of for a wide range of new enhancements in future. Requirements the Present the System.INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULT The system has been implemented and tested successfully. Although the system has been designed keeping In future. The system is developed user friendly. if it is required to generate reports other than provided by the system. it can be simply Achieved by a separate module to the main menu without affecting the design of the system. and future requirements in mind and made very flexible. ADVANTAGES . system. There are limitations of It meets the information specified to the great extent.

• It avoids a lot of manual work. • Provide Hardware and software securities. • Avoids errors by avoiding the manual work. • Portable and flexible for further extension.• It simplifies the operation. • Online help messages available to the operating system. • Every Transaction is obtained and processed immediately. •User friendly screen to enter the data and Enquire the database tables. . • User can easily access the system without much experience.


application articles. deployed The application which customer details of the items are brought forward from the database for the customer view based on the selection through the menu and the database of all the products are updated at the end of each transaction. who pertaining end the at user web the designed is modules first Os for the customers who wish to Second and the this the the to of and storekeepers information The departmental hosted is on maintains updates articles product those of the customers? store where application administrator database. the maintains the database. . The information pertaining to the products are stores on an RDBMS at the server side (store). and the The buy the items The Server process the customers are shipped was to the address into for two the the and is a is submitted by them.CONCLUSION The central concept of the application is to allow the customer to shop virtually using the Internet and allow customers to buy the items and articles of their desire from the store.

Data entry into the application can be done through feed various the screens designed data into for the various levels of users. several reports could be generated as per the requirements. personnel Once the authorized relevant system. . This system offers information relevant to the user accessing unnecessary the application and at thus the avoiding overloading same time maintaining the security.


.James A.RustyHarod.Peter& Kent.Fairly. Software Engineering Analysis & Design Of Information . Senn. . John -Patricknaughton Java Network programming .Alan Simpson.BIBILIOGRAPHY HTML Publishing Bible Netscape Java Script The Complete Reference OfJava . .

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