KISHO KUROKAWA Academician, Japan Art Academy (Japan) President, The Japan Society of Landscape Design, Life Fellow

, Architectural Institute of Japan, Life Fellow, Royal Society of Arts (U.K.) Honorary Fellow, American Institute of Architects (U.S.A.) Honorary Member, Union of Architects (Bulgaria) Honorary Fellow, Royal Institute of British Architects (U.K., 1986-) International Fellow, Royal Institute of British Architects(U.K., 2006-) Member, Ordre des Architects (France) Honorary Member, Bund Deustcher Architeken (Germany) Honorary Member, Union of Architects of the Republic of Kazakhstan.(Kazakhstan) Advisor, Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan (2000-2004) Advisor, People’s Government of Guangzhou, China (2000-2002) Advisor, People’sl Government of Shenzhen, China(1999-2002) Advisor, People’s Government of Jiaozuo, China Senior Advisor, Henan Provincial People’s, China Born in Nagoya in 1934. Graduated Kyoto University, B. / Arch. Course, Department of Architecture (1957), Tokyo University, M. / Arch. Course, Graduate School of Architecture (1959) Tokyo University, Dr. / Arch. Course, Graduate School of Architecture (1964). In 1960, at the age of 26, he made his debut into the world as one of the founders of the Metabolism Movement. Since then, he has been advocating the paradigm shift from the Age of Machine Principle to the Age of Life Principle. Concept he advocated such as 「Symbiosis」,「Metabolism」,「Information」,「Recycle」,「Ecology」,「Intermediate Space」,「Fractal」etc. are all important concept based on 「Life Principle」. His publication includes "Urban Design", "Homo Movens", "Thesis on Architecture I and II", "The Era of Nomad", "Philosophy of Symbiosis", "Hanasuki", "Poems of Architecture", "Kisho Kurokawa Note", and "Revolution of City". "Philosophy of Symbiosis", which was awarded the Japan Grand Prix of Literature, was first published in 1987 and was revised in 1991. The book "Philosophy of Symbiosis" was translated into English and was cited Excellence from the AIA in 1992. His major works in Japan are the National Ethnological Museum, the National Bunraku Theater, Nagoya City Art Museum, Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, the Museum of Modern Art, Wakayama,1994 Ehime Prefectural Museum of General Science,Osaka International Convention Center (Grand Cube Osaka), Oita Stadium, Toyota Stadium; his major works abroad are the Japanese-German Centre of Berlin in Germany, the Chinese-Japanese Youth Center in Beijing, China, Melbourne Central in Australia, and Pacific Tower in Paris, France,Republic Plaza, Singapore, the Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Malaysia, and 1999 New Wing of the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. His recent works include: The Japanese Nursing Association Building, The National Art Center, Tokyo, which will open in 2006, the Zhengdong New City of 1.5million for the Zhengzhou City, China, New Kunming Aiport City, China, International Financial Center, Chunking, China, Maggie’s Centre, England and Tea house and Japanese Garden of Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, U.S.A.. In 1982, the traveling exhibition "Kisho Kurokawa " started at the French Institute of

Architecture, and then moved to Florence, Rome, Warsaw, Helsinki, Moscow, to finally become a permanent collection of the Architectural Museum in Wroclaw, Poland. The "Kisho Kurokawa Metabolism 1960-1975" exhibition was held at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, France, from June 17 to September 29, 1997. The "Kisho Kurokawa Retrospective" started in January 20, 1998 at Maison de la Culture du Japon a Paris, France.Then it was held at the Royal Institute of British Architecture (U.K.), the Art Institute of Chicago (U.S.A.), House of the Culture of the World, Berlin (Germany), and New Wing of the Van Gogh Museum (Amsterdam). It was also traveled to several cities of Japan from 2000 to 2001 and was visited by 800,000 people. He received Gold Medal from the Academy of Architecture, France (1986), Richard Neutra Award from California State Polytechnic University (1988), The 48th Japan Art Academy Award (highest award for artists and architects in Japan, 1992), and AIA Los Angeles Pacific Rim Award (first awarded, 1997). He was the first Japanese architect to become an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects and the Union of Architects in Bulgaria. Kurokawa was awarded Walpole Medal of Excellence (UK) and Shungdu Friendship Award (China) in 2005 and The Chicago Athenaeum Museum International Architecture Award in 2006 (U.S.A). In 1994, The Art Institute of Chicago named their architecture gallery the "Kisho Kurokawa Gallery of Architecture". Kurokawa was awarded Dedalo-Minosse International Prize (Grand Prix) 2003/2004 (Italy) for Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Malaysia, which is also certified as a sustainable airport by Green Globe 21, UN in 2003. In 1997, DOCOMOMO International (Documentation and Conservation of Modern Architectural Movement) has selected Kurokawa's Nakagin Capsule Tower, Tokyo (1970) to be included in their short list for World Heritage of Modern Buildings and Sites. In 2003, DOCOMOMO Japan has selected Sagae City Hall (Yamagata, 1997) as one of 100 distinctive modern architectures in Japan. In 2006, Nakagin Capsule Tower has been included in the 125 distinctive modern architectures in Japan.

Kisho Kurokawa (黒川 紀章 Kurokawa Kishō?) (8 de Abril de 1934 – 12 de Outubro de 2007) foi um dos principais arquitectos japoneses e um dos fundadores do Movimento Metabolista.

[editar] Biografia
Nascido em Kanie (Aichi), Kurokawa estudou arquitectura na Universidade de Quioto, graduando-se em 1957. Frequentou a Universidade de Tóquio, tendo por orientador Kenzo Tange. Kurokawa recebeu o mestrado em 1959 e inscreveu-se para doutoramento mas não o concluiu, abandonando-o em 1964.

Com alguns colegas fundou o Movimento Metabolista em 1960. Era um movimento japonês avant-garde que procurava fundir e reciclar os estilos de arquitectura no contexto asiático. O movimento teve muito êxito, e os seus membros receberam grandes elogios do Cotillion Beautillion de Takara na Feira Mundial de 1970 em Osaka. O grupo desintegrou-se pouco depois. Kurokawa escreveu extensivamente sobre filosofia e arquitectura e foi um professor muito activo. Escreveu que há duas tradições inerentes em qualquer cultura: a visível e a invisível. O seu trabalho, indicava, tinha a tradição invisível do Japão. Em 1972 recebeu uma bolsa da Fundação Graham para ensinar no Museum of Science and Industry de Chicago. Faleceu de falha cardíaca em 12 de Outubro de 2007.

[editar] Impermanência

Nakagin Capsule Tower

Entrada para o Nagoya City Art Museum

Museum of Modern Art, Wakayama

National Art Center, Tóquio Kurokawa notou que, com as excepções de Quioto e Kanazawa, a maior parte das cidades japonesas ficou destruída com a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Quando as cidades ocidentais são destruídas, tijolo e pedra ficavam como prova da existência no passado. Infelizmente, notava Kurokawa, as cidades japonesas eram principalmente construídas de madeira e elementos naturais, de modo que arderam completamente não deixando vestígios. Notou ainda que Edo (hoje Tóquio) e Quioto foram quase totalmente destruídas nas várias guerras nos séculos XV e XVI. A mudança de poder no Japão provocava sempre destruição das cidades. Além disso o Japão é propenso a desastres naturais como sismos, tufões, cheias e erupções vulcânicas. Esta contínua destruição deu à população do Japão, segundo afirmou, "uma incerteza sobre a existência, falta de fé no visível, uma suspeição do eterno."

[editar] Projectos
(ordenados por ano de fim de construção)

[editar] anos 1970
 

Nakagin Capsule Tower (Ginza, Tóquio, 1970-1972) Sony Tower (Osaka, 1972-1976)

1988) Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art (Hiroshima. 1996-1999) O Residence (Tóquio. 1992-1993) Ehime Museum of Science (Ehime. Malásia. 1992-1998) Nova ala do Museu Van Gogh (Amsterdão. 1995-1997) Shiga Kogen Roman Art Museum (Yamanouchi.   Tateshina Planetarium (Hiroshima. 1993-1995) Republic Plaza (Singapore. 1979-1983) Wacoal Kojimachi Building (Tóquio. 1990-1993) Senkantei (Hyōgo. 1987-1990) Okinawa Prefectural Government Headquarters (Okinawa. 1996-2000) Osaka International Convention Center (Osaka. 1990-1998) Amber Hall (Kuji. 1994-1997) Aeroporto Internacional de Kuala Lumpur (Kuala Lumpur. 1978-1982) National Bunraku Theater (Osaka. Países Baixos. 1987-1990) Melbourne Central (Melbourne. 1976) Headquarters of the Japanese Red Cross Society (Tóquio. 1992-1994) The Museum of Modern Art Wakayama/Wakayama Prefectural Museum (Wakayama. 1986-1995) Fukui City Museum of Art (Fukui. 1985-1991) Nara City Museum of Photography (Nara. 1988-1990) O Sporting Club de Illinois Center (Chicago. 1982-1984) Chokaso (Tóquio. 1985-1988) Osaka Prefectural Government Offices (Osaka. 1989-1991) Louvain-La-Neuve Museum (Bélgica. 1973-1977) [editar] anos 1980         Saitama Prefectural Museum of Modern Art (Saitama. used for the Copa do Mundo de Futebol de 2002) . 1994-2000) Oita Stadium (Oita. 1993-1996) Softopia Japan (Gifu. França. 1994-1997) Kashima-machi City Hall (Kumamoto. 1988-1989) [editar] anos 1990                          Chinese-Japanese Youth Center (Pequim. 1985-1987) Nagoya City Art Museum (Nagoya. 1990-1996) Fujinomiya Golf Club (Fujinomiya. 1990-1994) Hotel Kyocera (Kagoshima. 1986-1991) Miki House New Office Building (Osaka. 1996-2001. 1975-1977) National Museum of Ethnology (Osaka. 1983-1987) Japanese-German Center of Berlin (Berlim. 1997-1999) [editar] século 21    Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum (Katsuyama. 1991-1994) Ishibashi Junior High School (Tochigi. 1990-1992) Pacific Tower (Paris. Austrália. 1988-1992) Lane Crawford Place (Singapura. 1991-1995) Kibi-cho City Hall/Kibi Dome (Wakayama.

Em 1960.      Toyota Stadium (Toyota City. American Institute of Architects. Graduado em Arquitetura pela Universidade de Kyoto . " Hanasuki ". em 1992. "Homo Movens ". "Poems of Architecture". O seu livro " Philosophy of Symbiosis ". suspenso por dificuldades orçamentais Estádio do Zénite (São Petersburgo. 2000-2003) The National Art Center. Suas principais publicações incluem "Urban Design". O seu principal trabalho no Japão são o Museu Nacional de Etinologia . o Museu de Arte da Cidade de Nagoya. União de Arquitectos. Royal Institute of British Architects. em 1959 e Doutorado pela mesma universidade. Tokyo (Roppongi. Bulgária Dedalo-Minosse International Prize (Grand Prix) for Kuala Lumpur International Airport. California State Polytechnic University (1988) 48th Art Academy Award. and " Kisho Kurokawa Note". pelo aeroporto de Kuala Lumpur (2003) Walpole Medal of Excellence. fez o seu “ debut ” no mundo da arquitetura. Nações Unidas. The Chicago Athenaeum Museum (2006) Nasceu em Nagoya. o Museu Contemporâneo da Cidade de . Green Globe 21. em 1957. o Teatro Nacional Bunraku . "Thesis on Architecture I and II". aos 26 anos. maior prémio para artistas e arquitectos no Japão (1992) Renaming The Art Institute of Chicago to the Kisho Kurokawa Gallery of Architecture (1994) Pacific Rim Award. A obra foi traduzida para o Inglês e citada como “ Excellence ” pelo AIA . com mestrado pela Escola de Arquitetura da Universidade de Tokyo . Académie d'Architecture. foi agraciado com o Grande Prêmio Japônes de Literatura. Los Angeles chapter (primeiro premiado. 2006-2009) [editar] Prémios             Gold Medal. foi primeiramente publicado em 1987 e revisado em 1991. França (1986) Richard Neutra Award. "The Era of Nomad". Reino Unido Honorary Member. 1997) Honorary Fellow. em 1934. como um dos fundadores do Movimento do Metabolismo. Malásia (2003–2004) Certificação de aeroporto sustentável. 1997-2001) Aeroporto Internacional de Astana (Astana. Cazaquistão. em 1964. "Philosophy of Symbiosis". 2005-2008) Plano director da nova capital do Cazaquistão (Astana). Reino Unido (2005) Shungdu Friendship Award. China (2005) International Architecture Award. Tóquio. 2000-2005) Singapore Flyer (Singapura.

o Centro Internacional de Convenção de Osaka. que adota a filosofia da simbiose como um de seus pressupostos e defende o “diálogo entre identidades locais. mas sem perder a identidade com a cultura japonesa. que acontece no Japão e na Coréia em junho de 2002. para construir estádios com múltiplo uso. e o Museu de Arte Yilanzhai . tendo em vista a Copa do Mundo de Futebol. que sera inaugurado em 2007. e pelas coberturas retráteis. tendências globais e história”. Ambos têm semelhanças de linguagem. em Brasília. o Museu de Arte Contemporânea em Wakayama . conforme afirma em entrevista concedida há dois anos. O estádio Oita tem capacidade para 43 mil espectadores e o Toyota pode abrigar 45 mil pessoas. .Hiroshima. Essa é uma das marcas do conhecido arquiteto japonês. fortemente marcada pelas curvas em forma de concha (no Toyota) e de calota (Oita). dotados de coberturas retráteis. Oita e Toyota. dentre outros. na China. com revestimento que utiliza materiais de última geração. Os seus mais recentes trabalhos incluem o Centro de Arte Nacional de Tokyo . O autor desenvolveu complexos esportivos com sofisticada tecnologia construtiva. O arquiteto Kisho Kurokawa foi o escolhido pelas prefeituras de duas cidades japonesas.

Japan’s largest exhibition facility. Japan As the trees surrounding the building grow the atrium will become a forested public space. connects with the Roppongi downtown as an extension of the street.Kisho Kurokawa The National Art Center Tokyo. The National Art Center. .

Photo courtesy The National Art Center The large atrium is enclosed in an undulating glass curtain wall. with exterior glass louvers to block direct light and ultraviolet rays. Photo: arcspace .

The reflection of the new Art Center on the facade makes a visual connection between the buildings. The cone is lit by recessed lighting placed in a red ring suspended from the apex.Photo: arcspace Kurokawa also designed the new glass curtain wall for the existing library building. Photo: arcspace Visitors deposit their umbrellas in the circular pavilion and enter the atrium through a giant steel and glass cone. .

Photo: arcspace Photo: arcspace .

Photo: arcspace Photo: arcspace .

can be moved by two people. The partitions.5 ton.000 square meter column-less galleries. . Photo: arcspace Skylights and translucent spaces between the wood slatted walls admits daylight into the galleries. that can be divided up into smaller spaces by a series of internal partitions.Photo: arcspace The building contains seven 2. each weighing 2.

. The restaurant and café are located in the upper part of two inverted concrete cones.Photo: arcspace A vast outdoor exhibition space is located on the back side of the building. an auditorium. a cafe. Photo: arcspace The Center also contains a library. and a rooftop garden. a museum shop. a restaurant.

Photo: arcspace Photo: arcspace .

the other eight meters. that often have many hundreds of members. The two remaining galleries. will be used for "special exhibition” of contemporary art organized by the Center itself.Photo: arcspace Photo: arcspace Five of the gallery spaces will be used for exhibitions by Japan's art associations. collectives of artists working in a particular media. one with a ceiling height of five meters. . or in collaboration with other institutions and newspaper companies.

Image courtesy The National Art Center Concept sketch Model photo courtesy The National Art Center Model photo courtesy The National Art Center .

was originally designed as a Capsule Hotel to provide economical housing for businessmen working late in central Tokyo during the week. . Photo: arcspace Located in the Ginza area of Tokyo. The Capsule Tower realizes the ideas of metabolism. as well as making the units detachable and replaceable. exchangeability. the capsule as a room inserted into a mega-structure. The 14-story high Tower has 140 capsules stacked at angles around a central core. Kurokawa developed the technology to install the capsule units into the concrete core with only 4 high-tension bolts. recycleablity as the prototype of sustainable architecture. built for actual use. Japan The Nakagin Capsule Tower was the first capsule architecture design.Kisho Kurokawa Nakagin Capsule Tower Tokyo. the Nagakin Capsule Tower.

5 meter) shipping container. radio and alarm clock. a modified (4 x 2. has a circular window. .Photo: arcspace Photo: arcspace The one-man-room capsule. The capsule interior was pre-assembled in a factory then hoisted by crane and fastened to the concrete core shaft. a built-in bed and bathroom unit. and is complete with TV.

Photo: arcspace Photo: arcspace .

have unsuccessfully pleaded for the United Nations' heritage arm to protect this landmark building. Architect: Kisho Kurokawa Design / Construction:1970-1972 .Photo: arcspace Photo: arcspace Residents in Japan’s most famous experiment in living and working in tiny pods are now plotting its demolition. Kurokawa's design theory was to replace the capsules when needed but the building has not been maintained in 33 years which has caused drainage and water pipes to be damaged. The international heritage protection group Docomomo.

is another prototypical example of sustainable architecture.091. The capsules are the same size as those of the Nakagin Capsule Tower. also designed by Kurokawa.Building Area: 429. but the exterior is made of stainless steel. Photo: arcspace .51 meters Total Floor Area: 3.23 meters The Sony Tower (1976) in Osaka.

Photo: arcspace .

the third eye became useless and degenerated. It seems that we had a third eye in our brain to look up the sky. rather than two eyes to see the world on the earth." Kisho Kurokawa Interview by Makoto Takahashi . Since people abandoned the universe to stay on the earth. Seeing the Big Eye watching only the sky. Japan Photo: Koji Kobayashi Photo: Koji Kobayashi "It might be just coincidence but we have a pineal gland in the brain that is said to be a degenerated eye-like organ.Kisho Kurokawa Big Eye Stadium Oita Prefectural Sports Park Oita City. such a thought came to my mind.

The choice of a sphere. after gradually moving parallel up to the spine. The giant’s blink is supported by advanced technology that calculates and controls the loads.Sketch courtesy Kisho Kurokawa The gentle curves of the spherical design resemble the curves of the surrounding landscape. and each wire has a different load from the others. Photo: Koji Kobayashi . They are pulled up with wires that have a winch member at the bottom. Each rib has a different curve ratio from the others. enables the retractable roof to move along its surface. The retractable roofs are closed right above the spine. and by external wires powered by computers. an expression of abstract symbolism.

and to create a feeling of openness and a view of the mountains. The economical structure of the main beam arch. The vastness of the site made this type of pipe-arch structure possible and also the most reasonable. The use of . with perpendicular horizontal-running sub-beams. that are placed at the edge of the field to enhance the feeling of being part of the soccer arena. Photo: Koji Kobayashi Photo: Koji Kobayashi A slit is cut between the roof and the spectator seating to allow for natural ventilation in the summer. corresponds to the elliptical shape of the roof opening. The elliptical roof opening runs along the north-south axis for the field to get proper sunlight exposure. to accommodate track events.Photo: Koji Kobayashi A retractable seating system removes the seats.

a botanical pool. feature several facilities including a general fitness center.ultra-modern teflon membrane panels with 25% light-permeablity removes the need for artificial lighting during daylight hours. a gate-ball field and an open track that can be used year-round because of the retractable roof feature. a public baseball field. the world’s first. a throwing event practice field. Photo: Koji Kobayashi Stadium. 2 soccer and rugby training fields. a training and lodging center. a sub-training field. to deliver dynamic images to the rest or the world. Photo: Koji Kobayashi A moving camera is placed on the main beam. Photo: Koji Kobayashi Tea lounge on the first floor . 11 tennis courts. 2 multi-purpose athletic fields. a softball field.

will continue to grow striving to become a large-scale and extensive all-purpose sports park ready for the 2008 Second Tour of the Japanese Inter-Prefectural Athletic Competition. Drawing courtesy Kisho Kurokawa Architect & Associates First Floor Plan Drawing courtesy Kisho Kurokawa Architect & Associates Section . chosen as an arena for the World Cup Games in 2002.Photo: Koji Kobayashi Entrance lobby for the VIP room on the first floor The Oita Stadium.

Sketch courtesy Kisho Kurokawa 7 .

office.Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Technopolis Eco-Tec City One-North. commercial).the cluster for the Infocommunications & Media (ICM) industries in One-North. internally referred to as “Technopolis”. Singapore The 123. The design by Kisho Kurokawa was selected as the winning proposal in the International Competition on April 18. The more layers. public services.000 square meter building. Image courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Eco-Tec City is created by multi-dimensionally layering differing elements (residential. the higher the level of vibrancy. will be the first major development in the Central Exchange . 2002. A Layered City is created by a new method called Vertical Zoning instead of conventional Horizontal Zoning .

Offices are. To successfully apply Vertical Zoning. and each is provided with its own entrance lobby on the ground floor level. zoned between level 2 and the residential layer. . and direct elevator to the sky garden and public service floor.Image courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates In principle. While keeping these vertical zoning systems. specialized core for residential floors. with Plot A as RIC + Housing for RIC Researcher. Plot C as ICT + Housing. residences are placed in the top layer with Roof Garden that is beneficial from the perspective of both the scenic prospect and the privacy it provides. in principle. it is possible to separately control each tower. and Plot B as ICT Annex + Housing. each building is clearly divided into a specialized core for office floors.

This crack (void space) is an atrium containing escalators and stairways linking level zero with level one. bars and restaurants. sports facilities. groves of trees. The three-dimensionally layered artificial ground level (Super Slab) is occupied by gardens. stores. The urban underground space that was formerly a black box is now visible from above through this crack (void space). cultural facilities. These are called the Common. and it is covered with a roof of transparent glass. . cafe and entertainment facilities. Natural light reaches underground level zero through the cracks (void spaces) in the ground. urban public services. Sidewalks at ground surface level guarantee a width of 4 m on the inside of the building line.Image courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Narrow street on the ground surface are cracks (void spaces) of atriums opening to the level zero.

the surface ground to be level one.Image courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Eco-Tec City has a layered Super Slab. (Roof Garden). . The buildings of Eco-Tec City achieve column free space thanks to the core columns and the Super Slab. The system of buildings proposed for Eco-Tec City must be expandable to the entire Science Hub. The Super Slab also has equipment and mechanical space that is called the Mechanical Wafer. and the roof-top artificial ground level to be level Xr. Distributing the mechanical rooms inside the Super Slab allows the number of vertical ducts and piping space that are normally needed to be sharply reduced. People can enter the Super Slab to perform maintenance and repair work at any time. The urban structure of Eco-Tec City is artificial ground (Super Slab) with multiple layers: the underground is considered to be level zero ground. the above-ground floors to be levels 2 to Xn. The structure of the building is the most advanced super structure consisting solely of a core column and cantilever Super Slab.

Photo apartment Image courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates . the warm outside air is discharged from the top by a rising air current inside the double skin from bottom of double skin curtain wall with zeolite filter. The suction helps forcefully exhaust the interior air. Image courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Because the exterior wall of the building is a double skin made of glass. Polluted air outside the building cannot penetrate the building even if the windows are opened. and there is no danger of polluted air penetrating the building from the outside. And when sunlight strikes the outside glass of the double skin. wind pressure is not applied directly to the inner exterior wall. It is a natural ventilation system that continually supplies filtered and compressed fresh air to every residential and office floor and discharges air from the interior through the space inside the exterior wall of the double skin. even during a wind storm.Vertical air ducts (natural ventilation system from the interior to the outside) The void in the center of every building is a vertical fresh air channel that supplies clean air to every floor.

Image courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates The master plan concept calls for high-density narrow streets (for pedestrians). Technically. Where an office part faces a residential part. . Priority is given to the inhabitants for scenic views and privacy by arranging residential parts of each building at differing levels. and constructing a Sky Garden creates pleasant buffer zones that provide privacy to both the office and the residential sides. Outside glass of the double skin of the facade is screened so that it protects the privacy of the rooms behind it while remaining transparent. but the inside is difficult to see from the outside. Because this means that the buildings are close together. this is done by printing a screen pattern on the outside glass so that the outside is clearly visible from the inside. the exterior wall of the office is recessed. it is necessary to guarantee privacy.

Recycling rainwater Used water is purified for use as recycled waste water: for flushing toilets and watering the trees. Recycling body heat Part of the heat generated by the bodies of people in the offices and other spaces is recovered for use as a heat source. The solar panels are placed on the floor of horizontal Cat Walk for the maintenance in the double skin facade. Recycling of Home Garbage Garbage produced from residential zones is composted or processed to form solid fuel. The former is used to fertilize the trees in the Sky Garden and the latter used as fuel for home generators. and all are linked with bridges increasing the frequency they are used. it supports the growth of trees in the Sky Garden. By allowing part of the light to pass through. Sky Garden Rooftop gardens (Sky Gardens) are planned for the roof or other level of each Super Slab.Image courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates The roof of the building is made of solar panels (new product) that are half transparent and symbolize an Eco-building that uses solar energy. Rain water is collected from the sidewalks and used along with the recycled waste water. .

The road pavement is all rainwater permeable paving that allows that part of rainwater not recycled to return to the ground for keeping eco-systems. All these systems are the characteristics of a sustainable Eco-building. Image courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates .The double skin sharply reduces the penetration of heat from the outside.

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by giving pedestrians more space than the roadway. Japan Photo courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates The Toyota Stadium was planned adjacent to the Toyota Bridge in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of municipalization of the City of Toyota. This super-modern bridge attaches an importance to pedestrians and not to cars. In addition.Kisho Kurokawa Toyota Stadium Toyota. the bridge provides a direct pedestrian access to the plaza of the stadium for large numbers of people when soccer games or any other events are held. Photo courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates The Toyota Bridge is a part of the main pedestrian-based road system of the city. and it also provides movable stairs giving direct access to the waterfront. .

was reduced to accommodate 45. despite the fact that it has the third largest population density. the possible venues were reduced to ten cities. Later as Japan and South Korea cosponsored the World-Cup.' Photo courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates The Stadium was originally designed to accommodate 60. already in process. Toyota City in Aichi Prefecture was left out of the selection.000 spectators. Photo courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates . As a result the design.000 spectators when Toyota was selected to be one of the fifteen cities for the Japan World-Cup Semi-Final Game.

and four huge independent masts to carry the roof. The roof was designed for natural light to reach the lawn on the ground while closed and still cover the main stand seats completely when opened. Kuokawa designed inclined vertical wall pillars to support the seating sections.Photo courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates To accomodate that many spectator on a site. that included a river embankment and an irrigation ditch for the preservation of the area. only half the size of the Oita Stadium site. a movable roof became an additional condition of the new design. Photo courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Photo courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates In order to enable a multifunctional usage of the facility. .

are located up to the very last extention along the line of the stadium field. . by an air-pillow method. said to be the "Number One" in the world among experts and professional players. were designed parallel to each other to enable the light-weight roof to move along the rails. Photo courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates The spectators’ seats in the Toyota Stadium. reminiscent of the traditional shape of the Japanese roof. opening and closing like a folding Japanese fan.Photo courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Both wings of the suspended roof. Photo courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates The entire structure is steel covered with fireproof pre-cast slabs enabling a reduction of the overall weight of the structure. The structural concept of the Toyota Stadium was done incollaboration with Ove ARUP & Partners Japan Ltd.

Photo courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Sketch courtesy Kisho Kurokawa .

Sketch courtesy Kisho Kurokawa Drawing courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Site Plan Section .

Drawing courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Plan Drawing courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Section Drawing courtesy Kisho Kurokawa & Associates Section .

Amsterdam Musée de Louvain-la-Neuve. Japan Kuala Lumpur International Airport. Japan 1982 Saitama Prefectural Museum of Modern Art. China 1988 Doctor Honoris Causa of Sofia University. Chicago.Curriculum Vitae 1934 Born in Nagoya City 1957 Graduated from Kyoto University. Graduate School of Architecture. Spain Nara City Photographic Museum. Australia 1992 Pacific Tower. Japan Eco-Media City 2020. Japan Exhibition Wing for the Van Gogh Museum. Japan 1995 Republic Plaza. Bulgaria Awards: 1986 Gold Medal from the Academy of Architecture in France 1988 Richard Neutra Award from California State Polytechnic University in Pomona 1989 Grand Prix with Gold Medal at The Fifth World Biennale of Architecture in Sofia 1990 Prize of the Architectural Institute of Japan Major Projects: 1977 National Ethnological Museum. Singapore After 1997 Shiga Kogen Roman Art Museum. United States 1991 Melbourne Central. Osaka. Masters and Doctors Degree 1985 Honorary Professor. Japan 1988 Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art. Japan 1988 National Bunraku Theater. Department of Architecture 1962 President. Osaka. France 1994 Ehime Museum of Science. Belgium Resort Hotel in Menorca. Argentina 1986 Professor. Wakayama. Malaysia . Paris. Kisho Kurokawa Architects & Associates 1964 Graduated from Tokyo University. University of Buenos Aires. Beijing. Nagano. Tsinghua University. Japan 1990 Sporting Club at Illinois Center. Malaysia The Museum of Modern Art.

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