FOREU/ORD

My objective in writing this collection of studies is to outline some chordal techniquesthat have practical application in contemporary styles of guitar playing, value in fingerboardexploration and the development of a senseof musical coherence. I have chosen to do this through example rather than a discussion harmonic theory with a of view that a lot is to be learnedsimply by producing the soundsunder our fingersand in our ears. Many guitarists accumulatea large repertoire "guitar of chords" which, in themselves, are pleasant sounding and, perhaps, well suited to rhythm playing and variousaccompaniments. But a repertoire of "isolated" chords may remain in the players mind as disconnectedchunks of harmony, not easily applied to chord melody playing. The main academicpoint of this book is the resolution of this problem. One improves his musical and instrumental techniquesby acceptingthe challenge more and of more difficult material. Therefore,the examplesin this book have been developed, not for their simplicity, but for their direct usefulness conin temporary music thereby representing someof the facets of advancedgtritar playing. ln view of this, I believe the reader is embarking on an adventure both musicallyand personallyrewarding.

My thanks to Mike Anthony for his contribution of Example38.

CONTEI\TS

FINGERINGS CHORDMELODYDEVICES
Example
I

,1

5
. . . , ) 6 6 l

3
A t .

6
1 t
.

8
0

CloseBlock Voicings Open Voicings . ParallelMotion ContraryMotion . CounterLines CommorrTones Block Chords Sustained Chord Background Short Chord Punctuations

-7

. . . .

8 8 9 l0 l l l l l:

CHORDMELODYSTUDIES Example

1 0 l, r , 1 2
3,l4 5 ,l 6 1 8 ,1 9 20, 2 l 22
z5
L-

l3
t 1 t a

1A

l5 I (', lIE l9

)\ )'7 to 3l

26 28 30

33
5+
,c)

3 5 ,3 6 .3 7

38
PROJECT STUDIES Example 39,40,41. Instruction 42.43.44. Proiects 45. 46. Solution 4 7 , 4 8 , 4 9 . Projects 50,51 Solutions 5 2 , 5 3 ,5 4 . Projects 5 5 ,5 6 ,5 7 , 58 5 9 ,6 0 ,6 1 , Solutions 62,63,64 65 CHORDMELODYSOLO

3l -)_ 36 338 ,19 39
't l

.+0 +l

+(r

FINGERINGS

While it is true that the same chord voicings can often be played on two or three dift'erentsets of strings,it is seldom possibleto do so without some change of the fingering. ln evaluating the feasibility of a change, first consider musical quality and mechanical efficiency : a. As a rule. the musical quality can be etrhance by choosrng fingering a sct d a or of strings in which the greater string lcrrgthis nraintained, thus permittingthe stringsto "sing" and sustain longer. b, Meclianical c-fficiency primarily a matis ter of' er,oicling unnecessary awkward or harrd or fingr.r movements. However,in developinua senseof mechanicaleffi_ clcncy. tlo not also develop a tear of radical jurltr-rsor large intcrvals on the fingerboard. for these techniques are frequcntll rcquired. For example,radical intcrval jLrrrps may supply a nice coutrastto srnoothscalc-wise move_ line ment. String numbe inciicete rs the lower note of the chord and are in circlcsunder the staff. Fingering numbers are placed to thc lcft of the notes.The thumb is frequently usccl throughout the studies and is indicated(T).

CHORD MELODY DEVICES

Examples I through 9 demonstratesome structural devicesbasic to contemporary stylesof chord melody playing. As you become acquaintedwith these devicesyou will observetheir practical application through the studiesforming the main body of this book. Take plenty of time working through thesestudiesas the techniques are highly concentrated.In order to better retain what you learn here, you should make a direct effort to put these'devices'to practicaluseon a daily basis.

l l \ R ] I O N \ ' : \ E R ' l ' l (-,\ | . - H O I i I Z O N l ' \ t ,

Basicallythere are two conceptsof harmony: (1) Its vertical structure which is nothing more than the stackingof notes into chords.Naturally, theseare played simultaneously. Its horizontal movement which involvesthe way one chord progresses another. to

(2)

VERTICAL structuresare usually expressed one of two basicvoicings: in Example 1, CloseBlock Voicingsin which the notes are packedcloselytogether.

Ex. I

Thesevoicingscan also be played on the inside strings (5th, 4th, 3rd and secondstrings).

Ex.Example 2.c't ffifl m D'? at3 w't crg . Ernest Toch)."z 6n? w Gm1 Closed voiced chords can be opened up as far as your reach will permit. HORIZONTAL movement. The melody lines formed by each of the chordal tones is the most important single factor linking one chord to another. harmony and linear counterpoint (see Shaping Forces o. Example3' PARALLEL MorIoN. one is really dealing with four separatemelody lines' It naturally follows that there would be as many Inkage possibilitiesas melodies: a study of this question in its entire scope comes under the headingsof voice leading. In four part harmony.2 F m m flH HT ffiGnal fl-HlA. a chord progression in which each tone is movingthe samenumber of scalestepsand in the samedirection. simply by movilg one or more chordal tones up or down an octave. for example. 3 ffi eo Pu. Open Voicings in which the notes are spreadapart.f Music. The following example demonstratessome of the primary melodic aspectsof chord connections. Ex.

as the word implies. Further. When the main melody has little motion. 5 :r rSrln H+++t ffi I-H+H ffi (%A1 I @ A counter line may be higher or lower in pitch than the main melody. CONTRARY MOTION is.Example4. or placed somewhereinside the chord as in Example5. . on guitar. Ex. or the bass line itself may sometimesbe treated as a counter line.Such passages often quite useful as fingeringexercises for arrivine are and at a better understanding the fingerboard general. any choice of melodicintervalscan be used to develop a counter line. Example showsthe upperand lower linesin contrary 4 motion. COUNTERLINES are usuallytreatedas a melodicaccompaniment the main body of to a tune. up) Ex.a situationin which the chordal tones are movingin opposite directions. of in Example5.rlzffi Gnn Through experimentation with paralleland contrary motion one can invent somepassages considerable of interest to both player and listener. 4 E TE bffl .Example5 showsthe counterline (with stems on the 3rd string. the counterline can be more active.are frequentlyfound in the secondvoice from the top. They are also usedas connecting lines from one chord to anotherand.

t-l ulJj-] ffiffi ffi. Example showsthe common tone on too.r ffioUo ffioh"'r ffiE/bs !t {TTTTI ffi l t t r l l ffi1-fi nffH # l r | | rrrrn *^a" Example 7. 6 Ex. BLOCK CHORDS. yct eft'ectiveway of producing melody and harmotry simultaneously. TONE is a note that is relatedto. u-t-l-tl L+-t-Ll-.D. This is done by placing a full chord underneath each melody note.Example A COMMON 6. and sustainedthrough. The chordscan be either close or open voicings. Here is a rudimentary.t4+. ilil| !.1-1 H+++{ H-t1+l ffrfl-l ffi nnn ?r{l D2* tine ri 6oa) EV^*q *.] l-. 7 Itr Itr ffi rTln] ilaatl ffitoi ' fffi ffiff fi & e# ffi f f i f f i u.or plucking all stringssimultaneously with fingers.ft . a sequence chords of playedin succession.You rnight experimentwith picking techniques here: For example.] l a tI t l r-t-Ffi-t rtrrn t-+++.or alternatc down and up strokes. Note: The Gm7 in bar 3 is being usedas a substitute for Eb mai 9.n ffi ffin rnflt fr|t| H# tf||af lrr ?oo R. 6 rtr^ m m +]-+t] [Lu. Ex.all dowl strokes.

in rh. Often tlie melody can be fingered casily without hlripg to change the chord form. Howevcr.if each chordal tone is sustaincd for as long as possiirle.of m a k c i t n e c e s s a r t o d r o p o n e o r m o r e o f t h c c h o r d a l t o n c s i n o r d e r t o r n a n i p u l l t et h c n r c i o c i r .r' r"rstrally rememberthose lrotesthat havc been droltped.ir one chord is sustainedthroueh two or more melodv notes.'t1. 8 g ffi It [rrrn ffiTF |# i t l ? t l . y especiallytrue in improvisingwith the alorernentioned common guitar voicingswhen thc voiec ltltl iirr : not beett fully worked ottt.. ..l m-n |'. Example B.{'. . Ex.. tltc li\r.. but this tends to destroy the block chord effect..T55n mx ffnn v @ ngq 6hrn1 ??w ?h"fc NOTE Whett a chord is sustainedthroughout a long seqLrcnce melody notes. therefore it is more clesirrrlrlc tir changethe voicing or inversionwith each new melody note.+1++l nrrn ffi t a t l fl f+++il ffi E-r |.. atrd preferably in the same direction as the melody.n.+ l | | l l gII' ffi $ffi bvb rnrn ffrrn . | | | l. tingr'ringrcquircnrcnt:tr. . SUSTAINED CHORD BACKGROUND is a modification of the block chord stylc. in order to createthe eff-ect all lirresnro\lng of at once.I i .The block chord eff'ect is best achievedwhen thc chordal tones are made to move when the rnelocl-v 1ro\'!'\. .

Thesc can be usc without sacrilicirrg harmoniccontinuity. This cor-rtinuitycan be lurther rcinfbrced by choosrrrg mcloclies rvhich ernphasize chordal tones.H Itr Ea t t I t a l Ffi-TH rirn It a tt a t l ltfrn fffffl It lTn] t t a a t l trl=n l i t t l l ffi rtn-n rrrrn > H+t+t nrrn iHtft rfffl-1 |'. nrffl F H+ifl IA (l Bb''- ffi 0' t+++-l ++-l-+-.Exarnple9. whcn they are playcd with atrthority ancllppropriately placecl witltir the bar. Becausc thc listcncr'sability to reme of mber the sorrn of harmony. Ex.# l t t t a l 5-tTfl F+i-+-H s0 .t l l l l l l Ydr l0 . it is possible to outline tlic llow of harmony by short chorci pr-rr-rctuations. 9 a t t t l l nfrtl NTTR rrffn l. SHORT CHORD PUNCTUATIONS.

but rather as eramplesof t6c *. of l0 o1 (ll..I. I) common to so many standarcltuncs.CHORD N{ELODY STUDIES Exanlplesl0 through l2 dcal with variottsapplications the devices o1or-rtliled ExamplesI tlrotrgS .. lreeing the guitar playcr to work with rnelodies. rnal1yways to treat thc root progressior-r V or Il. Ex. l0 #- ttalI i l I t a l F+-t-+-Ft Frrrn ffTFH rrrrn ffnil s.H-H rnrn I+]JN ffiil ffi-H-1 bvts St *frrffil ffi atItaa s- tf+N. ffftfl rfi-fi-l i l l l t i v ' lFfrct Ex. For cxantple. harmonic color residentin the llpper extensions the chords.12 ? tft | l s_ fu-1t-l / I I t a l l.?.ancl to clc'u.l1 nffn itt?I L nTfn ffi i t ? t t l ffirn I 'ffi i l ?tIl l-# l a t ? t l s._ ?+t#l H-l-t+ t-fH+l fffff1 er'n4 F{-H ttaf tl ffi nwl_ g.t!J [Hfl E)ort H. V.t-J-.Frfn l# E^ |-|-ITr] rrnTl ffnn ffi ttt?| m]l4 rFFFN eV'svq HJ+H l1 .the basslines arc oflen incompletein that most corlttos hrrr.c6'r5-.E.t-..xamples thropgh l2 presclt a fer.) i1 The following studic's are uot to be considered Llnaccolnpanied as solos.1 fTlfFl ftbna'l Gm1 Ex.l fr*vs *5 ffil ffiT t-+-.r otre night pcrlorm iu a combo.' bass players filling this fiutction.v rlr.

Iil | | l t f l Nnal [fli W"t Hffi ffi 6to mx ila In Examplc 14.b ][ Itr. ffi FFFfN xx ll .Thesecan bc nsccl as tcxturc contrast to the big sor. cach line is deccndirtgitr cc'rnsccrrtiveholr-'-stc1-r.on the guitar.very effectivebrrt uot too often used. rvhilc lnothcr iinc is nrgvilg lalt--step.oo ffi t o t u t+fifiu ffits f+]tr t-itt-H H+ f1ttfi nnF rfl-fh uJ-+-1.t if+-t+l ffi-rl Drl L I i t t t a a l-Hl gn4 r f^o H]#€b. One linc ntoving whole-step.Examplc 13 illustratesclosc voicings.tnd open voicings. halt'-stcp. 'fr* rlTm ht. 13 ffi [H r-H[ ffrTtl Bb"q ffirt fffifi Hffi H+f+l |Trl-r ovw ffi t#++{ H+1{1 Fffi ffiH [ffi rt-nTl ffi E.Notc: T h c G 6 i n b a r 3 is lirnctioning as u of dominant chord (Eb + 7b9).. 14 TTFFPI t i | l t l ffrrH |. as Ex.{+ a ||tar ffit tu ITTII €h^a1 l-{+1-{. Ex.nr ffililAb.. whole-step producingthe chord changes the symbolsincliclte.1 l t t t t .i'.. n Iillf-step seqlleuces (symrnetrica diminishcdscales).

.e. Accordingly. Dnn 0n1 !rr t+-{-. It is good ear training to improvise this sort of t h i n g i n a l l k e y s .t-. ll1.| t-t-ft-H fftffl LE 9vt fr H-t-t+1 ffi Example 16 illustrates(1) exaggerated chromaticismand (2) the gradualaddition of notes (in eonrrurr motion) to expand the voicingswithout opening them.u i t h various diatonic melodies.) depends upon analysis thc entire phrasein which the chordsoccgr. Their functional or Roman NLrnrcr. etc.identification(i. Ex.symbol identificationof the. rnTn Dma {fifil loo MH ulJ-ll rrffE t-FFl-u u+l+-l Fnrn .Example 15. Vl.r "sounds") chords (more properly is awkward and unnecessary. 15 rmm uJJl-.+.and are being used to provide s o m ec h r o m r t i er c l i c l from the monotony of diatonic lines. 16 l3 . This is a simple harmonization of the C (diatonic) scalewith some isolatedchromaticisnr.I 'g t++l-H l f l = t+HJl l t t a a t l. of Ex. The Eo and Dbo chords are both functioning as 1^7b9.{# ffi ffi gto D't ffi Qnfl ffi ffnn ga s.t a | | | F{**# rtr Itr ||tlta ffi | | l | l r 3m? G'8. Note: the spellingof the chord symbolsin Errnrfl: l6 is lessimportant than the voice leadingwhich createsthem.

17 e*q '--:\ F?*1 dfi*q Ab?*q .Example 17. Ex. A fingering exercisein short chord punctuations using a Cycle of 5ths with #9 chords.

18 ffi Example 19 is a fingering exercisefor running augmentedtriads acrossthe strings. A fingering exercisefor running diminished chords acrossthe strings. This will contribur..Make a specialeffort to sustaineach chord for its full time value.Example 18. X. style.Sustain each chordal tone for as long as possible. means to keep your fingers in place until it's absolutely necessaryto move them. Ex. Ex.Play this in r \3rier! of keys up and down the fingerboard.In generll. measurablyto the continuity of your chord melodl. 19 H# ffi 9+ ffi ffi l5 Itr ffi mm ]E drfi . r6i..

Notc thc use o1'thc right hanclin ailclingthc buss1o1eut tlt.Example 20' Short Chord pttnctltatiotrs with chords clcscenclirrg paralkl iu ntinor thirds. 20 Ot*q eilq Frrffi Itttfl ffi ffffn l. rv o i c c s i n c o n t l l r v r n o t i o n .{. l l l l l j l .g .+-+.. E x ..2 l T'T f ll- ltTrn rrFrn |.\ llftii Co-01/'-L-- al @ E x a n t p l c 2 1 . Ex.. A s t r e t c h i r l ge x e r c i s ew i t l i s t a t i c i n t c r i o l r o i t f i l n r l ( ) r . Fl-ITn Trn-n -F -F | rrrrr F t| IIIl i l rTfn |l-fffi rrnF nn-h ell t - gYh 2 b t l - F. end.FF.+-t t+.q wure 16 .. l t .lJt-t t-l4l-l-t $tH6'q HtH Tt [rn-n m-fn rfl-tn il?ttl t-{-+-Fl-1 rrrrn tuu-j t-l++1"1 rrnTl | | l ll I Itr [-|Ifr T''FN ffffl-] mrrFl rfffi-1 tlt_l1_i | | l itttt L l l :r I ul-tl] t t t t t ! $. rrfiit ' i I t t ? | | t++# ffi l l l l l t |#-{-{-{ TIn -+-fir l # tt I a rrFrn . This typc t. passage can be very effectivc whctl playcclf'ast.

{-H rfftf] | l | t l rrrrn H+N rrn'il ffi-rF H++].}-4-. Frm-1 mil rffffi r 6V" F1 61 tl . .1rr t t t t t l r r r r r r l t t t r l f f f m [t111 fTlil] ?il?ll [1111 n.1 nm f{-.g F ev&" [Ht rrmt IHT rrnn rrrrF fiffi rrFrn nm ffi w Ab r.r || f_l_.l+l.\ Ex.#o bv t t l t t t F{-# f t t ?I I It W. {TTTN X.22 rmiiffiffiffi .l +ll+ l_l_l_ll_.f-t m IIi.v t h n r l a y i n g .l+u t l t t t l Itr T [ItE I ffi ov Aob ffiil Frffi1 gfro t t t a t l 3F riTm aIatl Itr. r-ffi-rTTN-N ffi rfl1f1 nrrn l-.t . A type of threc n o t c v o i c i r . ft11tl i l | l l F bb i a Yfi I S. i .T h i s ' t L r .nn rJTilI ffiH u.Example 22. r gc o u l l o l t basedon 12 bar blues.ffi ril tI l-u-t+t-t-l-l+ m-J'n rrrrn n-rfl-1 t-flfn ITITN F . p t o c c l t a i n s t y l e s o f r h .

contribution to the versatility of one's stylc. particularly in inrprovisation. unexplored in guitar playing.and could. . The use of two notes to create the overall effect o t ' h a r m o n y h a s b e e n r e l a t i v c l . w i t h p r a c t i c e .m a k e a v a l u a b l .23 3 c1 "*" |..ffi u-lJ-J-..i++l i llil l itfifi i+l-t# i]#fl ffi rfl-1-F Hffi "*.Example23 utilizesthis devicein the basic l 2 bar blues.I Abts G's l8 . 8x. l-.Example 23.

9 ff. "Full" block voicingsin a big band style.Jto \f U"? #^. dq Aq A.t IItaaa |# |# t t a l a l t a l a t l TTITN FM ffffi III.# I I taaI l-+-FtiH [TI-N Itr t-t-t-ff1 I-IFITI fllTfl t-ft-Fil Itr. 4 ?rn'l 4 II t-ft-fR rrrml MH Jtr.e 2 ffiffi |# ffi U]J]J l+tfil l-l]-l-+. Ex. as m i g h t b e a p p l i e dt o a n e n d i n g .1+.Example 24...1-.24 ffFFfl [I-rfr] IE ftfff+ MT ffnFl dq Cm? 4 ffi ii++tl nnn d*t Dn'7 4' TFI-TN #H E m fffffi ffi IE r t+. Httr etrA'7 ffi-rn l# l | | l | l Frffh f-t'ftfl l||ilr rffil Fnel . mriTt rnTn t ? t a t l Itr fi-t-iTt ffi mm ffitr Fnl $^n ffiil Htiu ffnn ||tttl g.1 l l l l l l ffi :E II-TTN P^n H+i# ffffn | | l l t l l t t a a l l. rffffi H1#l Htil1Dbtt nffn lmT flTTR }# rrrfn t-l-{-l+ l t t t l rlll?l nrn-l 19 . t-T-ITti H+1+l rrrrn rrrrn ffffn 7 ..

Yft'\ e bV Ar. This entire phrase could also be played over a G minor chord.l. nffi Hrr ffir HiH Hlt Hlil b8*s BWl Am? Ab^q Grt' '*w Hff.25 H#fr#ffiH# ffifu ffi# rn-ffi ffr-fflffffn f{+++-l l-++++l ffi# 4 4 ffiffiffiffi ffi ffiH I m rTm ??1+{1 H-l-]-i{ rtfff1 ffi rfI-TN Ittffl F. 8x. 20 .] l i l | t rfl-ffl rlilll ) =qz G^ de' A"0b r 1\ .Example 25 offers exercises three areas:Contrary motion. parallelmotion in and expandedvoicinss.t+ [tffi H+H ffiff1 Dt [m fffi It i.H F+lt-+-j wrf Itr rt[. Ex.#t laf| | | ffi TI II qTl-fr ffiffi u-j-. t-t-l-{-+-.]=# I t a r aI m-rn rrffn IIII. Hltr g$V5 4 Httll Hffi F+ r l l L t-ftrfl H++ll e+tl ) ^ s?gfi-: t / l Example 26 is a study in parallel motion with the melody doubled on the bottom.26 ffi rnfi |.

Example 27. Ex.27 ffig. trFFF rrrFr eblh t l l Htt ITP111 i l aatl rrnn d. f Example 28.# l t a t t t fft-tt1 l]Im gj+fl ffilt Fnff: rrffF t a t .o ffi ffi*o ffiffiffi ffiffiffi t++++] t-fffH ffffH t t a t a l }++\ar+] -*- rffrF1 €^1-bbo lE lrl-fn |'. Note: the 9th of the chord voiced on tht bottom next to the 3rd. This voicing can also be played nicely on the inside strings. a l II fflfil rrrrn ffffF F1 ffi m ffH+] H++fl Htt enq €m1 F+H] ]II :E ffiil ffifl [ffi ffit|l ffi IE FI+H ffrtn Hfifl G6 t-ft-ffi fFm ffi FFFTN t+ljt-l t+Jl-u rrrrn l# fiIf. Very close (tight) voicings in parallel motion. Another version of the band type block chord style. 28 ffiH H-t-Ht Cn? 1\O vfi' ffi ffnn €V*q 21 . Ex.

F?bq 2 4 . Counter line accompaniment. l?.N TtiTn H]+flt-rft-tl l++m rj H]l. t s t t L : l r t o t l t e r .t tJ1! .la g rrrlTl rFtiT] ffffn |-i-..!* &'w € ml-lTl-- Example 30 has the same melody as E.]i t1ffi ttft-t-l M I I r.. Ex.'l. Slrstainthe first note of each bar as long as possible. Ex.Example 29. 30 v]]T I' |?rrl I Tr.L]-r.r *-ttl Hffi nm l | i l t ffi t t t t t l Poco R r r ') -) .{-.29 gtr t-l-IT| rrHfl hffiff1 ][t ffi I|ITN t-fT]T] l l l l i l ffHtl H+1+l ffi-ffi # H+l] l i l t i l 4 Y. n \\'av to approachthe final chord via chords voiccd in Fourths ascending chrontaticallr.xample7 ancl r l t t t t o r .r. The chords occllr aft 'r the initial melody note.

The following three pieces.Examples31.2ry A.3l --E-l il tar ffiH ffiA" rfrrn 7 I l-+++.B t a aI | | !L *"q .l I T.^ Fffff1 FffiTffffn crn''r nri-n nFrn t a a | |l f 1 a rr .Fir-. 7 I l+-l-ffl nftt1 l# - TrrrSl l.'ttrnr open and closedvoicings.1-. 32 and 33..l-.1 9^Q- 9r9 : : oTrt-17 + =:. are structurallyand harmonicallyfairly sintplci. Ex.ut dentonstrate some ways to gcneratecolor and variety without destroyingthe basic simplicity of th.9 7 I T4 7 I +\ . Look for short chord punctuations.{-.

..i1+1 rrn-l |.t T* :T:* > :rT-: Am Am R_ J m : .x+ ffi g ? t i l t i ffi TFITN |# t-ffi l-t-+-+-l-.=g .H t+-l-. Ililll il. oW\__ r :A 1/ --1 .l..Ex. l t al [TI-N $t frTlt1 ffi-rh [Hl tittfl rrrm >r a t ?I ? t I t-Ft-FFt ffiil 4++u x.e:r*'!'l{+= @ 0^'l hn'? @rc o-r.] l | | t i t ffl-t-H I | | I aa rl"r-ftl f+f1{ Gb+t*q epkq ]E H.Yly " \ itfrftg **1" frF tli.3l (cont'dl TTTTFI l\]fr1 llt Frrrh rffffi rrrrn ffnl bJs.---= + | Itr t-I-tTrl rrrFfl ffn-h I-FFT.-__.. t-uJ-I..r T Lll l-ll-ll-ll i llr .+! lL vTrr Yf.I+ | ? t l -]r J rrm ?I ?/ --:t-. lllrlL l A o F.]-{-# f .

s- s zYrl'Y--T' @r H4i+t tt |?| | H+++i ftf1t1 MT ev Ab? EV 3 -t-\-' 1zzTTt= t./ L_l I 3 hV f.t tu* b t H-1]+ LLLLIJ ffirFn r-FF+fl Ab"6 H# Ab" Ab^*s r r ft.^A q - Ab.ffi7 @V L-J QItftl .f-_-Ta?--? r -:-'--t---t---q-t- I a l-s .c Ab1 q|.@ illftI fr rrrrn m+ tffffl eV ataat I H+111 nnn ** +Hil -.

_.s. O. eom T (zf. b't W1 qzg4TT ( LrJ qzWT( r H T -'Tr+?"nT ( r- TP Ab1 ar.W e.f - f .___.

D1 6/? vfl r f @ @tV6? ? V" 4 0brg w9o-^G zoC wt. F'3 .

33 (cont'd) ffi! t+lu] u FFFffi ffi ll.l.s t-ft-tgl l-{-i.l.l Ab13 gbg4 A"p .Ex.lJ-l-JJ l-HT+] l+{+# rrrrn fffffl drtr trtr-t -.U i-tt+u m" ..'. 7 I FTFffi |# m FFFFF |.e.t+f..# ttt+r5|(3)' Dts .'. f-- Abr i -r--- _ 6$l uuu t-{-{-t+-l FFI-FH ?*qrIl.

Examples 34 and 35 have.' to the addition of extensions. f11+t1 ffi -f\.# ta I I t(t..I-+-l 9Y. make a specialeffort to sustainas many of the chordal tones as possib.le Ex. ataill |. wtrF 29 HM mx stl t-+-{-. +5. 34 fr tat?ll l-l-FfH e?+a ffilTl Llt-fil . etc. i. relatively rich harmonies.:. . at '110 ^.*ar7rI As. Thesehelp to produce harmonic textures presentin some of the mor: recent jazz forms. +9.32 and 33. in contrast to Examples 31.This i: d1.. l l t \ * ffiu" ffirfi ffftt1 rfffh Ff - ffiD'oo(e) sffil 1#+N Itt?? rrrrnl F+-t-+iF{ fi. You will also observethat notes other than the roor rr: frequently used to form the bass line.T[. In this example.e.'i t" .

trFFF |...Ex. @ .1 H{$+l ffiFfJ A \ O ( s t - IJJ+#f) .-.# HH t+{Jll *.|+. 34 (cont'd) fRTT t-t-l+lt Fffrfi %ffi ffi ffi [ffi RTM t+.-.o4D Ir r.

Ex.*S bJ+s et"1Vr 4 (nn'7 Example 36 is the same chord progression being connected by passingtones (forming .? g.. Cmaj 7 (one chorcl l.. Am7..Example 35 shows the primary progressionconsistingof G6. e t c .i.rl1 c o u n t e rl i n e ) a n d a l t e r i n g the chord symbols as indicated Gmaj7..t Gna1 At'f Ar(t^E (mrz) bn'. tones into a more melodic pattern..1. 4*(maj 7).7 @ t+ @ Example 37 shows further developmentof a counter line resultingfrom the extensignol rftc 1. 35 trrm ffi FFFfN . 36 FFM ffi ? I I I ' I rFFTI ffffr |rrtn Gb f+11-i. 37 ob A^1 $.. Qne') ?'V @ . Bm7.rcrl.& 2.rr being connectedby the passing chordsG#m7+5.. etc. Ex.tfatl a l t t a l uJ]+ [ffi ffrffl G6 rrTTI fftlfi _l ffiff1 FFFFFT f-t-tffl f | | i a l ffi I taa I -w' l-ftfH rTFff1 ffi Aoa t-fft-ti ifttti ffffh t-FFt-t-j rrrm 6^c* Af".r ir. A m 7 + 5 .'z Cnfi J I . Ex.

sustained chord backgrounds and short chord punctuations.+ . l t t t t . Ex.I g iT-ffi rrrr-n l l l l to t{dttl l l nnn F + .t .E. connter lincs. parallelmotion.F l I ll lll -+ -a ffii b2 mm |# I l a at I "frrr rrffn t-ft-t-fi l-{-. block chords.-dtq' rlt+flH#N . Look f'or vertical textures. l t l t t |# Lt*-l-*.xample38 is a chord melody solo embodyingthe structuraldevices outlined up to this point.#" G#vs 7 nnn Ab'r nffru fft-Ffl @ J ] . 38 F+<l-+-H fffr" rrrrH I # ffi Ittt | | ffi d'rqus mnTl ffiffi --b_.contrary motion.H I | | aa l .

-+ '''H<P-. 38 (cont'd) . zvw e @ - /':\ ffiffi ffiffiH mffi bs ffi ffffn ft'rffl FFFFFI @e@fl ar>.Ex.ffi (l 4lrr--:..d:@@ z @ 16) 1 a JJ ./F . fftttl Ffft- ffi fffi-H [ffi ++ts m ff++il ftfifl FFFF *.

tllilt rft+1.1 rrm tuJu |# I t f ? I L mm t t t t fl ffi ffi-rF | | | t l rrnTl rffifr -G.H nrm Dn*Vs ffnF ffifi-l mrrn HJtt-l I I I I L mm ffiffi $ffi ftilf t-Ft-iH H+1+1 t+1.1+J r|rft1 ffi ilftal UL g tr.1. *@ €.Tn45 fi1-rfi 5-o .6. @ @1-' H+1+1 ffifi1 HilI l'{'..

ll st [ff.. ... . [Hil F+]++ rrm Hfl+l @ 6 @dn-:/ r'Yh-7.s[ %'=. ffn-n rnn TFTF ffffn rrFrfl r r l.f Ur .. 38 (cont'd) ffin ffiffi l. IItr rlTrn Llll. t+1+1{ $Hfl ffi H+] rrfffl FrFrn rttul /!-1mr Ix. @ O @ O @ t' u) + .i++Tl .gF+ f i * # . :rn: 4 3- I a rrrr: a ^euylos ^ fi.l-rt+ 'sfir*'r&. aJ-.s. ..or.r n rf 1 -rf lr1n r f Itr.-r ffi [tt]-] u.. I t a a| | i I H ' I zffs*'c .t a & ^nvs'1. Htf z.e @ l r t t t l .Ex. rfnr n-rfn 1 | i l *u|| f f i ila|l Hll r lllil rlllll 6) tl*t-r-i|# rr* s.

the three basic chord types fotrnd in diatonic harmony. a diatonic scaleharmonizedwith the II. Erarnples39. only tirc c\t!'nsions aj. you will not have enough strings left to form a satisfactory chord beneath it.. V lnd I chords. 40 and 41 show a rnelodyline u'rittcn high enough to play full chord voicings bencath.g nreloclie continlrity. It is obvious that if the melody note is placedtoo low ou thc staff. and briefly explore the problem of fincling chord fingerings that will accommodate various melodic possibilities. you will often find it both helpful and to r-leccssilry transposethe melody up an octave (this is callcd "jumping octaves") severaltimes throughout the courseof a solo. garden variety chord voicing for the guitar (of the type found in many chord eucyclopedias) that can be fingered to include all possible notes that may appearin the melody.With few exceptiorrs. 36 . lt is possiblchoweverto play a lon rcgisterscaleor melody (as low as the 4th string blrt no lower) with some fragment of the chorclbtncath.6th.it is possible to find a common. With experic'nce and finesse.Jth. Note: the addition of M etc.9th. These examples 'G' shou. this carl be done without losir. Therefore. affcct the color and texture of the chord and do not charrge its scale ftrnction or its role in the prOgrr-SSloll.

.l FFFi-H 1 r) .ffi ffi ffi ffiffi ffi ffi v @ 3 t m m m ffir ffiffi ffi ft @ ..ffiffi Ex. 40 t-H+tl nrfl-l 4+ -*ffi t+++11 u++.1+ HH t-H-. 41 ffi'... l r t l l r 'ffi. l-uJl ftilil u++t] $tt H++N l-H+u ffffn 3 H+#f u++N ffffft ffifn FFF++I .*{ tsr 4 ffi rTNfi *-6- ffiffi l-fH+l H-++l. ililil --s- filfl ul+u [flt --E-. -*- Ex.8.

42 Example 43.# u+Ifl H+1+t f-fl-ffl 3u . as in Example 42 above. Any chromatic note within finger nlnge eln llrvays be harmonized with a given chord form. Ex. 8x. although it mav occasionallvbe dissonant. find a suitable fingering with which to harmonize the melodr Refer to Examples 3 9 . 4 0 a n d 4 1 . 'A' in bar l br.44 Fnal vflT ffi F{-.Example 42. Now.{.harmonize the melody to fit the chord symbolsindicated.rtdo not changethe melody. 43 gr{ Hfn n n Dq Example 44. Using the indicated chord. transpositionto the key of making the necessary Ex.

45 r i r l J*J -t*.("n) r .t-l-t-l l l l l l l fFm ffn-F ) t a a t l f f i f f i rTHTl ffr|fl ffrffl ffitffi ffif.# r-*-{# frffi IIH IJJJt-t F}*{-Fl Hl# ffffn Llflll ffffn ||l tft rffi H]+fl rflrn ffffi nn-l-l 'J+tl nfifll tlnF e-q +H illd G^1 I (&ra) 4d 39 .46 ffirF F{-}-f*{ rrrrn a t a l l l Frrm |". [+r rrffn trd 6. ! E.r* t U fr :rr* l e a +F ti-i-* Grnl 6m slo GJ+r Gn1 G#+s G^t? G.xample offers one possible 46 solution to Example45.. Experiment finding chord voicings of Gm7 that can be chromatic tones. Ex. Ex.w.# ffffn ffffn l l l l l l H+{+1 H+$+l FffIfi fffff1 ilx! Hfi l.|-# i l l | | l u-lJJl FFFffi Fffrft atafil m t-l-.Example 45.1- l l l lbL1- . |'. -* f f i m l+1+l-1 ffi L "ffT.1 -.

) 6bn1 +U . ln each case the melody and the harmony have their own force and are independentof cu. ct.47 Dmn?Sme? Qnn't Brea gh.x.q 6* Gbnn G^1 ds^q Fhr erq . F.x. See other. dominant and minor chordsdescenciin chromatically. 48 and 49 consist of the same melody with major.49 hrt hb.] Drs F.l..Examples 47. 7 in bar 3.3 Ara hbtr Gt7 Ghts ? t ? f. A maj. Note the interestine extensionsthat occur as a result of this independence.fi Amna hb^e'l G^e1 a Gbne't Ex. 48 $}.

fr uJ-t-ll H++N t+++t-l t+++11H++{] ffiil IHT H++H rffil +Hfl H+1fl t{++fl ul-lJ.+.naa Qnal d^0.. tl NTFfi ffttf1 l# Itiltlr l l l ! ^tt t a t t l a f f ii f f fi if ff fii r f ff if i f f f Gm1 4 d ?Inet? d^^'? h^e'l t).4* n-ffil Grt*'l 4a_ d^et Amn? f1t||l Hflil ffin Wnal o.l I-Fi-FH i-H+fl ffi-rl TFFN ffffn ffi rft Ffl-TN I a l | t |.nta -^a * ^^ Wa{? h^a?) y'o r Exantple51 showsalternative voicingsand consists the samemelody as Example 50 above. 50 il lfal .. Ex. 48 and 49 and demonstrates one set of voicingsof ntajor 7 chords ascending chormatically..s..51 Frffn t-+-l++.. of Ex...*. mm ?i:t^h1 -$= ffi *ff" -r. tffi l-fffft VmA? 4l .Example 50 consistsof the same melody as in Examples47.1 tllllr t ft l t + l i | | il ttal .

tbs Gbr$1 Ex.54.53. respectively i n E x a m p l e s 9 . 6 3 . S e eP a g e 6 . to Here the examples are presentedin lead sheet form showing only the melody and chord symbols. Using the devices previously explored in this book. 53 tn 6v7 ?1 42 .Concentrate mainly on finding chord voicings that sound good to you and still permit the melody to be played.57 and 58 are short fragmentsconstructed simulatestandardpop tunes.keeping them as simple as possible. You may then compare your choice of voicings to those found. develop chord melody solos for each of these examples. 56. 6 2 . 6 7 .Examples 52. 6 4 a n d 6 5 . 55. 6 0 .52 flbq 6^'1 evq €na1 ht D1 D"7a D. 5 4 Ex.

Ex. 54 D^'l q 6*{? g tx. 56 Dha . 55 Ex.

Ex. 57 Gnel g+rl .--..*I Gne? @1 ++ ..4.

^7 l a?\ GrotT Cryn7 F'm? p ^tbil Abnnt .: Ebr Abmrz Ab.Ex. 58 evcw D/'r>\ d+W eq G'b lbra) tF) Eb-ar Bb-'.

I I TfTTT] rlflil tutt..1 t]-uu itt | || ffi-ff1 [ttf] l | | r_l_l Wg !-r bs G.E x a m p l e s5 9 . I-TTTI ffi mm t+*. a n d 6 5 o f f e r s o m e o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i efs r h a r m o n i z i l gE x a m p l e s5 2 o Ex. I 46 .I rrm l-u-.+t i+i++l trtt1l fftttl ftffi G^1 Ch ffnn [Ifi lrft-l-l F. . 6 4 througli 58.l -9-- f1ffi l-+++ll ? l t t t I c c n III I+.I-lJ.t t-{+4. 59 "ff* rffil [Trn rffi{t +Hfl H++fl H# ffiff tftfl ulJll ffifl rill?l nljlt illilt fffi t r I I t r E L g ffiffi flw HJ+|lH1#lr++f. respectively.F.+.*tc4D'? D? 4+ zlF^ l l l l l l .fr" ffitn H+++l fffff1 ffffi ffrrn .ll-l TT*F TFNT1 rlifll rrrrtl H+t+ J-.s. 6 3 . 6 1 . 6 0 ..*a ?.( a. 6 2 .i itHt ffif.See Page42. lll1l rrffH M?TI1 t??l I I i ? t t l l .i H+Hl ffiffi u*" -r- HUl rllilt I I I tat lH | .1-l FFFFH +++-l-."1 GVr*o /A \:/ .t u+lll ffi l_|H1. HIFH t a t a t a nnfi Htl Hlll-. ataa '-{-#l ftIill l-l-# (+1-iJ-+-.

lA r'fo @ @ Ex.1 Ft-f#-t tft+H Itffi ffrfl-1 rl| l lt ttt+i-.t-t .l-l rllfil .6f) lv+ trVJ_ 2. f f i fft-rF irfi ftrt ifld hffii $ril $ri $ilt $fif +9 Dnq d-?--r- affi FFF* FFFffi FFffi ffi ffrrf F{-**1 t l a | l |# I | | laa f+-+-H l l l l l l f f i f frililll tujl-l ffiil lillr |||l T t r T ffil \ GB $s) C.61 T I I I 6\ \:-/ FFFffi Fl-# FFFffi |-# t+++l-t l++11. (h) 4+ bL mn Hi+l] HiH Dt I l+ I ffi nffil rnn rFTFN ffitr t"1++l-1 rnm **o Hl+*l FFFFF FFFFH t-l++4-l I t ft I I |TnTl l-t+ft-l nb [Fn-n 6t+16t . @ @ mx ffn-F lt??tl rffifl tilluI I I t fa ../ob ?''ty" 4bo'r C'*V 4 V-) .Ex.v'%v @'e H+fti rrnn nnTl TrTt-rl mmffi F?*q $hq mfr +flil ffi-rn fftr| l++{+1 f+t+Jl @ t++ul ffi 6b%av L't rfit rrFn ffi il?lll illt|l I i I I aa .F. 60 |-ri-rfl il?atl ff-rr- u ITITI-I g H+FH Htft-j fffrn F'fu.ne Gn19+s .1 ffi+l H++l fnftl ffi-rH rtfllt +'b hb'.l rlil II u-lj.1-+-l-. t+-. I Frnlg q..lj..r:% . .s.s. ll+$t ll-u..d tt+-.+ g @ FFFF t-FFt-1-l t+ljtl o? @ uE z r 7 @' g [5[fn rFilTI ffffi ffffH FFffi ffi L @ @ rrrn f t t a t l @ @ @ $fifl Hflfl Cne'| [tffi HffI Arll.I &naz A* [ H f f i r i l f .8. ffl1-H rfl-Fn Frffi H+11+ffnn H+111 rrnn +.

62 ffi ffi nnn #*n 7+ . | | t i t I -w-4 l l rtrt H-+lJ] l t t t t a t ? a a l l .Hl FFFFN Ffft-H t#] rfitF Ab^aq 4 .z i' ttfr+ ffffh ffffh l]]?fl ffi-rn fffffl ffrrn F{# ovq A .E x.+ rrrrn tffat I cB& 6boVq 3 t t l i l | l rFP1tl rFFTN t-l-. fffffl 'Fr^rl.H\. ptb6 N? I ffi+ ffrT F-q l f t f | trFm r-l++N t.-* -4t 1*ffi+sa#+s rnan4o ffi ffnfl [ffi ffnn u]2. I FFFffi ( 5 J r>\ qffi |-]-{-+ Il ffi +t+i1 ffiHffi ffi HfN ffiH t-tffH t'.. l l l l l l Rr{.l-++l A .]i+ i1-nn Fr\t lflll @' @ ( 't@ ntTr ffi @ 4+.t W -s"ffi ffiffi 1t+#1 MT [ffi [ff| fffffl ffffi H++H Fffft1 t+++11 [ffil rffrn rFn-Fll-ttltl ffl-tfl S* hn dort Dhn 4+- u #" rIilTI [H tffl nrn-l TFFN I nffi H++fl rrn-n l-f+#l i-rnrl fltlfl ?!$ | l t t l l FFFN |i"+..

HM ffiil ffn-n F+'l . l lll+l l-lllJ F. r-..64 ffitrffiH ffi ffi a)l trFFF r-lTfll I RTM ffi H+1+{ Gme(l 6@b@e Hl# H+lu H++11 HH ffilil H4 l l | 1 1 i l i l Hi+l-t ttaaaa iTt?l ![ tltatt rrrrn IIt t-t+++] f+]{+ ataaal rrFrr] lltr l r r r r ffi Hti H!+.r-r-r-Lr rrrrH fff.Fn Clnntl H{-{-11 l-t+fl-l Ffft-H rrrrFl '-ffi.8x.FH II eq @ @ '6 ffi{l "s".

.4+- rrrrh t+++t{ ffffH -IT. ila D eb.8.Ex.]++-:-1 E'6 .1-1-.s. Ex.. .s .H FFFfN f f i f f i '' H#+ z a \rmt/-\ tl-i-.1 i. n-rrn rrfn [T[n-] H{-t-+t | | I f f I |# l Itr I t?tt a w ffi ffrrn l l l l ffrrn -X" TTFF IItaaa t-. ffHTI ffi{ .3 -. 64 (cont'd) ffi b'l | .. rrffn [ffi rfttfl fftffl s.g ffi Hffi t-ftfH f1-l-l-tl rffi r |. t l a a t l . ffi Aol ffi @ @ ffi ffi -** t t .'3 il ilft . 65 JH u-lJ-l-] H+fl1 $ilfl ffi HilI Fn? &*t "*t rfiffl # F{+H ffi ffiil H++u &^ort ..f+++l rrnTl c1+q HJ-1-1.l s ffi +{--}.$. tilt e^1 t-t-t-fH | *u*r..t++-]-l ffnn L ffix rnrn [ffi (qq) drbq ffi ffifi H++H Abn*1 ffrffr C1.1 fttttl ffffn fffff1 lil|l t.

'l H+++t mf I rrrrl H1ffi rll'r nrffr t++++{ flrFfl' I l it+t+t fu ffiffi H+tf @l *IE @'"@ c @ ffi '6 tl ffi ffi#ffi ffirr ftff| ffiil 42 eVr*rl _ .1.t l | | t vlTt H+11.ffhr -X- fTilN ****. r m rffi-' Ahr H1fi 4a . 65 (cont'd) FFFffi ffi a l t ffiFM T. il-]+il tttt-l-l FM r H++]l Fl'# F++-{+-.t @ mrr rn1-n m rrnn rrFm Qn1 rMTI ntTn ffnn TFl-fN @ t r f f r l lil l l Hti+t rrrrn Hfl ffTtn H+HJ nnn llllll tffi" ilffi |Im [ffi ryT Mb>T A*V5 ffiffi Ab^..+ Iffi ffiffiffi .1-l-.1 m ev ffin O C 3 + O ..Ex.1 rrrrh il llfa ffi TT I-n-fn ilil| H+l+l r|m u-t-.' FH+1{ rrnfi *-@ Itr.4 F Abn*'7 o 6 @ c rFh. ffi -* .1 l{#+1 fr WriT HH-] L lI l r t l-l-{-H eltbq ..if+11 ffiil rrrrn ftffi F.'..

l H# fu"1 ffi Gtl @O ffi uj-ll. Continne to explore other possibilities the material presented of here.r |-|FFN t t a l t l rrnTl n'rrn ffi-ffi ! | a l FFffi t-ffil l-++lJ.. the more proficient you will becomeand you will then begin to acquire an instinct for finding the right chord voicings.. 66 |-#+. in applicationto other tunes. thus bringing you within reachof extemporaneous improvising a chord melody style of your own.l H+++{ ffi I' [Tm Iill|l nt ffftfl TFTF ffrrF | | | l f f ffit-nD*th trrrF t--t-'t--f-+{ Frrrn rfl-rn ttatII Frrrn rnn Abq 52 .rmpingoctaves. The more of this you do.Example 66 is a chord melody solo basedon a standardcliord progression and includesthe structural devicespresentedthroughout this book. in Ex.jr.1 l ?| t t I ffi irfff rrnF rrnTl Ah.etc.

ll l t l...1-l l l l l l l l l l l a l "*.t aT .. E. .t iltttl t-t-. rFffn fH+t1 FH+f] rrFrn tlltr 4 H+]+ rnTn |# il?lff tflfl-l ril |lt tt+lt-t ^tsl. H# 53 .AiAAF'G) gT @ @l rntn fttffl rfi-fl-1 H-. # | # ++-++.] l l l l l l rrrrn llllrl illlll Q. $tr fl-lJtl utu.8. 66 (cont'd) tu u++fl H# ab*'Z-nA*uGA't tttf| | # . ttttil [fffn 7fiullll f++-{-t-.Ex.S.^ 6 ffi Anl ffiffi ffi nTrn ffiH ]L It ffi An 4 A&av rfi-Fn ril'l+il + An'? L tlDt.1+.. ffi ffi mTn T FTFJ'-1 rETF] J..] l l l l l l Eb^? 4tu Ab'7rT\ 6'g It FFFFFT rrrrn t t ? t t l f f i ?tt?tt f f i l l l l l l {TITfl tltl! l # l l l l l l 61 a o( r^rT --rx J-:J rrm f.u't ! ) d-rC.4-+{ i | | a t l [ffi r /lh'sn c*.iH. l-t^ff1'1 ttattt I | | tal | { ' .lj-]-l-.] llrrrl rlil ll .

H ffi ffffF !'''4 Fl-t-fH Ft+-t+{ rrn-n ffi l t t t t t c a 4 t a t | | l rffi rr|n l-fmn trrm l l ffi-ff1 ert D^q W F. 66 (cont'd) rE.'. @ .r. r t rffn-] \ rnrl i | | t | t clv1 frt+ 6fi ath r|nn ftttfl Artn n-n'n 11++N rffffl rrrrr1 ffftft |??tl x FFTF |.h 8*q ot--..'l r.Ex. - \ De a*4. nnn u-t-lltl t t t t t ffi H-t1+l nffn Mbq ffi H{ # ffi IHX nrm €nq -S'-. t t t t a t r l t l |# ilt??l -*- l-ffi A+7 rFmll ftt-tft l-fH.{. l-{-'t-{-{-{ rrrtrn rrn-n A'7*1 t t ? t a l rFffi T*1fi^. .'l# []-TTT Itr ffnt1 l+-t++l Htr l-t-t-ttl RTM u-?-t+] F Ab+tl Grl 6 @uo ffi il||ti ffirn Ff.

ffi r m It l l l l l l # liltr ataill I]T1Tl t-tfti-t m ffit Hffll | ..ffff.. 66 (c (x) m i l t t l l ffi Iilill ITTII] I t r t l l en't ffi l-tiFt+i ffi 4....1 fr g U]JJ] F-9ru ffiffiffi .Ex.0b'-..l HJ+N ffi t{+u. # l l l l l l FFFFF c't- l i l i l l l-t-ltlt+i t g t t t l . t llllll i l l | l Cnq FneT -+" 4- t++t# ffitl LT'IU ffi $) a . t3t*zE^ ' @ ._.l ffitr u-l+1.......> .

arT?d Htffi l | | t ghbs H+]+l [f]Tn Itr.Tf1 @ @@ '6 .l.] nrfl-l Gt? nnn c6/q | | t l rrnTl t-ft-l-F1 t t t t e a IIt TTITN FRTT ffffn '# #rn rrfn H-i-i-F ffnn [fi| Cn.7 *r{ ffit ftffij flm ffi 9ttl Fffi ff.Ex.at \\-/-f 3 Amf>f1 ( t o. 66 (cont'd) rHffl FFF**I l-I-n]t Ia aI at ! !Lr flTTN ffi l ? t t | l |# % tl 4 .'1ff1 ffi t+++# H+f+l fi"tl ' l F . ffi rll?ll H++l H+u.

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