GEAR TYPES

Angular Bevel Gears
These are bevel gears whose shafts are set at an angle other than 90 degrees. They are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. Using gears of differing numbers of teeth can change the speed of rotation. These gears permit minor adjustment of gears during assembly and allow for some displacement due to deflection under operating loads without concentrating the load on the end of the tooth. For reliable performance, Gears must be pinned to shaft with a dowel or taper pin. The bevel gears find its application in locomotives, marine applications, automobiles, printing presses, cooling towers, power plants, steel plants, defence and also in railway track inspection machine. They are important components on all current rotorcraft drive system.

Bevel Gears
They connect intersecting axes and come in several types. The pitch surface of bevel gears is a cone. They are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. Using gears of differing numbers of teeth can change the speed of rotation. They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well. These gears permit minor adjustment during assembly and allow for some displacement due to deflection under operating loads without concentrating the load on the end of the tooth. For reliable performance, Gears must be pinned to shaft with a dowel or taper pin. Bevel gear sets consist of two gears of different pitch diameter that yield ratios greater than 1:1.

Types
The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or bevel. In straight bevel gears teeth have no helix angles. They either have equal size gears with 90 degrees shaft angle or a shaft angle other than 90 degrees. Straight bevel angle can also be with one gear flat with a pitch angle of 90 degrees. In straight when each tooth engages it impacts the corresponding tooth and simply curving the gear teeth can solve the problem. Spiral bevel gears have spiral angles, which gives performance improvements. The contact between the teeth starts at one end of the gear and then spreads across the whole tooth. In both the bevel types of gears the shaft must be perpendicular to each other and must be in the same plane. The hypoid bevel gears can engage with the axes in different planes. This is used in many car differentials. The ring gear of the differential and the input pinion gear are both hypoid. This allows input pinion to be mounted lower than the axis of the ring gear. Hypoid gears are stronger, operate more quietly and can be used for higher reduction ratios. They also have sliding action along the teeth, potentially reducing efficiency.

Applications
A good example of bevel gears is seen as the main mechanism for a hand drill. As the handle of the drill is turned in a vertical direction, the bevel gears change the rotation of the chuck to a horizontal rotation. The bevel gears in a hand drill have the added advantage of increasing the speed of rotation of the chuck and this makes it possible to drill a range of materials. The bevel gears find its application in locomotives, marine applications, automobiles, printing presses, cooling towers, power plants, steel plants, defence and also in railway track inspection machine. They are important components on all current rotorcraft drive system. Spiral bevel gears are important components on all current rotorcraft drive systems. These components are required to operate at high speeds, high loads, and for an extremely large number of load cycles. In this application, spiral bevel gears are used to redirect the shaft from the horizontal gas turbine engine to the vertical rotor.

The pinion thread is specially made on the thread grinder to ensure proper fitting. They are used in automobiles to maintain forward motion. Tooth contact of a crown pinion is inspected on a Gleason machine at regular intervals of time for uniform hardness and adequate case depth. In a machine. which cause the meshing of the gears to become incorrect. They are made of fine-grained steel billet. The crown wheel & pinion are paired and checked for centralized tooth bearing and desired proximity. Crown wheel and pinion have excellent heat distortion control. They are checked thoroughly for high spots because this ensures premature failure and noise-free operation. To maintain forward motion both output drive shaft sides covers are removed and the pinion and crown wheel are swapped completely with differential. They are one of the most stress prone parts of a vehicle. the tendency is for the crown wheel and pinion to be forced into or out of mesh by the sliding contact. wear resistance property and noiseless and vibration free operation. when any torque is applied to the drive unit. . An elliptoid contact pattern is ensured between the crown wheel and pinion. high strength.Crown Wheel and Pinion A crown wheel is a wheel with cogs or teeth set at right angles to its plane and the pinion is a small cogwheel that meshes with the crown wheel. Application Crown wheel & pinion are used widely in automotive industries. The amount of pre-load on the bearings determines how much torque can be transmitted without allowing end float.

These two curves will be conjugate to each other. In cycloidal gear if the output crank is to stop then the drive pin must be on the pitch circle of the planet gear to avoid reversing of the motion.Crown Wheel A crown wheel is a wheel with cogs or teeth set at right angles to its plane. For cycloidal gear to be interchangeable. The internal diameter of a crown wheel is ground by holding the component in pitch like chucks to ensure accuracy of the finished gear As a result of the development of "flat" crown wheels it has become possible to construct a special gearbox. With cycloidal gearing the input and output remains in constant mesh. The combined tooth contact area of the two cycloidal gears and pins ensures that the load is distributed almost entirely around the pitch circle. Cycloidal Gears Cycloidal gears are used in pairs and are set at an angle of 180 degrees used to balance the load and are driven by multiple crank shafts to share the load and increase torsion rigidity. The teeth of a cycloidal rack are cycloid generated by the rolling generating circle. The cycloidal gear mesh with a large quantity of precisely ground steel pins. Cycloidal gearing provides considerable latitude in selection of operating characteristics-deceleration. IHC has used these new gearwheels to produce a prototype of a continuously variable speed gearbox. Gearing Mechanism Cycloidal gearing requires two different curves to obtain conjugate action. They are not straight and their shape depends on the radius of the generating circle. The curve traced out from this initial point of contact is called epicycloid. The clock consists of a crown wheel. It is also used in mechanical clocks. dwell periods. This verge is connected to an arm with a hammer on the end that struck the bell. The smaller roller disk is called the generating circle for the gear set. whose teeth drive the pallets of a verge backward and forward. ratio of input to output motions etc. Two gears are placed on either side of a roller. . rotated by a falling weight. Applications Crown wheels are used in motorcycle automotive gearboxes. The roller is rolled along the outer edge of one of the gear wheels. circles of the same size must generate them. The same roller is then rolled on the inside edge of the other gear wheel generating another curve called hypocycloid.

When the car is moving in a straight line. So. Hypoid Gear . Types of Differential Gears There are two designs of differential gears. Regular driving subjects the fluid to high heat that breaks the fluid at a later stage. the pinions and the turntable. This change allows the engine power to turn the wheels. Differential gears can add or subtract the movement of two inputs. Pinions are mounted on intermediate shafts and these shafts are connected to a fixed carrier called the turntable. they will turn the number of revolutions proportional to the movements of both inputs. When one wheel is stationary then the counterpart wheel rotates at twice of its expected speed. transmissions. This results in the contact of two metals. Spiral Differential . In practical terms. forcing the total of the rotational angles of the shafts to be the same as the rotational angles of the covering. When a differential gear is meshed with the other gear then the highly efficient torque is applied from the differential side gears to the axle shaft. which eventually increases the heat and prevents the gear from turning the car's wheel. . and propeller shafts into a right-angle direction. Arrangement of the system is done in such a way that one axle turns faster than the other.In the hypoid the pinion gear contacts the ring gear below the centerline.Differential Gears Differential gears link two shafts with a covering. comparatively hypoid differential is much stronger than the spiral differential. there is no movement of the differential gear with respect to its axis but when the car takes a turn then these gears help two wheels of the car to rotate differentially with respect to each other. Applications Differential gears in automobiles are the most common application of these gears.In spiral differential the pinion gears contacts the ring gears at its centerline . The size of pinion gear in hypoid differential is much smaller and the contact ratio is high. When torque level decreases then the gear separating forces also decreases allowing the axle shaft to rotate independently. They are used to convert the lengthwise flow of power from the engine through the clutches. The differential gears are lubricated with a fluid that absorbs heat and increases the life and performance of the gears as well as the wheel. the fluid should be properly checked in regular intervals. In the differential gears there are two coaxial gears. hypoid and spiral.

External gears are generated with a tool moving forward towards the component axis. They are used for transmitting rotary motion between parallel shafts.External Gear These are the most often used and the simplest gear system with cylindrical gears with straight teeth parallel to the axis. External gears are widely used in various industrial sectors like coal industry. also having external teeth. The two gear surfaces come into contact once and so they are noisy at high speed. steel plant. and many more . the corresponding driving and driven shafts rotate in opposite direction. mining. Internal gear cutter with very small diameter and few teeth is used for the production of external gear. When a smaller gear called the pinion. drives the larger gear called the wheel. paper industry.

Their use in high power. They are used largely to transmit motion rather than power. Face gears have many advantages. The pinion is a normal spur gear and assembly time is reduced because only the axial position of the face gears needs to be set. Helicopters using transmission systems based on face gear have a higher safety and survivability. Face gears help to ensure accuracy and rigidity. It can easily obtain zero backlash transmission. the frontal pressure angle. Features Face gears are of three types. Applications They are used in aerospace drive system. They do not lend themselves to the kind of detailed tooth measurements because of their small dimensions. helical face gear. which give high torque capability. Face gear enables the transmission of drive through an angle. They are used to transfer power between intersecting shafts as found in helicopter rotor transmission. It is generated by a shaper cutter with the same diametrical pitch and pressure angle as the pinion. thus increasing the reliability of the aircraft. They are available in plastic. and offset face gear. standard face gear.Face Gear Face gears are the gear wheel with cogs mortised into its face. In this there is no axial load on a pinion with straight spur teeth and the meshing is smoother due to oblique contact lines and high contact ratio. They also work with bad alignment between pinion and the rotor gear. They are also effective with insufficient lubrication. Fine pitch gears are inspected by functional testing on a variable-center-distance fixture. Face gears are supplied in wholesale to the aerospace industries Fine Pitch Gears They are widely used in aerospace. . usually in conjugation with a lantern pinion. steel. They have high tooth strength. Fine pitch gear is used widely in oil industry and for automotive transmission. Pressure angle of a face gear is calculated by calculating the shape of the tooth. nuclear and medical industries. stainless steel and brass. high precision applications have become popular. Face gears have high strength teeth and good contact geometry.

They can be parallel shaft type or hollow shaft type. Casting is enhanced using full ring risering techniques. and are widely used in the aerospace industry. easy operation and precise machining. They are physically big and due to this they are unable to store for longer periods of time. bedways.Girth Gears The girth gear has been preferred over the gearless drives due to their lower initial cost. The capital cost of girth gears is lower than others and they take less time to install. They are also used in steel industry. Hardened gears are used in several essential machine tools like wheels. simplicity to install. high precision component. Girth gear materials have made several changes on their own. They are characterized by high output. They offer rigidity. paper and pulp industry. Simulation programs are installed for verification of proper solidification. They have high efficiency and the overall life of these gears depends upon proper lubrication and alignment. strength and high resistance to shock load. New materials are used with an added advantage of increase in hardness and therefore increased ratings. Hardened ground gear provide a noise free and long term operation. They can't be used in spare parts inventory. operate and maintain. Hardened and ground gear delivers a maximum hob rotation and table rotation with excellent machining accuracy. sugar industry. . Hardened and Ground Gears Hardened and ground gear has two types of shaft arrangements. In the past many years girth gears have gone through enormous improvements. They are available in a wide range of sizes and gear ratios. etc. The girth gear is the heart of most mills and kiln drive system. They are high quality.

which needs to be accomodated by appropriate thrust bearings. feeders. As the angle of inclination increases the axial force also increases. Two mating helical gears must have equal helix angle but opposite hand. Helical gears can be used to mesh two shafts that are not parallel and can also be used in a crossed gear mesh connecting two perpendicular shafts. elevators. conveyors. Applications These are highly used in transmission because they are quieter even at higher speed and are durable. Disadvantage A disadvantage of helical gear is the resultant thrust along the axis of the gear. cutters. The other possible applications of helical gears are in textile industry. blowers.Helical Gears Helical gears connect parallel shifts but the involute teeth are cut at an angle to the axis of rotation. cane knives and in oil industry. This can be overcome by the use of double helical gears by having teeth with a 'v' shape. rubber and plastic industry. They run smoother and more quietly. The gearing is quieter with less vibration. the same helix angles are used and the tooth contact area of the gear is very small. They have higher load capacity. The efficiency is also reduced because of longer surface contact. clay working machinery. They can carry heavy load because of the greater surface contact with the teeth. They have longer and strong teeth. Gear Configuration They can be manufactured in both right-handed and left-handed configurations with a helix angle to transmit motion and power between non-intersecting shafts that are parallel or at 90 degrees to each other. . are more expensive to manufacture and create axial thrust. If the angle of gear teeth is correct. sand mullers. compressors. they can be mounted on perpendicular shaft by adjusting the rotating angle by 90 degrees. Thrust bearings can counter these forces. For shaft at 90 degrees. rolling mills. sugar industry. food industry. screen. The inclination of the teeth generates an axial force.

They are commonly used in modern differentials. The use of helical bevel gear saves energy and cost. high capacity power transmission. Herringbone gear also allow for the use of larger diameter shaft for the same volumetric displacement and higher differential pressure capability. parallel axis that may or may not have center groove with each group making two opposite helices. Herringbone gears are mostly used on heavy machinery. Helical bevel gears are fitted with flanges of various sizes. particularly in modular machinery. . The input side is provided with a motor flange or a free input shaft and the output side are provided with a free shaft end or a hollow shaft.Helical Bevel Gears Helical bevel gear is a toothed gear in angular design. The two helix angle come together in the center of the gear face to form a 'V'. They do not have any separating groove between the mirrored halves. Action is equal in force and friction on both gears and all bearings. The most common application is in power transmission. Helical bevel gears are manufactured by an alloyed case hardening steel. Its difficult to cut this type of gear but its made easier by machining a groove in the face at the point of the apex of the 'V' creating a break in the middle of the herringbone gear teeth. homogeneous structure. The gear material is given an extremely strong. This offers reduced pulsation due to which they are highly used for extrusion and polymerization. The advantages of helical bevel gears are high efficiency and low reduction rate. They can replace worm gears in a variety of applications. in these gears the end thrust forces cancel themselves out. They utilize curved teeth for efficient. Reciprocating tools cuts them. Herringbone Gears They conduct power and motion between non-intersecting. They are also used as storage and retrieval unit.

timing and other light duty applications. The properties and teeth shape is similar as of external gears except that the internal gear had different addendum and dedendum values modified to prevent interference in internal meshes. The input idler gear receives a rotary input and the first intermediate idler gear meshes with the input gear and the second intermediate idler gear. . They are designed to accommodate a wide range of equipment. When choosing a mating gear the difference between the number of teeth of girth gear and the pinion should not be less than 15. The teeth are cut into the inside diameter while the outside diameter is smooth. indexing. a second intermediate idler gear and an output gear. quiet operation. An idler gear is placed between two gears. a first intermediate idler gear. It is also used to change the spacing between the input and output axles. and the follower gear rotates in the opposite direction of the idler. This even distribution decreases the pressure intensity and increases the life of the gear. These are ideal and cost effective. These gears are available only in brass. the shaft rotating in the same direction as the arrangement. It is used to ensure that the rotation of two gears is the same. They have the teeth cut on the inside of the rim rather than the outside. Their non-binding tooth design ensures smooth. They are used in planetary gears to produce large reduction ratios. All the gears and wheels that turn inside the treads of a battle tank are all idler gears that transfer power from the input gear to the output gear to move the tread and move the tank forward. Internal gears are hollow. Internal gear offers low sliding and high stress loading. When they are used with the pinion more teeth carry the load and are evenly distributed. The idler gear rotates in the opposite direction as the driver gear. the same direction of the driver. The power take off mechanism includes a gear train with an input idler gear. The center distance of a given velocity is shorter. Gears make an internal contact with these gears. but it does alter the direction it turns. They are used as tools for creating solid models of drive components. It does not alter the speed of the output. Internal Gears Internal gears have cylindrical pith surface with teeth parallel to the axis. They are used to transmit rotary motion between parallel shafts. The output gears transmit rotary power to one of the first and second axles. The main applications of internal gears are in rollers.Idler Gear A gear wheel placed between two other gears to transmit motion from one to the other. It does not change the gear ratio between the input and output gears.

Increasing the distance above its theoretical value makes the gears run easier. As the teeth continues to rotate. The disadvantages of the non-involute gearing are lower transverse contact ratio and great sensitivity to the center distance accuracy. Operation of the Gear On an involute gear tooth. and as the gear spins. but is fixed by the number of teeth or by pitch diameters. The result of enlarged reduced radius of curvature has as a consequence reduced pressure and better lubrication conditions. The velocity ratio of the gears does not depend on the exact spacing of the axes. The geometry of non-involute gear tooth provides substantially higher capacity than any other gearing. As the gear turns. Thus.Involute Gears Involute gears have a tooth shape that is tolerant of variations in the distance between the axes. This also increases the backlash. pushes the top gear ahead. Reduced gear sliding has an affect on low speed meshes. The gears manufactured by the same rack cutter have the concave convex mesh. since the clearances are larger. Non-Involute Gears Non-involute gears have reduced specific sliding. Then the contact point starts to slide onto the skinny part of the bottom tooth. to ensure smooth running of the gears. The tooth profile geometry is uniquely defined by the arc shaped path of contact. the contact point starts closer to one gear. subtracting a little bit of velocity from the top gear to compensate for the increased diameter of contact. the contact point moves further away going outside the pitch diameter. The efficiency of these gears is also increased by the use of less viscous oil. the involute gear tooth produces a constant ratio of rotational speed. Involute spur gears have the invaluable ability of providing conjugate action when the gears' center distance is varied either deliberately or involuntarily due to manufacturing or mounting errors. where sliding losses predominate. the contact point moves away from that gear and towards the other. Rack type cutters generate involute gears. the contact point slides up onto the thicker part of the top gear tooth. . Thus. The pitch diameter is the effective contact diameter.

Miter gears are cut with a generated tooth form that has a localized lengthwise tooth bearing. They are used as important parts of conveyors. They are used in drilling air holes in vacuum molds. Applications Miter gears are also used in printing. They handle higher speeds and greater torque loads. . They are used in various industrial sectors including-coal and mining. more is the speed of rotation. Miter is the surface forming the beveled end or edge of a piece where a miter joint is made. drilling radial ports in door closers. Pinion is attached to the motor shaft with glue. bottling. quieter operation. bronze. They are designed for the efficient transmission of power and motion between intersecting shafts at right angles. speed ratio. Pinion gear system involves the use of a small round gear called pinion and a large flat gear called rack. ground spiral miter gear and spiral miter gear. Features They are known for efficient power transfer and durability. milling oil grooves and act as a low cost spindle for dedicated machines. Pinion gears are engineered to be the best gears. Miter gears are made of steel. They can carry heavy loads and can eliminate secondary operations that are useless during the process. Rotational motion is converted into linear motion when the pinion turns and moves the rack. Pinion Gears It is a small cogwheel. brass. If the rack is moved and the pinion rotates then the center of the pinion moves taking along the pinion with it. oil exploration. Rotation of pinion is done by rotation of pinion about a fixed center that helps the rack to move in the straight line. Pinion with smaller number of teeth produces more torque.Miter Gears Miter gears are bevel gears put together with equal numbers of teeth and axes that are usually at right angles. materials and designs. paper mining. The teeth fit into a larger gear wheel. They give smoother. aluminum. They can be of two types. nylon and duracon. and material handling and steering. They are offered in various modules. They provide a steady ratio. chemical industry. more the number of teeth in the pinion gear. number of teeth. elevators and kilns. agriculture.

used largely in automotive industry. among which two support the drive pinion and two support the case that holds the ring gear and one on each axle nearest the wheel. They are widely used in automobiles. It is also used in calculating the tier width and the speed of wheels. Racks are gears of infinite pitch radius. requiring highly skilled technicians. The rack slides right or left. It is also used in tire rotation. The steering wheel of a car rotates the gear that engages the rack. The commonly used materials for racks are stainless steel. Ring Gear and Pinion It is one of the most commonly used spiral bevel gears. They are also used in some scales to turn the dial that displays weight. Racks are made of various materials. To compute a new gear ratio. . In order to enable the axle ratio setting a vehicle must be must be equipped with a racing gearbox. brass. depending on the way we turn the wheel. also known as ring and pinion gears. wheel alignment and tire balance. A ring and pinion gear set is expensive to buy and install. Windshield wipers in cars are powered by a rack and pinion mechanism. They will mesh with pinions of the same pitch.Rack Gears Rack gear is a toothed bar into which a pinion meshes. Gear oil used here is heavy and the thickness of the oil changes with the temperature. it not only rotates against each other but also wipe across the drive surfaces. It works for higher driving and loading capacity in the drive line from transmission to wheels. They are used to translate rotary motion to linear motion or vice versa. There are bearings in the final drive. It is also used to compensate for discrepancies in the respective rotation rate of the drive wheels between inside and outside wheels during cornering for limited effective torque to the wheels with lower coefficient of friction. one needs to enter the stock ring pinion gears ratio along with the old and new tier size. Applications It is used in heavy truck differentials. when the gear turns. and plastic. It is one of the greatest masterpieces in automotive mechanism. This gear is hypoid. creating the shearing force that cuts the lubricants changing its viscosity.

Methods of Manufacturing Face milled and face hobbed are two methods of manufacturing for spiral bevel gears. Because of higher contact ratio.Spiral Bevel Gears Spiral bevel gears have spiral angles. In this application. hard cutting is the final step. In this type of gears the shaft must be perpendicular to each other and must be in the same plane. They are the most complex forms of bevel gears. These components are required to operate at high speeds. high loads. in the face hobbed method. the grinding of the contacting surface is the last step. Applications Spiral bevel gears are important components on all current rotorcraft drive systems. . They are also used in power windows and power seats. In the method of face milled. where the two axes are concurrent and in the same plane. The desirable design of the gear is to minimize the weight of the gear and it is done by reducing the material in the gear's rim. these have better load carrying capacity an this allows them to be smaller in size for a given load capacity than an equivalent gear. They are designed for an angle change of 90 degrees. which gives performance improvements. These gears have a double function of being helical and beveled at the same time. and for an extremely large number of load cycles. They are used where speed and strength are desirable along with the change in angle of power flow. spiral bevel gears are used to redirect the shaft from the horizontal gas turbine engine to the vertical rotor. The same machine is used to rough cut and finish cut the gears. resulting in higher overall contact ratios. The contact between the teeth starts at one end of the gear and then spreads across the whole tooth. Whereas. The teeth are curved by cutting them obliquely. Thus they can transmit more power with smaller gears.

Sprockets Sprockets are teeth like projections arranged on a wheel rim to engage the links of a chain. The sprocket must be inspected once a month for wear and if the teeth are worn down or are broken they should be replaced. On one end of the chain is a small sprocket located on the engine that rotates due to the force of the engine. Inserted sprockets are also designed to reduce noise and operation. They are mainly made of cast iron. On the other end of the chain is a larger sprocket located attached to the rear axle. This provides both forward and reverse momentum. They engage chains in many different power transmission and conveyor systems. The sprockets and the chain must be lubricated with chain lube such as bell ray. and carbon steel. sintered metal. the front gear is turned and that meshes with the links in the chain. a chain runs between two sprockets. They are often an economic. The chain moves and meshes with the links in the rear gear that is attached to the rear wheel. . reliable drive system for long running. Applications Sprockets are most commonly used in bicycles. This enables the bicycle to move. In a cycle. The amount of rotation of each sprocket depends on the rotation speed of the driving sprockets. When the paddle is pushed. continuous drive applications with maximum absorption of shock and minimum torque loads. the number of teeth of the driving sprockets and the number of teeth of the driven sprockets. Geometry and Maintenance Two sprockets are connected to each other with a chain.

They are not used in automobiles because they produce sound when the teeth of both the gears collide with each other. power transmission requirements. non-metallic. the axle of the wheel. Flank or the face contacts the meshing gear. addendum. roller feeds. Factors like design life. They are used when shaft rotates in the same plane. The main features of spur gears are dedendum. It also increases stress on the gear teeth. They are made with many different properties. They are also used to create large gear reductions. it extends to the tip called the addendum circle. the most useful feature if the spur gears. noise and heat generation. and fillet. brass. the ratio of number of teeth on the gears that are to be meshed. They have higher contact ratio that makes them smooth and quiet in operation. They give lower but satisfactory performance. Materials They are available in plastic. They are also used in construction equipment.Spur Gears They connect parallel shafts. The fillet in the root region is kinetically irrelevant. the axle of the motor and the other gear of the pair is on the output axle. Applications Generally used in simple machines like washing machines. One gear among the two is on the input axle. have involute teeth that are parallel to the shaft and can have internal or external teeth. Dedendum cylinder is a root from where teeth extend. They are available for corrosion resistant operation. clothes dryer or power winches. and presence of corrosive elements contribute to the optimization of the gear material. machine tools. They cause no external thrust between gears. indexing equipment. They are among the most cost-effective type of gearing. They are inexpensive to manufacture. and conveyors. Characteristics The speed and change of the force depends on the gear ratio. . steel and cast iron and are manufactured in a variety of styles. flank. multi spindle drives.

In the standard form.Straight Bevel Gears Straight bevel gears are the simplest of the bevel gears. machine tools. cement plant. which if extends. The most preeminent function of these gears is in a bevel gear differential. Teeth are cut on the outside of the cone. the gear has no profile shifted tooth. Major percentage of them is of Gleason type with a coniflex form that gives almost an imperceptible convex appearance to the tooth surface. They are manufactured on precision generating machines by indexing method ensuring that the teeth should be of tapered depth and thickness. Straight bevel gears come in two variations depending on the fabrication equipment. sugar mills and cooling towers etc. passes through the intersection of their axes. Straight tooth gears are also used in chemical industries. Straight bevel angle can also be with one gear flat with a pitch angle of 90 degrees. They can be designed and cut to operate on any shaft angle. These gears are recommended at less speed and when loads are light. material handling system. They have a straight tooth geometry. textile processing. These have conical pith surfaces that operate on intersecting axes. . In straight bevel gears when each tooth engages it impacts the corresponding tooth and simply curving the gear teeth can solve the problem. steel plant. They are grouped into Gleason type and the standard type. At higher speed they make noise.

These are quite highly developed and use tooth forms that are significantly different from those found in other gear applications such as car gearboxes and power transmission. high torque output at the drum. For long term safety and security the damaged part should be replaced and full analysis of the cause of damage should be done. The winches turn few thousand times in their entire lives and they never go fast enough to get hot. The winch gears are not long lasting and have low efficiency. Before every operation winch gear should be lubricated. overloading them and deforming the teeth causes majority of damage to the gears.Winch Gears Winch gears are used to convert the high speed. This results in thick strong teeth that resist high loads as well. The loads on winch gears are actually high while the speeds they turn at are relatively very low. low force input of the handle into low speed. They get worn out easily. The ratchet should not be engaged when the winch gear is turning. . Applications Winch gear is commonly used in boats and fleets.

Because of high friction worm gears are very inefficient. Worm gears work under difficult conditions. They are capable of transmitting high tooth loads.Worm Gears A worm gear is an inclined plane wrapped around a central axle. indexing and food processing. There is lot of friction between a worm gear and the gear being driven by the worm gear. presenting unique lubrication demands. They provide high-ratio speed reduction in minimal spaces. The pinion has small number of teeth and they wrap around the pitch cylinder.has concave helical teeth wrap around the worm. The worm gear has concave faces to fit the curvature of the worm in order to provide line of contact instead of point of contact. They are used widely in conveyor systems. Worm gears are made of two parts: the pinion and the worm gear.called a cone or hourglass. Applications Worm gears are widely used in packaging machinery. They offer smoothest. the only disadvantage is the high sliding velocities across the teeth. They serve as speed reducers in many different industries. Double throated. Worm gears are used when large gear reductions are required. and lubricant. EP mineral gear oils and synthetics. It has concave teeth both on the worm and helical gear. Single throated. They are also used in torsen differential. used on some high-performance cars and trucks. the friction between the two holds the worm in place. quietest form of gearing. The types of oils most commonly used to lubricate worm gears are compounded mineral oils. Worm gear has a unique property of easily turning the gear. Features The efficiency of worm gear depends on the lead angle. They provide ultimate power ratio. It is a gear with one or more teeth in the form of screwed threads.a helical gear with a straight worm. the friction causes the wear on the gear teeth and erosion of restraining surface. material handling. They are cut helically for better mating Worm gears can provide a high angular velocity between non-intersecting shafts at right angles. . Types There are three types of worm gears: Non throated. Operation of the Gear Worm gear is always used as the input gear. machine tools. torque is applied to the input end of the worm shaft by a driven sprocket or electric motor. When used in high torque applications. Tooth contact is a single moving point on the worm drive. The gear cannot turn the worm because the angle on the worm is shallow and when the gear tries to spin the worm. This leads to line contact. The worm and the worm shaft are supported by anti-friction roller bearings. surface quality and installation conditions. sliding speed. For the operation of worm gear.

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