Electric Arc Welding

Section 8 Unit 25 & 26


Electric arc welding • A group of fusion welding processes that use an electric arc to produce the heat required for melting the metal. • Advantages
– – – – – – – Inexpensive power source Relatively inexpensive equipment Welders use standard domestic current. Portable equipment is available Process is fast and reliable Short learning curve Equipment can be used for multiple functions

• Electric arc is about 9,000 oF


• All fusion welding process have thee requirements.
– Heat – Shielding – Filler metal

• The method used to meet these three requirements is the primary difference between arc welding processes.


Arc Welding Requirements
Filler Material Stick Electrode Wire Electrode

Process SMAW

Heat Electric Arc Electric Arc

Shielding Inert Gas (Flux) Inert Gas (Cylinder)


In this class you will have the opportunity to use two (2) arc welding processes:

ASW Flux Core Arc Welding Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding Electroslag Welding Electrogas Welding Plasma Arc Welding Arc Stud Welding 5 . EGW 6.Eight Additional Electric Arc Welding Processes 1. PAW 7. GTAW 3. SAW 4. FCAW 2. ESW 5.

Safe Practices Welders need protection from: – Arc’s rays – Welding fumes – Sparks – Contact with hot metal 6 .

Arc Welding Power Supplies • The current for arc welder can be supplied by line current or by an alternator/generator. – The amount of heat is determined by the current flow (amps) – The ease of starting and harshness of the arc is determined by the electrical potential (volts). • Welding current adjustments can include: – – – – – Amperage Voltage Polarity High frequency current Wave form 7 .

AC. The type of current and the polarity of the welding current are one of the differences between arc welding processes. DC+ or DC- 8 . AC. – SMAW – GMAW – GTAW Constant current (CC). DC+ or DCConstant voltage (CV) DC+ or DCConstant Current (CC) ).Arc Welding Power Supplies--cont.

Duty cycle 3. Initial cost and operating cost 7. Amperage range 4. Input power requirements 6.Twelve (12) Considerations When Selecting An Arc Welding Power Supply 1. Future needs for a power supply 9. Open circuit voltage mechanism 5. Available skills 10. Size and portability 9 . Maximum Amperage 2. Manufacturer's support 12. Safety 11. Amperage adjustment 8.

the optimum output amperage is determined by the thickness of the metal. 10 . • 185 to 225 amps is a common size.1: Amperage Output • The maximum output of the power supply determines the thickness of metal that can be welded before joint beveling is required. welding position and type of electrode. the type of joint. • For an individual weld.

– Duty cycle is based on a 10 minute interval. but usually is less. • Note in the picture there is a circle around the 75 amp setting. • Duty cycle may be 100%.2: Duty cycle • The amount of continuous welding time a power supply can be used is determined by the duty cycle of the power supply. – Many power supplies have a sloping duty cycle. Why is it there? What is the most likely outcome of exceeding a power supply duty cycle? 11 .

Five Common Output Currents For Arc Welding 1. PC (Pulsed Current) 5. AC (Alternating Current) 2. Square wave 12 . ACHF (Alternating Current-High Frequency) 4. DC (Direct Current) 3.

10. Resistance 7. Ohms Law 8. Alternating current (AC) 4. Constant potential Constant current Voltage drop Open circuit voltage Arc voltage Polarity 13 .Arc Welding Electrical Terms To understand how an electric arc welder works. Ampere 5. 1. Volt 6. 11. 9. 13. you must understand the following thirteen (13) electrical terms. Electrical Circuit 2. Direct current (DC) 3. 12.

Electrical Circuit • An electrical circuit is a complete path for electricity. 14 . • Establishing an arc completes an electric circuit .

15 .Alternating Current • Alternating current: The type of current where the flow of electrons reverses direction (polarity) at regular intervals. • Recommended current for SMAW general purpose electrodes and flat position.

• Controlling the polarity allows the welder to influence the location of the heat. the base metal will be slightly hotter than the electrode. • DC current is required for GMAW • It is frequently used for SMAW 16 . • When the electrode is positive (+) DCRP or DCEP it will be slightly hotter than the base metal. DCSP or DCEN. • When the base metal is positive (+).Direct Current • Direct current: The type of current where the flow of electrons (polarity) is in one direction.

• The electrode also has resistance. • Insufficient amperage for the diameter of electrode makes the electrode hard to start. • One ampere is equal to 6. • Excessive amperage for the diameter of the electrode (current density) over heats the electrode.Ampere • Amperes: the unit of measure for current flow. What are the characteristics of an electrode that was used with excessive current density? 17 .24150948×1018 electrons passing by a point per second. • An air gap is a high resistance • The greater the amperage flowing through the resistance (air gap)--the greater the heat. • Electricity passing through a resistance causes heat.

– Higher voltage = easier starting. 18 . – Starting voltage is called OCV. • Changing the voltage adjusts a GMAW machine for different metal thickness.Voltage • Voltage is the measure of electromotive force (Emf). • Emf is measured in units of volts • The voltage at the electrode for SMAW determines the ease of starting and the harshness of the arc. • Voltage is adjustable in dual control SMAW machines.

• Measured in units of Ohm’s (  ) • When an electrical current passes through a resistance heat (BTU) is produced. Is the resistance adjustable in the SMAW process? 19 . • The amount of heat produced is a function of the amount of resistance (Ohm’s) and the amount of current (amps).Resistance • Def: that characteristic of a material that impedes the flow of an electrical current.

• Commonly expressed as: • Ohm’s law also be used to teach a principle of electrical safety.  Amperage is the harmful portion of electrical current. in an electrical circuit.  The higher the resistance.Ohm’s Law • Ohm's law states that. E = IR  E I= R What does this principle mean for SMAW?  20 . the current passing through a material is directly proportional to the potential difference.  Rearranging Ohm’s Law for amperage shows that amperage (current flow) is determined by the voltage divided by the resistance. the less current that will flow for a given voltage.

and vies versa. • This allows two different types of power supplies:  Constant current  Constant potential • In a constant current power supply. • SMAW 21 . the voltage decreases. • GMAW • In a constant potential power supply.Constant Current • In the normal operation of a transformer as amperage is increased. • Electrical arc welding power supplies are modified so that either the voltage or the amperage is relatively constant as the other factor changes. the voltage stays relatively constant when the amperage is changed. the current (amperage) stays relatively constant when the voltage is changed.

• Open circuit voltage (OCV) • OCV is not adjustable for most machines • When the arc is struck the voltage drops to the welding voltage. • Arc voltage • Arc voltage varies with the arc length. • The machine provides a high voltage for striking the arc. 22 .Constant Current--cont. • Characteristics of constant current power supply. • As the welding proceeds the current will not vary much as the arc length changes.

8%). • Increasing the voltage from 20 to 25 volts (25%) only decreases the amperage from 113 to 120 Amp (5.Constant Current-cont. 23 .

80 70 60 50 Volts 40 30 20 10 0 0 50 100 A nperes 150 200 250 • Characteristic of GMAW power supplies. 24 .Constant Potential • The constant potential power supply is modified to produce a relatively constant voltage as the amperage changes.

• When an excessive voltage drop exists. – Localized resistance (connection) can cause excessive heat. • Primary cause is resistance. 25 . the electrical circuit will not perform as designed.Voltage Drop • Voltage drop is the reduction in voltage in an electrical circuit between the source and the load. the amperage must be increased to have the same heat at the weld. • When extra long welding leads are used. – Excessive heat can cause component failure.

 Five (5) joints: Corner Butt Lap Edge T 26 . Welds & Positions  Electric arc welding uses the same five (5) types of joints and five (5) types of welds and five (5) positions.Joints.

Welds & Positions Five types of welds 1. Fillet 4. Plug 5. Surface 2. Groove 3.Joints. Slot 27 .

• Two common applications are for hard surfacing and padding.  May or may not be blended with the work piece. Surface Welds • Surface welds are welds were a material has been applied to the surface of another material. 28 .1.

2. Groove Welds Groove welds are used to fuse the sides or ends of two pieces of metal. 29 . The primary use of groove welds is to complete butt joints.

Fillet Welds Fillet welds have a triangular cross section and are used to fuse two faces of metal that are at a 90 degree angle to each other.3. Lap Joint Outside Corner T Joint 30 .

31 . The weld is completed by establishing the arc on the bottom plate and then continuing to weld until the hole is full. The holes can be made with a drill bit or punch. Plug Welds Plug welds are used to attach two surfaces together when a complete joint is not required and the design does not allow for any weld bead outside the dimensions of the metal.4.

32 .5. slots are machined or stamped in the upper plate. Slot Welds Slot welds are identical to plug welds except for the shape of the holes. For slot welds. They are complete the same as plug welds.

Welds & Positions Arc Welding Positions Flat Horizontal Vertical Up Vertical Down Overhead 33 .Joints.

Weld Nomenclature Penetration Bead Base metal Joint Angle Reinforcement Bead Root Face Root Opening Excessive Penetration 34 .

Reinforcement Toe Leg Face Throat Toe Root Leg 35 .Weld Nomenclature-cont.

It is used for appearance and to fill in surface voids. • In multiple pass welds. – If it is not used. Tack Weld • The filler pass is used to fill in the joint. each pass has a specific function. the heat of the weld will cause the joint to close. • Cover Pass Filler Pass Root Pass • A tack weld is used to hold the joint at the desired gap. – If the root pass does not have adequate penetration. it must be cut or gouged out before the weld is completed. 36 . The cover pass isn’t used for strength.Weld Nomenclature-cont. The root pass is used to fuse the root of the weld. • – A pattern bead or multiple stringer beads will be used.

Bead Patterns • Pattern beads are used whenever a wider bead is needed. – – – – Hardsurfacing Filler pass Cover pass Reduce penetration • Common patterns: – Circle – Crescent – Figure 8 37 .

• Welds are removed by grinding. • Defects that are not visible must be detect by using destructive or nondestructive testing. • The mark of a good welder is the ability to identify weld defects and adjust the welding parameters to eliminate them. • Eliminating a weld defect is time consuming and expensive -you must be able to complete the weld correctly the first time. the weld must be removed and redone. • If the defects in a weld exceed the specifications. gouging and cutting.Weld Defects • A weld defect is any physical characteristic in the completed weld that reduces the strength and/or affects the appearance of the weld. 38 .

The weld metal is not completely fused to base metal or passes are not completely fused. Slow speed 39 . Incorrect angle Incorrect manipulation Insufficient heat Weld material flows over.Common Defects and Causes Description The depth of the weld is less than specifications. Cause(s) Excessive heat Excessive speed. but is not fused with the base metal.

Cause(s) Low heat Long arc Incorrect joint design Small indentions in the surface of the weld Small voids throughout the weld material. Excessive gas in the weld zone. Moisture Rust Dirt Accelerated cooling 40 . Description Weld bead does not extend to the desired depth.Common Defects and Causes--cont.

Description Usually visible cracks on the surface or through the weld Cause(s) Accelerated cooling Constrained joint Small weld volume Induced hydrogen Incompatible electrode or wire Accelerated cooling Cracks in the transition zone between the weld and base metal Misshapen and/or uneven ripples Inconstant speed Incorrect manipulation Incorrect welder settings 41 .Common Defects and Causes--cont.

42 .

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