E – PAPER TECHNOLOGY
BY: SRAJIT SAXENA 08EAIEC098 EC -B
E- Paper Technology
What is e- paper?? The terms electronic
paper, e-paper describe a range of display technologies which are designed to mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper
Electronic paper displays reflect light like ordinary paper In this many of the technologies are capable of holding text and images indefinitely without drawing electricity, while allowing the image to be changed late
thus giving the pixel a white or black appearance
. called Gyricon. consisted of polyethylene spheres between 75 and 106 micrometers Each sphere is a Janus particle composed of negatively charged black plastic on one side and positively charged white plastic on the other The polarity of the voltage applied to each pair of electrodes then determines whether the white or black side is face-up.Technologies Used:(1) GYRICON:
The first electronic paper.
An electrophoretic display forms visible images by rearranging charged pigment particles using an applied electric field. along with surfactants and chargingagent. the particles will migrate electrophoretically to the plate bearing the opposite charge from that on the particles
. In this titanium dioxide particles approximately one micrometer in diameter are dispersed in a hydrocarbon oil.
When a voltage is applied across the two plates. A dark-colored dye is also added to the oil.
it appears white. because the incident light is absorbed by the colored dye.
When the particles are located at the front (viewing) side of the display. because light is scattered back to the viewer by the high-index titania particles When the particles are located at the rear side of the display. it appears dark. Electrophoretic displays can be manufactured using the Electronics on Plastic by Laser Release (EPLaR)process developed by Philips Research to enable existing AM-LCD manufacturing plants to create flexible plastic displays.
the interfacial tension between the water and the coating changes. When a voltage is applied between the electrode and the water. a white pixel
. or. resulting in a coloured pixel.
Electro-wetting display (EWD) is based on controlling the shape of a confined water/oil interface by an applied voltage. With no voltage applied. This results in a partly transparent pixel. the (coloured) oil forms a flat film between the water and a hydrophobic (water-repellent). causing the water to move the oil aside. As a result the stacked state is no longer stable. in case a reflective white surface is used under the switchable element. insulating coating of an electrode.
highcontrast switchable element is obtained.
Because of the small size of the pixel. which forms the basis of the reflective display. the user only experiences the average reflection. which means that a high-brightness. The switching between white and coloured reflection is fast enough to display video content.
Voltage is used to electromechanically pull the pigment out of the reservoir and spread it as a film directly behind the viewing substrate.
When voltage is removed liquid surface tension causes the pigment
dispersion to rapidly recoil into the reservoir.Electrofluidic displays place an aqueous pigment dispersion inside a tiny reservoir. The reservoir comprises <5-10% of the viewable pixel area and therefore the pigment is substantially hidden from view .(4)Electrofluidic:
Electrofluidic displays are a variation of an electrowetting display
which does not need to be refreshed constantly. Reflects ambient light rather than emitting its own light. Electronic paper is often considered to be more comfortable to read than conventional displays.ADVANTAGES:
Low power consumption because no light emitting device is used . The contrast ratio in available displays as of 2008 might be described as similar to that of newspaper. though newlydeveloped implementations are slightly better
.This is due to the stable image. An ideal e-paper display can be read in direct sunlight without the image appearing.
Light weight and thin Read under all circumstances(outdoor) No need of ink and paper Low transportation cost Plug and play More convenient
No flickering. is solved after the screen is refreshed several times.DISADVANTAGES:
Electronic paper technologies have a very low refresh rate comparing
with other low-power display This prevents producers from implementing sophisticated interactive applications (using fast moving menus. mouse pointers or scrolling) like those which are possible on handheld computers Another limitation is that an imprint of an image may be visible after refreshing parts of the screen. and the effect is known as "ghosting". unlike it.Not yet full color
. Those imprints are known as "ghost images". This effect is reminiscent of screen burn-in but. No video .
which has a flexible electrophoretic display and in March 2010 Seiko released a second generation of this famous e-ink watch with an active matrix display. Sony
Education: digital schoolbooks: In January 2007. On October 2. the Dutch specialist in e-Paper edupaper. Wristwatches: In December 2005 Seiko released their Spectrum SVRD001 wristwatch. In September 2006 Sony released the PRS-500 Sony Reader e-book reader in the USA. 2007. using e-Paper as digital schoolbooks to reduce costs and students' daily burden of books. Phosphor of Hong Kong have launched 3 series of watches with a flexible electrophoretic display using eink technologyE e-Books: In 2004 Sony released Librié EBR-1000EPin Japan.nl started a pilot project in a secondary school in Maastricht. the first e-book reader with an electronic paper display.
an e-book reader with an e-paper display.
In late 2007. In February 2009.
. the Flemish daily De Tijd distributed an electronic version of the paper to select subscribers in a limited marketing study.. Amazon began producing and marketing the Amazon
Kindle. In July 2010 the third generation Kindle was announced. Amazon released the Kindle 2 and in May 2009 the larger Kindle DX was announced.
Newspapers: In February 2006.Contd….
such as available storage space.
The Motorola F3 uses an e-paper display instead of an LCD
. also uses an alphanumeric black/white electrophoretic display.
Displays embedded in smart cards:
Flexible display cards enable financial payment cardholders to generate a onetime password to reduce online banking and transaction fraud.
Mobile phones Motorola's low-cost mobile phone. the Motorola F3. like USB flash drives. Electronic paper could offer a flat and thin alternative to existing key fob tokens for data security
Status displays Some devices. have used electronic paper to display status information..
Pricing labels using e paper
E paper wristwatch
Samsung Seiko Epson
Delta Electronics LG
Plastic Logic Prime View International.
the Dutch daily NRC Handelsblad is distributed for the iRex iLiad reader. Since January 2008.Present of e paper:
In November 2009 Barnes and Noble launched the Barnes & Noble
Nook. Phosphor of Hong Kong have launched 3 series of watches with a flexible electrophoretic display using eink technology.
In late 2007. an e-book reader with an e-paper display
. Amazon began producing and marketing the Amazon
Kindle. based on the Android operating system.
Future of e paper:
Coming later this year: Color e-readers will be out in the consumer market by mid year in 2011 Coming within two years: An e-device that will consume little power while also providing high function and color (video playing and web browsing) while also featuring good visibility in sunlight.
. Cautions Heikenfeld.
Coming within three to five years: Color adaptable e-device casings. The color and/or designed pattern of the plastic casing that encloses your cell phone will be adaptable.
With in 5 years you will see e paper of magazine quality with video
Let us save the earth and use e paper
What an idea sir ji!!!!