qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwe rtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyu iopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopa sdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjkl ACHIEVEMENT TEST REPORT zxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc [Type the document subtitle

] vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer tyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopa sdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjkl zxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrt yuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjkl
SUBMITTED TO Dr. Geeta Sahni By

Tathagata Dutta Roll : 232 B. ED. (2009-10)

CONTENTS
S. NO. 1. 2. TOPIC ACKNOWLEDGEMENT EVALUATION AND EDUCATION - INTRODUCTION - CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUTAION - FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE EVALUATION - CONCLUSION CONCEPTS IN LANGUAGE TESTING - INTRODUCTION - TESTING LISTENING - TESTING SPEAKING - TESTING READING - TESTING WRITING TESTS AND TYPES OF TESTING - PROFICIENCY TESTS - ACHIEVEMENT TESTS - DIAGONISTIC TESTS - PLACEMENT TESTS KINDS OF TESTING MY LEARNERS’ DETAILS OF THE SYLLABUS COVERED BLUEPRINT AND ROUGH DRAFT OF THE ACHIEVEMENT TEST THE FRAMED ACHIEVEMENT TEST ANALYSIS OF THE ACHIVEMENT TEST – BEFORE THE TEST MARKSHEET OF THE ENTIRE CLASS PAGE NUMBERS

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.. 8. 9. 10. 11.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

DETAILED MARKSHEET OF THE HIGH AND LOW ACHIVERS GROUP ITEM ANALYSIS AND ITEM DISCRIMINATION ANALYSIS OF THE OBJECTIVE TYPE ITEMS ANALYSIS OF THE SUBJECTIVE TYPE ITEMS ACHIVEMENT TEST ANALYSIS AT A GLANCE WHAT IS STATISTICS? - HISTOGRAM, FREQUENCY CURVE MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY - ARITHMETIC MEAN MEDIAN MODE STANDARD DEVIATION

18.

19.. 20.

OVERALL ANALYSIS BIBLIOGRAPHY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am very thankful to my mentor and guide in the central Institute of Education, Dr. Sahni, for being patient with me and allowing this Achievement Test report a success. I am also thankful to Ms. Shubhangi, where previous ATR provided scaffolding to the creation of this record. My special thanks to Mr. Tulika Rajpal who has been a kind soul and helped us during our teaching practice and also while making this report. I would also convey my regards to the institution, Government Senior Secondary School for Boys, 1, Roopnagar. I am also thankful to the library and the staff at the Central Institute and at the British Council. My special thanks to all my hostel mates who had been kind and very cooperative during the preparation of the report.

EVALUATION AND EDUCATION
Evaluation is the process of determining the extent to which pupils achieve instructional objectives. It is a scheme for collecting evidence of behavioral changes in the learners and judge the direction and extent of such changes. Evaluation is a continuous process and forms an integral part of the total system of education and is vary closely related to educational objectives. It exercises a good influence on pupils study habits and also speaks about the method that has been used by the teacher. Thus, it not only helps to measure educational achievement but also how to improve it. The purpose of evaluation is to make provisions for guiding the growth of the learners to diagnose their strengths and weakness and point out areas where remedial measures are devised. It makes a judgment on the quality or worth of an educational programme or student’s achievement and provides for a subsequent modification of the curriculum. Wrightstone defines evaluation, a relatively new technical term, as “the method to designate a more comprehensive concept of measurement that is implied in conventional tests and examinations...the emphasis in measurement is upon single aspects of subject matter achievement in specific skills and abilities...the emphasis in evaluation is upon broad changes and major objectives of on educational programme. These include not only subject matter achievement but also attitudes, interests, ideas, ways of thinking, work habits and personal and social adaptability.”

CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION

In order to meet the objective of real education, there is a need to continuously and comprehensively evaluate children. In fact, educationalists argue that if we really want to education system to turn the corner and bring about the coveted all round development of the personality of the child, them continuous and comprehensive evaluation is the way forward. The continuous aspects takes care of the ‘continual’ (placement and formative evaluation) part of evaluation and the comprehensive component takes care of assessment of all round development of the child’s personality. It includes assessment in the process of reasoning from evidence. To design assessments of students learning that will provide useful evidence requires that we coordinate and align three key components: COGNITION, which refers to a model of thinking and learning of students within the subject domain, OBSERVATIONS; the takes or activities that students engage in that provide evidence of learning; and INTERPRETATION, the process or methods for making sense of the evidence.

ASSESSMENT

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES

Assessments are effective and useful only to the degree that these three components are in synchrony. In the Indian education system, the term evaluation and assessment is associated with examination, stress and anxiety. The National Curriculum Frameworks (2005) seek to provide guidelines for a good evaluation and examination system that can become an integral part of the learning process and benefit both the learners themselves and the educational system by giving valuable feedback. White speaking on school stages and assessment in chapter 3 of NCF (2005) the frames state the assessment required at different stages:-

For ECCE and classes I and II of the Elementary stage, assessment must be purely qualitative judgments of children’s activities in various domains. There should be no test, oral or written. • For class III to VIII of the Elementary stage, a various methods may be used but these should be seen as part of the teaching process and not a constant threat. • For class IX to class XII of the secondary and Higher Secondary Stage, assessment may be based more on tests, examinations and projects for the knowledge-based areas of the curriculum, along with self-assessment.

FORMATIVE EVALUATION

AND

SUMMATIVE

Evaluation may be undertaken for three principal reasons: 1. Accountability 2. Curriculum development and betterment. 3. Self-development: teachers and other language teaching professionals.
Evaluation for the purpose of accountability

This is mainly concerned with determining whether there has been value for money, in other words whether something has been both effective and efficient. Generally, the information derived from this is not used in any major way to improve the functioning of the curriculum or classroom practice. Rather, it provides us with the information whether something should be continued or discontinued. Evaluations of this type are largely, although not exclusively, the domain of policy makes or provides of resources. Usually, such evaluations are carried out after an innovation has been running for some time, or at the end of the project. This type of evaluation, known as SUMMATIVE EVALUATION, has also tended to involve testing and measurement, and analyses of the statistical importance of results obtained. Summative evaluations are

limited by their focus on overall outcomes at the end of an educational innovation.
Evaluation for purpose of curriculum development

Teachers have a key role to play in the curriculum renewal and development process. It is the teacher, rather than the ‘tester’ or the evaluation ‘expert’, who has most information about specific classroom context. This information may be reported at various times and in various forms, for example as responses to questionnaires, interviews, records, or diary keeping. It may be largely descriptive and qualitative, and need not entail tests, measurements, and inferences about curriculum quality from statistical data. This type of evaluation which is intended to improve the curriculum by gathering data from different people oven a period of time is called FORMATIVE EVALUATION. Such evaluations are ongoing and monitor developments by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of all aspects for teaching and learning. As opposed to merely passing an evaluative judgment on the end product of a teaching programme, formative evaluation is designed to provide information that may be used as the basis for future planning and action.
Evaluation for the purposes of teacher self development

A third and major role that evaluation has to play is in formalizing and extending a teacher’s knowledge about teaching and learning in classrooms. This is sometimes referred to as ILLUMINATIVE EVALUATION, because it involves raising the consciousness of teachers and after ELT practitioners as to what actually happens in the language teaching classroom. This type of evaluation is developmental and formative in nature and the focus is more on the process and less on the end product, on the teaching and learning and has a major role to play in teacher self-development.

CONCLUSION

When we evaluate different aspects of the teaching and the learning process, it becomes important to make explicit the criteria used in our judgments, and to be principled in our evaluation. It prepared and ad-hoc evaluations are likely to be unreliable, unfair and also uninformative. They do not provide a suitable base to make any educational decision. Evaluation means much more than administering tests to learners and analyzing the results. It not only focuses on the learner but also makes a commentary on the process of teaching as well. Successful evaluation should be systematic. In order to teaching this we need to take into account the concept of management as reflected through our leadership skills. As teachers we used to be aware of the role of manages and evaluate our management styles. We need to know why we wish to evaluate, what evaluation is for, and how to organize it.

CONCEPTS IN LANGUAGE TESTING

English is the official associate language in India and as such becomes the second language for national curriculum framework. With the growing importance of English in every aspect of public life, the teaching of English language has also evolved through the decades. At present most language teachers follow the ‘Communicative Language Teaching’ (CLT) method in the classroom environment. The focus is on fluency and the guided approach to help the learner arrive at the accurate way of using the foreign language. The rules of the language are not given; a convert method is followed where the learners are guided to arrive at the rules. The teaching of English language can be divided into four categories or skills: LISTENING RECEPTIVE SPEAKING READING PRODUCTIVE WRITING WRITTEN ORAL

While conducting a language test all four skills have to be kept in mind, along with the usage of grammar and vocabulary. However, all the four skills have a different set of consideration, ways of testing and their evaluation. We shall consider all the skills in the following sections.

TESTING LISTENING
An oral and receptive skill, the testing of listening parallels in most ways the testing of reading. But there may be situations where the testing of oral ability is considered, for one reason or another, impractical; and so

a test of listening should be included to judge the backwash effect and also for tested for diagnostic purposes. The special problems in constructing listening tests arise out of the transient nature of the spoken language. A listening test should be able to test the following abilities of the learners. • Ability to obtain the gist. • Ability to follow on argument. • Ability to recognize the attitude of the speaker. To test ability of the learners, the teacher has to be careful about the sample of speech/text and has to keep in mind the test specifications. To test the native speakers, samples should be taken for authentic speech. Possible sources are the radio, television, the Internet and even our own recordings.

TESTING SPEAKING
The objective of teaching spoken language is the development of the ability to interact successfully in that language, and that this involves comprehension as well as production. The representative tasks can be grope under the following heads: • EXPRESSIONS - Likes/dislikes, agreement/disagreement, preferences, opinions • DIRECTING - Instruction, persuading, advising • DESCRIBING - Actions, events, objects, people, process. • ELICITING - Information, directions, classifications. • NARRATION - Sequence of events • REPORTING - Description, comment, decisions and choices. The skills that are tested while taking a test on oral ability can be subdivided into two broad heads - Informational and Interactional skills. In the task, the student should be informative about the theme and also interact with other students. While evaluating the skills in managing interactions, the following abilities should be kept in mind• Initiate interactions. • Charge the topic of an interaction • Share the responsibility for the development of an interaction • Take their turns and give turns to other speakers.

• Come to a Decision • End an interaction. The test-taken has to choose an appropriate technique. The test may be in the form of an interview, role play, interpretation, prepared monologue, reading about, responses to audio / video recordings, simulated conversations.

TESTING READING
Reading used to be the principal aim of most foreign-language courses and it was developed through textual analyses, vocabulary tests, and translations into English, listening and speaking were merely taught to be the by products. But with the change in approaches to teaching a foreign language, there is a new goal in reading - not a verbatim translation but total comprehension without recourse to English. The primary aim in teaching a foreign language was to enable students to read foreign texts in the original. Thus, when a student learns to read a foreign language, his/her mind should also be functioning in that language. Reading requires a familiarity on the put of the reader with the two fundamental building blocks of that particular language structure and vocabulary. The broader the particular language, structure and vocabulary, the broader the students knowledge of structure and the greater the vocabulary and the more difficult text he / she will be able to approach. Consequently, two general types of test items are necessary to evaluate student reading potential: Vocabulary items and structural (Syntactical and morphological) items. Reading can be differentiated from writing, speaking, and listening by another characteristics speed. In learning a new language the student wishes eventually to read it easily and rapidly. Fluency in speaking and ease in listening comprehension correspond to speed in reading. The tasks that are generated while testing a student’s reading skill depend on the speed of the learner. There is a distinction, based on the difference of purpose, between expeditions reading and slow and careful reading. In expeditions reading operations, candidates may be asked to do:1. SKIMMING, where the objective is to-

Obtain main ideas and discourse topic quickly and efficiently Establish quickly the structure of a text, • Decide the relevance of the text to their needs. 2. SCANNING, where the objective is to find • Specific words or phrases; • figures, percentages • Specific items in an index; • Specific names in a bibliography or a set of references. In a careful reading operation, candidates may be asked to • Identity discourse makers; • Interpret complex sentences; • Interpret topic sentences and logical organization of the text; • Identify implicitly and explicitly stated main ideas; • Recognize writer’s intentions; • Distinguish between fact from opinion, hypothesis from fact; • Infer the meaning of an unknown word from context; • Make pragmatic inferences.

• •

TESTING WRITING
Of the four language skills, writing may truly be considered the most sophisticated. In listening and in reading, the student receives a message formulated by another; his role is passive even though he may be mentally interpreting and analyzing what it she is hearing or reading. In speaking, the student is engaged in communicating his own ideas and feelings, but with approximations and explanations. Communication through the written word, on the other hand, possesses a certain degree of finality and demands real proficiency from the winter if it is to be effective. The mechanics - vocabulary, spelling, and grammar must be mastered before the student can aspire to precision of expression, fluency, and style. Tests must consequently be so structured that they measure the various aspects of student’s progress toward the acquisition of this skill. This can be achieved it is divided into three parts-

• We have to set writing tasks that are properly representative of the population of tasks that we should expect the students to be able to perform. • The tasks should elicit valid samples of writing. • It is essential that the samples of the writing can and will be scored validly and reliably.

TESTS AND TYPES OF TESTING
Tests can be categorized according to the types of information they provide. This categorization is useful because it not only helps in deciding whether an existing test is suitable for a particular purpose but also in writing new tests where these are:

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Proficiency tests Achievement tests Diagnostic tests Placement tests

Proficiency tests are designed to measure people’s ability in a language, regardless of any training they may have had in that language. The content of a proficiency test, therefore, is not based on the content or objectives of language courses that people taking the test may have followed. Rather, it is based on a specification of what candidates have to be able to do in the language in order to be considered proficient. This raises the question of what we mean by the word ‘proficient’. In the case of some proficiency tests, ‘proficiency’ means having sufficient command of the language for a particular purpose. Such a test many even attempt to take into account the level and kind of English needed to follow courses in particular subject areas. it might, for example, have one form of the test for acts subjects, another for sciences and so on. Whatever the particular purpose to which the language is to be put, this will be reflected in the test content at an early stage of the test development. There are other proficiency tests which, by contrast, do not have any occupation or course of study in mind. But these general proficiency tests should have a detailed specification on what it is that the successful candidates have demonstrated that they can do. Despite differences between them in relation to content and level of difficulty, all proficiency tests have in common the fact that they are not on courses that candidates have previously taken. In contrast to proficiency tests, it is much more probable that they will be involved in the preparation and use of achievement tests. The achievement test is directly related to language courses, their purpose being to establish how successful individual students, groups of students, or the courses themselves have been in achieving objectives. There are two kinds of achievement test: final achievement test and progressive achievement test. Final achievement tests are those administered at the end of a course of study. They content of these tests must be related to the

courses with which they are concerned. Because its content is so firmly based on the syllabus or on the books and manuals used, it has been also called as the ‘syllabus content approach’. It has an obvious appeal, since the test only contains what it is thought that the students have actually encountered, and thus in this respect, can be called a fair test. The disadvantage of such a test is that if the syllabus in badly designed, then the results of the test can be very misleading. An alternative approach is to base the tests content directly on the objectives of the course. This has number of advantages. First, it compels course designers to be explicit about objectives. Secondly, it makes it possible for performance on the test to show jus how far students have achieved those objectives. This in turn puts pressure on those responsible for the syllabus and for the selection of books and materials to ensure that are consistent with the course objectives. One may wonder if there is any real difference between the final achievement tests and proficiency tests. If a test is based on the objectives of a course, and these are equivalent to the language needs on which a proficiency test is based, there is no reason to expect a difference between the form and content of the two tests. But two things have to remember. First, objectives and needs will not typically coincide in this way. Secondly, many achievement tests are not in fact based on course objectives. These facts name implication both for the uses of the test results and for the test writers. It was to know on what basis on achievement test has been constructed, and be aware of the possibly limited validity and applicability of the test scores. Test writers, on the other hand, must create achievement tests that reflect the objectives of a particular course, and not expect a general proficiency test to provide a satisfactory alternative. Progressive achievement tests, as their name suggests, are intended to measure the progress that students are making. They contribute to formative assessment. One way to measure progress would be to take achievement tests at regular basis. But in addition to this, the teacher has also to create a set of ‘pop quizzes’ which would provide a rough check on the student’s progress. Diagnostic tests are used to identify learners’ strengths and weaknesses. They are intended primarily to ascertain what learning still

needs to take place. We can be fairly confident of our ability to create tests that will us that someone is particularly weak, way in speaking as opposed to reading in a language. But there is lack of good diagnostic test. This is because the size of such test would make it impractical to administer in a routine fashion. Diagnostic could be extremely useful for individualized instructions. Learners would be shown where gaps exist in their command of the language, and could be happily directed to sources of information, exemplification and practice. Placement tests, as their name suggests, are intended to provide the required information that will help to place students at the stage of the teaching programme most appropriate to their abilities. Typically, they are used to assign students to classes at different levels. The placement tests depend on the identification of the key features at different levels of teaching in the institution.

MY LEARNERS’
I was assigned to teach English to class XI learners of Government senior secondary school for boys, Roopnagar. The students of this section had the Arts program of CBSE. Though the class strength was of 35 students were of 36 students, 7 of them had opted for Sanskrit. The students were bright and eager to learn. But they have been ingrained and conditioned into a method of learning that was teacher-

oriented. This posed a problem for me at the beginning as they were very reluctant to speak up in class. They expected me to provide them with the answer. But slowly they started to open up and started to speak in English and take part in class discussions confidently. The class was a pretty boisterous one and as a teacher I was sometimes at a loss while dealing with some of the more mischievous learners. But, in the end, all of them came to love the subject. Though they were still a bit hesitant in the usage of the language, they were definitely on the road where they will be more confident while dealing with the language.

DETAILS OF THE SYLLABUS COVERED
S. NO. LINGUISTIC AREA TOPIC

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Prose Poetry Reading Writing Grammar

The Adventure The Browning Version Note-making Letter to the editor Reported speech Idioms Tenses

MARKSHEET OF THE ENTIRE CLASS
CLAS S ROLL NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. EXAM ROLL NO. XIA1 XIA2 XIA3 XIA4 XIA5 XIA6 XIA7 XIA8 XIA9 XIA10 XIA11 XIA12 XIA13 XIA14 XIA15 XIA16 XIA17 XIA18 XIA19 XIA20 XIA21 XIA22 XIA23 XIA24 XIA25 XIA26 XIA27 XIA28 XIA29 NAME MARKS % OBTAINE OBTAINE D D 28 37 34 39 43 28 37 30 29 32 31 40 29 38.5 33 21 25 38 Ab. 32 27 30 29 41 41 34 Ab. 32 Ab. 47 % 62% 57% 65% 72% 47% 62% 50% 48% 53% 52% 67% 48% 64% 55% 33% 42% 63% -53% 45% 50% 48% 68% 68% 57% -32% --

AMAN PREET SINGH ARVIND BHARAT KUMAR CHITRANJAN KUMAR DEEPAK SHARMA GANGESH KUMAR JHA HARI GOVIND NIRALA JASPAL SINGH MAHENDER SHUKLA MANOJ MANOJ KUMAR MELEKHRAJ MAHAGURUJI MAYANK KHANDELWAL PANKAJ SINGH PRABHAKAR PAL RAHUL RAHUL RAHUL MATHUR RAJU CHAUDHURI RANI GOSWAMI SARAFAT ALI SUNNY SINGH TEJASVI SANKAR VIKAS KANT VINOD NEGI VIVEK PANDEY VIRENDER SINGH YODENDER SINGH ZUNAID AHMED

MARKSHEET OF THE ENTIRE CLASS AND THEIR GRADES:

CLAS S ROLL NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

EXAM ROLL NO. XIA1 XIA2 XIA3 XIA4 XIA5 XIA6 XIA7 XIA8 XIA9 XIA10 XIA11 XIA12 XIA13 XIA14 XIA15 XIA16 XIA17 XIA18 XIA19 XIA20 XIA21 XIA22 XIA23 XIA24 XIA25 XIA26 XIA27 XIA28 XIA29

NAME

MARKS OBTAIN ED 28 37 34 39 43 28 37 30 29 32 31 40 29 38.5 33 21 25 38 Ab. 32 27 30 29 41 41 34 Ab. 32 Ab.

% OBTAIN ED 47 % 62% 57% 65% 72% 47% 62% 50% 48% 53% 52% 67% 48% 64% 55% 33% 42% 63% -53% 45% 50% 48% 68% 68% 57% -32% --

GRADE

AMAN PREET SINGH ARVIND BHARAT KUMAR CHITRANJAN KUMAR DEEPAK SHARMA GANGESH KUMAR JHA HARI GOVIND NIRALA JASPAL SINGH MAHENDER SHUKLA MANOJ MANOJ KUMAR MELEKHRAJ MAHAGURUJI MAYANK KHANDELWAL PANKAJ SINGH PRABHAKAR PAL RAHUL RAHUL RAHUL MATHUR RAJU CHAUDHURI RANI GOSWAMI SARAFAT ALI SUNNY SINGH TEJASVI SANKAR VIKAS KANT VINOD NEGI VIVEK PANDEY VIRENDER SINGH YODENDER SINGH ZUNAID AHMED

C+ B+ B B++ A C+ B++ C++ C+ C++ C++ B++ C+ B+ B F C B+ -C++ C+ C++ C+ B++ B++ B -F --

THE LEARNERS ARE GRADED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FOLLOWING TABLE:

RANGE OF PERCENTAGE OBTAINED 95-85 84-80 79-75 74-70 69-65 64-60 59-55 54-50 49-45 44-40 39-35 LESS THAN 35

GRADE

O A++ A+ A B++ B+ B C++ C+ C D F

ITEM ANALYSIS: DIFFICULTY AND DISCRIMINATION
Item analysis is a process which involves a careful of score
pattern on each of the test items. The analysis tells us that how well each item is working, that is, the contribution it is making to the overall picture of the candidates ability emerging from the test. The analysis of the students’ responses to the objective-test items is a powerful tool for improvement and for accumulating a bank of high quality items. It suggests why an item is not effective and how it might be improved.

The analysis of the responses to the individual items of a test is helpful for two broad reasons. First, the teacher can discover if there are certain points that a sizeable number of students have failed to master. Second, the teacher can verify how well certain items have be done in relation to the test as a whole. This information will be useful in the construction of new test. Item analysis usually provides two kinds of information on the test items: • ITEM DIFFICULTY, which helps us to decide if the test item are right for the target group. • ITEM DIFFICULTY, which helps us to see if the individual items are providing information on the candidates abilities are consistent with that provided by the other items of the test. Item difficulty is determined by the observation of what percentage of students answer the item correctly. The more difficult the item is, the fewer will be the students who select the correct answer. The level of difficulty of an item is calculated in the following manner:  For objective items, Level of difficulty = (total no. of correct responses of High group + total no. of correct responses of Low group) / (total no. of students x 100)

 For subjective items Level of difficulty = (total frequency of marks of High group + total frequency of marks of Low group) / (total no. of students x 100 x marks per question)

The analysis of the score is done as follows:

LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY

THE ITEM IS…

ABOVE 90%

EASY

BETWEEN 80% - 90%

QUESTIONABLE

BETWEEN 50% - 80%

GOOD

BETWEEN 30% - 50%

QUESTIONABLE

BELOW 30%

DIFFICULT

ITEM DISCRIMINATION tells us how well the items perform in separating the better students from the poorer ones. If the upper third of the students gets the items correct and lower two-third generally gets the items wrong, then it is a good discriminator between the two groups. Very difficult items should discriminate between the very good students and all of the others; relatively easy items should discriminate between the majority of students in the class and the few poor ones. The item discrimination level is calculated in the following manner:  for objective items: Level of discrimination = (Total no. of correct responses in the high group – Total no. of correct responses in the low group) / (0.5 x total no. of students in both groups)

 for subjective items: Level of discrimination = (Total frequency of marks in high group – total frequency of marks in low group) / (0.5 x total no. of students in both group x marks per question)

The analysis of the score is done as follows:

LEVEL OF DISCRIMINATION

THE ITEM IS…

0 – 0.2

VERY POOR

0.2 – 0.4

POOR

0.4 – 0.6

AVERAGE

0.6 – 0.8

GOOD

0.8 – 1.0

BEST

KINDS OF TESTING
The test that is created by the language teacher takes into consideration the different approaches to test construction. Some of the different approaches are described as below: DIRECT TESTING: Testing is said to be direct when it requires the candidate to perform precisely the skill that we wish to measure. If we want to know how well candidates can write compositions, we get them to write compositions. The tasks, and the texts that are used, should be as authentic as possible. It is easier to carry out when it is intended to measure the productive skills of speaking and writing, testers have to devise methods of eliciting such evidence accurately and without the method interfering with the

performance of skills in which they are interested. Direct testing has a number of attractions. First, provided that we are clear about just what abilities we want to assess, it is relatively straight-forward to create the conditions which will elicit the behaviour on which to base our judgements. Secondly, at least in the case of the productive skills, the assessment and interpretation of student’s performance is also quite straight-forward. Thirdly, since practice for the test involves practice of the skills that we wish to foster, there is likely to be helpful backwash effect. DISCRETE-POINT TESTING: This refers to the testing of one element at a time, item by item. This might, for example, take the form of a series of items, each testing a particular grammatical structure. It will almost always be in=direct. Diagnostic tests of grammar of the kind referred to in an earlier section will be part of the discrete point testing. INTEGRATIVE TESTING: As opposed to discrete point testing, the integrative testing requires the candidate/student to combine many language elements in the completion of the task. This might involve writing a composition, making notes while listening to a lecture, taking a dictation or even a completion of a cloze passage. NORM-REFERENCED TESTING: When a test is designed to provide the information which relates to one candidate’s performance to that of the other candidates is called normreferenced testing. We are not told directly what the student is capable of doing in the language. For example, if we have to judge the reading test of an individual student and make a statement on the performance, we may give two kinds of answers. The student can obtain a score that puts him or her in the top 10% of the rest of the candidates, or in the bottom 5%; or that he or she did better than 60% of those who took it. CRITERION REFERENCED TESTING: The purpose of these tests is to classify people according to whether or not they are able to perform some tasks or a set of tasks satisfactorily. The

tasks are set, and those who perform them satisfactorily, ‘pass’; those who do not, ‘fail.’ This means that the students are encouraged to measure their progress in relation to a meaningful criterion. These tests have two positive virtues: • They set meaningful standards in terms of what people can do, which do not change with different groups of candidates. • They motivate the candidates to achieve those standards.

ANALYSIS OF THE SUBJECTIVE TYPE ITEMS
There are eleven subjective type items. Section A and section B, which test the reading and writing capabilities of the learner, are of subjective nature. Several items in Section D, the literature portion, deal with the subjective understanding of the learners. A.1. Read the following passage and make a note: This question would test the learners reading skill. It will also tell how fast the readers can read a section on the “Early life of Akbar.” Since the students have taken up Arts program, I thought that something which was part of their course would be of immense help. Marking would be done on

following the format, word limit and the use of language while making the note.

HIGH GROUP Marks Tally Frequency 6 III 18 5 IIII 20 4.5 0 0 4 I 4 3 I 3 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 TOTAL
ITEM DIFFICULTY = {(45 + 24.5) / (18 X 7)} X 100 = 55 %  GOOD ITEM DISCRMINATION = (45 – 24.5) / (½ X 18 X 7) = (20.5 / 63) = 0.3  POOR

LOW GROUP Marks Tally 6 0 5 I 4.5 I 4 I 3 II 2 I 1 I 0 II

Frequency 0 5 4.5 4 6 2 1 0 24.5

45

DETAILED ANALYSIS: Around 55% of the students have answered this item correctly, which makes the item good in the difficulty index and with regards to the discrimination index, the item is poor, since the value is 0.3 ANALYSIS: The item is ACCEPTABLE.

Suggestion: The learners have tried to keep to the word limit. But there is a definite problem in a coherent sentence formation and lack of strength of the vocabulary. There should more practice of note making so that they can further improve on their present knowledge and ability. ------------------------------B.1. Write a letter to the editor of a national newspaper regarding the dismal state of traffic in front of your school, especially when the school gets over. A letter to the editor would allow the evaluation and testing of the expression ability of the learners. The learners can core good marks if they can get the format of the formal letter correct. The teacher would also check on their coherency while presenting their argument.

HIGH GROUP Marks Tally Frequency 8 II 16 7 II 14 6 I 6 5 II 10 4 I 4 3 I 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 TOTAL
ITEM DIFFICULTY = {(53 + 24) / (18 X 10)} X 100 = 42%  QUESTIONABLE ITEM DISCRMINATION

LOW GROUP Marks Tally 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 II 4 I 3 II 2 II 0 II

Frequency 0 0 0 10 4 6 4 0 24

53

= (53 – 24) / (½ X 18 X 10) = 0.3  POOR DETAILED ANALYSIS: Only 42% of the students have answered this item correctly, which makes the item questionable in the difficulty index and with regards to the discrimination index, the item is poor, since the value is 0.3 ANALYSIS: The item is QUESTIONABLE. Suggestion: Most of the learners scored good in the maintaining a correct format of the letter to the editor. But, as in the note-making, there was some problem in the coherent structuring of the sentence while presenting their argument. ---------------------------------

Section D
1. 1. Name the poet. Why does he say that he would ‘sing about “The Tale of Melon City”? (1.5 MARKS)

HIGH GROUP Marks Tally Frequency 1.5 1 IIIIIII 7 0 II 0 TOTAL 7

LOW GROUP Marks Tally Frequency 1.5 1 IIIIII 6 0 III 0 6

ITEM DIFFICULTY = {(7 + 6) / (18 X 1.5)} X 100 = 49% QUESTIONABLE ITEM DISCRMINATION = (7 – 6) / (½ X 18 X 1.5) = 0.07  VERY POOR DETAILED ANALYSIS: Only 49% of the students have answered this item correctly, which makes the item questionable in the difficulty index and with regards to the discrimination index, the item is very poor, since the value is 0.07 ANALYSIS: The item is QUESTIONABLE. --------------------------------2. b. Do you think that they were fitting titles? (2MARKS)

HIGH GROUP Marks Tally Frequency 2 0 1 IIIII III 8 0 I 0 TOTAL
ITEM DIFFICULTY

LOW GROUP Marks Tally 2 0 1 IIIII II 0 II

Frequency 0 7 0 7

8

= {(8+ 7) / (18 X 2)} X 100 = 41%  QUESTIONABLE ITEM DISCRMINATION = (8 – 7) / (½ X 18 X 2) = 0.05  VERY POOR DETAILED ANALYSIS: Only 41% of the students have answered this item correctly, which makes the item questionable in the difficulty index and with regards to the discrimination index, the item is very poor, since the value is 0.05 ANALYSIS: The item is QUESTIONABLE. -----------------------------3. b. What happened after that? (3 marks)

HIGH GROUP Marks Tally Frequency 2.5 I 2.5 2 II 4 1 III 3 ½` 1 ½ 0 II 0 TOTAL 10

LOW GROUP Marks Tally 2.5 0 2 I 1 IIII ½` 0 0 IIII

Frequency 0 2 4 0 0 6

ITEM DIFFICULTY = {(10 + 6) / (18 X 3)} X 100 = 29%  DIFFICULT ITEM DISCRMINATION = (10 – 6) / (½ X 18 X 3) = 0.1  VERY POOR DETAILED ANALYSIS: Only 29% of the students have answered this item correctly, which makes the item difficult in the difficulty index and with regards to the discrimination index, the item is very poor, since the value is 0.1. ANALYSIS: The item is UNACCEPTABLE. --------------------------------4. b. Give two examples of irony. (2 marks)

HIGH GROUP Marks Tally Frequency 2 0 0 1 IIIII II 7 0 II 0 TOTAL 7

LOW GROUP Marks Tally 2 I 1 IIIII I 0 II

Frequency 2 6 0 8

ITEM DIFFICULTY = {(7 + 8) / (18 X 2)} X 100 = 42%  QUESTIONABLE ITEM DISCRMINATION = (7 – 8) / (½ X 18 X 2) = 0.05  VERY POOR DETAILED ANALYSIS: Only 42% of the students have answered this item correctly, which makes the item questionable in the difficulty index and with regards to the discrimination index, the item is very poor, since the value is 0.05 ANALYSIS: The item is QUESTIONABLE. -----------------------------2. 4. b. In what context is it being used here? (1 mark)

HIGH GROUP Marks Tally Frequency 1 IIIII I 6 ½ I ½ 0 0 0 TOTAL 6½

LOW GROUP Marks Tally 1 IIIII I ½ 0 0 0

Frequency 6 0 0 6

ITEM DIFFICULTY

= {(6.5 + 6) / (18 X 1)} X 100 = 67%  GOOD ITEM DISCRMINATION = (6.5 – 6) / (½ X 18 X 1) = 0.05  VERY POOR DETAILED ANALYSIS: Around 67% of the students have answered this item correctly, which makes the item good in the difficulty index and with regards to the discrimination index, the item is very poor, since the value is 0.05 ANALYSIS: The item is ACCEPTABLE. ------------------------D. 2.5. Give two reasons why you like or dislike this play? (2marks)

HIGH GROUP Marks Tally Frequency 2 II 4 1.5 I 1.5 1 III 3 0 III 0 TOTAL
ITEM DIFFICULTY = {(8.5 + 6) / (18 X 2)} X 100

LOW GROUP Marks Tally 2 0 1.5 0 1 IIIII I 0 III

Frequency 0 0 6 0 6

8.5

= 40%  QUESTIONABLE ITEM DISCRMINATION = (8.5 – 6) / (½ X 18 X 2) = 0.27  POOR DETAILED ANALYSIS: Only 40% of the students have answered this item correctly, which makes the item QUESTIONABLE in the difficulty index and with regards to the discrimination index, the item is POOR, since the value is 0.27 ANALYSIS: The item is QUESTIONABLE. --------------------------

3. c. 2 what was the plan of action decided by the professor?

(1 marks)

HIGH GROUP LOW GROUP Marks Tally Frequency Marks Tally Frequency 1 IIIII III 8 1 IIIII III 8 0 I 0 0 I 0 TOTAL
ITEM DIFFICULTY = {(8 + 8) / (18 X 1)} X 100

8

8

= 88%  QUESTIONABLE

ITEM DISCRMINATION = (8 – 8) / (½ X 18 X 1) = 0.0  VERY POOR DETAILED ANALYSIS: Over 88% of the students have answered this item correctly, which makes the item questionable in the difficulty index and with regards to the discrimination index, the item is very poor, since the value is 0 ANALYSIS: The item is QUESTIONABLE. -----------------------

D.3.G. What did he do? How did the audience react?

HIGH GROUP Marks Tally Frequency 2 I 2 1.5 I 1.5 1 III 3 ½ II 1 0 II 0 TOTAL
ITEM DIFFICULTY

LOW GROUP Marks Tally 2 I 1.5 0 1 IIIII ½ 0 0 III

Frequency 2 0 5 0 0 7

7.5

= {(7.5 + 7) / (18 X 2)} X 100 = 40%  QUESTIONABLE ITEM DISCRMINATION = (7.5 – 7) / (½ X 18 X 2) = 0.05  VERY POOR DETAILED ANALYSIS: Only 40% of the students have answered this item correctly, which makes the item questionable in the difficulty index and with regards to the discrimination index, the item is very poor, since the value is 0.05 ANALYSIS: The item is QUESTIONABLE. -----------------------D.3.K. Given the fact that the accounts of history written by Bakhar can be highly disputed, how did Rajendra try to explain the fantastic happening with the help of science? (4 marks)

HIGH GROUP Marks Tally Frequency 3 I 3 2 IIII 8 1 I 1 0 III 0 TOTAL
ITEM DIFFICULTY = {(12 + 7) / (18 X 4)} X 100

LOW GROUP Marks Tally 3 0 2 I 1 IIIII 0 III

Frequency 0 2 5 0 7

12

= 27%  DIFFICULT ITEM DISCRMINATION = (12 – 7) / (½ X 18 X 4) = 0.1  VERY POOR DETAILED ANALYSIS: Only 27% of the students have answered this item correctly, which makes the item difficult in the difficulty index and with regards to the discrimination index, the item is very poor, since the value is 0.1 ANALYSIS: The item is UNACCEPTABLE. ------------------------------

REVIEW OF THE ACHIEVEMENT TEST AT A GLANCE:
SECTI ON A B C ITEM PAR LEVEL OF T DIFIICULTY % ANALYSIS 55% 42% a. b. c. d. 78% 61% 44% 78% GOOD QUESTIONAB LE GOOD GOOD QUESTIONAB LE GOOD LEVEL OF DISCRIMINATION VALUE ANALYSIS 0.3 0.3 0.02 0.3 0.2 0.2 POOR POOR VERY POOR POOR POOR POOR FINAL ANALYSIS ACCEPTABLE QUESTIONABL E ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE QUESTIONABL E ACCEPTABLE

1. 1. 2

C

3

a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d.

72% 50% 56% 56% 72% 66% 50% 61% 49%

GOOD GOOD GOOD GOOD GOOD GOOD GOOD GOOD QUESTIONAB LE GOOD QUESTIONAB LE GOOD DIFFICULT GOOD QUESTIONAB LE GOOD EASY QUESTIONAB LE QUESTI0NAB LE QUESTIONAB LE GOOD GOOD GOOD QUESTIONAB LE GOOD QUESTIONAB LE GOOD QUESTIONAB LE QUESTIONAB LE GOOD QUESTIONAB LE QUESTIONAB LE QUESTIONAB

0.1 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.3 -0.1 0.07 0.01 0.05 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.05 0.3 -0.1 0.3 -0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.05 0.27

VERY POOR POOR POOR VERY POOR VERY POOR VERY POOR POOR VERY POOR VERY POOR VERY POOR VERY POOR POOR VERY POOR POOR VERY POOR POOR VERY POOR POOR VERY POOR POOR VERY POOR VERY POOR VERY POOR POOR

ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE QUESTIONABL E ACCEPTABLE QUESTIONABL E ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTAB LE ACCEPTABLE QUESTIONABL E ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTAB LE QUESTIONABL E QUESTIONABL E QUESTIONABL E ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE QUESTIONABL E ACCEPTABLE QUESTIONABL E ACCEPTABLE QUESTIONABL E QUESTIONABL E ACCEPTABLE QUESTIONABL E QUESTIONABL E QUESTIONABL

C

4

D

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 a b a b a b a b a b 2.3 2.4 2.5 a b a b

61% 41% 50% 29% 78% 42% 72% 94% 83% 83% 82% 72% 77% 67% 40%

D

2.1 2.2

D

3.A 3.B 3.C 3.D 3.E 3.F 3.G 3.H 1 2

72% 88% 77% 88% 41% 77% 83% 40% 83%

0.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.05 0.0 0.3 0.05 0.3

AVERAGE POOR VERY POOR VERY POOR VERY POOR VERY POOR POOR VERY POOR POOR

3.I 3.J 3.K

66% 41% 27%

LE GOOD QUESTIONAB LE DIFFICULT

0.4 0.05 0.1

AVERAGE VERY POOR VERY POOR

E ACCEPTABLE QUESTIONABL E UNACCEPTAB LE

TOTAL NUMBER OF ITEMS

:

42 23 : : 16 03

NUMBER OF ACCEPTABLE ITEMS : NUMBER OF QUESTIONABLE ITEMS NUMBER OF UNACCEPTABLE ITEMS

WHAT IS STATISTICS?
Statistics is the body of mathematical techniques or processes for gathering, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting numerical data. Because most research yields quantitative data, statistics is a basic tool of measurement, evaluation and research.

The word ‘statistics’ is sometimes used to describe the numerical data that are gathered. Statistical data describe group behavior or group characteristics abstracted from a number of individual observations that are combined to make generalizations possible. When we speak of the age, size or any other characteristics of an ‘average 5th grade learner’, we are stating a generalized statement of all 5th grade learners, not any particular learner. Thus, the statistical measurement is an abstraction that may be used in place of a great mass of individual measures. The research worker who uses statistics is concerned with more than the manipulation of data. The statistical data collection method serves as the fundamental purpose of description and analysis, and its proper application involves answering the following questions: • What facts need to be gathered to provide the information necessary to test the hypotheses? • How are these data to be selected, gathered, organized, and analyzed? • What assumptions underlie the statistical methodology to be employed? • What conclusions can be validly drawn from the analysis of the data? Research consists of systematic observation and description of the characteristics or properties of objects for the purpose of discovering relationship between variables. The ultimate purpose is to develop generalizations that may be used to explain phenomena and to predict future occurrences. To conduct research, we must establish principles so that the observations and description have a common understood meaning. Measurement is the most precise and universally accepted process of description and assigning qualitative values to properties of objects and events.

The science of statistics has gained an enormous importance and popularity because of the various functions performed by it. Some of the functions of statistics are as follows: • Provide precise and definite numerical outcome of the data

• • • • • •

Simplify large volume and complex data into understandable form Helps in making proper comparison Framing and testing hypothesis Enlarge individual knowledge and experience Formulation of policies Business forecasting

A proper statistical enquiry is conducted in the following stages: I. Collection of data II. Organization and presentation of numerical data III. Analysis of numerical data IV. Interpretation of numerical data.

HISTOGRAM
Histogram is one of the most frequently used graphs to convey statistical data. In this graph, the frequencies are represented by bars or columns, placed one next to other. Each column represents the test scores in one of the class intervals of the frequency distribution.

Unlike bar-graph, histogram is a form of representation which is used for continuous class intervals for a data set and the y – axis shows a count of the number of cases ( frequency) falling in each category. Also, since there are no gaps in between, consecutive bars or rectangles, the resultant graph appears like a solid figure. This figure forms a histogram, which is a graphical representation of a grouped frequency distribution with continuous classes. Also unlike, a bar graph the width of the bar plays a significant role in its construction. Here, in fact, areas of the rectangles, erected are proportional to the corresponding frequency. However, since the widths of the rectangles are all equal, the lengths of the rectangles are proportional to the frequencies. Histogram X(Marks) 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 Total Y(students) 1 8 8 5 4 26

H istog ram
9

8

7

6

5

s n e d u t S f . o N

4

3

2

1

0 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 Mark s 40-45

FREQUENCY POLYGON

Frequency polygons are a graphical device for understanding the shapes of distributions. They serve the same purpose as histograms, but are especially helpful in comparing sets of data. Frequency polygons are also a good choice for displaying cumulative frequency distributions. To create a frequency polygon, start just as for histograms, by choosing a class interval. Then draw an X-axis representing the values of the scores in your data. Mark the middle of each class interval with a tick mark, and label it with the middle value represented by the class. Draw the Y-axis to indicate the frequency of each class. Place a point in the middle of each class interval at the height corresponding to its frequency. Finally, connect the points. You should include one class interval below the lowest value in your data and one above the highest value. The graph will then touch the Xaxis on both sides. Frequency polygon is useful for comparing distribution. This is achieved by overlaying the frequency polygons drawn for different data sets.
X(Marks) 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 Total Y(students) 1 8 8 5 4 26 Mid Point 22.5 27.5 32.5 37.5 42.5

F requencyPolyg on
9 8 7 6 5 Frequency Polygon 4 3 2 1 0 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 Ma s rk 40-45

n e d u t s f o N

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

ARITHMETIC MEAN
CLASS INTERVAL (marks secured) FREQUENCY (f) (no.of students) MID-VALUE (x) fx

20 – 25 25 – 30 03 – 35 35 – 40 40 – 45

1 8 8 5 4 Σ f = 26

22.5 27.5 32.5 37.5 42.5

22.5 220 260 187.5 170 Σ fx = 860

MEAN ( x )

= Σ fx / Σ f = 860 / 26 = 33.07

MEDIAN
CLASS MIDINTERVAL VALUE TALLY FREQUENCY CUMULATIVE (f) FREQUENCY

(x) 20 – 25 25 – 30 30 – 35 35 – 40 40 – 45 22.5 27.5 32.5 37.5 42.5 I IIIII III IIIII III IIIII IIII 1 8 8 5 4 (MEDIAN CLASS) 22 26 1 9 17

MEDIAN CLASS = Σ f / 2 = 26 / 2 = 13

MEDIAN

= 30 + {(26/2 – 9) / 8} x 5 = 30 + {(13 – 9) / 8} x 5 = 30 + (4 / 8) x 5 = 30 + 2.5 = 32.5

MODE

MODE Where,

=

3 MEDIAN – 2 MEAN,

The MEDIAN value is 32.5 And The ARITHMETIC MEAN is 33.07

= = =

3(32.5) – 2(33.07) 97.5 – 66.14 31.36

STANDARD DEVIATION

CLASS

FREQUENCY (f) 1 8 8 5 4

MIDVALUE (x) 22.5 27.5 32.5 37.5 42.5

fx

X X2 (x – x) -10.57 111.72 -5.57 -0.57 4.43 9.43 31.02 0.32 19.62 88.92

fX2

20 – 25 25 – 30 30 – 35 35 – 40 40 – 45

22.5 220 260 187.5 170

111.72 248.16 2.56 98.2 355.68

MEAN = 33.07

STANDARD DEVIATION (σ) = = = Σ fX2 / Σf 816.22 / 26 5.60

OVERALL ANALYSIS
WRITING SECTION:

The learners should appreciable ability where they realized that they can score good marks if they keep to the correct format. However, they have a long way to go in sentence construction. They also have to do a lot of reading to improve their vocabulary. GRAMMAR SECTION: The learners scored high marks in this section. There improvement in the usage of the verbs in the grammar section is appreciable. However, it is quite baffling that they do not make use of that same ability in the construction of their answers. LITERATURE SECTION: The learners scored high marks in this section also. They scored heavily in the objective section which shows that they were quite thorough with the text. But in the subjective section, they were quite miserable. They did not have the ability to answer questions which was based on their understanding.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

STUART D. SHAW & CYRIL J. WEIR 2007 EXAMINING WRITING NEW DELHI CUP VALETTE REBECCA 1967 MODERN LANGUAGE TESTING NEW YORK HARCOURT GARRETT HENRY E. 1999 STATISTICS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION DELHI PARAGON INTERNATIONAL REA-DICKENS PAULINE & GERMAINE KEVIN 2000 EVALUATION OXFORD OUP HUGHES ARTHUR 2007 TESTING FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS CAMBRIDGE CUP WOOLFOLK ANITA 2005 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY DELHI PEARSON EDUCATION

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful