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HC508 Nieuwe Media en Populaire Cultuur_MCopier

HC508 Nieuwe Media en Populaire Cultuur_MCopier

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nieuwe media en populaire cultuur: gamecultuur 2008/09

college 5 (9 december 2008) receptie Marinka Copier
Wednesday, December 10, 2008 1

games as an aesthetic phenomenon

design

computer games

reception

games as a cultural phenomenon

games as a social phenomenon

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natural born killers

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manhunt

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receptie Wat is je relatie met beide fragmenten?

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VERBOD GEWELDDADIGE GAMES

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games as an aesthetic phenomenon

design

computer games

reception

games as a cultural phenomenon

games as a social phenomenon

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9

Reception focuses on the individual players relationship to the computergame.

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Reception

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DE GAME PARADOX: ANGST & EUFORIE

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http://www.novatv.nl/index.cfm?ln=nl&fuseaction=videoaudio.details&reportage_id=4507
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serious games

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rv81g-bujS8 Wednesday, December 10, 2008 16

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GAME PARADOX

geweld

leren

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wat gaan we doen vandaag?
Gunter, B. Psychological Effects of Video Games. Hoofdstuk 9, pp. 145-160. > effecten van gaming Goldstein, J. Violent Video Games. Hoofdstuk 22, pp. 341-357. > gaming en geweld Prensky, M. Computer Games and learning: Digital Game-Based Learning. Hoofdstuk 6, pp. 97-122. > gaming en educatie

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Is er een negatieve of positieve relatie tussen speler en spel?

Wat is de relatie tussen speler en spel?

Is er overdracht van ervaringen in de spelwereld naar het dagelijks leven?

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de game paradox waarom stellen we bij de introductie van ieder nieuw medium steeds weer deze vragen?

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DE EFFECTEN VAN SPELEN
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OCTOPUSSEN MET LEGO: OVER HET BELANG VAN SPELEN
Huizingalezing 2007, Tijs Goldschmidt (bioloog)

• • •

ontwikkelingsmanagement direct effect (plezier) evolutionair effect

Spelen heeft zin, je hele leven lang, maar het is moeilijk het uiteindelijke evolutionaire effect ervan te meten.
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OCTOPUSSEN MET LEGO: OVER HET BELANG VAN SPELEN

http://www.nrc.nl/huizingalezing/article838878.ece/Huizingalezing_2007

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Wanneer ik het bijzijn van gasten mijn Schucoauto weer eens achteruit inparkeerde, zei hij trots: “Dat scheelt drie rijlessen, als het er niet meer zijn. Ik zie het als pure winst.”

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BARRY GUNTER
Gunter, B. Psychological Effects of Video Games. Hoofdstuk 9, pp. 145-160.

Gunter reviews studies of cognitive and social effects of games. “Although excessive playing with these games should be discouraged in the same way as excessive behavior in other contexts, much naturally occurring computer games playing takes place in healthy social contexts and can produce positive cognitive benefits.” (p. 145) Gunter concludes that computergames can have negative as well as positive effects on health.

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ontvangen

Reception is a noun form of receiving, or to receive something, such as information, art, experience, or people.

effect van ontvangen
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RECEPTIE: LEAN-BACK VS LEAN-FORWARD

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COMPUTERGAMES AS PARTICIPATORY MEDIA CULTURE

1. Interpretatie (Deconstructie) 2. Reconfiguratie 3. Constructie

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DE EFFECTEN VAN GAMING: VOORBIJ DE ‘MAGIC CIRCLE’?

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MAGIC CIRCLE
“To play a game means entering into a magic circle, or perhaps creating one as a game begins. […] The term magic circle is appropriate because there is in fact something genuinely magical that happens when a game begins […] In effect, a new reality is created, defined by the rules of the game and inhabited by its players.”

Katie Salen en Eric Zimmerman, Rules of Play, 2004.

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SPEL IS...
“a free activity standing quite consciously outside “ordinary” life as being “not serious”, but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and utterly. It is an activity connected with no material interest, and no profit can be gained by it. It proceeds within its own proper boundaries of time and space according to fixed rules and in an orderly manner.” Huizinga, 1938/1950, p.13

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Onze cultuur ontstaat in spel als spel.
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MAGIC CIRCLE
“All play moves and has its being within a play-ground marked off beforehand either materially or ideally, deliberately or as a matter of course. […] The arena, the card-table, the magic circle, the temple, the stage, the screen, the tennis court, the court of justice, etc., are all in form and function play-grounds, i.e. forbidden spots, isolated, hedged round, hallowed, within which special rules obtain. All are temporary worlds within the ordinary world, dedicated to the performance of an act apart.” Huizinga, 1938/1950, p.9-10

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PERSPECTIEF

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GAME PARADOX

geweld

leren

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WEAK BOUNDARY HYPOTHESIS
Daniel Pargman en Peter Jakobsson

Erving Goffman, Frame analysis Gary Alan Fine, frames within frames

There is nothing magical about switching between roles. It is something we do all the time and can literally be done at the blink of an eye.(2006)
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GAMING EN GEWELD
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JEFFREY GOLDSTEIN
Goldstein, J. Violent Video Games. Hoofdstuk 22, pp. 341-357.

“Of course media affect emotions and behavior. Thats is why people use them. However, there is no evidence that media shape behavior in ways that override a persons own desires and motivations. Can a violent video game make a person violent? It can if he wants it to.” (p. 350)

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• “Op de pagina haalt Sturmgeist89 uit naar 'het systeem' en 'de verrotte maatschappij', en klaagt hij over het 'falen van het systeem van natuurlijke selectie'.

• "Waarschijnlijk vind je mij krankzinnig, gek, een psychopaat of een crimineel. De waarheid is dat ik (...) een dissident ben."

• Sturmgeist89 kondigt aan bereid te zijn voor zijn ideeën te sterven. "Ik zal iedereen elimineren die ik ongeschikt vind, een schande voor de mensheid of een vergissing van de evolutie.

• De tiener roept mensen op om niet zijn vrienden of familie de schuld te geven van zijn daden, en ook niet zijn muziek, de films waarnaar hij keek of de computerspellen die hij speelde. "Dit is mijn oorlog: een man tegen de mensheid, regeringen en de zwakke massa's van de wereld! Geen genade voor het schuim der aarde!"” nu.nl

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ONDERZOEKSMETHODE
“Correlational studies are inherently unable to establish cause-and-effect, so psychologists resort to laboratory experiment in which some fatcors are manipulated, whereas others are controlled.” “We will examine each component of this situation, and ask whether subjects Play a video game, whether the video game can be regarded as Violent, and whether the experiment measures aggressive behavior.” (p. 344)
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HET LABORATORIUM
“In the typical laboratory
experiment, university students are randomly assigned to play a violent video game or a non violent game, for anywhere from four to seventy minutes, typically around fifteen minutes.”

http://friendlymedia.sbrl.rpi.edu/index.php

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GAME EXPERIENCE LAB

http://www.ed.nl/video/regionieuws/article2266007.ece

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GEWELD

realisme?
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GEWELD

realisme?
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GEWELD

realisme?
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GEWELD

realisme?
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GEWELDADIGE GAMES?

“Players do not engange in agressive behavior when playing a video game, but participate in fantasy involving mock violence.” (P. 345) “Of course media affect emotions and behavior. Thats is why people use them. However, there is no evidence that media shape behavior in ways that override a persons own desires and motivations. Can a violent video game make a person violent? It can if he wants it to.” (p. 350) Context: “Almost no studies of the presumed harmful effects of video games have considered how and why people play them.” -> Where, when and with whom

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http://nl.youtube.com/watch?v=ieSzsh4hJWI Wednesday, December 10, 2008 65

http://nl.youtube.com/watch?v=ieSzsh4hJWI Wednesday, December 10, 2008 66

GAMING EN EDUCATIE
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MARC PRENSKY

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68

MARC PRENSKY

handheld learning 2008
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NIEUWE GELETTERDHEID HOMO ZAPPIENS NET GENERATIE EINSTEIN GENERATIE PROSUMER CULTURE CONVERGENCE CULTURE WEB 2.0
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DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING
Our learners have changed radically These learners need to be motivated in new ways Digital natives versus digital immigrants

“Digital Natives accustomed to the twitch speed, multitasking, random-access, graphics first, active, connected, fun, fantasy, and quick payoff world of their videogames, MTV, and Internet feel bored by most of today’s approaches to learning, well-meaning as they may be. Worse, the many skills that new technologies have actually enhanced, such as parallel processing, graphics awareness, random access and so on – that have profound implications for learning – are almost totally ignored by educators.” (p. 101)

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MICHAEL NITSCHE ON MARC PRENSKY

DiGRA 07, Tokyo 3) No more ʻHurray Game Studiesʼ, please What Marc Prensky was doing in this conference remains a mystery to me. He certainly deserves credit for his role in the growth of the Serious Games area and he is excited about the topic, but the talk itself was clearly for some other audience. Consequently, there was a lot of debate on the Nintendo DS backchannel when he argued for less jargon in Game Studies and simpler selling of the ideas – among many other things. Whether Prensky likes it or not, Game Studies is becoming more difficult the more it matures. It becomes very fast very obvious if you have read the relevant literature or not. And people have less scruples to tell you. I still heard some researchers talking about how lonely they are in their home departments and how great the conference was to encourage them in their work, but frankly: a lot of the ground work is done. There is a lot of work published in the field and it is very accessible. It seems only natural, that the field winds itself up to the next level. In two years there should be even less talks on possible future research projects (and I remember quite a few of those during the Utrecht conference, mine probably included). Maybe it would make sense to create a somewhat less rigorous “thoughts in progress” track for such presentations.
http://gtmachinimablog.lcc.gatech.edu/?p=47

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DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING

Wim Veen, hoogleraar educatie en technologie TU Delft James Paul Gee, Tashia Morgridge Professor of Reading at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Clark Aldrich, internationaal gevierde e-learning analist, consultant, ontwerper en auteur, die zich richt op het bouwen en populariseren van onderwijskundige simulaties voor professionele vaardigheden. Henry Jenkins, Director of the Comparative Media Studies graduate program (MIT)

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FOOD FORCE

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REALISME

representatie systeem

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FOOD FORCE
The target audience for Food Force is kids from 8-13. Structured as a race against time in the fictional country of Sheylan, the game is divided into six missions that fairly accurately represent what the WFP does in the real world, despite its fictional setting. The six missions are: Air surveillance Food formulation Food acquisition – buying and selling food Air drops from helicopters Ground missions involving driving trucks through sometimes hostile territories Future farming – establishing self-sufficiency

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GAMES

regelset - systeem, doel, regels, procedure declaratieve laag (representatie) sociale laag (spelen)

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RANJ – THE PROFESSIONALS

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DIVERSITEIT IN ROLLEN

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EFFECTEN VAN GAMING
cognitief sociaal biologisch cultureel ontwerp, gebruik, validatie

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games as an aesthetic phenomenon

design

computer games

reception

games as a cultural phenomenon

games as a social phenomenon

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