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INDEX

S.No
1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 Lab Objective

Contents

Page No.
2 3 5 7 10 20 22 35 55

Introduction About Lab Guidelines to Students List of Syllabus Programs (JNTU) Description about UNIX commands Discription about shells Solutions for Programs Viva Questions and Answers References

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LAB OBJECTIVE
Upon successful completion of this Lab the student will be able to: 1. Demonstrate how to use the following Bourne Shell commands: cat, grep, ls, more, ps, chmod, finger, ftp, etc. 2. Use the following Bourne Shell constructs: test, if then, if then else, if then elif, for, while, until, and case. 3. Learn tracing mechanisms (for debugging), user variables, BourneShell variables, read-only variables, positional parameters, reading input to a BourneShell script, command substitution, comments, and exporting variables. In addition, test on numeric values, test on file type, and test on character strings are covered.
4. Copy, move, and delete files and directories

5. Write moderately complex Shell scripts. 6. Make a Shell script executable. 7. Create a ".profile" script to customize the user environment. 8. Use advanced features of File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 9. Compile source code into object and executable modules. 10. Execute programs written in c under UNIX environment

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INTRODUCTION ABOUT LAB

There are 66 systems ( Compaq Presario ) installed in this Lab. Their configurations are as follows : Processor RAM Hard Disk Mouse Network Interface card : : : : : Present AMD Athelon ™ 1.67 GHz 256 MB 40 GB Optical Mouse

Software  All systems are configured in DUAL BOOT mode i.e, Students can boot from Windows XP or Linux as per their lab requirement. This is very useful for students because they are familiar with different Operating Systems so that they can execute their programs in different programming environments.  Each student has a separate login for database access Oracle 9i client version is installed in all systems. On the server, account for each student has been created. This is very useful because students can save their work ( scenarios’, pl/sql programs, data related projects ,etc) in their own accounts. Each student work is safe and secure from other students.  Latest Technologies like DOT NET and J2EE are installed in some systems. Before submitting their final project, they can start doing mini project from 2nd year onwards.

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 MASM ( Macro Assembler ) is installed in all the systems Students can execute their assembly language programs using MASM. MASM is very useful students because when they execute their programs they can see contents of Processor Registers and how each instruction is being executed in the CPU.  Rational Rose Software is installed in some systems Using this software, students can depict UML diagrams of their projects.  Softwares installed : C, C++, JDK1.5, MASM, OFFICE-XP, J2EE and DOT NET, Rational Rose.

 Systems are provided for students in the 1:1 ratio.

 Systems are assigned numbers and same system is allotted for students when they do the lab.

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Guidelines to Students
How to Run Shell Scripts There are two ways you can execute your shell scripts. Once you have created a script file: Method 1 Pass the file as an argument to the shell that you want to interpret your script. Step 1 : create the script using vi, ex or ed For example, the script file show has the following lines echo Here is the date and time date Step 2 : To run the script, pass the filename as an argument to the sh (shell ) $ sh show Here is the date and time Sat jun 03 13:40:15 PST 2006

Method 2: Make your script executable using the chmod command. When we create a file, by default it is created with read and write permission turned on and execute permission turned off. A file can be made executable using chmod. Step 1 : create the script using vi, ex or ed For example, the script file show has the following lines echo Here is the date and time date Step 2 : Make the file executable

just type the filename $ show Here is the date and time Sat jun 03 13:40:15 PST 2006 How to run C programs Step 1 : Use an editor. the file show. or ed to write the program.c. For example.6 $ chmod u+x script_file $ chmod u+x show Step 3 : To run the script.out $ a.c If the program is okay. the compiled version is placed in a file called a.c contains the following lines : main() { printf(“ welcome to GNEC “). } Step 2 : Submit the file to CC ( the C Compiler ) $ cc show. such as vi.out Welcome to GNEC . The name of the file containing the program should end in . ex.out Step 3 : To run the program. type a.

4.txt which contain some text.15 1450 raju 21. my table d) use the vi command to correct any errors in the file. Correct typing errors during creation Save the file Logout of the file Session 2 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Log into the system Open the file created in session 1 Add some text Change some text delete some text Save the changes Logout of the system WEEK2 a) log into the system b) Use the cat command to create a file containing the following data. my table i) logout of the system . Call it mytable(same name) h) print the new file. 2. my table e) use the sort command to sort the file my table according to the first field.65 4320 ramu 26. Call the sorted file my table(same name) f) print the file my table g) use the cut & paste commands to swap fields 2 and 3 my table. 5.86 c) use the cat command to display the file. 3.27 6830 sita 36. Call it mutable use tabs to separate the fields 1425 ravi 15.7 List of Lab Exercises Syllabus Programs ( JNTU ) WEEK1 Session 1 1. Log in to the system Use Vi editor to create a file called myfile.

Use the more command to check the contents of myfile2.a file.provided they exits in the current directory c) Write a shell script that determines the period for which a specified user is working on the system WEEK6 a) write a shell script that accepts a file name starting and ending line numbers as arguments and displays all the lines between the given line numbers b) write a shell script that deletes all lines containing a specified word I one or more files supplied as arguments to it. Use the date and who commands in sequence ?(in one line) such that the output of date will display on the screen and the output of who will be redirected to a file called my file2. WEEK7 a) Write a shell script that computes the gross salary of a employee according to the following 1) if basic salary is <1500 then HRA 10% of the basic and DA =90% of the basic . write a sed command that deletes the first character in each line in a file write a sed command that deletes the character before the last character in each line in a file. b) Develop an interactive grep script that asks for a word and a file name and then tells how many lines contain that word c) Repeat d) Part using awk WEEK5 a) Write A shell script that takes a command –line argument and reports on whether it is directry .Use the more command to see the contents of myfile1. use the who command redirect the result to a file called myfile1. Write a sed command that swaps the files and second words in each line in a file WEEK4 a) pipe ur /etc/passwd file to awk and print out the home directory of each user.or something else b) Write a shell script that accepts one or more file name as a arguments and converts all of thenm to uppercase.8 WEEK3 a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) log in the system use the appropriate commands to determine ur login shell use the /etc/passwd file to verify the result of step b.

Once the use has made a choice. Let it offer the user the choice of copying .9 2) if basic salary is >1500 then HRA 500 and DA =98% of the basic The basic salary is entered interactively through the key board b) Write a shell script that accepts two integers as its arguments and computes the value of first number raised to the power of the second number WEEK 8 a) Write an interactive file handling shell program. 1) file type 2) number of links 3) read.renaming or linking files. write and execute permissions 4) time of last access (Note: use /fstat system calls) WEEK 11 Write C program that simulate the following unix commands a) mv b) cp . c) Write a shell script to perform the following string operations.removing .new name and so on. have the program ask the user for necessary information. b) Write a shell script that takes a login name as command –line argument and reports when that person logs in c) Write a shell script which receives two files names as arguments. If they are same then second file should be deleted. 1) To extract a sub string from a given string 2) To find the length of a given string WEEK 10 Write a C program that takes one or more file or directory names as command line input and reports the following information on the file. It should check whether the two file contents are same or not. such as the file name . WEEK 9 a) Write a shell script that displays a list of all files in the current directory to which the user has read write and execute permissions b) Develop an interactive script that asks for a word and file name and then tells how many times that word occurred in the file.

pwd There are no options (or arguments) with the "pwd" command. cat /etc/passwd This command displays the "/etc/passwd" file on your screen. view and concatenate files. Command Syntax pwd pwd Description Examples "pwd" stands for print working directory. It is simply used to report your current working .10 WEEK 12 Write a c program that simulates ls command (Use system calls /directory API) Basic Unix commands Command Syntax Description Examples CAT cat [argument] [specific file] “cat" is short for concatenate. cat file1 file2 file3 > file4 This command combines the contents of the first three files into the fourth file. Notice that some of the contents of this file may scroll off of your screen. cat /etc/profile This command displays the "/etc/profile" file on your screen. This command is used to create. It displays your current position in the UNIX filesystem.

and they are not shown. ls ls [options] [names] Description Examples "ls" stands for list. including hidden files. ls -l The -l option tells the "ls" command to provide a long listing of information about the files and directories it reports. It provides a very basic listing of the files in your current working directory. with no options.11 Command Syntax directory. This is probably the most used version of the ls command. It combines the functionality of the -a and -l options. user and group ownership. ls -alR /usr | more This command lists long information about all files in the "/usr" directory. and creation date. ls This is the basic "ls" command. It is used to list information about files and directories. file size. The long listing will provide important information about file permissions. ls -al This command provides a long listing of information about all files in the current directory. and all sub-directories of /usr. Filenames beginning with a decimal are considered hidden files. The -R option . ls -a The -a option tells the ls command to report information about all files. ls -al /usr This command lists long information about all files in the "/usr" directory.

ls -ld /usr Rather than list the files contained in the /usr directory. mv Chapter1 /tmp This command moves the file "Chapter1" into the directory named "/tmp". (Notice that if "garbage" is a directory. mv Chapter1 Chapter1.bad". you'll be asked whether to overwrite the file The "mv" command is used to move and rename files.12 tells the ls command to provide a recursive listing of all files and sub-directories. This is very useful when you want to check the permissions of the directory. mv tmp tmp. and not the files the directory contains. this command lists information about the /usr directory itself (without generating a listing of the contents of /usr).bad This command renames the file "Chapter1" to the new name "Chapter1.old. if dest exists. "Chapter1" would be moved into that directory). Command Syntax Options mv mv [options] sources target -b backup files that are about to be overwritten or removed -i interactive mode. this example renames the directory tmp to the new name tmp. mv Chapter1 garbage This command renames the file "Chapter1" to the new name "garbage". rm Description Examples Command .old Assuming in this case that tmp is a directory.

and "Chapter3". rm -i Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command prompts you before deleting any of the three files specified. --force ignore nonexistent files.bad" (assuming you have permission to delete this file).be very careful when removing files and directories!) rm Chapter1. --directory unlink FILE. -R. --interactive prompt before any removal -r. even if it is a non-empty directory (super-user only) -f. You must answer y (for yes) for each file you really want to delete. (Warning .13 Syntax Options rm [options] files -d. . The -i option stands for inquire. --verbose explain what is being done Description Examples The "rm" command is used to remove files and directories.bad This command deletes the file named "Chapter1.html". never prompt -i. --recursive remove the contents of directories recursively -v.html This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename ends with the characters ". "Chapter2". rm *. rm Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command deletes the files named "Chapter1". This can be a safer way to delete files.

Note that when using the cp command. This directory. This example assumes that you have write permission in the current .bak". This command copies the file named "Chapter1" in the "/usr/fred" directory to the current directory.profile" to a file named ". you must always specify both the source and destination of the file(s) to be copied. and timestamp The "cp" command is used to copy files and directories. you'll be asked whether to overwrite the file -p preserves the original file's ownership. permissions. Command Syntax cp cp [options] file1 file2 cp [options] files directory Options -b backup files that are about to be overwritten or removed -i interactive mode.profile .profile. Description Examples cp .profile. rm -r new-novel This command deletes the directory named "new-novel". and all of its' contents. are erased from the disk.bak This command copies your ".14 rm index* This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename begins with the characters "index". including any sub-directories and files. group. if dest exists. cp /usr/fred/Chapter1 .

Command Syntax grep grep [options] regular expression [files] Options match -i -n -v -w case-insensitive search show the line# along with the matched line invert match. because the letter "a" will be in the first column.and also "alfred". It will find and print (on the screen) all of the lines in this file that contain the text string 'fred'. including lines that contain usernames like "fred" . a user named "alfred" would not be matched. It is used to search for text strings within one or more files. e. cp /usr/fred/Chapter1 /usr/mary This command copies the "Chapter1" file in "/usr/fred" to the directory named "/usr/mary". rather than substrings Description Examples Think of the "grep" command as a "search" command (most people wish it was named "search"). Using this moreadvanced search. This example assumes that you have write permission in the "/usr/mary" directory.15 directory. grep '^fred' /etc/passwd This command searches for all occurrences of the text string 'fred' within the "/etc/passwd" file. find all lines that do NOT match entire words.g. grep 'fred' /etc/passwd This command searches for all occurrences of the text string 'fred' within the "/etc/passwd" file. grep 'joe' * This command searches for all occurrences of the text string . but also requires that the "f" in the name "fred" be in the first column of each record (that's what the caret character tells grep).

and the directory "acme" is created inside of customer. (This example assumes that you have the proper permissions to create a new directory in /usr/fred. and creates any intermediate directories that are needed.16 'joe' within all files of the current directory. then the directory "customer" is created. If only /home/joe existed to begin with.be very careful when removing .) mkdir -p /home/joe/customer/acme This command creates a new directory named /home/joe/customer/acme. (Warning . mkdir tmp This command creates a new directory named "tmp" in your current directory. "tmp" is now a sub-directory of "/usr/fred". Command Syntax Description Examples mkdir mkdir [options] directory name The "mkdir" command is used to create new directories (sub-directories).) mkdir memos letters e-mail This command creates three new sub-directories (memos. mkdir /usr/fred/tmp This command creates a new directory named "tmp" in the directory "/usr/fred". Command Syntax Description rmdir rmdir [options] directories The "rm" command is used to remove files and directories. and e-mail) in the current directory. letters. (This example assumes that you have the proper permissions to create a new sub-directory in your current working directory.

and all of its' contents. rm -i Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command prompts you before deleting any of the three files specified. rm Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command deletes the files named "Chapter1". You must answer y (for yes) for each file you really want to delete.bad" (assuming you have permission to delete this file).html". rm index* This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename begins with the characters "index". including any sub-directories and files. This directory. Examples Command Syntax cd. rm -r new-novel This command deletes the directory named "new-novel". "Chapter2". chdir cd [name of directory you want to move to] Description Examples "cd" stands for change directory. It is the primary command for moving around the filesystem. This can be a safer way to delete files. and "Chapter3". are erased from the disk. The -i option stands for inquire.bad This command deletes the file named "Chapter1. rm *. cd /usr .17 files and directories!) rm Chapter1.html This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename ends with the characters ".

This is very useful when you're in the middle of a project. this command moves you back to your previous working directory. and keep moving back-and-forth between two directories. cd /usr/fred Moves you to the "/usr/fred" directory. cd Using the Korn shell.18 This command moves you to the "/usr" directory. Examples Command Syntax Description ps ps [options] The "ps" command (process statistics) lets you check the status of processes that are running on your Unix . Command Syntax Description kill kill [options] IDs kill ends one or more process IDs. To find the process ID of a certain job use ps.if this is the only directory matching this wildcard pattern. cd Issuing the "cd" command without any arguments moves you to your home directory. In order to do this you must own the process or be designated a privileged user. cd /u*/f* Moves you to the "/usr/fred" directory . "/usr" becomes your current working directory.

Without any arguments. ps -e The -e argument tells the ps command to show every process running on the system. ps The ps command by itself shows minimal information about the processes you are running.19 system. The more command lets you view one screenful of information at a time. the output of the ps -ef command is often piped into the more command. ps -f The -f argument tells ps to supply full information about the processes it displays. ps -ef | more Because the output normally scrolls off the screen. In this example. ps -ef The -e and -f arguments are normally combined like this to show full information about every process running on the system. ps displays full information about the processes you are running. ps -fu fred This command shows full information about the processes currently being run by the user named fred (the -u option lets you specify a username). This is probably the most often-used form of the ps command. this command will not show information about other processes running on the system. Examples .

Where these differences are known to cause difficulties I have made special notes within the text to highlight this fact. These are (in order of creation) sh. in the main. to the different UNIX flavours in use on some platforms. they are generally completely portable across the whole UNIX world. It has been around for so long that is it virtually bug free. The different dialects are due. It also contains some powerful constructs built in. leading most users to believe that it is twice as good. csh and ksh. Bourne Shell: Historically the sh language was the first to be created and goes under the name of The Bourne Shell. so called because of the similar syntactical structures to the C language. most likely because the are a simple way to string together a bunch of UNIX commands for execution at any time without the need for prior compilation. The Shell History: The basic shells come in three main language forms. This is a shame because there are several compromises within the C Shell which . It has a very compact syntax which makes it obtuse for novice users but very efficient when used by experts. Lastly. as long as they have been written to a common standard. Not forgetting the ease with which other scripters can read the code and understand what is happening. Be aware that there are several dialects of these script languages which tend to make them all slightly platform specific. I have adopted the Bourne shell syntax as the defacto standard within this book. Also because its generally fast to get a script going. The UNIX man pages contain almost twice as much information for the C Shell as the pages for the Bourne shell. On UNIX systems. C Shell: Next up was The C Shell (csh).20 Why Use Shells? Well. most of the scripts used to start and configure the operating system are written in the Bourne shell. All script languages though have at their heart a common core which if used correctly will guarantee portability.

The real reason why the C Shell is so popular is that it is usually selected as the default login shell for most users. . There are rumours however. The features that guarantee its continued use in this arena are aliases. The point is do you really want to spend your time finding all the alternative ways of doing the same thing just to keep yourself out of trouble. with future UNIX releases only supporting sh and ksh.21 makes using the language for serious work difficult (check the list of bugs at the end of the man pages!). Differences between csh and sh syntax will be highlighted where appropriate. and history lists. True. there are so many functions available within the C Shell that if one should fail another could be found. that C Shell is destined to be phased out.

Any sh syntax element will work in the ksh without change. . However.22 Korne Shell: Lastly we come to The Korne Shell (ksh) made famous by IBM's AIX flavour of UNIX. The Korne shell can be thought of as a superset of the Bourne shell as it contains the whole of the Bourne shell world within its own syntax rules. This may change however by the time this book is published. because not all platforms are yet supporting the Korne shell it is not fully portable as a scripting language at the time of writing. making it the obvious language of choice for real scripters. Persevere. Korne Shell does contain aliases and history lists aplenty but C Shell users are often put off by its dissimilar syntax. it will pay off eventually. The extensions over and above the Bourne shell exceed even the level of functionality available within the C Shell (but without any of the compromises!).

5. Correct typing errors during creation 4.txt which contain some text. Save the file 5. 2. ~ Shell Programming : wq Log into the system Open the file created in session 1 Add some text Change some text delete some text Save the changes Logout of the system . 6. 3. 4. 7. Log in to the system 2. Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password: ****** $ vi myfile ~ Unix is Case Sensitive ~ Never leave the Computer without logging out when you are working in a time sharing or network environments. Use Vi editor to create a file called myfile. Type <Esc> : wq myfile $ Session 2 1. 3. Logout of the file Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password: ****** $ vi ~ Unix is Case Sensitive ~ Never leave the Computer without logging out when you are working in a time sharing or network environments.23 SOLUTIONS: WEEK1 Session 1 1.

my table g.15 <tab> 21.27 <tab> 36. logout of the system Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password:****** $ cat –c1-14 1425 <tab> ravi <tab> 4320 <tab> ramu <tab> 6830 <tab> sita <tab> 1450 <tab> raju <tab> $ cat myfile $who|more $ sort +0 -1 mytable 15. use the sort command to sort the file my table according to the first field.86 <tab> .86 a. Call it mytable(same name) f.15 21. use the vi command to correct any errors in the file. print the file my table e.65 26. use the cat command to display the file. Call the sorted file my table(same name) d. use the cut & paste commands to swap fields 2 and 3 my table.27 36. my table c. print the new file. Call it mutable use tabs to separate the fields 1425 4320 6830 1450 ravi ramu sita raju 15.65 <tab> 26. my table b.24 WEEK2 Log into the system Use the cat command to create a file containing the following data.

log in the system use the appropriate commands to determine ur login shell use the /etc/passwd file to verify the result of step b. Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password:****** $ echo $SHELL csh $ who >| myfile1 $ more myfile1 $ date|who >myfile2 $ more myfile2 .Use the more command to see the contents of myfile1. use the who command redirect the result to a file called myfile1. e. Write a sed command that swaps the files and second words in each line in a file f. c. b.25 WEEK3 a. Use the date and who commands in sequence ?(in one line) such that the output of date will display on the screen and the output of who will be redirected to a file called my file2. write a sed command that deletes the first character in each line in a file write a sed command that deletes the character before the last character in each line in a file.Use the more command to check the contents of myfile2. g. d. h.

26 WEEK4 pipe ur /etc/passwd file to awk and print out the home directory of each user.dat I/P: 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 O/P: 2 Computers 1232 Clothing 3141 Computers 9161 Textbooks 21312 Clothing 3252 Computers 1232 Supplies 2242 Text books 15462 . Develop an interactive grep script that asks for a word and a file name and then tells how many lines contain that word Repeat Part using awk (d) Sol: $ awk ‘$2 ==”Computers” && $3 >10000 {print}’Sales.

27 WEEK5 a) Write A shell script that takes a command –line argument and reports on whether it is directry .provided they exits in the current directory c) Write a shell script that determines the period for which a specified user is working on the system (a) Sol: echo "Enter a file name:" read f if [ -f $f ] then echo "File" elif [ -d $f ] then echo "Directory" else echo "Not" fi Output: Directory .a file.or something else b) Write a shell script that accepts one or more file name as a arguments and converts all of thenm to uppercase.

(a) Sol: $ awk ‘NR<2 || NR> 4 {print $0}’ 5 lines.dat I/P: line1 line2 line3 line4 line5 line1 line5 O/P: (b) Sol: i=1 while [ $i -le $# ] do grep -v Unix $i > $i done .28 WEEK6 (a) Write a shell script that accepts a file name starting and ending line numbers as arguments and displays all the lines between the given line numbers (b) Write a shell script that deletes all lines containing a specified word I one or more files supplied as arguments to it.

29 WEEK7 a) Write a shell script that computes the gross salary of a employee according to the following 1) if basic salary is <1500 then HRA 10% of the basic and DA =90% of the basic 2) if basic salary is >1500 then HRA 500 and DA =98% of the basic The basic salary is entered interactively through the key board (b)Write a shell script that accepts two integers as its arguments and computes the value of first number raised to the power of the second number echo " Enter the Salary " read sal if [ $sal<1500] then da=`expr $sal*90/100` hra=`expr $sal*10/100` gsal=’expr $sal +$hra+$da echo “$gsal” elif [$sal>1500] hra=500 da=’expr $sal*98/100’ gsal=’expr $sal+$hra+$da gross=`expr $sa + $da + $hra` fi fi (b) a=$1 b=$2 c=pow($a.$b) echo”$c” .

If they are same then second file should be deleted. (b) Write a shell script that takes a login name as command –line argument and reports when that person logs in (c) Write a shell script which receives two files names as arguments.30 WEEK 8 (a) Write an interactive file handling shell program.new name and so on. It should check whether the two file contents are same or not. such as the file name . Let it offer the user the choice of copying .renaming or linking files. Once the use has made a choice. PROGRAM echo "Enter I File Name:" read f1 echo "Enter II File Name:" read f2 d=`cmp $f1 $f2` d1="" if [ $d -eq $d2 ] then echo "Two Files are similar and $f2 is deleted" rm $f2 else echo "Two Files differ each other" fi . have the program ask the user for necessary information.removing .

sh #!/bin/bash read -p "Enter a directory name : " dn if [ -d $dn ]. then printf " Read" fi if [ -w $dn/$fn ]. 1) To extract a sub string from a given string 2) To find the length of a given string (a) PROGRAM # File Name : list.31 WEEK 9 (a) Write a shell script that displays a list of all files in the current directory to which the user has read write and execute permissions (b) Develop an interactive script that asks for a word and file name and then tells how many times that word occurred in the file. then printf "\nFiles in the directory $dn are :\n" for fn in `ls $dn` do if [ -d $dn/$fn ]. then printf "<$fn> Directory " elif [ -f $dn/$fn ] then printf "$fn File " fi if [ -r $dn/$fn ].then printf " Execute" fi printf "\n" done else printf "\n$dn not exists or not a directory" fi . (c) Write a shell script to perform the following string operations.then printf " Write" fi if [ -x $dn/$fn ].

scr O/P: Enter the String: Now is the time The String length : 15 .32 (b) PROGRAM # File Name : wcount. of Characters: `wc -c $fn`" else echo "$fn is not exists or not a file" fi (c) PROGRAM Print “Enter the String:\c” read strIn strlen=${# strIn} print the string length is : $strlen $ strlen. of Line : `wc -l $fn`" echo "No.sh #!/bin/bash read -p "Enter a file name : " fn if test -f $fn then echo "The contents of the file $fn is :" cat $fn echo "No. of Words : `wc -w $fn`" echo "No.

file type number of links read.”Error closing stream. int buffer_character. exit(1). write and execute permissions time of last access (Note: use /fstat system calls) PROGRAM #include<stdio. 2.(printed to standard error)\n). fclose(stream). exit(1). } } if(fclose(stream))==EOF) { fprintf(stderr. } return().”r”). 1.h> main() { FILE *stream.”Error opening file(printed to standard error)\n”). 3. stream=fopen(“test”. 4.33 WEEK 10 Write a C program that takes one or more file or directory names as command line input and reports the following information on the file. if(stream==(FILE*)0) { fprintf(stderr. } .

char *argv[]) { FILE *fp. else { while(!feof(fp)) { ch=fgetc(fp).argv[1]). } printf("no of spaces %d". fclose(fp).h> #include<unistd.34 WEEK 11 Write C program that simulate the following unix commands (a) mv (b) cp /* File Name : bspace1.h> #include<stdio. fp=fopen(argv[1].c */ #include<fcntl. int sc=0. if(ch==' ') sc++.h> main(int argc. } } . if(fp==NULL) printf("unable to open a file"."r").sc). char ch. printf("\n").

1)>0) printf("%c".h> main(int argc.ch[0]).char *argv[]) { int fd. } fd=open(argv[1]. else { printf("Contents of the file %s is : \n".h> #include<stdlib.argv[1]). while(read(fd.h> #include<fcntl.argv[1]).O_RDONLY). close(fd).i. if (argc<2) { printf("Usage: mycat filename\n"). } .35 WEEK 12 Write a c program that simulates ls command (Use system calls /directory API) PROGRAM: #include<stdio.ch. if(fd==-1) printf("%s is not exist". char ch[1]. exit(0).

e. What scheme does the Kernel in Unix System V follow while choosing a swap device among the multiple swap devices? Kernel follows Round Robin scheme choosing a swap device among the multiple swap devices in Unix System V. It helps by only compiling the portion of the program that has been changed Could you tell something about the Unix System Kernel? The kernel is the heart of the UNIX operating system. How can you tell what shell you are running on UNIX system? You can do the Echo $RANDOM. You could also do a ps -l and look for the shell with […] What do you mean by u-area (user area) or u-block? This contains the private data that is manipulated only by the Kernel. just a return prompt if you are from the Bourne shell. each process is allocated a u-area. and a 5 digit random numbers if you are from the Korn shell. This is local to the Process. it’s responsible for controlling the computer’s resources and scheduling user jobs so that each one gets its fair share of resources. It will return a undefined variable if you are from the C-Shell.36 Viva Questions & Answers What is a Make file? Make file is a utility in Unix to help compile large programs. i. List the system calls used for process management: System calls fork() exec() wait() […] Description To create a new process To execute a new program in a process .

The hardware . w-write.[…] Explain the layered aspect of a UNIX system. we use chmod(filename. The operating system kernel .Compares two files byte by byte and displays the first mismatch diff .r w x’ (user permission-group permission-others permission) r-read. Syntax : grep Example : grep 99mx mcafile What difference between cmp and diff commands? cmp .tells the changes to be made to make the files identical What is the significance of the “tee” command? . high-level programming interface.37 How do you change File Access Permissions? Every file has following attributes: owner’s user ID ( 16 bit integer ) owner’s group ID ( 16 bit integer ) File access mode word ‘r w x -r w x. The kernel assembles all of the following UNIX concepts from lower-level […] What is the use of ‘grep’ command? ‘grep’ is a pattern search command. What are the layers? What does it mean to say they are layers? A UNIX system has essentially three main layers: . write permission for user . It searches for the pattern. The user-level programs The kernel hides the system’s hardware underneath an abstract. Example: To change mode of myfile to ‘rw-rw-r–’ (ie. x-execute To change the access mode. in a file(s). read. specified in the command line with appropriate option.mode). It is responsible for implementing many of the facilities that users and user-level programs take for granted.

How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0? With the help of kill command we can terminate the process.kills all processes in your system except the login shell. it stands for ‘disk usage’. With the help of this command you can find the disk capacity and free space of the disk.38 It reads the standard input and sends it to the standard output while redirecting a copy of what it has read to the file specified by the user. . what is its use? Yes. Syntax: kill pid Kill 0 . Is ‘du’ a command? If so.

the Kernel allocates new page and copies the content to the new page and the other processes retain their references to the old page. The system asks for password and when valid entry is made the user gains super user (admin) privileges. where the copy on write bit of a page is set and that page is shared by more than one process. The trick is to use the special symbol “-“ (a hyphen) for those commands that recognize the hyphen as std input. Is it possible to create new a file system in UNIX? Use ‘su’ command.39 Explain kill() and its possible return values. ‘kill()’ returns -1. ‘errno == ESRCH’ either no process exists with the given PID. a name-value pair created and maintained by the shell. PS2 (Secondary Prompt). How the Kernel handles the copy on write bit of a page. After copying the Kernel updates the page […] Difference between the fork() and vfork() system call? . or […] What does the command “ $who | sort –logfile > newfile” do? The input from a pipe can be combined with the input from a file . when the bit is set? In situations like. meanwhile sort opens the file […] What are shell variables? Shell variables are special variables. PS1 (Primary Prompt). HOME. In the above command the output from who becomes the std input to sort . It is system-dependent whether the process could be a zombie. There are four possible results from this call: ‘kill()’ returns 0. This implies that a process exists with the given PID. MAIL and TERM How many prompts are available in a UNIX system? Two prompts. Example: PATH. and the system would allow you to send signals to it.

Kernel in System V Unix. page table. But the major requirement for the swapper to work the ready-to-run process must be core-resident for at least 2 seconds before swapping out.40 During the fork() system call the Kernel makes a copy of the parent process’s address space and attaches it to the child process.But the vfork() system call do not makes any copy of the parent’s address space. makes the duplicate copy of the parent’s address space and attaches it to the child’s process. by incrementing the reference count of the region table of shared regions. The child process as a result of the vfork() […] How the Kernel handles the fork() system call in traditional Unix and in the System V Unix. and pfdata table entries. What are the requirements for a swapper to work? The swapper works on the highest scheduling priority. Then the address translation mapping is adjusted for the new virtual address space but the physical memory is not allocated. manipulates the region tables. Firstly it will look for any sleeping process. To do this Kernel reserves enough space in the swap device. When the parent process calls fork() system call. while swapping? Kernel in traditional Unix. […] What are the entities that are swapped out of the main memory while swapping the process out of the main memory? . if not found then it will look for the ready-to-run process for swapping. the child process is created and if there is short of memory then the child process is sent to the read-to-run state in the swap device. so it is faster than the fork() system call. and return to the user state without swapping the parent process. And for swapping […] What is Expansion swap? At the time when any process requires more memory than it is currently allocated. while swapping. At last Kernel swaps the […] What is Fork swap? fork() is a system call to create a child process. the Kernel performs Expansion swap.

Is the Process before and after the swap are the same? Give reason. it performs the following: Kernel decrements the Reference Count of each region of the process. Kernel locks the other swapping process while […] What is major difference between the Historic Unix and the new BSD release of Unix System V in terms of Memory Management? Historic Unix uses Swapping – entire process is transferred to the main memory from the swap device. Kernel allocates the space for the swapping process in the swap device. Process before swapping is residing in the primary memory in its original form.41 All memory space occupied by the process. process’s u-area. theoretically. there may be few empty slots in any of the regions and while swapping Kernel do not bother about the empty slots while swapping the process outAfter swapping […] What are the events done by the Kernel after a process is being swapped out from the main memory? When Kernel swaps the process out of the primary memory. At the end of the command you add the special background symbol. swaps the region out of the main memory. and Kernel stack are swapped out. whereas the Unix System V uses Demand Paging – only the part of the process is moved to the main memory. If the reference count becomes zero. This symbol tells your shell . data and stack) may not be occupied fully by the process. if the process’s u-area contains the Address Translation Tables for the process then Kernel implementations do not swap the u-area. Historic Unix uses one Swap Device and Unix System V allow multiple Swap Devices What is an advantage of executing a process in background? The most common reason to put a process in the background is to allow you to do something else interactively without waiting for the process to complete. The regions (text. Practically. &.

This environment contains everything needed for the system to run the program as if no other program were running on the system. Unix processes have the following states: Running : The process is either running or it is ready to run . Each process has process context. usually by receiving a signal. Zombie : The […] . Waiting : The process is waiting for an event or for a resource. Stopped : The process has been stopped. the system creates a special environment for that program. Example: cp *.* […] What Happens when you execute a program? When you execute a program on your UNIX system.42 to execute the given command in the background. which is everything that is unique about the state of […] What are the process states in Unix? As a process executes it changes state according to its circumstances.

One of the most obvious is that the parent can get the exit status of the […] How can you get/set an environment variable from a program? Getting the value of an environment variable is done by using `getenv()’. Explain fork() system call. the kernel still keeps some of its information about the child in case the parent might need it . . In the […] How can a parent and child process communicate? A parent and child can communicate through any of the normal inter-process communication schemes (pipes. and the existing process is called the parent. The `fork()’ used to create a new process from an existing process. The process that executes the request for creation of a process is called the ‘parent process’ whose PID is ‘Parent Process ID’. Every process is associated with a particular user called the ‘owner’ who has privileges over the process. the parent calls `wait()‘. but […] What are various IDs associated with a process? Unix identifies each process with a unique integer called ProcessID. Setting the value of an environment variable is done by using `putenv()’. To be able to get this information. We can tell which is which by checking the return value from `fork()’. The identification for the user is […] Brief about the initial process sequence while the system boots up. shared memory). sockets. but also have some special ways to communicate that take advantage of their relationship as a parent and child. message queues.for example. The new process is called the child process.43 What is a zombie? When a program forks and the child finishes before the parent. the parent may need to check the child’s exit status. The parent gets the child’s pid returned to him.

The swapper inturn creates 3 children: the process dispatcher. Process dispatcher gives birth to the shell. […] .44 While booting. The swapper manages memory allocation for processes and influences CPU allocation.vhand and dbflush with IDs 1. special process called the ’swapper’ or ’scheduler’ is created with Process-ID 0.2 and 3 respectively. This is done by executing the file /etc/init.

When you mount another file system on to your directory. directory or special file. Links can be used to assign more than one name to a file.45 What is a shell? A shell is an interactive user interface to an operating system services that allows an user to enter commands as character strings or through a graphical user interface. sets the file type to indicate that the file is a pipe. The 12th address points to a two-level (double in-direction) index block. The 11th address points to a one-level index block. 3. 2. 1. This provides a very large maximum […] Discuss the mount and unmount system calls The privileged mount system call is used to attach a file system to a directory of another file system. minor device numbers. the unmount system call detaches a file system. The 13th address points to a three-level(triple in-direction)index block. it makes the other entries like major. The shell converts them to system calls to the OS or forks off a process to execute the command. you are essentially splicing one directory tree onto a branch in another directory tree. . kernel assigns new inode. If it is a device file. major […] What are links and symbolic links in UNIX file system? A link is a second name (not a file) for a file. For example: If the device is a disk. The first argument to […] How do you create special files like named pipes and device files? The system call mknod creates special files in the following sequence. System call results and other information from the OS […] How does the inode map to data block of a file? Inode has 13 block addresses. but cannot be used to assign a directory more than one name or link filenames on different computers. The first 10 are direct block addresses of the first 10 data blocks in the file.

Waiting : The process is waiting for an event or for a resource. the kernel still keeps some of its information about the child in case the parent might need it .buffer. the parent may need to check the child’s exit status.cmd.close an open file read(filedes.buffer.Operation […] What are the Unix system calls for I/O? open(pathname.46 Symbolic link ‘is’ a file that only contains the name of another file.request.change properties of an open file ioctl(filedes.duplicate to a desired file descriptor fcntl(filedes.bytes) .mode) .flag.mode) .newfd) . Zombie : The […] What is a zombie? When a program forks and the child finishes before the parent.read data from an open file write(filedes.bytes) . To be able to get this information.change the behaviour […] What Happens when you execute a program? When you execute a program on your UNIX system.for example.duplicate an existing file descriptor dup2(oldfd. the system creates a special environment for that program. Unix processes have the following states: Running : The process is either running or it is ready to run . In the […] How can a parent and child process communicate? . which is everything that is unique about the state of […] What are the process states in Unix? As a process executes it changes state according to its circumstances.position an open file dup(filedes) .offset.open file creat(pathname. Each process has process context.from) .arg) . usually by receiving a signal.write data to an open file lseek(filedes.create file close(filedes) . the parent calls `wait()‘.arg) . Stopped : The process has been stopped. This environment contains everything needed for the system to run the program as if no other program were running on the system.

message queues. Every process is associated with a particular user called the ‘owner’ who has privileges over the process. […] What is a shell? . The identification for the user is […] Brief about the initial process sequence while the system boots up. special process called the ’swapper’ or ’scheduler’ is created with Process-ID 0. but […] What are various IDs associated with a process? Unix identifies each process with a unique integer called ProcessID. While booting.vhand and dbflush with IDs 1. The new process is called the child process.47 A parent and child can communicate through any of the normal inter-process communication schemes (pipes.2 and 3 respectively. The `fork()’ used to create a new process from an existing process. The swapper manages memory allocation for processes and influences CPU allocation. shared memory). Explain fork() system call. One of the most obvious is that the parent can get the exit status of the […] How can you get/set an environment variable from a program? Getting the value of an environment variable is done by using `getenv()’. sockets. and the existing process is called the parent. The process that executes the request for creation of a process is called the ‘parent process’ whose PID is ‘Parent Process ID’. Setting the value of an environment variable is done by using `putenv()’. This is done by executing the file /etc/init. We can tell which is which by checking the return value from `fork()’. Process dispatcher gives birth to the shell. The swapper inturn creates 3 children: the process dispatcher. The parent gets the child’s pid returned to him. but also have some special ways to communicate that take advantage of their relationship as a parent and child.

1. sets the file type to indicate that the file is a pipe. The first 10 are direct block addresses of the first 10 data blocks in the file. FIFO (first-in-firstout) is a special file which is said to be data transient. the unmount system call detaches a file system. minor device numbers. kernel assigns new inode. The 12th address points to a two-level (double in-direction) index block. If it is a device file.48 A shell is an interactive user interface to an operating system services that allows an user to enter commands as character strings or through a graphical user interface. The first argument to […] How do you create special files like named pipes and device files? The system call mknod creates special files in the following sequence. you are essentially splicing one directory tree onto a branch in another directory tree. directory or special file. For example: If the device is a disk. System call results and other information from the OS […] How does the inode map to data block of a file? Inode has 13 block addresses. When you mount another file system on to your directory. This provides a very large maximum […] Discuss the mount and unmount system calls The privileged mount system call is used to attach a file system to a directory of another file system. The 11th address points to a one-level index block. It is used in interprocess communication where a process writes to one end of […] . 3. Once data is read from named pipe. it makes the other entries like major. data can be read only in the order written. The 13th address points to a three-level(triple in-direction)index block. The shell converts them to system calls to the OS or forks off a process to execute the command. it cannot be read again. 2. Also. major […] What is a FIFO? FIFO are otherwise called as ‘named pipes’.

permission and so on. time of last access.newfd) .from) .mode) .arg) .buffer.create file close(filedes) .bytes) .flag.arg) . its location.offset.bytes) . but cannot be used to assign a directory more than one name or link filenames on different computers. When new directories are created.close an open file read(filedes. The inode contains info about the file-size. The contents of a directory are a list of filename and inode number pairs.mode) . Only kernel modifies directories. Directories are also represented as files and have an associated inode. but processes can read directories.cmd.read data from an open file write(filedes.request. Links can be used to assign more than one name to a file. the inode contains pointers […] .write data to an open file lseek(filedes.Operation […] What are the Unix system calls for I/O? open(pathname. In addition to descriptions about the file.change the behaviour […] Brief about the directory representation in UNIX s a file containing a correspondence between filenames and inodes.open file creat(pathname. A directory is a special file that the kernel maintains.buffer. time of last modification. Symbolic link ‘is’ a file that only contains the name of another file. kernel makes two entries […] What is ‘inode’? All UNIX files have its description stored in a structure called ‘inode’.49 What are links and symbolic links in UNIX file system? A link is a second name (not a file) for a file.change properties of an open file ioctl(filedes.position an open file dup(filedes) .duplicate to a desired file descriptor fcntl(filedes.duplicate an existing file descriptor dup2(oldfd.

A ‘regular file’ is just an ordinary data file in the disk. The inode contains info about the file-size. Only kernel modifies directories. Incase if the file does not exist in the directory the commond will create a newfile in file system. time of last modification. device files and other files are named and accessed in the same way. In addition to descriptions about the file. A ‘block special file’ represents a device with characteristics similar to a disk (data transfer […] Brief about the directory representation in UNIX A Unix directory is a file containing a correspondence between filenames and inodes. permission and so on.50 How are devices represented in UNIX? All devices are represented by files called special files that are located in/dev directory. the inode contains pointers […] How are devices represented in UNIX? All devices are represented by files called special files that are located in/dev directory. its location. A ‘block special file’ represents a device with characteristics similar to a disk (data transfer […] How is the command “$cat file2 “ different from “$cat >file2 Answer The Commond $cat file in unix is used to display the content of the file and where as commond $cat >> file is to append the text to the end of the file without overwritting the information of the file. kernel makes two entries […] What is ‘inode’? All UNIX files have its description stored in a structure called ‘inode’. time of last access. but processes can read directories. A directory is a special file that the kernel maintains. Thus. A ‘regular file’ is just an ordinary data file in the disk. The contents of a directory are a list of filename and inode number pairs. Directories are also represented as files and have an associated inode. . When new directories are created. Thus. device files and other files are named and accessed in the same way.

51 $cat >file means to create a new file $cat file means to open an existing file. And then the displays out put to the user. Answer Explain the steps that a shell follows while processing a command. And then the displays out put to the user.ravi Date: 7/13/2007 cat > file it means creating file for file cat file it means used to display the file content Explain the steps that a shell follows while processing a command. Answer Which command is used to delete all files in the current directory and all its subdirectories? #rm -fr <Directory name> # rm -rf * Answer Answered By: Amit Shiknis Date: 12/25/2007 rm -r * . When processing a command the searchs for the utility for the command in the directories specified in the PATH varible and it in invokes that utility. When processing a command the searchs for the utility for the command in the directories specified in the PATH varible and it in invokes that utility. That utility will execute the command with help of kernel and the output is given to shell. That utility will execute the command with help of kernel and the output is given to shell. Answered By: selva.

How does the kernel differentiate device files and ordinary files? Device filles are of 2 types --. The system asks for password and when valid entry is made the user gains super user (admin) privileges.They include TERM.character device file How to switch to a super user status to gain privileges? Answer Use ‘su’ command.52 What is the use of the command "ls -x chapter[1-5]" Answer Yes you are correct. It stands for listing the files Chapter with suffix 1 to 5 but it will display the files in columns as with-x option.block device file c--.SHELL. MAIL the output of the shell variable we can see by typing the command . What are shell variables? Answer Shell variables are system environment variables.charcater device file and block device file type field in the file's inode structure Answer b--.

Syntax: kill pid Kill 0 .can be redirected i.out put redirectin(appending at the last) < -. Answer > -.so on.out put redirection >> -. How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0? Answer With the help of kill command we can terminate the process. How to sfind free space in unix/linux .e divert to a file or a program and vice versa.53 $>echo $TERM ansi at the prompt.input redirection How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0? Answer With the help of kill command we can terminate the process. What is redirection? Redirection is a feature in Unix where the data from the standard out put or a file.kills all processes in your system except the login shell.kills all processes in your system except the login shell. Syntax: kill pid Kill 0 .

Links have actual file contents 4. Link has the path for original file and not the contents.Removing any link .the link becomes "dangling" link which points to nonexistant file. to concatenate (attach) two strings? For concatenating two string we use cat command. Answer Ex:. df -h or df -Humanreadable gives human readable format of free space. 3. ls -l command shows all links with second column value 1 and the link points to original file.54 Answer Df and du commands are used for checking free space on disk . What is the difference between soft link and hard link in unix operating system ? Hard Links : 1. 3. but doesn't affect other links. All Links have same inode number.ls -l command shows all the links with the link column(Second) shows No. Answer Soft Links(Symbolic Links) : 1.just reduces the link count . of links. 2.Links have different inode numbers.cat str1 str2 Explain the UNIX Kernel. 2. 4. .Removing soft link doesn't affect anything but removing original file .

@. M. UNIX kernal is loaded first when UNIX system is booted.$. Pearson Education.G. PS2. PS3. .55 Answer UNIX Kernel is heart of the operating system. Fourth Edition.% are 4 prompts REFERENCES: Books: 1)Introduction to UNIX & SHELL programming. Venkatesh Murthy. 2)Unix concepts and applications. Sumitabha Das. It handles allocation of devices. cpu. How many prompts are available in a UNIX system? Unix/ Linux Supports four Prompts PS1. TMH. PS4 Answer #. memory from that ponint on.

56 3)Unix for programmers and users. 3rd edition. Ables. Thomson. 4)Unix and shell Programming –A text book.India. B. Gaham Glass & K. pearson education.A. 5)Beginning shell scripting. . Giberg. Wile Y. Forouzan & R.F. E. Foster – Johnson & other.

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