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# NUMERICAL FLUID DYNAMICS 414/814 (2010

)

Pra ti al #3
Obje tive and Out omes

The aim of this pra ti al is to enable students to set up and exe ute a simple three-dimensional numeri al
ow analysis. For this purpose the problem of developing laminar ow in an ellipti du t must be solved
numeri ally. The numeri al solution must be ompared with the analyti al solution for fully developed ow,
whi h is presented in the Appendix.
Students who have ompleted this turorial will be able to 

Create unstru tured omputational meshes, using the
omputational domain with symmetry boundaries.  

Exe ute the numeri al solution, using the three-dimensional version of the FLUENT solver.

Workben h prepro essor, for a three-dimensional

Quantify entran e e e ts for a developing du t ow by omparing it with the orresponding analyti al
solution for fully developed ow.

Geometry and Fluid

A ross-se tion through an ellipti al tube is shown s hemati ally in Figure 1. A highly vis ous oil is pumped
through the tube in the positive x-dire tion, and the ow is assumed to be fully developed.
You must determine your own set of modelling parameter values using your student number, whi h onsists of
8 digits in the format d8 d7 d6 d5 d4 d3 d2 d1 , together with the formulas given in Table 1. Che k that your values
are within the given ranges!.

y
a

Oil

x
z

b
Figure 1: Geometry of tube

05 ( loser spa ing at the in ow fa e than at the out ow fa e) and \Number of Divisions" equal to 25. { Apply edge sizings with \Number of Divisions" on the order of 8. { Mesh the three x-dire tion edges with a \Bias" su h that the ratio of su essive element lengths is equal to 1. then \Sli e" it into quarters. \Suppress" the three unwanted quarter-ellipti al ylinders. as follows:  In DesignModeler: { { { {  Sket h an ellipse of the appropriate dimensions. 12 and 15 for the three edges of the inlet fa e. { Name the inlet fa e. { Mesh the entire volume using by right- li king on \Mesh" and then sele ting \Generate" . In Meshing: { Right- li k on \Mesh" in the \Outline". Figure 2: In ow/out ow boundary mesh 2 . \Freeze" the ellipti al ylinder. \Extrude" the ellipse to form an ellipti al ylinder. the outlet fa e.the inlet/outlet fa e meshes should look more or less like the one displayed in Figure 2. then in \Detail" ! \Sizing" set \Use Advan ed Sizing" to \O ". the tube wall and the symmetry planes appropriately.Parameter [units℄ a Tube major axis [ m℄: b Tube length [ m℄: L Mean axial velo ity [m/s℄: U Oil density [kg/m3 ℄:  Oil dynami vis osity [kg/ms℄:  Tube minor axis [ m℄: Formula Range d = 20 + d 16 = 240 + 10  d5 = = = 0:2  (1 + d6 ) 880 + 10  (d1 1:8 + 0:1  (d3 ! 16℄ [20 ! 24 21 ℄ [240 ! 330℄ [0:2 ! 2℄ [790 ! 970℄ [0:9 ! 2:7℄ [11 21 1 2 1 1 2 2 = d2 ) d4 ) Table 1: Formulas for modelling parameters Computational Mesh Use the Workben h prepro essor to reate a omputational mesh for one quarter-se tion of the tube.

respe tively).Flow simulation Start the three-dimensional double pre ision version of following non-default options:     FLUENT. { Pressure-velo ity oupling set to \SIMPLEC". { Dis retization method set to \PRESTO!" for pressure and \Se ond Order Upwind" for momentum.e. reated with the relevant set of values.  Set \Area-Weighted Average" surfa e monitors for stati pressure on the in ow and out ow planes (i. p0 and pL . Carry out the simulation. Solver ontrols set as follows: { Gradient set to \Green-Gauss Node-Based".. Normal to Boundary" and velo ity magnitude value set to appropriate value. and set up the simulation by spe ifying the Oil as the uid. Monitor onvergen e levels for residuals of all equations set to 1  10 16 .  Adapt the grid using 10% of velo ity magnitude as re. as follows:   Initialize the x- omponent of velo ity to the in ow value. Velo ity inlet ondition set to \Magnitude.

)." panel. Obtain the exa t value of p0 pL from the \Report/Surfa e Integrals.. pL does not hange signi.nement limit." panel...  Repeat the previous step until p0 Run the simulation until p0 and pL have rea hed onstant values.. et . Obtain the exa t values from the \Report/Surfa e Integrals. Note down the hange in mesh properties (number of ells.

Postpro essing Display the following distributions and then export them to text . antly any more.

les:  The x- omponent of velo ity as well as the stati pressure along the x-axis ( reate a \Line/Rake" from x = 0 to x = L at y = 0 and z = 0 .

rst).  The stati pressure and wall shear stress along the upper edge of the omputational domain ( reate a \Line/Rake" from x = 0 to x = L at y = a and z = 0 .

rst).  The stati pressure and wall shear stress along the outer edge of the omputational domain ( reate a \Line/Rake" from x = 0 to x = L at y = 0 and z = b .

rst).  The x- omponent of velo ity on the y -axis at the out ow plane ( reate a \Line/Rake" from y = 0 to y = a at x = L and z = 0 .

rst).  The x- omponent of velo ity on the z -axis at the out ow plane ( reate a \Line/Rake" from z = 0 to z = b at x = L and y = 0 .

rst). 3 .

 A tabular omparison of the mesh properties and area-averaged pressure di eren e between the in ow and out ow planes for the progression of meshes used in the simulation (see Table 2 for an example). in luding the a tual dimensions. preferably in the form of a drawing to engineering drawing standards. i.     A des ription of the uid.  Comparative graphs of the x- omponent of velo ity along the z -axis at the out ow plane (see Fig. 6 for an example).  Comparative graphs of the wall shear stress along the two outer edges of the omputational domain (see Fig. the di eren e between the omputed pressure drop and the analyti al value of the fully-developed pressure drop.e. relaxation fa tors.  An estimate of the inlet loss oeÆ ient. non-dimensionalized with respe t to the dynami pressure: A des ription of the boundary onditions.. Parti ulars of the omputational mesh. 3 for an example). 7 for an example).Report Your report must ontain at least the following entities:  A des ription of the omputational domain.  Comparative graphs of the x- omponent of velo ity along the y -axis at the out ow plane (see Fig. a ompanied by a table of the uid properties.   Comparative graphs of the x- omponent of velo ity along the x-axis (see Fig. 5 for an example). i.e. Parti ulars of the ontrol parameters and details of the numeri al simulation. onvergen e levels spe i. with boundary values (mean inlet velo ity in this ase).

g. e. omment on any obvious di eren es and the possible auses for these di eren es.9 3036.ed and attained. Mesh # 0 (Original) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cells 1800 4537 11159 21274 28554 33188 35239 Fa es 5922 15264 37338 71550 95181 109794 116259 Nodes 2366 6284 15289 29457 38600 43933 46284 p0 pL [Pa℄ 2869. the \ onvergen e history" graph of residuals. Comparative graphs of the stati pressure along the x-axis and the two outer edges of the omputational domain (see Fig.2 3029.4 3037. 4 for an example). and number of iterations.7 3037. " kinlet =  (p 0 pL ) 4UL a2 + b2 # a2 b2  12  e U 2 A dis ussion of the results .6 Table 2: Mesh parti ulars and pressure drop 4 . or ontour and/or ve tor maps of the numeri al solution.1 2950.6 3017. You are wel ome to in lude additional information.

0 x [m] Figure 4: Stati pressure distribution along tube 5 2.5 1.3.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.5 .0 0.5 4.0 Analytical (fully developed) Numerical (y = a) Numerical (z = b) Numerical (x-axis) 3.5 0.5 u [m/s] 2.5 2.5 0.5 2.0 0.0 1.5 p-pL [Pa] 3.0 0.0 Analytical (fully developed) Numerical 0.5 1.5 x [m] Figure 3: Velo ity along tube axis 4.5 1.0 1.0 0.5 2.0 1.0 0.

5 u [m/s] 2.5 0.05 0.0 0.0 2.3.00 0.5 1.15 y [m] Figure 5: Velo ity pro.0 1.0 Analytical (fully developed) Numerical 0.10 0.

0 0.0 1.05 0.10 0.le at out ow plane along verti al axis 3.5 0.5 1.20 z [m] Figure 6: Velo ity pro.00 0.0 Analytical (fully developed) Numerical 0.15 0.0 2.5 u [m/s] 2.

25 .le at out ow plane along horizontal axis 6 0.

0 1.5 1. z = b) Numerical (y = a) Numerical (z = b) τw [Pa] 150 100 50 0 0. y = a) Analytical (fully developed.0 x [m] Figure 7: Wall shear stress distribution along tube 7 2.5 2.200 Analytical (fully developed.5 .0 0.

2006.e. third edition.3) . 8 1 a2  + 1 a2 (A.2) a2 b 2 The variation of shear stress around the tube perimeter is as follows: s  y2 1 w = 4U w2 2 a a 1 See for example F. White - 1 b2  + s  z2 1 = 4U w2 b b2 1 b2 Vis ous Fluid Flow. The stati pressure gradient along the tube is onstant: 4U a2 + b2 dp = dx  (A.M. M Graw-Hill.Appendix: Analyti al solution for fully developed laminar ow in an ellipti al tube1 The x- omponent of velo ity is a fun tion of the ross-stream oordinates only:  u(y. e ) asso iated with this velo ity distribution is equal to 2. z ) = 2U 1 y2 a2 z2 b2  (A.1) The value of the energy orre tion fa tor (i.

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