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Version 048 Exam Three: Shear Shear (52375) This print-out should have 27 questions.

ns. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page nd all choices before answering. DrRuth says: In all cases, select the answer that BEST answers the question asked. The total number of points on this exam is 350. Read the whole thing rst and plan which to answer rst because you feel condent about them. Notice the harder ones and save them up till last so you dont use up all your time working on them. Unless otherwise stated, assume the gases in all questions are ideal. Shear g = 9.8 m/s2 1 atm = 101325 Pa = 760 torr R = 0.08206 L atm K1 mol1 R = 0.08314 L bar K1 mol1 R = 8.314 J K1 mol1 Eusion rate of gas 1 = Eusion rate of gas 2 Eusion rate at T1 = Eusion rate at T2 KE = 2/3RT urms = 3RT M T1 T2 M2 M1 52375 Explanation: m=4g T = 20 C + 273.15 = 293.15 K For the nitrogen, n = (4 g N2 ) 1 mol N2 28.0134 g N2 = 0.142789 mol N2

1 V =1L

P V = nRT n RT P = V (0.142789 mol N2 ) 0.08206 = 1L (293.15 K) = 3.43491 atm

Latm molK

002 10.0 points A mixture of CO, CO2 and O2 is contained within a 275 mL ask at 0 C. If the total pressure is 780 torr, the CO has a partial pressure of 330 torr and the CO2 has a partial pressure of 330 torr, what is the partial pressure of O2 ? 1. 330 torr 2. 120 torr correct 3. 660 torr 4. 780 torr 5. 900 torr Explanation: Ptotal = 780 torr PCO2 = 330 torr PCO = 330 torr

001 20.0 points Calculate the pressure of 4 g of nitrogen gas in a 1 L container at 20.0C. 1. 96.2 atm 2. 0.235 atm 3. 6.87 atm 4. 3.44 atm correct 5. 0.469 atm

Ptotal = PCO + PCO2 + PO2 PO2 = Ptotal PCO PCO2 = 780 torr 330 torr 330 torr = 120 torr 003 20.0 points Given the reaction and the solubility information below, write the net ionic equation for the reaction

Version 048 Exam Three: Shear Shear (52375) O

H H Which statement is correct?

1. The covalent bond B is stronger than the hydrogen bond A. 2. The hydrogen bond A is stronger than the covalent bond B. 3. The hydrogen bond B is stronger than the covalent bond A. 4. The covalent bond A is stronger than the hydrogen bond B. correct Explanation: O

1. 2 K3 PO4 (aq) + 3 Pb(NO3 )2 (aq) 6 KNO3 (aq) + Pb3 (PO4 )2 (s) 2. 2 K3 PO4 (aq) + 3 Pb(NO3 )2 (aq) 6 K+ (aq) + 6 NO (aq) + Pb3 (PO4 )2 (s) 3 3. 3 Pb2+ (aq) + 2 PO3 (aq) 4 Pb3 (PO4 )2 (s) correct 4. None of these 5. 6 K+ (aq) + 2 PO3 (aq) 4 +3 Pb2+ (aq) + 6 NO (aq) 3 6 K+ (aq) + 6 NO (aq) + Pb3 (PO4 )2 (s) 3 Explanation: K3 PO4 (aq) + Pb(NO3 )2 (aq) net ionic equation = ? The ionic equation is 6 K+ (aq) + 2 PO3 (aq) 4 +3 Pb2+ (aq) + 6 NO (aq) 3 6 K+ (aq) + 6 NO (aq) + Pb3 (PO4 )2 (s) 3 and the net ionic equation is 3 Pb

A is a covalent bond while B is a hydrogen bond. Covalent bonds are much stronger than H-bonds. 005 10.0 points Which is the weakest type of attractive force between particles? 1. covalent bond 2. ionic bond 3. dispersion forces correct 4. hydrogen bond Explanation: London forces, dispersion forces, or induced dipoles all describe the same intermolecular force. London forces are induced, short-lived, and very weak. Molecules and atoms can experience London forces because they have

(aq) +

2 PO3 (aq) 4

Pb3 (PO4 )2 (s)

004 10.0 points Consider the two water molecules

potassium phosphate(aq) + lead(II) nitrate(aq) General solubility guidelines: 1) Most sodium, potassium and ammonium compounds are soluble in water. 2) Most nitrates, acetates and chlorates are soluble. 3) Most chlorides are soluble, except those for silver, mercury(I) and lead. Lead(II) chloride is soluble in hot water. 4) Most sulfates are soluble, except those of barium, strontium and lead. 5) Most carbonates, phosphates and silicates are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and ammonium. 6) Most suldes are insoluble, except those of calcium, strontium, sodium, potassium and ammonium.



Version 048 Exam Three: Shear Shear (52375) electron clouds. London forces result from the distortion of the electron cloud of an atom or molecule by the presence of nearby atoms or molecules. Permanent dipole-dipole interactions are stronger than London forces and occur between polar covalent molecules due to charge separation. H-bonds are a special case of very strong dipole-dipole interactions. They only occur when H is bonded to small, highly electromagnetic atoms F, O or N only. Ion-ion interactions are the strongest due to extreme charge separation and occur between ionic molecules. They can be thought of as both inter- and intramolecular bonding. 006 10.0 points Sally has an inatable doll lled with helium at the circus. Jane has an identical doll lled with argon at the circus. They sit next to each other and discuss chemistry. They argue over whose balloon has gas molecules zipping around at greater average velocities. Resolve the argument. 1. The velocities are the same because the balloons are at the same temperature. 2. It depends on the volume of the identical balloons. 3. Helium has the greater velocity. correct 4. The velocities cannot be discussed because gases dont have velocities they have pressures. 5. Argon has the greater velocity. Explanation: By the kinetic molecular theory, Average molecular kinetic energy KE T . T Average molecular speed U MW U H2 = U Ar T MWH2 = T MWAr MWAr MWH2 = UH2 40 = 6.3 1 = 6.3 UAr

Therefore, the H2 molecules are moving an average of 6.3 times faster than the Ar molecules. (Smaller molecules are faster.) 007 10.0 points Which of the molecules H2 , HF, CH4 , CH3 OH can be involved in hydrogen bonding? 1. HF, CH4 2. CH3 OH, H2 3. CH3 OH, CH4 4. HF, CH3 OH correct Explanation: For a molecule to be involved in hydrogen bonding, the molecule must have a hydrogen atom and a highly electronegative atom such as F, O, N, or Cl. The only two molecules that satisfy these requirements are HF and CH3 OH. 008 10.0 points To promote ideal behavior of a gas, one should (raise/lower) the pressure and (raise/lower) the temperature of the gas. 1. raise, lower 2. raise, raise 3. lower, lower 4. lower, raise correct Explanation: Low pressure and high temperature both favor ideal behavior. Low pressure helps to ensure that the likelihood of molecules interacting with each other is small, thus helping to satisfy one of the assumptions of kinetic molecular theory, namely that gas molecules

Version 048 Exam Three: Shear Shear (52375) are not attracted to each other. High temperature gives the molecules a greater kinetic energy, helping to ensure that collisions will be as elastic as possible, again helping to satisfy one of the assumptions of kinetic molecular theory. 009 15.0 points As we increase the temperature of a liquid, its properties change. Which of the following would NOT be an expected change in the properties of a liquid as we increase its temperature? 1. decrease in density 2. increase in tendency to evaporate 3. increase in surface tension correct 4. increase in vapor pressure 5. decrease in viscosity Explanation: Surface tension typically decreases with increasing temperature. 010 10.0 points The vapor pressure of all liquids 1. increases with temperature. correct 2. is the same at their freezing points. 3. decreases with the increasing volume of the container. 4. increases with volume of liquid present. 5. is the same at 100 C. Explanation: As temperature (kinetic energy) increases, rate of evaporization increases and rate of condensation decreases; therefore, vapor pressure will increase with increasing temperature. 011 20.0 points At STP a gas occupies 121 mL. How many

milliliters will this gas occupy at 52 C and 1.18 atm? 1. 115 mL 2. 83.0 mL correct 3. 19.5 mL 4. 127 mL Explanation: P1 = 1 atm P2 = 1.18 atm T1 = 273.15 K V1 = 121 mL T2 = 52 C + 273.15 = 221.15 K P1 V1 P2 V2 = T1 T2 P1 V1 T2 V2 = T1 P2 (1 atm) (121 mL) (221.15 K) = (273.15 K) (1.18 atm) = 83.0212 mL 012 10.0 points Which molecule would you expect to have the largest value for the van der Waals constant b? 1. NH3 2. Ne 3. He 4. PH3 correct Explanation: 013 20.0 points A 250 milliliter sample of hydrogen was collected over water at 20 C on a day when the atmospheric pressure was 756 torr. The vapor pressure of water under these conditions is 17.54 torr. What volume will the dry hydrogen (no water vapor present) occupy at STP? 1. 20.0 liters

Version 048 Exam Three: Shear Shear (52375) 2. 0.226 liters correct 3. 0.105 liters 4. 0.500 liters 5. 0.385 liters Explanation: V = 250 mL = 0.25 L T = 20 C = 293.15 K Patm = 756 torr PH2 O = 17.54 torr

1. The molecules would sink to the bottom of the tank because of the loss of pressure. 2. The molecules would move to the center of the tank because their velocities would be lower, thus giving them less pressure. 3. The gas molecules would be uniformly distributed near the entire wall of the tank because the molecules would try to escape the container due to their kinetic energies. 4. The gas molecules would have higher kinetic energies and lower velocities, thus creating no net change. 5. The gas molecules would have higher velocities and higher kinetic energies and move in straight lines until hitting the walls of the tank. correct Explanation: The average kinetic molecular energy would increase, but since it is still in gas phase, the molecules would still expand uniformly to ll the tank. 015 10.0 points A 6.5 L sample of nitrogen at 25 C and 1.5 atm is allowed to expand to 13.0 L. The temperature remains constant. What is the nal pressure? 1. 0.38 atm 2. 3.0 atm
Latm molK )

Patm = PH2 + PH2 O PH2 = Patm PH2 O = 756 torr 17.54 torr 1 atm = 738.46 torr 760 torr = 0.971658 atm Applying the ideal gas law equation, P V = nRT PH 2 V nH 2 = RT (0.971658 atm) (0.25 L) = Latm 0.08206 molK (293.15 K) = 0.0100979 mol Dry H2 at STP: T = 0 C = 273.15 K nH2 = 0.0100979 mol P = 1 atm Applying the ideal gas law equation, P V = nRT nRT V = P (0.0100979 mol) (0.08206 = 1 atm 273.15 K = 0.226342 L

3. 0.063 atm 4. 0.75 atm correct 5. 0.12 atm

014 10.0 points DrRuth says: the answers are talking about what would you observe about the state of the gas now, compared to before it was heated. A steel tank containing helium is heated to 555 C. If you could look into the tank and see the gas molecules, what would you observe?

Explanation: V1 = 6.5 L V2 = 13.0 L P1 = 1.5 atm Boyles law relates the volume and pressure of a sample of gas: P1 V1 = P2 V2

Version 048 Exam Three: Shear Shear (52375) P2 = P1 V1 (1.5 atm) (6.5 L) = V2 13.0 L = 0.75 atm

016 10.0 points Sublimation describes which of the following instances? 1. solid liquid 2. solid gas correct 3. liquid gas Explanation: Sublimation is the direct vaporization of a solid by heating without passing through the liquid state. 017 15.0 points At what temperature will 2.50 moles of ideal gas produce a pressure of 25.0 atm in a 10.0 L container? 1. 12.0C 2. 1,218 K correct 3. 760 K 4. 1,490 K Explanation: n = 2.5 mol V = 10 L P = 25 atm Applying the ideal law equation, P V = nRT PV T = nR (25 atm) (10 L) = Latm 0.08206 molK (2.5 mol) = 1218.62 K 018 10.0 points What types of intermolecular interactions does chloroform (CH3 Cl) exhibit? 4. gas solid

I) London dispersion II) dipole-dipole III) hydrogen bonding IV) covalent bonding Recall that chloroform is tetrahedral elctronic geometry with C as the central atom. 1. I and II only correct 2. II and IV only 3. II only 4. I, II, and III only 5. II and III only Explanation: All molecules, because they have electron clouds, experience instantaneous dipoles. CH3 Cl is polar and thus experiences dipoledipole interactions. CH3 Cl does not contain any O H, N H, or F H bonds and therefore does not experience any hydrogen bonding interactions. Covalent bonding is an intramolecular interaction. 019 10.0 points Which of the following is NOT true about gases? 1. The density of a gas can be increased by applying increased pressure. 2. The gas is at STP if it is at 273 K and 1 atm. 3. The volume a gas occupies is directly proportional to its molecular weight. correct 4. Gases can expand without limit. 5. Gases exert pressure on their surroundings. Explanation: Volume is directly proportional to number of moles of a gas present, not the molecular weight:

Version 048 Exam Three: Shear Shear (52375) P V = nRT V n 020 10.0 points Which of the following statements about dispersion forces is NOT correct? Dispersion forces 1. decrease in strength with increasing molecular size. correct 2. are the only forces between nonpolar molecules. 3. are also called London forces. 4. are temporary rather than permanent dipole-dipole interactions. Explanation: Polarizability increases with increasing sizes of molecules and therefore with increasing numbers of electrons. Therefore, London forces are generally stronger for molecules that are larger or have more electrons. 021 20.0 points The density of the vapor of allicin, a component of garlic, is 1.14 g L1 at 125 C and 175 Torr. What is the molar mass of allicin? 1. 21.6 g mol1 2. 50.8 g mol1 3. 273 g mol1 4. 162 g mol1 correct Explanation: T = 125 C + 273.15 K = 398.15 K 1 atm = 0.230263 atm P = (175 Torr) 760 Torr = 1.14 g/L The ideal gas law is P V = nRT P n = V RT 5. 869 g mol1

with unit of measure mol/L on each side. Multiplying each by molar mass (MM) gives n P MM = MM = , V RT with units of g/L. RT P Latm (1.14 g/L) 0.08206 molK = 0.230263 atm (398.15 K) = 161.755 g/mol

MM =

022 10.0 points If it takes 15 s for a certain sample of neon to euse through a porous barrier, how much time will it take for the same amount of nitrogen gas to euse through the barrier under the same conditions? 1. greater than 15 s correct 2. less than 15 s 3. 15 s Explanation: Rate of eusion 1 MW

MWs for each gas: Ne : 20.179 g/mol N2 : 28.0134 g/mol The heaviest gas will have particles moving at the lowest average speed so it will euse more slowly. 023 15.0 points Rank the molecules CH3 F, C2 H6 , H2O, H2 , He in terms of increasing viscosity. 1. None of the answers is correct. 2. He, H2, C2 H6 , CH3F, H2 O correct

Version 048 Exam Three: Shear Shear (52375) 3. C2 H6 , H2 O, CH3 F, He, H2 4. H2 O, CH3 F, C2 H6 , H2 , He 5. H2 , He, CH3F, H2O, C2 H6 Explanation: The intermolecular attractions, ranked from weakest to strongest, are London forces (also called van der Waals forces or induced dipoles), dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonding interactions, and ion-ion interactions. In general, the larger the molecule, the greater the total intermolecular forces. Strong intermolecular interactions cause molecules to stick to one another, and are thus more viscous than molecules that experience weak intermolecular attractions. H2 O has two O H bonds which can hydrogen bond with neighboring water molecules. CH3 F is polar but contains no O H, N H , or F H bonds to participate in hydrogen bonding. Therefore the strongest intermolecular forces that CH3 F experiences are dipole-dipole interactions. He, H2 , and C2 H6 are nonpolar and thus experience only the weakest intermolecular forces, London forces. 024 20.0 points DrRuth says: First balance the reaction equation. For the reaction ? C6 H6 + ? O2 ? CO2 + ? H2 O 41.4 grams of C6 H6 are mixed with 142.5 grams of O2 and allowed to react. How much CO2 could be produced by this reaction? 1. 217 g 2. 140 g correct 3. 156.8 g 4. 125 g 5. 112 g 6. 100 g 7. 175 g 8. 294 g 9. 264.6 g 10. 186.2 g Explanation: mC6 H6 = 41.4 g The balanced equation is

mO2 = 142.5 g

2 C6 H6 + 15 O2 12 CO2 + 6 H2 O . The molecular weight of C6 H6 is 78.1118 g/mol, giving 0.530009 mol C6 H6 . The molecular weight of O2 is 31.9988 g/mol, giving 4.45329 mol O2 . 15 mol O2 0.530009 mol C6 H6 2 mol C6 H6 = 3.97507 mol O2 , which is less than what is actually present. Therefore the limiting reactant must be C6 H6 . The molecular weight of CO2 is 44.0095 g/mol. The limiting reactant (C6 H6 ) will yield 3.18006 mol CO2 which is equal to 140 g of CO2 . 12 mol CO2 0.530009 mol C6 H6 2 mol C6 H6 44.0095 g CO2 = 140 g CO2 1 mol CO2 025 15.0 points DrRuth is nice enough to tell you that sulfur dioxide is SO2 and sulfur trioxide is SO3, but thinks you should really be able to gure that out for yourself. Sulfur dioxide reacts with oxygen gas to produce sulfur trioxide. How much oxygen gas will react with 15.0 L of sulfur dioxide if both gases are at 101.3 kPa and 125 C? 1. 0.230 mol correct 2. 0.459 mol 3. 0.919 mol

Version 048 Exam Three: Shear Shear (52375) 4. 0.731 mol 5. 0.115 mol Explanation: V = 15 L 1 atm P = (101.3 kPa) 101.325 kPa 0.999753 atm T = 125 C + 273.15 = 398.15 K For the SO2 , apply the ideal gas law: P V = nRT PV n= RT (0.999753 atm)(15 L) = Latm 0.08206 molK (398.15 K) = 0.458993 mol SO2 The balanced equation is 2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 SO3 (g) n = (0.458993 mol SO2 ) = 0.229496 mol O2 026 10.0 points If the temperature of a xed amount of gas is increased at constant pressure its volume will 1. Insucient data to answer this question 2. remain the same. 3. increase. correct 4. decrease. Explanation: The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (Charless Law). This means that as the absolute temperature of a gas is increased, its volume increases proportionately. 027 10.0 points Gas X has a larger value than Gas Y for the 1 mol O2 2 mol SO2

van der Waals constant a. This indicates that 1. the molecules of X have stronger intermolecular attractions for each other than the molecules of Y have for each other. correct = 2. the molecules of gas X have a higher velocity than do the molecules of gas Y. 3. the molecules of X are larger than the molecules of Y. 4. the molecules of gas X repel other X molecules. Explanation: