As Shakesphere quoted, “ What is the City, but the People?

” True, the people are the Cities…

A City is a “a theater of social action,” and everything else – art, politics, education, commerce – only serves to make the social drama. ……the physical design of the cities are primarily based on the natural environment and to the spiritual values of the human community and their economic functions were secondary. - Lewis Mumford, “What is a City?”

Aldo Rossi, in his book, the “City”, says architecture does not mean the visible image of the city and the sum of its different architectures but architecture as a construction of the city over time. This process of construction links the past and present and thus it addresses the ultimate and definitive fact in the life of the collective, the creation of the environment in which it lives.

CITY IN TRANSITION
a case of hyderabad

T h e

“ C I t y

o f

N I z a m s ”

I s

n o w

“C y b e r a b a d”

INTRODUCTION THE CITY
Cities have always been the cradle of architectural advancement. Unlike, architecture, they are not created by a particular designer or for people living in one time period. It is a product of the constant contribution of many unknown designers over a long period of time to suit the needs and the aspirations of a multitude of people who vary in skills, nature, behavior and so on.
Pranali Parikh,Sense of Identity, Continuity and Context

A city is continuously evolving, transforming, multi-dimensional living organism, which is essentially polymorphous in nature.
Graham Vickers, Key Moments in Architecture, Evolution of a City.

INTRODUCTION TRANSITION
Transition is the passage from one form, state, style or place to another. It can also be defined as an event that results in transformation. The unending need to change and suit to the requirements and the functions of its constituents.

Transition in cities as we see is in the form of changing

i.

Sense of Identity

ii. Context

iii. Continuity

Urban Redevelopment: a study of high rise buildings, Pg. 17, K Narayan Reddy Pranali Parikh,Sense of Identity, Continuity and Context

INTRODUCTION TRANSITION
Thus, generating

i.

New cultural geographies

ii.

Creating spaces that reflect their attitude and aspirations.

Urban Redevelopment: a study of high rise buildings, Pg. 17, K Narayan Reddy Pranali Parikh,Sense of Identity, Continuity and Context

Hyderabad is a historic city and is famed for its monuments, temples, churches, masjids, and bazaars. A large number of factors have influenced and shaped the character of the city in the last 400 years.
Its location on the crossroads of North and South India, has developed the city layer by layer, and the result is a culmination of cultures predominantly reflected in the Architecture. The old city can, thus, be identified as to have inculcated an ORGANIC form of development, whereas the new city is being planned radially with precision.

1. To understand the different phases in history and how resulted in the existing character of the city. 2. The need for delineating the sense of an organic city 3. The progress in developmental aspects as a relation with time 4. Preparing for newer societies by drawing inferences from process.
The 400 year old heritage – iconic of the Nizam rule

NEED FOR STUDY

Contemporary Built-form taking Hyderabad around the globe

character

The aim of this dissertation is to explore the influence of transition, on the “architectural expression” of the city of Hyderabad with time. The facades have an individual physical identity and a visual impact that makes them as important as the architectural form. They express a striving for ethnic and personal identity. OBJECTIVES 1. 2. To prepare a timeline of events and their consecutive architectural implications based on historical development of the city. To identify the various elements that form a part of this architectural expression in detail that can be associated with a particular architectural style. To study the elements and relate them to the timeline and hence, Establish a relationship between the transforming architectural styles.

3. 4.

Thus, enabling one to constitute the co-relation and influence, between a series of events and how they find an expression in architecture and the setting of a place.

About Hyderabad City
The history of the heritage of the city, to a large extent, is contributed by the natural heritage. The natural heritage of the city gave birth to the architectural heritage.

PHASES IN THE HISTORY OF THE CITY

A guide to heritage of Hyderabad: natural and the Built, Madhu Vottery, P 6.

Pre-Independence Period
PHASE I: The Qutb Shahi rule (1518-1687) PHASE II: The Mughal rule, the transitional phase and the establishment of the Asaf Jahi rule (1687-1724) PHASE III: The Asaf Jahi rule, (1724-1948) + Influence of the British Settlement in early 19th century a. Architecture from Phase I and II with an advent of Purely European Architecture. b. A phase influenced by European Architecture. c. The mixed style, Architecture of the City Improvement Board, and the vernacular architecture.

Post-Independence Period
PHASE I: Struggle for a new state (1947-1956) PHASE II: Independent State – changing linguistic majority (1960-1990) PHASE III: Effects of Globalisation, Privatisation ( 1990-1995) PHASE IV: Rising IT Revolution (1995-2008) PHASE V: Making a mark in the Global Scenario

TIMELINE
Time
1518

Significant Event
Qutb Shahis of Golconda became independent Shifting of palace from Golconda to Southern side of Musi Requirement for ease of movement across the growing city Influence of Mughal rulers defend Marathas Rise of Asaf Jahi rulers Subsidiary Alliance for Military and political cooperation signed between Nizam and East India Company

Architectural Implications
Re-structuring of Golconda against the mud structure City Planning, Iconic Charminar Puranapul Bridge

1518-1687

1578

1687-1724 1724-1740 1763 1798

Use of Mughal architectural features Building of City walls maximum construction activity North side occupied by British Cantonment – Birth of Secunderabad European style of construction ChaderGhat Bridge Nayapul Bridge

1839 1857-61 1874 Railway Network

Secunderabad/ Hyderabad/ Kachiguda Station

1908

Flood

TIMELINE
Time Significant Event Architectural Implications

1912

City Improvement Board

1911-1948

Osman Ali Khan Asaf Jah VII cultural, economic and administrative reforms He is Fifth on Forbes ‘All Time Wealthiest’ list of 2008. He was even featured on the cover of the 1937 ‘Time’ magazine. It was estimated that he had $2 billion fortune in early 1940s. Post Independence Division of state on linguistic basis Inflow of Telugu’s to the city

Saw maximum construction activity as monumental architecture for major administrative structures

1947-1950 1956

Establishment of certain government offices Growth of Multinucleated city. Commercial plazas Private commercial firms Large scale buildings to accommodate the IT boom. Buildings that follow the universal style

1960-1980

1990 1995

Globalisation Rising IT Revolution

2000-2012

World Class Information Technology Location

A traditional city that has witnessed the changes in time and is a mark of existence of the cultural expression of the community and profound local character.

CONGESTED CITY 1518

1798

ORGANIC
A contemporary urban city that is devoid of the local/ethnic context.

PLANNED CHARMINAR 1518 - 1687
Kenneth Powell, City Transformed Urban Architecture at the Beginning of the 21st century

ANATOMY OF THE CITY

CHARACTERISTIC OF THE CHANGING ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION

BRITISH CANTONMENT

Planned along Principal Axis with the Charminar at the centre.
Clearly visible was the hierarchy of the roads The internal roads formulated according to Grid Iron Pattern.

Within 2 years of completion of Charminar, a bustling life was visible around this colossal landmark and commerce free flowing in all directions.
Jan Pieper, Hyderabad – A Qur’anic paradise in Architectural Metaphors SP Shorey, Eighteenth Century Hyderabad, Anatomy of an Old Map

ANATOMY OF THE CITY

Kukatpally Ameerpet

Secunderabad

Abids Koti Golconda Dilshuknagar Charminar

ANATOMY OF THE CITY

The Expanding City
SATTELITE TOWNSHIPS

CHANGING PATTERNS SINCE INDEPENDENCE
•USE OF NEW BUILDING TECHNOLOGY •CHANGING NEEDS/ BUILDING TYPOLOGIES •TRANSFORMING AESTHETICS

ANATOMY OF THE CITY

GOLCONDA FORT

Influence of Bahmani/ Deccani Style
The monumental scale of the fort emphasises on the authoritative presence and a concrete establishment of a city to be give the place its own sense of identity
Golconda through time: A mirror of the evolving Deccan By Marika Sardar, New York University

The pointed arched facades Repeating arches Arched Retaining Walls

DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE

CHAR KAMAN
Jan Pieper, Hyderabad – A Qur’anic paradise in Architectural Metaphors PALACE CHOWMAHALLA

MECCA MASJID

COMMERCIAL PRECINCT LAAD BAZAAR

Meant to suit needs of an Islamic city Establishment of strong Signature of Islamic Architecture Muslim hold in the region Inspiration drawn from Islamic Tazias

continuity

CONTEXT

Confluence of Muslim and Deccani architectural features

Sense of Identity CHARMINAR 1800 and Today! – A Living Heritage

Four arches,and framed by lofty minarets on all sides. Composition of pointed arches. Use of Islamic ornamentation - floral

Principal Mosque of Hyderabad Second Largest Mosque in India Elements – pointed arches, wall treated with miniature pointed arches as parapets, minars as framing elements CONTEXT Signature of Islamic

Establishment of strong Architecture. Muslim hold in the They have a close resemblance to the region arches at Charminar and Golconda

Sense of Identity

The cornices running around the entire mosque structure and the floral motifs and friezes over the arches highlight great attention paid to detail in Qutub Shahi architecture.

MECCA MASJID - 1617

PATHARGATTI STREET – THEN AND NOW 1880

MAJOR COMMERCIAL PRECINCT

2012

INTENSIFICATION OF THE OLD CITY CORE
CHANGE IN THE ELEMENTS OF THE FAÇADEArchitecturally pleasing composition of existing façade by repeating elements and integrating features from other sources.

PATHARGATTI STREET – A RESULT OF MULTIPLE INTERVENTIONS – UNIQUE SENSE OF IDENTITY

CONTEXT

Establishment of Commercial Precinct for trade enchancement

Mughal Invasion led to Influence on façade character-making presence at the prime location

Colonial character – an infusion By the British settlement

Intensification of trade activities by providing scope and more area

QUTB SHAHI

MUGHAL

BRITISH

ASAF JAHI

Changing Sense of Identity from a major bridge connecting important destinations to grade I heritage structure put to pedestrian use

Gateway converted to a temple showing growth of Hindu hold in the region with time

PURANAPUL - 1578

1880

Today! An informal shopping precinct

Multi- Cusped Arches Chowmahalla Palace Multi-tiered & simple pointed arches Agra fort – Example Mughal Architecture Jharokha/ Canopied Windows

Characteristic of Early Asaf Jahi Period are Multi-Cusped Arches, along with multi-tiered and simple pointed arches and jharoka / canopied windows. Mughal influence of bangladar window/ kiosk Mughal fluted coupled columns with vegetal capitals and acanthus leaves.

EARLY ASAF JAHI PERIOD

BRITISH RESIDENCY 1797-1805 The splendid Palladian Residency is an example of the fine, impressive buildings the British vied to construct.
Corintian Columns Semi-circular arches Jack-Arched roofing Roman and Palladian Facade

WESLEY CHURCH - 1916

MID ASAF JAHI PERIOD

MEHBOOB COLLEGE 1862

James Street Circa, 1880

Influence of British architecture: Missing Today

JAMES STREET / M.G Road SECUNDERABAD

The devastating flood of 1908

The flood embankments on both sides will be carried out to a height of 5 feet above the flood level. For greater part of their length these embankments will be constructed with boulevards….The boulevards will be lungs of the city. The poor who will largely use the footpaths and the roads will benefit as much as the rich, by clean, shaded, well kept roadways and graceful houses and surroundings…for health and for pleasure…. its greatest importance that Government should not miss this opportunity to render the river front healthy and picturesque.”
Sir Visvesvaraya’s Report, October 1,1909 ‘The Flood of 1908 at Hyderabad – An Account of the Flood, Its Causes and Proposed Preventive Measures’

LATE ASAF JAHI PERIOD

FORMULATION OF THE CITY IMPROVEMENT BOARD – 1912
RESULT WAS INDO-SARCENIC ARCHITECTURE OF HYDERABAD, CREATED BY THE APPOINTED ARCHITECT VINCENT ESCH, COMBINING THE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE OF THE CITY
UNDER THE NIZAMS, THE PRINCELY STATE OF HYDERABAD GREW IN AREA AS LARGE AS GREAT BRITAIN

Politically, since the borders of British India were designated permanent with no further expansion, those outside colonial rule, entered into formal relations with the British. Thus, the confirmation of political security was established for the Asaf Jah dynasty, with the treasury at his full disposal.
BRITISH REQUIREMENTS INCREASING HIS OWN POWER ADMINISTRATIVE PURPOSE EXHIBIT LOCAL DOMINANCE MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE INTEGRATE EXISTING URBAN CHARACTER

POLITICAL IDENTITY

INDO-SARCENIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE Symbolic Power

The buildings recalibrated the authority symbolised by the cultural heritage into a new statement on Asaf Jahi political identity that clearly highlighted his shift from the mughals towards a new claim for roots in the Deccan.

His architectural patronage used both processes and symbols that were clearly linked to traditions in the Islamic world and were imagined on an urban scale. When imagined on an urban scale, they were intended to present an urban design that changed a proto-colonial Mughal city into a new Princely State Capital.

– Alison Mackenzie Shah in The City in an Islamic World, Volume 1, Page 589.

THE DESIGN FOR A NEW HISTORY OF A NEW POLITICAL IDENTITY

LATE ASAF JAHI PERIOD

HIGH COURT - 1919

OSMANIA HOSPITAL - 1921

STATE LIBRARY

CITY COLLEGE- 1921 MOZAMJAHI MARKET

STATE ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM – INSTALLED 1930 (BUILT 1864)

STATE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY - 1913
The soaring white domes and the canopies fill the sky. Belongs to SarcenicRajasthani Architecture style which is visible from the combination of domes (Qutb Shahi) and multi-cusped arches and jharokha windows.

SALARJUNG MUSEUM - 1930

1951 – Housed at Dewan Devdi

1968– Inaugrated by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

Museum gets a facelift with time

Post-Independence

INDIA BECAME INDEPENDENT: YET UNREST PREVAILED – 1947 FORMATION OF THE NEW STATE OF ANDHRA PRADESH - 1956
The Struggle for Independence and Division of state on linguistics basis, continued for a decade, and it is observed that the construction activity came to a stand still. It can be addressed as a state of “POLITICAL TRANSITION” The progress or leap in architecture during the Asaf Jahi dynasty was absent. The Monumental Administrative buildings that were constructed during the reign of the Asaf Jahi dynasty were already in use. The administrative section continued to function in the existing buildings. The palace of the Nizam was converted into the State Assembly.

IT Revolution

Influx of Telugus

New State

Post-Independence Influx of Telugus IT Revolution New State

Hyderabad developed into a multi-nucleated urban centre of the region under different political, economic and socio-cultural conditions that added onto the existing urban complexities.

Hyderabad emerged not only as the administrative centre but also into a major industrial centre. Started to develop extensively with a multitude of opportunities, visible from the large influx of population between 19411961. This resulted in the formation of many suburban settlements/ agglomeration units. The growth of the city was not only peripheral but also intensification of residential and commercial activities in the city core.
Urban Redevelopment – High rise in Hyderabad, K. Narayan

Post-Independence

THE SECRETARIAT

Influx of Telugus

New State

IT Revolution

CHANGE FROM PREDOMINANT MUSLIM DOMINATED REGION TO HINDU DOMINATION

USE OF HINDU TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE IN DETIAL

CONTEXT

SENSE OF IDENTITY

Post-Independence

POTTI SRIRAMULU TELUGU UNIVERSITY - 1985

Influx of Telugus

New State

Suggestive Temple form Tiered Shikhara Windows Ornamented with traditional motifs and brackets

IT Revolution

Changing face of Monumental buildings from Islamic to Telugu Temple Architecture

Post-Independence

SULTAN BAZAAR
SHOPPING PRECINCT

Influx of Telugus

The shops along the street are very functional. The merchandise displayed on the street becomes the aesthetics, and the signages – the identity, thus making the building design is only secondary. Integrated into the chaotic fabric are few old buildings that are not redeveloped and are in a dilapidated state and if restored can add to the heritage value.

IT Revolution

New State

CHARACTER OF MULTI-STOREYED COMMERCIAL PLAZAS – 1970-80

Post-Independence

SECUNDERABAD GENERAL BAZAAR LOST IN TRANSITION

Chaotic development

New State

IT Revolution

DECLINE IN ARCHITECTURAL PERSCEPTION – RISING NEED FOR SPACE FOR TRADE

CHARACTER DEVIANT EXPRESSION

CONTEXT

SENSE OF IDENTITY

IT Revolution

Chaotic development

New State

Post-Independence

LOST IN TRANSITION

Chaotic development

New State

Post-Independence

IT Revolution

Use of arches in the façade with a difference. Unique stepped form Monumental appearance

TAJ KRISHNA

Chaotic development IT Revolution

New State

Post-Independence

The glass façade with all its transparency provides a complete view of the store and the advertisements to the outside.

GVK ONE, BANJARA HILLS - 2009

IT Revolution

Chaotic development

New State

Post-Independence

HYDERABD CENTRAL

CITY CENTRE

INORBIT MALL

THE FINANCIAL DISTRICT - MINDSPACE

New State Chaotic development

Post-Independence
The Cyber Gateway is Phase II of HITEC City. A giant arch in front of the building stands as a gateway to the rest of HITEC City and hence the name. A glass façade, landscaped gardens, and waiting lounge. Special bracing to take the load of 10 floors.

CYBER TOWERS, HI-TECH CITY – 1998 : Iconic of the IT Revolution in Hyderabad TATA CONSULTANCY SERVICES (TCS)

IT Revolution

VANENBURG IT PARK - 2004

MICROSOFT

IBM

DELL

BRINGING THE INTERNATIONAL STYLE TO HYDERABAD

WAVEROCK IT PARK, GACHIBOWLI

HYDERABAD INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION CENTRE

MARKING HYDERABAD GLOBALLY

BRINGING THE INTERNATIONAL STYLE TO HYDERABAD

RAJIV GANDHI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

BRINGING THE INTERNATIONAL STYLE TO HYDERABAD

The façade provides a range of transparency according to the needs of the spaces inside. Perforated and embossed metal screens over a high performance glazing system give privacy to the hotel rooms while allowing diffused daylight to enter the interior spaces. The project certification. has LEED Gold

THE PARK, HYDERABAD

CONCLUSIONS
We are called to be architects of the future, not its victims. Richard Buckminster Fuller

TRANSFORMING EXPRESSIONS CHARMINAR HITEX

DRAWING AN INSPIRATION FROM THE PAST Giving shape to the present expression from the identity of a bygone era

TRANSFORMING EXPRESSIONS BEGUMPET AIRPORT SHAMSHAHBAD AIRPORT

TOWARDS A GLOBAL IMAGE Giving shape to an expression that portrays an identity at the global level.

TRANSFORMING EXPRESSIONS

SECUNDERABAD RAILWAY STATION FRONT

REAR

CHANGING FACE OF THE CITY:

MOGHULPURA TOMBS : 1618
Pictorial Essays – 1975-2011, by Hans Winterberg and Thomas Leuttege, INTACH, Hyderabad and Zeothe Zentrum Hyderabad

REINVENTING THE PAST EXPRESSION Restoring the structures to retain their original charm.

NAMPALLY

AND THE FAÇADE HAS ITS OWN EMOTIONS !!!

THANK YOU !!!

Maitreyi Yellapragada Under the Guidance of Dr. Rajashree Kotharkar