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Q1. Trace out the growth of Human Resource Management in India. Ans.
Growth of Human Resource Management in India.
Contrary to these forces, in INDIA the owner manager/ government/public sector manager was an industry icon and a national hero of sorts. The personnel management practices were dominant of the brick- and-motor‟ industry. Though the approach it was largely welfare oriented and reactive in nature it served effectively for the large PSU organizations that built the country‟s foundation. A large part of the workforce was migrant from the rural parts of the country and armed with educational qualifications that served as their passport to a secure future. Many left the country to study and pursue career overseas. This phenomenon was called „brain drain‟ and happened during 1990 through 2005. The best of the Indian talent left the country. Per present statistics there are close to 1.7 million people of Indian origin in AMERICA according to the US census bureau. The INDIAN AMERICAN median family is $60,093 as against the national median family income of $38,885 left the country, the estimated buying power of the INDIAN AMERICANS in the United States is around US $20 billion, the high income clearly reflects the advanced educational levels achieved by Indian abroad. Its only in the past 10-12 years with the immense growth on account of the IT industry that winds of change began to blow. It was largely the advent of the information technology era in INDIA that brought with it the western management practices.
MNC‟S started up their operations in INDIA the FDI (FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT) went up steeply as the world saw the potential in the country human resources. In INDIA became a preferred location for MNC‟s primarily from the USA followed by others developed countries. It was natural for the MNC‟s setting up operations in INDIA to establish their existing and proven management practices that were successfully working in the organization back home. It also helped them manage their business similarly. This gave birth to a new generation of management as well as HRMpractices. New hiring methods new ways of paying salaries, new employment terms and most importantly increased focus on individual performance and outcome. There was emphasis on deliverables and linking individual and team performance to business results and success. Given the highly educated workforce there was a de-emphasis in the role of the trade unions, the era of the trade unions dominance give way to the new order of individual negotiated salaries and terms and clearly performance linked assessment system. Another transformation that the Indian workplace witnessed was focused on the ethics and ethical practices in doing business it was only fair to except that with the weak legal system, it needed the support of the government policies and the corporate policies to beat the corruption that existed .This has significantly contributed to INDIA emerging as a preferred destination for doing business. All of this yielded to give the way to the birth of the „professional manager‟. Professional manager today are a critical and essential part of the INDIAN corporate. The professional manager brought about a shift in the culture from a highly author it Arian approach of getting work done to more collaborative and participative approach. In the traditional Indian culture where the child is brought up to dependents on parents and superiors these shift was break through and took it time to manifest. The entrepreneurs who earlier operated in a secure, sheltered market and hardly face challenges , were challenged by the globalization that swept in with the liberalization policies and measure brought in by the Indian employee and his manager evolved. Together they stopped up to face the challenges head- on and to win not only in INDIA but also globally. The levers of a) low cost b) highly skilled c) English as the medium of education and it being the corporate language that enabled the flow of global business to INDIA? Hence human relations movement in INDIA has evolved very differently as compared to the developed economies of the USA and the UK. What is currently acting as a limitation is the enhanced awareness on the need for research based HRM practices. While there is a lot of work happening in education system to promote this.
Secondly. The personnel department acts as a clearing house in screening applications that are unrealistic. Similarly the firm may go to external sources for recruitment of lower entry jobs. however. The jobs posted on notice boards. and providing more information about job candidates through analysis of work histories within the organization. Today. the private agencies tend to specialize in a particular engineer. What are the factors that impact recruitment in organizations? Ans.Q2. The following external resources are available for firms: a) Advertising: There is a trend toward more selective recruitment in advertising. b) Employment Agencies: Additional screening can be affected through the utilization of employment agencies. particularly in the fields of unskilled semi-skilled and skilled operative jobs. Internal applications often restricted to certain employees. in contrast to their former unsavory reputation. the guidelines for companies include:-Good or better in most recent performance review-Dependable attendance record-Not under probationary sanction-Having been in present position for at least one year. and positions whose specifications cannot be met by the present personnel. preventing an excess number of bids by a single employee and counseling unsuccessful employees in their constant attempt to change their jobs. both public and private. it provides flexibility and greater control over career progress. This can be affected in at least two ways. The sources of employee‘s recruitment can be classified into two types: Internal and external Filing a job opening from within the firm has advantages of stimulating preparation for possible transfer of promotion. . increasing the general level of morale. group emails and publishing in internal news papers. In the technical and professional areas. and the job specification can be included in the ad to permit some self-screening. From the view point of employee. First advertisements can be placed in media read only by particular groups. more information about the company. the public employment agencies in several states are well-regarded. the job. for expansion. A job posting has number of advantages.
When the labour market is very tight. d) Schools. These can be developed through attractive employment office facilities. i. They may speak well of a company and help it in getting the required personnel. prompt and courteous reply to unsolicited letters. These consulting firms recommend persons of high calibre for managerial. .c) Employee Referrals: Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn. The prospective employers can review credentials and interview candidates for management trainees or probationers. e) Labour Unions: Firms which closed or union shops must look to the union in their recruitment efforts. who may or may Not be fit for the job. Visits to plants are arranged so that professors may be favourably impressed. however. marketing and production engineers„ posts. both at the gate and through the mail. They will also have separate placement cell where the bio data and other particulars of the students are available. Some companies maintain a register of former employees whose record was good to contact them when there are new job openings for which they are qualified. g) Professional organizations or recruiting firms or executive recruiters: Maintain complete records about employed executives. This has disadvantage of monopolistic workforce. This is an excellent source of potential employees for entry-level positions in the organizations. large employers frequently offer their employees bonus or prizes for any referrals that are hired and stay with the company for a specific length of time. These firms are looked upon as headhunters. constitute a much-used source of personnel. colleges and professional institutions: These offer opportunities for recruiting their students. Professors are invited to take part of these seminars. f) Casual applicants: Unsolicited applications. suffers from a serious defect that it encourages nepotism. Persons of one„s community or caste are employed. h) Indoctrination seminars for colleges Are arranged to discuss the problem of companies and employees. raiders and pirates by organizations may employ―executive search firms‖ to help them find talent.e. This method of recruitment.
such a policy does not necessarily coincide with hiring on the basis of merit. old persons. or may send unsolicited applications. where they are matched against data stored in. but interest and loyalty to the enterprise are offsetting advantages. m) Computer Data Banks: When a company desires a particular type of employees. This would be helpful to firms for future vacancies. In response to advertisements. widowed or married women.i) Unconsolidated applications: For positions in which large numbers of candidates are not available from other sources. . This principle has been particularly well developed in the office administration field because they can avoid any obligation in pensions. social organizations might also provide employees – handicaps. l) Voluntary Organizations: Such as private clubs. the possibility of leasing personnel by the hour or day should be considered. k) Leasing: To adjust to short term fluctuations in personnel needs. j) Nepotism: The hiring of relatives will be an inevitable component of recruitment programmes in familyowned firms. retired hands etc. the companies may gain keeping files of applications received from candidates who make direct enquiries about the possible vacancies on their own. job specifications and requirements are fed to computers. insurance and any other fringe benefits. This method is very useful in identifying candidates for hard-t-fit positions which calls for unusual combinations of skills.
or organization. they can be implemented with little financial investment while contributing to the success of other endeavors.Q3. like organization development. Career Development: Although scholars have defined career development (CD) in a variety of ways. career development may languish so that seemingly more urgent needs. ideally a collaborative process. Ans. (Simonsen as cited in Simonsen. rather than invest resources in career development in this era of uncertain loyalties. Yet. • The return on investment of career development must be considered to gain organizational interest in expanding CD efforts. 1997. . Development means growth. However. This definition and the framework that follows are predicated on a few essential assumptions. when small systems find their minimal resources stretched. like mandatory training. the potential value of career development to organizational success depends on how well the system supports the career development process in terms of resources allotted and priority assigned to career development endeavors. • Career development should not be restricted to a select few or to those at particular levels within the system. one of the advantages of less structured learning activities is that they often are embedded within daily work. Simonsen‟s (1997) definition will be used as the foundation for the proposed framework: Career development is an ongoing process of planning and directed action toward personal work and life goals. continuous acquisition and application of one‟s skills. career path. Conlon (2004) addresses this by noting both the practical as well as the ethical . and that attainment and/ or enhancement of individual capabilities are not restricted to a particular job. like organization development. that it involves reciprocal interaction between employee and employer. . pp. Career development is the outcome of the individual‟s career planning and the organization‟s provision of support and opportunities. van Dijk. 2004). staying attuned to the strategic plans of the organization while remaining cognizant of the free agent nature of the employer employee relationship (Boudreaux. Larger systems simply may choose to focus on more high profile initiatives. The HRD function is uniquely positioned to integrate the interests of employees with the needs of the system. 6-7) This definition recognizes that career development is ongoing. Swanson & Holton. 2003). 2001. 2001. can be addressed (Kuchinke. For example. • HRD remains integral to the career-development process. State the major career development activities found in organizations. As a result.
Simonsen (1997) echoes the recommendation that career development be “driven by business needs” and proposes that organizations need to develop both a vision and a philosophy of career development (p. A Strategic HRD Framework for Career Development. Hall (2002) reinforces the need for career development endeavors to be “managed and integrated” to yield maximum benefits to individuals and the system (p. citing for example. and Shore (1993) advocate for companies to incorporate career development into their strategic plans by recommending a systems approach. but rather as a process that is integrated into the system such that it influences the strategic direction of the organization (Gilley et al. Fewer would agree that HRD typically is present at the strategic planning table. • Career development can be both formal and informal and may take place within and outside of the organization. For example.aspect of this premise. although the HRD literature has routinely discussed “management development” as separate from “career development. In others. (2002) describe an “effective career development program” (p.” much of what traditionally has been described as “career development” has targeted managerial-level employees and excluded those in non management tracks (McDonald. Hite and McDonald (2003) found that women often make career choices based on their family responsibilities. As organizations become flatter. Ironically. Gutteridge. a broad-based. Leibowitz. 284). 181). 2002). sometimes choosing to curtail their career progress to accommodate family roles and expectations. However HRD‟s presence is critical in determining a company‟s role and responsibility regarding employees‟ careers. . 63) as one that includes a variety of experiences in addition to classroom training. 2002). • Individual life and work priorities influence choices about careers and development opportunities. Gilley et al.. In some instances. they suggest that career development be viewed as a way of achieving important business objectives and that employee and organizational needs be aligned when planning career-development processes. “self-directed learning projects and involvement in professional organizations and associations” (p. Specifically. Hite. 2002). the decision may be based less on a quest for a balanced life and/or work experience and more on necessity. 63). Most HRD practitioners and scholars would argue that HRD needs to be represented in determining the strategic direction of organizations. It also is important so career development is not considered a stand-alone program. the choice is one of focusing on intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards to define career success and satisfaction (Forret & Sullivan. well-developed workforce will be essential to meet their current and future needs. & Gilbreath.
As the planning evolves from developing a philosophy and determining goals. Organizational support mechanisms will influence what is evaluated regarding CD and how it is evaluated. Rather. In turn. a strategy is needed that is sensitive to the contextual elements that influence CD and recognizes the need for innovative ways to learn and develop given the current nature of work and organizations. a framework may help guide professionals as they work to implement and integrate career development into the organization (see Figure 1). given today‟s environment. should this be enacted? Doyle (2000) suggests that a strategy “based on formalized career structures and systems is unlikely to cope with the diversity and „messiness‟ that is likely to characterize career management in the future” (p. . the learning activities will affect organizational support mechanisms (e.. We suggest three critical elements to consider in this process: organizational support mechanisms. the organizational support mechanisms will influence what learning activities are developed and nurtured in the organization. The evaluation process also should determine if organizational support mechanisms assist employees and the organization in achieving career-development objectives.g. 239). The arrows in the figure indicate that each component of the framework will influence and be influenced by the other.The overarching question at the strategic planning table is as follows: What should the organization‟s philosophy be regarding career development and how. and evaluation processes. learning activities. For example. networks and community-based learning may assist employees in dealing with work-family conflicts). HRD practitioners are well positioned to shape a system that is less paternalistic and controlling and that focuses more on the partnership approach that fosters employee self-development while still meeting organizational needs.
let alone better them. It creates a sense of innovation and productivity as opposed to a more negative culture which may stifle employees and detrimentally affect job gratification. how much to produce and where to be produce. It is very likely in business that you are going to come into contact with conflicting styles of communication. They need to be able to enforce their own style of communication while being able to adapt to others. managers have a huge responsibility for guiding the organization in the right direction as they are the prime decision makers. And the organization has to decide either they have to produce different products or to emphasis on one product. bonuses. Most modern management take on a strategic management style which initially states the main aim of the particular mission which follows by the processes that will be carried out on a day-to-day basis. one of the most important aspects that a good manager requires is solid communication skills. Some of the basic problems faced by management are 1: How to produce a qualitative product: This is the first problem faced by management that what is to produce. Moreover. 2: How to deal the labour union: The labour is the group of people working for the betterment of the employees working in the organization. however it is the manager's job to be aware of this as well as their own style. In addition. Corporate culture is one responsibility that management need to adhere to because it is vital when you want to succeed in business. The management has to decide that how to full fill the demands of the labour union in respect of salaries. insurance. Managers have to make the plans and organize their employees and resources in order to put the organization in a direction that will grant them success.Q4. medical allowances. Major problems faced in benefits management One of the main problems faced by management in organizations is the need to maintain a competitive advantage. fringe benefits etc. . especially if they are consulting with other organisations and companies. What are the major problems faced in benefits management? Ans. With the global economic climate it has been difficult for companies and organizations to keep up with their rivals.
how to place the product. material.3: How to compete in the market: Various decisions for example how to charge the price. money. . market and methodology. The management has to decide how to tackle this problem. machinery. 5: To avoid stick out situation: Stock out situation is that situation when the customer demands for the product and the company has no product at that time. how to promote the product has to be taken by the management and they try to solve these problems in a best manner. 4: How to utilize the organization resources: The management made various decisions about the organization resources that is man.
This involves selection of the appropriate technique. Every employee needs motivation.Assume yourself as an HR Manager of a publishing house. d) Follow up the results of applications: The last stage of motivation is to follow -up ther e s u l t s o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n . The motivation techniques may be divided into two parts [a] that is to be done. If not some other technique should be tried. You find that the morale of the employees is generally low. The former are steps in motivation and the later are rules governing the steps. method of application and the timing and location of applications. all people do not react exactly as the same way to the same stimuli. . What steps would you take to improve employee morale? Ans. however. Both are performed simultaneously. c) Selecting and applying motivator: Proper application of motivational plan is important. Keeping this in mind executive shall size up how much and what kind of motivation is needed. and [b] how and why what is done. These are listed below: a) Size up situation requiring motivation: The first step of motivation is to make sure of motivational needs.Q5. T h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e i s t o a s c e r t a i n i f a n employee has been motivated or not. b) Prepare a set of motivational tools: An executive from his personnel experience should prepare a list of what devices are likely to work with what type of people and under what circumstances.
A r r a n g e work situations so that conversation between employees is either easy or possible. Maintain a neat and orderly work area. Th i s c an b e don e b y simplification of manual operations. b. d. e . They are likely to be more interested in the work which will reduce monotony and mental fatigue. Provide regular feedback on performance. a. In c r e as e t h e num be r o f o p er at i on s pe rf o rm ed b y o ne em p l o ye e . The aim should be to learn more about selfishness. Eight ways to motivate plant employees: Th e fol l o wi n g r e co m m e nd at i ons ar e f o r improving the motivation of employees in the routine jobs. f. a. Provide assembly line employees with more than minimum training. A sense of completion is important for motivation. Studies show that people work better when they receive positive feedback. To seek some other basis of motivation would be to ignore the real nature of man. Crate sub goals to measure accomplishment. selfishness is a part and parcel of life. Experience workers may to their job with little attention to the task. But it must be within reach. c.Conversation my reduce monotony and thus fatigue. Attainability: Motivation must be establish attainable goals. Self interest and motivation: Motivation is mainly built on selfishness. If the foreman does not care abouthousekeeping then employees may feel that they also need not care about it and this attitude may affect quality of work.Rules of motivating: The motivation manager must be guided with some fundamental rules which should be based on the following principles. This may take years to attain. This would result in greater personnel involvement in the job. b. It offers several advantages: . This does not mean that the goal is realized at once. To deny this is to build the theory on unrealistic foundation. Psychologically speaking.
h. there are other ways to provide for physical movement like stetting employees secure their own tools etc. Increased responsibility means greater self esteem and greater job meaningfulness. B esi d e s j ob rotation. Management can hire employees at lower wages. S t r uc t u r e j obs . One way to enlarge responsibility is to let the employee inspect his own work. g . . The risk of errors reduced. Training costs are minimized. so t h at w or ke r s c an at l e a st oc c as i on al l y m ov e a bou t t he wo rk a r e a. Explore ways to assign greater personnel responsibility.
another person may require only a casual mention of a deficiency. For such offences as tardiness or leaving work without permission. Oral reprimand 2. Ans. The more severe penalties of layoff. If the offence is more serious. Discharge is the most severe penalty that a business organization can give and constitutes “industrial capital punishment”. and freedom of movement about the workplace or company. Loss of privileges 4. second. fines or loss of various privileges can be used. . amoral reprimand is sufficient to achieve the desired result. The loss of privileges includes such items as good job assignments.Explain the general procedures followed in the case of a disciplinary action. Written reprimand 3. Lay off 6. The use of demotions as a penalty is highlyquestionabl e. Demotion 7. it is considered a more severe penalty. the reprimand may be put in written form. demotion. Discharge The penalties are listed in the general order of severity. If the employee is properly qualified for the present assignment.Q6. he or she will be improperly placed on a lower job. The supervisor must know his or her personnel in determining how to give a reprimand. and discharge are usually outside the grant of authority to the immediate supervisor. Fines 5. Since a written reprimand is more permanent than an oral one. Disciplinary Action There are varying penalties for first. right to select machine or other equipment. Among the penalties available in business are: 1. from mild to severe for most cases. a severe “chewing out” may be necessary in order to get attention and co-operation. and third offences of the same rule. Disciplinary layoffs can vary in severity from one toseveral days‟ loss of work without pay. For one person.
For example it is common place in organizations to provide for / encourage employee empowerment where-in the team brings about creative measures to reduce cost/improve customer satisfaction. Such teams design and implement self-driven initiatives to bring about the business result. What are the objectives of human relations? Ans. It is believed that this is accompanied by increased employee efficiency and reduction in employee dissatisfaction.Set 2 Q1. Human relations seek to emphasize employee aspects of work rather than technical or economic aspects. For example while it might be in the best interest of an organization to have a employee skilled and completely proficient in one job/set or responsibilities. . today‟s organization provides opportunities for employees to multi-skill and acquire knowledge of new yet related jobs/responsibilities These acts as a motivator for employees as they benefit by learning new skills / jobs and given an opportunity can perform and excel in another job. or at least to resolve more effectively those that he cannot avoid. It also seeks to make employment and working conditions less impersonal. ii) Assist the manager to develop a keener sensitivity towards the team members and interpersonal dynamics iii) Partner with the managers in helping him drive the business goals and take part ownership of work challenges and how best to resolve them iv) Enable him to anticipate and prevent problems. The human relations approach emphasizes policies and techniques designed to improve employee morale and job satisfaction. Objectives of human relations A human Relations Programme thereby attempts at enhancing employee motivation and workplace morale through an improved three-way communications and through employee participation in the decision making processes. v) Network with other teams with related dependencies and help resolve inter-team business impacting challenges. An understanding of emerging workplace human behavior can be summarized as: i) Assist the manager to develop a better realization of how his own attitudes and behavior play a part in everyday affairs of the team and its morale.
These frequently arbitrary. often as a result of the degree of success or failure the person experiences in the work world. structural definitions often cause difficulties inhuman relations Innovations in technology and production methods generally require the restructuring of job roles and responsibilities.· The organizational aspects of a company. and degree of automation. These personal attributes change over time. such as its size. economic health. ambitions and work experience to a job.This Scope of Human Relations springs up from the problems which have many different causes and perspectives. Matching so many unique sets of personal qualities to a standardized technology can create problems. Halloran has stated these as:· Every person brings a unique set of talents. Radical changes in basic organizational structure can cause severe strains between employees and management and create intense problems in human relations. geographic location. . define the scope of work and the activity in each work division.
Often organization might need to replace the nature of the present workforce as a result of its changing needs. Manpower planning is also needed in order to identify an organizations need to reduce its workforce. its position in the market and the general economy. 3. In situation where the organization is faced with severe revenue and growth limitation it might need to plan well to manage how it will workforce. skills. 2. there is an on-going need for hiring replacement staff to augment employee exit. therefore the need to hire new set of employees. 4. knowledge. and therein the planning for the human resources: 1. its competitors. Every organization that plans for its business goals for the year also plan how it will go about achieving them. each organization needs competent staff with the necessary qualification. To carry on its work. Ans. Since employees exit and organization both naturally (As a result of superannuation) and unnaturally (as a result of resignation). To meet the challenges of the changed needs of technology/product/service innovation the existing employees need to be trained or new skills sets induced into the organization. Otherwise work would be impacted. In order to meet for the more employees due to organizational growth and expansion. Explain the need for human resource planning. work experience and aptitude of work. This growth could be rapid or gradual depending on the nature of the business. this is turn call for large quantities of the same goods and services as well as new goods. 5.Q2. . Options such as redeployment and outplacement can be planned for and executed properly. Need for human resource planning Human resource planning system is a mandatory part of every organization‟s annual planning process.
3 training hours per year for Japanese workers.4 for USA workers and 173.Q3. Valued results are connected to the organisational performance measurements. compared with 46. quality improvement. . changes in productivity. He also argues. In this regard. such as ROI. especially in the case where the organisation's success is measured in financial terms. customer satisfaction. How can we evaluate the effectiveness of training programs conducted in organizations? Ans. better on the job performance and improved quality (Tennant. vexatious and problematic task. These perceptions are found in the Kirkpatrick evaluation model. because there is a little evidence to suggest that training per se can improve the financial performance. success and competitiveness through providing the capacity to enhance individual abilities and competencies as necessary requirements for effective organisational performance. Muhlemeyer and Clarke (1997) argue that it is difficult to measure the correlation between the implementation of T&D and the overall success of the organisation. and quality and market share. The effectiveness of T&D programmes on organisational performance improvement is a difficult. Thus. Training Evaluation and Organizational Performance (Level Four) The foremost strengths of a particular T&D evaluation model are especially those that emphasize the role of T&D on organisation performance and show a ROI from T&D.3 for European workers. Continuous training programmes are essential for achieving higher productivity. changes in productivity. Armstrong (1989) also refers to performance related training designed to develop competencies that impact directly on the bottom line by promoting flexibility and supporting innovation. that if the learning that is derived from training is not associated with enhanced job performance or raised capability. Horwitz (1999) contends that T&D contributes to the organisation's performance. which introduces the relationship between T&D evaluation and organisation performance. Assessing level four of the Kirkpatrick evaluation model demonstrates these important features. Boonkrong & Roberts 2002). This is revealed in the automotive sector with 380. such as ROI. quality and delivery in Japanese organisations. These social scientists also pointed out that Japanese organisations emphasise the roles of training more than USA and European manufacturing organisations. then the credibility of both HRD specialist and the process are at risk. in terms of cost. customer satisfaction and market share (Miller 2002). This heavy investment in T&D has led to dramatic performance improvement. training professionals have been challenged to document or demonstrate the results of training on organisational performance improvement (level four) by using organisational performance impact measures.
Arguably. good evaluation is likely to provide convincing evidence that the programme is aimed at important organisational benefits. or meet a specific requirement. Burrow & Berardinelli 2003). relationships and abilities that are necessary to undertake the task at hand. This level of evaluation focuses on . These indications could be collected through observations. However. Training Evaluation Models In order to understand how the T&D evaluation stage should be conducted successfully. and the changes in the participants' behaviour. and should also use the most suitable information to make judgments about training effectiveness (Russ & Preskill 2001. The learning level answers. much of the training efforts in organisations are not specifically related to organisational final outcomes. evaluation should focus on all organisational stakeholders. learning. Finally. Collins 2002. However. Kirkpatrick's evaluation model is the one most commonly used by many organisations (Hale 2003). the achievement of important job reverent skills. the results level determines "what are the outcomes of applications on the job over a period of time?" (Hale 2003). paper and pencil tests. opinions. evaluation should be used to determine if that specific goal was successfully achieved and not focus on broader expectations. interview and comments of supervisors. Burrow & Berardinelli 2003). To what extent have the participants learned the material and the particular skills or 'know how' that are contained in the programme? This measurement is made through special standardised tests at the end of the programme. workshops and job simulation. survey. it needs to be based on a particular T&D evaluation model. comprehensively. It evaluates participants' reactions. skills. there are four main complementary evaluation frameworks: (a) Kirkpatrick. (c) Parker. behaviour and results level. It is also suggested that evaluation could be very focused and short term or quite comprehensive with a focus on the long term results depending on the type of training and its objectives (Russ & Preskill 2001. post. However. Evaluation should be based on a clear identification of the purpose and results expected from the programme. such as pre. a gaining of knowledge and improved work attitude as well as effective transference to the job of learned skills acquired from the T&D programme. "what do people remember from the training session?" (Hale 2003). there are four stages to be considered when evaluating training effectiveness: reaction. robust evaluations are likely to lead to participants reporting greater job satisfaction. Specifically. patterns of work. skill practice. and colleagues and from performance appraisal reviews. impressions and attitudes toward the programme. and (d) CIRO. if the programme is designed to respond to a particular problem. The behaviour level addresses the issue of "whether people use what they know at work?" (Hale 2003). and on the long-term results. The reaction level answers whether people are happy with the training inputs (Hall 2003). There are many training evaluation approaches and techniques. According to Kirkpatrick (1996). Thus. (b) the Bell system. According to Brinkerhoff (1988).
fewer accidents. To determine the cost efficiency of training. quality improvement. . but is directed at other important factors. motivation and attitude towards the programme are important outcomes of any training programme. there has yet to be reported a significant relationship between these outcomes and achieving the programme objectives. changes in productivity. Historically. more profit and better service. improved morale. as well as their perceptions and attitude towards the programme. Mann (1996) cited two empirical studies that reviewed the most popular evaluation levels used by USA organisations when evaluating their training programmes. In this regard. Stakeholder reaction provides insight into trainees' motivation and satisfaction. Assessing training effectiveness based on trainees' perceptions is described by James and Roffe (2000). Training effectiveness no longer focuses on trainees' perceptions. Both of the studies found that most of the surveyed organisations (over half) use assessment of their participants' reaction and satisfaction with the programme as the key methods of evaluating training. more speed. but does not directly measure training results. better quality. * Stakeholder perceptions (level one: reaction) * Learning gain (level two: learning) * On the job performance improvement (level three: behaviour) * Organisational improvement and ROI (level four: results). perceptions. All of the evaluation models focus on the following important criteria for determining training effectiveness. including improving an organisation's performance (Combs & Falletta 2000. such as ROI. which tends to be post training appraisals rather than approaching the evaluation of training programmes from their design stages.the impact of behaviour change on the organisation's performance. customer satisfaction and market share (Miller 2002). recent ROI is used to establish whether the monetary values of the results exceed the cost of the programme. These factors incorporate such questions as: Did employee performance improve as a result of training? How did training contribute to achieving the organisation's critical goals? (Burrow & Berardinelli 2003). Green 2001). unsystematic. lower costs. and Acton and Gloden (2003) as ad hoc. training was conducted through measuring the number of trainees. the end results should include important elements such as. and ultimately. Because changing an employee's behaviour and attitudes is not the final objective of T&D. lower turnover. while trainees' attendances. Nevertheless. Now there is a stronger acknowledgement for T&D results to be connected to the organisational performance measurements. improved productivity. informal and unstructured evaluations of training programmes.
. and (b) on the job performance improvement achieved through changing trainees' behaviour and work patterns. skills and abilities. top management and line managers are involved in the whole training process and are able to evaluate the changes in behaviour and effectiveness. Therefore. which is often called training transfer. of the identified evaluation criteria there are two critical and essential levels that affect other evaluation levels. attitudes and capabilities). competencies. which are occurring as a result of training. These training needs and objectives are defined in terms of the changed behaviour and increased effectiveness. rather than just increasing knowledge. Also. and they are (a) learning gain (acquired skills.Alternative outcomes are less valued and valuable. Bramley and Kitson (1994) contend that the appropriate training evaluation model is the model that facilitates evaluating the third and fourth levels of the Kirkpatrick evaluation model (behaviour change and results).
the aims of a performance appraisal are to: Give employees feedback on performance Identify employee training needs Document criteria used to allocate organizational rewards Form a basis for personnel decisions: salary increases. personal strengths and weaknesses. cost. Methods A common approach to assessing performance is to use a numerical or scalar rating system whereby managers are asked to score an individual against a number of objectives/attributes. while also performing a self assessment. It is the process of obtaining. In some companies. and suitability for promotion or further training. employees receive assessments from their manager. subordinates. A performance appraisal. performance appraisal of the employees must be carried out. Ans. peers. For this. Assume yourself as an HR Manager. and customers. It is also the judgement of an employee's performance in a job based on considerations other than productivity alone. quantity. coaching and development. A performance appraisal is a part of guiding and managing career development. Performance appraisal is an analysis of an employee's recent successes and failures. and time) typically by the corresponding manager or supervisor. etc. Aims Generally. . What appraisal method would you choose? Justify. promotions. You have been given the responsibility of promoting the rightful employees. Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development Facilitate communication between employee and employer Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federal Equal Employment Opportunity requirements. performance review. This is known as a 360-degree appraisal and forms good communication patterns. To improve performance through counseling. or (career) development discussion is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality. disciplinary actions. analyzing. and recording information about the relative worth of an employee to the organization.Q4. bonuses. employee appraisal.
The history can be dated back to the 20th century and then to the second world war when the merit rating was used for the first time. Performance appraisals are widely used in the society. but they still have low integrity and are likely to lie again when the threat of being caught is gone. In addition. personality dimensions tend to be static. These systems are also more likely to leave a company open to discrimination claims because a manager can make biased decisions without having to back them up with specific behavioral information.The most popular methods used in the performance appraisal process include the following: Management by objectives 360-degree appraisal Behavioral observation scale Behaviorally anchored rating scales Trait-based systems. are also used by businesses but have been replaced primarily by more objective and results-oriented methods. competencies and relative merit and worth for the organization. and while an employee can change a behavior they cannot change their personality. which rely on factors such as integrity and conscientiousness.It is an indispensable part of performance measurement. The scientific literature on the subject provides evidence that assessing employees on factors such as these should be avoided. Performance appraisal is necessary to measure the performance of the employees and the organization to check the progress towards the desired goals and aims. Performance appraisal helps to rate . There is always some difference between the quality and quantity of the same work on the same job being done by two different people. An employer evaluating their employees is a very old concept. Performance appraisals of Employees are necessary to understand each employee‟s abilities. Performance appraisal rates the employees in terms of their performance. People differ in their abilities and their aptitudes. The latest mantra being followed by organizations across the world being – "get paid according to what you contribute" – the focus of the organizations is turning to performance management and specifically to individual performance. 2) Trait-based systems. a person who lacks integrity may stop lying to a manager because they have been caught. are more easily influenced by office politics. The vagueness of these instruments allows managers to assess the employee based upon subjective feelings instead of objective observations about how the employee has performed his or her specific duties. The reasons for this are twofold: 1) Trait-based systems are by definition based on personality traits and as such may not be related directly to successful job performance. causing them to be less reliable as a source of information on an employee's true performance. because they are vague. For example.
Performance appraisal takes into account the past performance of the employees and focuses on the improvement of the future performance of the employees. sample performance appraisal forms and the appraisal softwares available etc. Here at naukri hub. it helps the employees to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities and give direction to the individual‟s performance. the methods and approaches of performance appraisal.the performance of the employees and evaluate their contribution towards the organizational goals. It helps to align the individual performances with the organizational goals and also review their performance. An attempt has been made to study the current global trends in performance appraisal. . If the process of performance appraisals is formal and properly structured. we attempt to provide an insight into the concept of performance appraisal.
who is going to explain the objectives of job evaluation? The following objectives are derived from the analysis of the above-mentioned definitions: 1) To gather data and information relating to job description. responsibilities and demands of a job with that of other jobs. caste. 6) To minimize wage discrimination based on sex. How many of you know the principles of job evaluation programme? Job evaluation programme should be implemented carefully. 3) To determine the hierarchy and place of various jobs in an organization. 4) To determine the ranks or grades of various jobs. . Job evaluation is the process of analyzing and assessing the various jobs systematically to ascertain their relative worth in an organization. It should be noted that in a job evaluation programme. Job is evaluated on the basis of their content and is placed in the order of their importance. religion etc. region. 2) To compare the duties. To know basic approach to Job Evaluation. f somebody having any idea about it pleases start explaining it. “Job evaluation is a process of finding out the relative worth of a job as compared to other jobs” Now. 3. this can be explained in the following way. Now friends CIQ will discuss about how jobs used to be evaluated in an organization. age. job specification and employee specifications for various jobs in an organization. to importance of Job Evaluation and its effectiveness.Q5. 5) To ensure fair and equitable wages on the basis of relative worth or value of jobs. In other words equal wages are fixed to the jobs of equal worth or value. 2. the jobs are ranked and not the jobholders. Jobholders are rated through performance appraisal. What are the objectives of job evaluation? Ans. To know the important methods of Job Evaluation. Job Evaluation Learning Objectives: 1.
Do not establish too many occupational wages. is to establish satisfactory wage and salary differentials.8. 2. as was stated earlier. The elements should be defined clearly and properly selected. it is necessary to identify and select a sample of benchmark jobs. provides job-related data. 7. Job analysis job analysis. The size of the sample depends on the number of different jobs to be covered. Employees concerned and the supervisors should be educated and convinced about the programme. The main objective of job evaluation. 6. A job-evaluation program involves answering several questions: The major ones are: • Which jobs are to be evaluated?• Who should evaluate the jobs?• What training do the evaluation need?•How much time is involved?• What should be the criteria for evaluation?• What methods of evaluation are to be employed? Which jobs are to be evaluated in any exercise. The benchmark jobs should be so selected to achieve representative sample of each of the main levels of jobs in each of the principal occupations. The elements selected for rating should be easily understood. Supervisors should be encouraged to participate in rating the jobs. Rate the job but not the employee. 4. better understanding let us look at the flowchart given below: Job EvaluationProcess Employee Classification Wage Survey Job Evaluation ProgrammeJobSpecific ation Job Description Job Analysis Objectives of Job Evaluation Job Evaluation Process: The job-evaluation process starts defining objectives of evaluation and ends with establishing wage and salary differentials. where there are more than 30 or 40 jobs to be evaluated. Staffing the Evaluation exercise: . 3. which would be useful in drafting job description and job specification. It is likely to be less than about five percent of the total number of employees in the organization and it would be difficult to produce a balanced sample unless at least 25 percent of the distinct jobs at each level of the organization were included. Secure employee cooperation by encouraging them to participate in the rating programme. which can be used for comparisons inside and outside the organs. Discuss with the supervisors and employees about rating but not about assigning money values to the points. Rate the elements on the basis of the job demands. 5. For.The following principles help in successful implementation of the programme: 1. as was discussed earlier. Jobanalysis should precede the actual program of evaluation.
Responsibility for the overallcoordina tion of the job-evaluation programme should be in the hands of a senior executive who can then report its progress to the board. HR specialistswill be normally the chairmen of the committee. Any rushing through will lead to appeals against the grading of jobs. as was pointed out earlier. Isolating Job-evaluation criteria: The heart of job evaluation is the determination of the criteria for evaluation. and degree of creativity needed. . the quality of evaluation tends to drop. The final review of all the time should be allowed for re-evaluation. Eight jobs in a day can be the ideal pace. and more time has to spend later in checking and assessing the validity of the grading. After this. size of subordinate staff. if necessary. time-span of discretion.A committee. effort and working conditions as major criteria. does representatives of employee unions and specialist drawn from the National Productivity council Job evaluation. which consists of Head of several of department‟s. It needs no emphasis that job evaluation criteria vary across jobs. So friends you must have got a fair idea what is job evaluation. Time Factor: Job evaluation should not be conducted in haste. and advise it on ensuring wage and salary development. skill. Most job evaluations use responsibility. Training for the Committee: Members of the job-evaluation committee should be trained in its procedure so as to make the program successful. Other criteria used are difficulty.
Why is it important to handle grievances carefully? Ans. ensure that the employee can raise the grievance with someone else listen carefully to the person's explanation of the problem and consider whether there is a deeper issue which might be the root cause of the grievance listen to any conflicting points of view weigh up all evidence to see whether there is an issue you need to address decide what action to take. Handling a grievance When dealing with a grievance: ensure you're familiar with the procedure and apply it correctly hold any grievance hearing in private without interruptions where a grievance relates to the person's line manager. trying to balance fairness to the person without compromising the business or other workers inform all concerned parties of your decision and the appeal process .Q6.
It will also help you successfully defend a constructive dismissal claim. you're much less likely to lose valued and skilled staff through resignation. bullying or harassment. discrimination. . internally rather than disclosing them outside the business. By dealing with problems in a fair and reasonable manner.g.. If a worker raises a separate grievance during a disciplinary hearing. ensure you resolve any problems relating to policies. so that workers are encouraged to raise any complaints about wrongdoing eg fraud. Consider also having a separate "whistle blowing" procedure. it's good practice to adjourn the hearing until the grievance is dealt with. procedures or conduct where the grievance procedure highlights these keep the process as confidential as possible Deal with grievances sensitively. . particularly where they concern Other workers You may wish to develop specific procedures for very sensitive matters involving unfair treatment e.