NOTAM’s ILLUSTRATED

Second Edition
by Jerry Miller published by Find-it Fast Books 406 Henry Drive Montoursville, PA 17754 web site: www.finditfastbooks.com

Copyright 2010 by Jerry Miller. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writing from the author, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in a review.

"The writer does the most who gives his reader the most knowledge and takes from him the least time." -Sydney Smith (1771-1845)

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Introduction
NOTAMs are one of the most under appreciated, but most important aspects of your preflight preparation. You may feel comfortable with your ability to interpret NOTAMs, however, there’s always a few that perplex even the most seasoned pilots. This book was written to help pilots and aviation professionals developing a grasp of the NOTAM language. With this book, all pilots, airport operations personnel, dispatchers, and other aviation professionals will be able to understand virtually any NOTAM they confront in seconds with the simple flip of a few pages. NOTAM’s Illustrated borrows heavily from the flight service specialist’s “Bible”, FAA Order 7930.2. However, this book goes far beyond the FAA publication by adding more contractions & translations, and by providing additional insights gained from my twenty-four years experience as a flight service specialist.

Local NOTAMs now NOTAMs D
Local NOTAMs will become part of the National Airspace System at 0500 UTC on January 28, 2008, published as NOTAMs D. Although there is no formal timeline, during a transitional period of about four months or more, previously issued Local NOTAMs will be converted by flight service to NOTAMs D, as time permits. All NOTAMs D will also include keywords as part of this updating process. During the transitional period, previously issued NOTAMs D will be updated to include these new keywords. The application of keywords does not significantly change the content of NOTAM information. The keywords simply precede the NOTAM text and are intended to allow certain users to create software programs, which can extract or filter specific NOTAM categories pertinent to their needs. See pages 20 and 21 for a discussion of the most significant changes of this modification to the NOTAM system.
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How to Use This Book
Pages 9 through 17 provide you with an enhanced alphabetical listing of over 400 contractions common to most, if not all NOTAMs. This list includes many more contractions than those listed in the official FAA NOTAMS manual. You will notice some contractions that are identical, but have different meanings. Simply use the appropriate definition by putting it into the proper context of the NOTAM you are translating. Following many of the defined contractions you will see page references. These page numbers will lead you to a sample NOTAM where the contraction is put to use. It would be impossible to list every conceivable NOTAM in any book. Your responsibility lies in developing a basic familiarity of NOTAM formats and terms by first studying pages 19 through 29. With an understanding of this basic information, and by using the quick reference contraction pages, you will be armed with the knowledge to interpret the actual NOTAM you are attempting to understand. The discussion about temporary flight restrictions (TFR’s) contained on pages 103 through 107 is another good section to initially review. Here, you will find a few tips on how to protect yourself, should you blissfully and unknowingly wander into a TFR. Another section to review at the beginning of the winter months is the information contained on pages 37 through 49, snow, ice, and slush NOTAMs. Much of the text throughout this book is in bold type, like this. This highlighting is for clarity or emphasis only, and is not how NOTAMs are formatted in the real world. So, now, turn to page 18 and begin your journey into the mythical land of XYZ - the Eckswhyzee Airport, and learn all about NOTAMs!
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Table of Contents
NOTAM Contractions ........................... 9-17 NOTAM Classification ........................ 19-24 NOTAM D .................................. 19,20 KEYWORD USE and NOTAM L’s now NOTAM D’s... 21,22 FDC NOTAMs ....................... 23 and 99-107 Military NOTAMs ............................. 24 Pointer NOTAMs .............................. 24 NTAP - NOTAM to Airmen Publication ............. 25 Terms used in NOTAMs ........................ 26-29 "and" - or the Virgule ...................... 26 Altitude and Height ......................... 26 Days of the Week ............................ 27 Sunrise and Sunset .......................... 27 Runway Designations ......................... 27 Expression of Time .......................... 28 PLUS SEE .................................... 29 Movement Area NOTAMs ........................ 30-56 Typical Contractions Used ................... 30 Commissioning/Decommissioning ............... 31 Closures and Openings .................... 31-33 Restrictions ............................. 33-35 Runway - Right, Left, and Center ............ 36 Runway - Identification Change .............. 36 Runway - Rubber Accumulation ................ 36 Snow, Ice, Slush, Water .................. 37-55 Typical Contractions Used ................ 37 Measurement Depth ........................ 38 Coverage ................................. 39 Conditions ............................... 39 Snow .................................. 40-44 Ice ................................... 42,43 Slush .................................... 43 Drifting/Drifted Snow .................... 44 Plowed or Swept .......................... 45 Sand/Sanded - SA ......................... 46 Deicing - Liquid/Solid.................... 46 Snowbanks - SNBNK ........................ 47 Continuous Snow Removal Operations on Multiple Runways ...................... 48 Braking Action Reports - BA .............. 49

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Table of Contents
Runway Friction Measurement - MU ...... 50-52 Water .................................... 53 Mud ................................... 53,54 Frost/Frost Heave ........................ 54 Cracks ................................... 54 Ruts ..................................... 55 Soft Edge ................................ 55 Certificated Airport Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Equipment ............... 56 Lighting Aid NOTAMs ......................... 57-63 Typical Contractions Used ................... 57 Approach Light System - ALS ................. 58 Sequence Flashing Lights - SFL .............. 58 Runway Edge Light - RWY LGTS ................ 59 Runway Lights Obscured Due to Snow & Ice .... 59 Runway Centerline Light System - RCLL ....... 60 Touchdown Zone Lights - TDZ ................. 60 Runway Lead-in Light System - RLLS .......... 60 Airport Lighting Power Failure .............. 60 Airport Rotating Beacon - ABN ............... 61 Stop Bar Lighting System .................... 61 Pilot Controlled Lighting - PCL .......... 61,62 Obstruction Light Outages - Towers, etc. .... 63 NAVAID NOTAMs ............................... 64-74 Typical Contractions Used ................... 64 Unmonitored NAVAID .......................... 65 Restrictions to NAVAID's ................. 65,66 Instrument Landing Systems - ILS ......... 66-68 Microwave Landing Systems - MLS ............. 69 Simplified Directional Facility - SDF ....... 70 Localizer Type Directional Aid - LDA ........ 70 VOR/DME ..................................... 70 VORTAC - VOR, DME, TACAN ................. 70-72 Terminal VOR - TVOR ......................... 72 NDB ......................................... 73 NDB/LO ................................... 73,74 NAVAID Identification Change ................ 74 RADAR Outages ............................... 75

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Table of Contents
Communication Outlet NOTAMs ................. 76-79 Typical Contractions Used ................... 76 Automatic Terminal Information Svc - ATIS ... 77 Remote Communication Outlet - RCO ........... 77 Clearance Delivery - CD ..................... 77 Local Airport Advisory - LAA ................ 78 VOR Voice ................................... 78 Remote Transmitter/Receiver - RTR ........... 78 Remote Communication Air/Ground Facility .... 79 Enroute Flight Advisory Service - EFAS ...... 79 Hazardous Inflt Weather Advzy Svc - HIWAS ... 79 Service NOTAMs .............................. 80-85 Typical Contractions Used ................... 80 Changes in Hours of Operation/ATC Facility or Service ............................ 80,81 Temporary Air Traffic Control Tower ...... 81,82 Loss of ATC Communications ............... 82,83 Traffic Delays .............................. 84 Traffic Management Program Alerts and Reservations ............................. 84 Flow Control Messages ....................... 85 Fuel Unavailability ......................... 85 Weather & Weather Reporting Equip NOTAMs .... 86-88 Typical Contractions Used ................... 86 Commissioning/Decommissioning of Equipment .. 86 Weather Reporting Equipment Failure ......... 87 AWOS Unreliable/Inaccurate Elements ......... 87 AWOS/ASOS Frequency Inoperative ............. 88 Low Level Windshear Alert System - LLWAS .... 88 Terminal Doppler Weather RADAT - TDWR ....... 88 Runway Visual Range - RVR ................... 88 Airspace NOTAMs ............................. 89-98 Typical Contractions Used ................... 89 Parachute Jumping/Sky Diving - PJE ....... 90,91 Aerobatic Aircraft and Areas ................ 91 Unmanned Model Rocket Launches .............. 92 Hot Air Balloons ............................ 92 Moored Balloons ............................. 92 High Altitude Balloon - HIBAL ............... 93 Restricted Areas ............................ 93

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Table of Contents
Surface Areas/Airspace - Hours Open ...... 93,94 Temporary Loss of Communications Due to Hours of Operation Change of Surface Area ...... 94 Unmanned Air Vehicles - UAV ................. 94 Airshows .................................... 95 Demonstration Aircraft - DMNSTN ACFT ........ 95 Departure Procedures - DP ................... 96 Standard Terminal Arrivals - STAR ........... 96 Aerial Refueling ............................ 96 Airspace and Altitude Reservations - CARF 96,97 Missile Firing and Offshore Reservations . 97,98 FDC NOTAMs and TFRs ........................ 99-107 Typical Contractions Used ................... 99 General Discussion/Description ............. 100 Airway Change - Interim IFR Flt Procedure .. 101 Standard Instrument Approach Procedure - SIAP Interim IFR Flight Procedure ............ 101 Snow Conditions Affecting Glide Slope Ops .. 102 Laser Light Activity ....................... 102 Air Defense Emergency .................. 102-103 Temporary Flight Restrictions - TFRs ... 103-107 Wide Area Augmentation System - WAAS and Global Positioning System NOTAMs .......... 108-111 Typical Contractions Associated With ....... 108 WAAS Site Specific (Unreliable) NOTAMs ..... 109 WAAS Area Wide NOTAMs (Unavailable) ........ 110 GPS NOTAMs ................................. 111 Ground Based Transceiver (GBT) NOTAMs ...... 111

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NOTAM Contractions
AAWF ABN ABV ACC ACCUM ACFT ACR ACT AD ADIZ ADJ ADZD AFD AFSS AGL ALS ALT ALTM ALTN ALTNLY ALSTG AMDT AMGR AMOS AP APCH AD LGT APP APRON APV ARFF ARSR ARTCC ARR ASDA ASDE ASOS ASPH ASR ASR ATC ATCCC ATSCC ATIS AUTH AUTOB AVBL Auxiliary Aviation Weather Facility airport rotating beacon, 61 above area control center - ARTCC accumulate/accumulation, 36 aircraft, 91,95 air carrier, 32,56,95 active, 93,96 aerodrome (a NOTAM keyword),21, 31, 32, 56, 60, 95 air defense identification zone adjacent, 22 advised, 91,94-95 airport facility directory Automated Flight Service Station, 83 above ground level, 26,63 approach light system, 58,68 altitude altimeter alternate alternately, 48 altimeter setting 87 amendment, 101 airport manager Automatic Meteorological Observing System airport, (replaced by “AD” on 1-28-08) approach aerodrome / airport lighting, 60 approach control Apron - paved strip in front of and around airport hangars & terminal buildings (also NOTAM Keyword) approaches with vertical guidance - WAAS aircraft rescue and fire fighting, 56 air route surveillance RADAR, 75 Air Route Traffic Control Center, 83 arrive, arrival accelerate-stop distance available airport surface detection equipment Automatic Surface Observing System, 88 asphalt, 31 approach surveillance RADAR antenna structure registration, 63 air traffic control, 84 Air Traffic Control Command Center, 85 Air Traffic System Command Center Automatic Terminal Information Service, 77 authority Automatic Weather Reporting System available, 35,87

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NOTAM Contractions
AWOS AWY AZM BA FAIR BA NIL BA POOR BC BCN BERM BLW BND BOW BRD BRG BYD C CAAS CARF CAT CBAS CBSA CCAS CCLKWS CCSA CD CDAS CDSA CEAS CESA CFR CGAS CHAN CHG CIG CK CL CLKWS CLR CLSD CMB CMSN CMSND CNL CNTRLN COM CONC CPD CRS Automatic Weather Observing System, 86,87,88 airway azimuth, 69,71,72 braking action fair, 49 braking action nil, 49 braking action poor, 46,49 back course beacon snowbank/s containing earth/gravel, 47 below, 65,66,67,69,90,91,92,94,95 bound, 93 Bowmonk Decelerometer, 51 - plus see 50-52 Brakemeter-Dynometer, 51 - plus see 50-52 bearing beyond, 65,66,69 center, 36 Class A Airspace central altitude reservation function, 96,97 category, 68 Class B Airspace, 94 Class B Surface Area, 94 Class C Airspace, 94 counterclockwise Class C Surface Area, 94 clearance delivery, 77,82 Class D Airspace, 94 Class D Surface Area, 94 Class E Airspace, 94 Class E Surface Area, 93,94 Code of Federal Regulations Class G Airspace channel, 69 change or modification ceiling, 87 check center line clockwise clearance, clear/s, cleared to closed, 31-36,48,81,95 climb commissioned, 58,59,66,69,86 commissioned, 31,62 cancel centerline, 22 communications, 94 (also a NOTAM keyword), 21 concrete coupled course, 67

10

NOTAM Contractions
CTAF CTC CTL DALGT DCMSN DCMSND DCT DEGS DEP DEP PROC DH DISABLD DIST DLA DLT DLY DME DMSTN DP DP DRFT DSPLCD DW DTW E EB EFAS ELEV ENG ENRT ENTR ERD EXC FAC FAF FAN MKR FDC FI/P FI/T FL FM FNA FPM FREQ FRH FRI FRZ FRZN common traffic advisory frequency contact control daylight decommission, 66,69 decommissioned, 31 direct degrees depart, departure departure procedure decision height disabled distance delay or delayed, 84 delete daily, 27,62,81,82,93,94,96 distance measuring equipment, 68,70,71 demonstration, 95 departure procedure, 23,96,100 dewpoint temperature snowbank/s caused by wind action, 44 displaced, 33 dual wheel - on aircraft dual tandem wheels - on aircraft east, 55,93 eastbound Enroute Flight Advisory Service, 79 elevation, 69 engine en route entire Electronic Recording Decelerometer, 51, 50-52 except, 32,95 facility or facilities final approach fix fan marker flight data center, 19,23,100-107 flight inspection permanent, 23,100 flight inspection temporary, 23,100-102 flight level, 26 from final approach feet per minute frequency fly runway heading Friday, 27,32,80,81 flight restricted zone frozen, 42,43

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NOTAM Contractions
FSS FT GC GCA GCO GCP GP GPS GRT GRVL HAA HAT HDG HEL HELI HIBAL HIRL HIWAS HLDG HOL HP HR HRS IAF IAP INBD ID IDENT IF ILS IM IMC IN INDEFLY INFO INOP INST INSTR INT INTL INTST IR KT L LAA LAT LAWRS LB Flight Service Station foot or feet ground control, 81 ground control approach, 75 ground communication outlet ground check point glide path, 66-68 Global Positioning System, 111 Griptester, 51 - plus see 50-52 gravel height above airport height above touchdown heading helicopter heliport, 31 high altitude balloon, 93 high intensity runway lights, 59 Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service, 79 holding holiday holding pattern hour hours, 94 initial approach fix instrument approach procedure inbound identification identify, identifier, identification intermediate fix Instrument Landing System, 66-68,102 inner marker, 68 instrument meteorological conditions inch, inches, 38,40-47,53-55 indefinitely information inoperative instrument, 48 instrument intersection, 96 international intensity, 62 ice on runway/s, 42,43,46 knots left, 36 local airport advisory, 78 latitude Limited Aviation Weather reporting Station pound/s

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NOTAM Contractions
LC LOC LCTD LDA LDA LGT/S LGTD LIRL LLWAS LM LDG LLZ LNAV LNDG LO LONG LORAN LPV LRN LSR LT M MAG MAINT MALS MALSF local control, 81,82 local, locally, location located localizer type directional aid, 70 landing distance available light/s or lighting, 22,60-63 lighted, 31 low intensity runway lights Low Level Wind Shear Alert System, 88 compass locator at ILS middle marker landing localizer67,68 Lateral Navigation - WAAS, 109 landing, 34 compass locator at ILS outer marker, 68,73,74 longitude Long Range Navigation vertical approach minima - WAAS, 109 long range navigation loose snow on runway/s, 41,42,44,47 left turn missing magnetic maintain, maintenance medium intensity approach light system medium intensity approach light system with sequenced flasher indicator lights MALSR medium intensity approach light system with runway alignment, 58 MAP/MAPT missed approach point MCA minimum crossing altitude MDA minimum descent altitude MEA minimum enroute altitude, 101 MED medium MIN minute/s MIRL medium intensity runway lights MKR marker MLS microwave landing system, 69 MM middle marker, 68 MNM minimum MNT monitor, monitoring, monitored MOC minimum obstruction clearance MON Monday, 27,32,80,81 MRA minimum reception altitude MSA minimum safe altitude or minimum sector altitude MSAW minimum safe altitude warning MSG message, 85 MSL mean sea level, 26,63

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NOTAM Contractions
MU MUD MUM MUNI N NA NAV NB NDB NE NGT NM NMR NMRS NONSTD NOPT NR NTAP NVG NW O OBSC OBST OM OPR OPS ORIG OTS OVR PAEW PAX PAPI PAR PARL PAT PCL PERM PJE PLA PLW PN PPR PRN PROC PROC NA PROP PSR PTCHY mu friction value or meters, 50-52 mud, 53,54 Mark 4 Mu Meter, 51 - plus see 50-52 municipal north not authorized, 68 navigation (also a NOTAM keyword), 21 Northbound nondirectional radio beacon, 73,74 northeast night nautical miles nautical mile radius, 90,91,92,94,95 numerous nonstandard,33 no procedure turn required number notice to airmen publication, 24,25,84 night vision goggles northwest,36,54 other aeronautical information - NOTAM keyword obscured, obscure, obscuring, 59 obstruction, obstacle (also NOTAM keyword), 21 outer marker, 67,68 operate, operator, operative operation/s original out of service - used throughout in examples over, 34,42,43 personnel and equipment working, 21,22 passenger/s, 56 precision approach path indicator, 21,22 precision approach radar, 75 parallel, 35 pattern pilot controlled lighting, 61,62 permanent, 31 parachute jumping exercise, 90,91 practice low approach, 35 plow, plowed, 45,47 prior notice required prior permission required, 32 psuedo random noise, 110 procedure procedure not authorized, 101 propeller packed snow on runway/s, 41,42,45 patchy, 39,41,45,53

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NOTAM Contractions
PTN PVT R RAA RAIL RAIM RAMOS RAMP procedure turn private right, 36,67 Remote Airport Advisory runway alignment indicator lights, 58,68 Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring, 110 Remote Automatic Meteorological Observing System Ramp - The paved area of an airport between the terminal building and the taxiways, used to park airplanes during loading and unloading (also a NOTAM keyword), 21 Remote Communications Air/Ground Facility, 79 runway center line runway center line lights, 60,68 remote communications outlet, 77 receive or receiver relocated runway end lights, 21,22 report, 87 Runway friction tester, 51 - plus see 50-52 runway lead-in light system, 60 remainder, 45,46 remark/s area navigation replace required, 24,84 runway remaining lights en route surveillance radar reservation, 84 right turn route remote transmitter/receiver, 78 return to service rough, 42,43 runway visual range, 68,88 runway visual range midpoint, 68,88 runway visual range rollout, 68,88 runway visual range touchdown, 68,88 runway/s, 48,59,61,62 (also a NOTAM keyword), 21 south, 93 sand, sanded, 46 Saturday, 80,81 Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Station southbound simplified directional facility, 70 southeast surface, 97,98 Surface friction tester-hi press tire, 51, 50-52

RCAG RCL RCLL RCO REC RELCTD RENL REP RFT RLLS RMNDR RMK RNAV RPLC RQRD RRL RSR RSVN RT RTE RTR RTS RUF RVR RVRM RVRR RVRT RWY/S S SA SAT SAWRS SB SDF SE SFC SFH

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NOTAM Contractions
SFL SFL SIAP SIMUL SIR SKED SKH SKL SLR SN SNBNK SNGL SPD SSALF Surface friction tester-lo press tire, 51, 50-52 sequence flashing lights, 58,68 standard instrument approach procedure, 101 simultaneous or simultaneously packed or compacted snow & ice on runway, 43,45 scheduled or schedule, 32,95 Skiddometer-hi press tire, 51 - plus see 50-52 Skiddometer-lo press tire, 51 - plus see 50-52 slush on runway/s, 43 undefined snow, 40,41,42 snowbank/s caused by plowing - windrow/s, 47 single speed simplified short approach lighting with sequence flashers SSALR simplified short approach lighting with runway alignment indicator lights SSALS simplified short approach lighting system SSR secondary surveillance RADAR, 75 STA straight-in approach STAR Standard Terminal Arrival, 23,96,100 SUN Sunday, 80,81 SVC/S service/s (also a NOTAM keyword), 21 SVN satellite vehicle number SW southwest or single wheel SWEPT swept or broom/ed, 45 T temperature, 87 TACAN Tactical Air Navigation - azimuth & DME, 70-72 TAP Tapley Decelerometer, 51 - plus see 50-52 TAR terminal area surveillance RADAR, 75 TDWR Terminal Doppler Weather RADAR TDZ touchdown zone, 60 TDZL LGT touchdown zone lights, 60,68 TEMPO temporary or temporarily, 81 TFC traffic TFR temporary flight restriction, 100,103-107 TGL touch and go landing/s, 34 THN thin, 38,41,42,45,46,54 THR threshold, 21,22,33 THRU through THU Thursday TIL until, 28,56,63,80,81 TKOF takeoff, 34 TM Traffic Management, 84 TMPA Traffic Management Program Alert, 24,25,84,85 TODA take-off distance available TORA take-off run available TRMNL terminal

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NOTAM Contractions
TRNG TRSN TSNT TUE TVOR TWR TWY/s U UAR UAS UFN UNAVBL UNKN UNL UNLGTD UNMKD UNMNT UNREL USD UNUSBL VASI VDP VER VIA VICE VIS VMC VNAV VOL VOR VORTAC W WAAS WB WED WEF WI WIE WKDAYS WKEND WND WPT WSR WTR WX training transition transient, 32,34,35 Tuesday Terminal VOR, 72 airport control tower, 80,81,82,83 taxiway/s, 21,22,35 (also a NOTAM keyword), 21 unverified aeronautical information-NOTAM keyword header contraction for information pertaining to Standard Terminal Arrivals - STAR and profile descents, 96 unmanned air vehicles, 94 until further notice, 102,107 unavailable, 56,75,85 unknown, 63 unlimited, 97,98 unlighted unmarked unmonitored, 65 unreliable, 87 header contraction for information pertaining to Departure Procedures - DP, 96 unusable, 29,65,66,67,69 Visual Approach Slope Indicator System, 21 visual descent point Vericom (VC3000), 51, plus see 50 by way of, 96 instead of/versus, 79 visibility, 87 visual meteorological conditions, 35 Vertical Navigation - WAAS, 109 volume VHF omni-directional radio range, 65,66,70,71,78 VOR and TACAN - co-located, 70,71,72 west, 33 Wide Area Augmentation System, 108,109,110 westbound Wednesday with effect from or effective from, 28 within with immediate effect, 102,107 Monday through Friday, 27 Saturday and Sunday, 27 wind waypoint wet snow on runway/s, 41,43 water on runway/s, 53 weather

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NOTAM Contractions
ZAB ZAN ZAU ZBW ZDC ZDV ZFW ZHU ZID ZJX ZKC ZLA ZLC ZMA ZME ZMP ZNY ZOA ZOB ZSE ZTL ZZZ Albuquerque Center - ARTCC Anchorage Center - ARTCC Chicago Center - ARTCC Boston Center - ARTCC Washington Center - ARTCC Denver Center - ARTCC Fort Worth Center - ARTCC Houston Center - ARTCC Indianapolis Center - ARTCC Jacksonville Center - ARTCC Kansas City Center - ARTCC Los Angeles Center - ARTCC Salt Lake City Center - ARTCC Miami Center - ARTCC Memphis Center - ARTCC Minneapolis Center - ARTCC New York Center - ARTCC Oakland Center - ARTCC Cleveland Center - ARTCC Seattle Center - ARTCC Atlanta Center - ARTCC identifier for an urgent special data FDC NOTAM

The Aeronautical Information System
The method for disseminating aeronautical information is comprised of two subsystems: 1. The Airmen's Information System (AIS), which consists of charts and publications. 2. The NOTAM system, which uses telecommunications to distribute information. The NOTAM system disseminates information about unanticipated or temporary changes to components of, or hazards, in the National Airspace System (NAS). NOTAMs remain in effect until cancelled or when the associated charts and related publications have been amended. The NOTAM system does not include data already published or charted.

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NOTAM Classification
When a change in any component of the National Airspace System (NAS) occurs so rapidly that time does not permit issuance on a chart or in a publication, it is issued as a: or more commonly known as a

NOTICE TO AIRMEN NOTAM

A NOTAM states the abnormal status of a component of the National Airspace System (NAS) - not the normal status. NOTAMs are classified into two groups: NOTAM D and FDC NOTAM

(Effective January 28, 2008, Local NOTAMs were reclassified as NOTAM D’s. During an undefined transitional period (hopefully within four months), there will be a mix of previously issued Local NOTAMs remaining as Local NOTAMs and newly issued former Local NOTAMs now issued as Distant NOTAMs.

NOTAM D - Also known as a Distant NOTAM
A NOTAM D receives wide dissemination, which means the NOTAM information is transmitted over the weather network. A NOTAM D is transmitted by flight service stations, and is never issued more than three days in advance of the occurrence or scheduled event. A NOTAM D pertains to flight-critical information such as: Enroute navigational aids, such as VOR's, VORTAC's, NDB's. and

Civil public use airports and airport features, such as a runway, taxiway, or airport lighting. Services, such as an Air Traffic Control Tower or approach control that may be out of service. Procedures, such as air traffic delays due to the arrival or departure of presidential aircraft.
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NOTAM Classification
NOTAM D (con't):
A typical NOTAM D is formatted in the following manner:
("ABC" and "XYZ" are example identifiers)

!ABC 07/ 003 XYZ NAV VOR OTS WEF 0407141200-0407162000 Translated: The Eckswhyzee VOR is out of service beginning 1200 GMT on July 14, 2004 until 2000 GMT on July 16, 2004. Broken down into its individual components: ! is the ADP Code*. The national NOTAM computer needs this symbol to process the NOTAM. (*ADP = Automatic Data Processing). ABC is the identifier of the accountability location, which is used by the NOTAM system computer to keep track of NOTAM numbering. 07/003 - The 07 represents the month the NOTAM is issued; e.g. 07 is July. The 003 indicates that this is the third NOTAM issued under the ABC accountability location for the month of July. So far, the "!" symbol, the "ABC", and the "07/003" listed in the NOTAM are for the national NOTAM computer's needs. The information listed below, and what follows is the "meat" of the NOTAM that you must read and understand. XYZ is the identifier of the affected facility or location. NAV is the NOTAM keyword indicating “Navigation Aids” VOR is, in this example, the affected facility.

OTS is, in this example, the condition of the affected facility. WEF 0407141200-0407162000 is the effective time of the abnormal condition of the affected facility or location. WEF is the acronym for effective from (or with effect from).

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NOTAM Classification
Effective January 28, 2008, all NOTAMs D text will begin with the keywords, RWY, TWY, RAMP, APRON, AD, OBST, NAV, COM, SVC, AIRSPACE, U, O. RWY = Runway, example: !XYZ 02/004 XYZ RWY 5 REIL OTS TWY = Taxiway, example: !XYZ 07/003 XYZ TWY A CLSD RAMP = Ramp, example: !XYZ 11/008 XYZ RAMP CLSD APRON = Apron, example: !XYZ 12/016 XYZ APRON CLSD AD = Aerodrome, includes airport, heliport, helipads, and maneuvering areas - on or within 5 SM of an aerodrome and not covered under RWY, TWY, RAMP, APRON, OBST, NAV, COM, OR AIRSPACE, example: !XYZ 04/002 XYZ AD CLSD PERM OBST = Obstruction, including obstruction lighting outages. Example: !XYZ 08/005 XYZ OBST TOWER 580 (420 AGL) 5 NE LGTS OTS (ASR 1068993) TIL 0802091500 NAV = Navigation Aids, example: !XYZ 04/006 XYZ NAV VOR OTS COM = Communications, example: !XYZ 01/003 XYZ COM RCO OTS SVC = Services, example: !XYZ 12/006 XYZ SVC RVR OTS AIRSPACE = Airspace, example: !XYZ 02/003 XYZ AIRSPACE PJE 2 NMR XYZ270010 5000/BLW WEF 0702141200-0702141300 U = Unverified Aeronautical Information, indicates movement area information meets NOTAM criteria, but is not yet confirmed by airport management. Example: !XYZ 05/008 XYZ U RWY DISABLED ACFT O = Other Aeronautical Information, indicates information that is beneficial to aircraft operations, but does not meet NOTAM criteria. Example: !XYZ 03/004 XYZ O CONTROLLED BURN OF BARN 7SW APCH END RWY 27 WEF 08031200-08031600

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NOTAM Classification
NOTAMs L - Changed to NOTAMs D effective Jan 28,2008
Some examples of former NOTAM L contractions include: PAEW TWY/TY TWY LGTS VASI PAPI RENL THR LGTS Personnel and Equipment Working Taxiway/s Taxiway lights Visual Approach Slope Indicator Precision Approach Path Indicator Runway End Identifier Lights Threshold Lights

These contractions remain valid for NOTAM D usage, now issued in NOTAM D format. Below, are some examples of these contractions in D NOTAMs : ! XYZ 01/008 XYZ TWY B CLSD Translated: At the Eckswhyzee Airport, Taxiway (TWY) Bravo (B) is closed. !XYZ 03/005 XYZ RWY 18/36 PAEW Translated: At the Eckswhyzee Airport, personnel and equipment are working (PAEW) on runway 18 and 36. !XYZ 11/007 XYZ RWY 24 RENL OTS Translated: At the Eckswhyzee Airport, the runway end identifier lights (RENL) for runway 24 are out of service (OTS) As a result of this changeover, former Local NOTAMs are now available for pilots to access during a DUAT or DUATS self weather briefing without the need to contact flight service. However, until this transition is complete, hopefully by mid-2008, some Local NOTAMs may continue as such until time permits a conversion to NOTAM D.
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NOTAM Classification
FDC NOTAMs:
An FDC NOTAM pertains to flight information that is regulatory in nature that includes the following: Interim IFR flight procedures, either temporary (FI/T) or permanent (FI/P), such as: 1. Airway structure changes. 2. Instrument approach procedure changes (excludes departure procedures (DP) and standard terminal arrivals (STAR)). 3. Airspace changes in general. Temporary flight restrictions (TFR's), such as: 1. Closed or restricted airspace due to security concerns. 2. Disaster areas. 3. Special events generating a high degree of interest. 4. Hijacking. Flight restrictions in the proximity of the President and other parties. Certain airport condition changes. Snow conditions affecting glide slope operation. Air defense emergencies. Emergency flight rules. Substitute airway routes. Special data. U.S. Government charting corrections. Laser light activity. FDC NOTAMs are numbered consecutively beginning with 0001 each year. The year of issuance and the serial number are separated by a slant. Example: FDC 4/0342 Translated: The 342nd FDC NOTAM issued in year 2004.
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NOTAM Classification
Military NOTAMs:
Though not officially approved by the FAA, military NOTAMs may be accessed from the Web site URL www.flysouth.org/notams.htm. A weather briefer from flight service can also retrieve military NOTAMs for pilots upon request.

International NOTAMs:
International NOTAMs my be retrieved from DUATS vendors as one of the vendor's available options.

Pointer NOTAMs
A Pointer NOTAM highlights or points out another NOTAM, such as an FDC NOTAM concerning a security related temporary flight restriction (TFR) or presidential movement, or a NOTAM D, such as a parachute jump NOTAM. The purpose of a Pointer NOTAM is to assist pilots in cross referencing important information that may not be found under an airport or NAVAID identifier. Pointer NOTAMs are preceded with the keyword of “AIRSPACE“. Example: !XYZ 07/004 XYZ AIRSPACE TMPA SEE NTAP RSVN RQRD WEF 0407051200-0407052200 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport has a Traffic Management Program Alert (TMPA) in effect. See the Notice to Airmen Publication (NTAP). A reservation is required (RSVN RQRD) (typically for aircraft operating under instrument flight rules but not always) effective from 1200 GMT on July 5, 2004 through 2200 GMT on July 5, 2004. Something very important is affecting XYZ. The above Pointer NOTAM is advising the pilot to locate and read the Notice to Airmen Publication to see how this may affect the pilot's flight. The word "SEE" in the Pointer NOTAM is a red flag to look for the referenced NOTAM. The information provided by the referenced NOTAM is critical to flight safety or national security.
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Notices to Airmen Publication (NTAP)
The NTAP is published every four weeks. Data is listed in this 8-1/2" X 11" X 3/4" publication to reduce congestion on the telecommunications circuits that transmit weather reports & forecasts, and NOTAMs. Once data is published in the NTAP, it is not provided during a pilot weather briefing unless specifically requested by the pilot. The NTAP contains two sections: Section one consists of notices that meet the criteria for a NOTAM D but are expected to remain in effect for an extended period of time. Section one also contains current FDC NOTAMs. Occasionally, some unique information is included in this section when it contributes to flight safety. Section two contains special notices that are either too long or concern a wide or unspecified geographic area and are not suitable for inclusion in the first section. Examples of some of the data in this section that serves to enhance flight safety include: Traffic management program alerts (TMPA's). Sporting events. Graphical TFR's (Temporary Flight Restrictions). Air shows. Major fly-in's and other events with arrival & departure procedures, such as: The AOPA Fly-in. Oshkosh. The Indy 500 The Super Bowl

The NTAP can be viewed by accessing the Web site URL www.faa.gov/NTAP. FDC NOTAMs are published here. The NTAP is sometimes referred to as the CLASS II NOTAMs book by some pilots and weather briefers.

25

Terms Used in NOTAMs
Contractions and abbreviations used in the NOTAM system are contained in: 1. FAA Order 7930.2 - NOTICES TO AIRMEN and FAA NOTICE N JO 7930.85 These are the "Bibles" used by flight service that explains in detail how NOTAMs must be formatted. 2. Pilot/Controller Glossary. 3. FAA Order 7350.x - Location Identifiers

And:
The virgule " / " is used in NOTAM text to indicate "and".

Example: 18/36 CLSD Translated: Runway 18 and runway 36 are closed.

Altitude and Height:
Altitude and height in NOTAMs are in feet MSL (mean sea level) up to 17,999 feet. Example: 350, 1875 Translated: 350 feet MSL, 1875 feet MSL. Note: "Feet" and "MSL" are not written into a NOTAM. However, tower light outage NOTAMs will be listed in both MSL and AGL (above ground level) heights. AGL will be indicated. Example: !XYZ 02/004 XYZ OBST TOWER 1025 (365 AGL) XYZ230015 LGTS OTS TIL 0402121845 (ASR 1059795) In the flight levels for 18,000 feet and above, FL is used to indicate altitude; e.g. FL180 (flight level 180), FL430 (flight level 430).

26

Terms Used in NOTAMs
Days of the Week:
The term WKDAYS means Monday through Friday. The term WKND means Saturday and Sunday.

The term DLY means daily, which indicates an event will occur at the same time during a succession of days. Example: !ABC 07/012 XYZ AD CLSD 1200-2000 DLY WEF 0407151200-0407182000 Translated: The Eckswhyzee airport is closed from 1200 GMT to 2000 GMT daily (DLY) beginning July 15 at 1200 GMT, 2004 until July 18 at 2000 GMT, 2004.

Sunrise and Sunset:
The terms SR (sunrise) and SS (sunset) are NOT used in the NOTAM system. The times for sunrise and sunset are determined by the sunrise and sunset tables maintained by the National Weather Service (NWS). Flight service stations use these sunrise/sunset tables for their local area to determine times used in issuing NOTAMs.

Runway Designations:
Runways are identified by magnetic bearing; e.g. 9/27, or 36/18, etc. If no magnetic bearing has been established, runways are identified by the nearest eight points of the compass; e.g. NE/SW, N/S, etc.

27

Terms Used in NOTAMs
Expression of Time:
The NOTAM day begins at 0000 and ends at 2359.

Times are in Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), sometimes referred to as "ZULU" time, or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Times will be preceded by the acronyms WEF or TIL.

WEF means with effect from or effective from, which indicates the date and time a condition will exist or begin. "Til" means until, which indicates the date and time a condition will terminate or end. NOTAMs typically will have an expected date and time of return to service or return to normal status. Absence of TIL indicates the condition or abnormal status will continue until further notice. Times are stated in ten digits representing the: Year Month Day Hour Minute

Example: !ABC 04/008 XYZ NAV VOR OTS TIL 0405161830 Year 04 Month 05 Day 16 Hour 18 Minute 30

Translated: The Eckswhyzee VOR is out of service until 1830 GMT on MAY 16, 2004. The WEF acronym is especially helpful when examining braking action and snow, ice, slush & water NOTAMs to determine when a condition was reported.

28

Terms Used in NOTAMs
PLUS SEE:
If a NOTAM contains "PLUS SEE", followed by the title of a publication, you should refer to the defined publication to determine what other abnormal information is published. Example: !ABC 04/012 XYZ NAV VOR UNUSBL 090-120 BYD 20 BLW 6000 PLUS SEE AFD Translated: The Eckswhyzee VOR is unusable from the 090 degree radial to the 120 degree radial when beyond twenty miles and below six-thousand feet MSL. PLUS SEE the Airport Facility Directory (AFD). Note: When referring to the AFD, the published data would, most likely, indicate other sectors of Eckswhyzee VOR radials that have been unusable for an extended period of time. Note: The term "UNUSBL", in referring to sectors of a VOR, means unusable for flight under instrument flight rules. If you tune and identify the VOR, you may find the signal reliable within these unusable sectors - even though the signal is not considered reliable according to FAA standards. More than likely, FAA Flight Check aircraft made a determination that the affected sectors were not within acceptable tolerance to be considered reliable. If you navigate with your VOR receiver within these unusable sectors, when flying VFR, be sure to use a back-up form of navigation.

29

Movement Area NOTAMs
Typical contractions related to movement area NOTAMs include: ACCUM ACR AD AP ASPH AVBL C CLSD CONC DIRT DLY DSPLCD EXC GRVL JET L LDG LGTD MIN NONSTD OVR PARL PERM PLA PPR R SKI SKED ACR SOD TGL THR TKOF TSNT - accumulation - air carrier - aerodrome / airport - airport (replaced by “AD” on 1-28-08) - asphalt/tar/macadam - available - center - closed - concrete - dirt - daily - displaced - except - gravel - jet (aircraft) - left - landing - lighted - minute(s) - non-standard - over - parallel - permanently - practice low approach - prior permission required - right - ski (equipped aircraft) - scheduled air carrier - sod - touch and go landing - threshold - take-off - transient

Snow, ice, slush, & water conditions and their associated contractions are listed on page 37 in this section.
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Movement Area NOTAMs
Commissioning or Decommissioning of a Movement Area or Portions Thereof:
!ABC 04/002 XYZ RWY 18/36 CMSND 4500X75 ASPH/LGTD Translated: Eckswhyzee airport runway 18 and 36 is commissioned (CMSND), runway length is 4500 feet, runway width 75 is feet, the runway has an asphalt surface (ASPH), and the runway is lighted (LGTD). ******************** !ABC 11/005 XYZ RWY 9/27 CLSD PERM Translated: Eckswhyzee airport runway 9 and 27 is closed (CLSD) permanently (PERM). ******************** !ABC 09/004 XYZ AD CLSD PERM Translated: Eckswhyzee airport (AD) is closed (CLSD) permanently (PERM). ******************** !ABC 01/003 XYZ AD HELI DCMSND Translated: Eckswhyzee heliport (HELI) (not helipad) is decommissioned (DCMSND). Note: "HELI" pertains to heliports listed in the Airport/ Facility Directory (AFD), not helipads. Helipads are located on airports, designated by the appropriate symbols, and are not NOTAM material.

Movement Area Closures and Openings:
!XYZ 12/016 XYZ AD CLSD Translated: The Eckswhyzee airport (AD) is closed (CLSD).

31

Movement Area NOTAMs
Movement Area Closures and Openings (con't):
!ABC 09/006 XYZ AD CLSD TSNT Translated: The Eckswhyzee airport (AD) is closed (CLSD) to transient (TSNT) aircraft. ******************** !XYZ 07/008 XYZ AD CLSD EXC SKED ACR WEF 0407211200-0407212000 Translated: The Eckswhyzee airport (AD) is closed (CLSD) except (EXC) to scheduled (SKED) aircarrier (ACR) aircraft effective from 1200 GMT on July 21, 2004 until 2000 GMT on July 21, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 09/021 XYZ AD CLSD EXC PPR 0400-1200 MON-FRI Translated: The Eckswhyzee airport (AD) is closed (CLSD) except (EXC) with prior permission required (PPR) from 0400 GMT through 1200 GMT, Mondays through Fridays (MON-FRI). Note: PPR, prior permission required, may sometimes be followed by a frequency or telephone number pilots are required to use to obtain prior permission. If no frequency or telephone number is noted in the NOTAM, refer to sources such as the Airport/Facility Directory, AOPA's Airport Directory, or other commercial resources. Flight service can also help you locate an appropriate telephone number or other listed contact source. ******************** !ABC 11/006 XYZ AD OPEN Translated: The Eckswhyzee airport (AD) was published as being closed. It is now open.

32

Movement Area NOTAMs
Movement Area Closures and Openings (con't):
!ABC 05/002 XYZ AD NOW PRIVATE Translated: The Eckswhyzee airport (AD) is now closed to the public and is no longer a public-use airport.

Conditions That Restrict or Preclude the Use of Any Portion of a Runway or a Waterway:
!ABC 10/013 XYZ RWY 25 FIRST 500 CLSD Translated: The first 500 feet of runway 25 (25 FIRST 500) at Eckswhyzee Airport is closed (CLSD) for both takeoff and landing. Runway 7 is not affected. ******************** !ABC 09/024 XYZ RWY 9/27 W 1000 CLSD Translated: Both runways 9 and 27 are affected at the Eckswhyzee Airport. The west 1000 feet of runway 9 is closed. The west 1000 feet of runway 27 is closed. ******************** !ABC 04/002 XYZ RWY 15 CLSD Translated: Runway 15 at Eckswhyzee Airport is closed. Runway 33 is not affected. ******************** !ABC 11/008 XYZ RWY 18 THR DSPLCD 500 NONSTD MARKING Translated: The first 500 feet of runway 18 is closed to landing aircraft at the Eckswhyzee Airport. Aircraft departing on runway 18 or landing or departing runway 36 may use the full length. The threshold displacement is marked by nonstandard markings.

33

Movement Area NOTAMs
Conditions that Restrict or Preclude the Use of Any Portion of a Runway or a Waterway (con't):
!ABC 10/004 XYZ RWY 18/36 CLSD OVR 12000 Translated: Both runways 18 and 36 at the Eckswhyzee Airport are closed (CLSD) to all aircraft weighing more than 12,000 pounds (OVR 12000). ******************** !ABC 11/003 XYZ RWY 2/20 CLSD TGL Translated: Both runways 2 and 20 are closed to touch and go landing (CLSD TGL) at the Eckswhyzee Airport. Other aircraft operations you may see in a NOTAM include: STUDENT - Student pilots: !ABC 11/003 XYZ RWY 2/20 CLSD STUDENT ******************** TSNT - Transient aircraft: !ABC 11/003 XYZ RWY 2/20 CLSD TSNT ******************** LDG - Landings: !ABC 11/003 XYZ RWY 2/20 CLSD LNDG ******************** TKOF - Takeoffs: !ABC 11/003 XYZ RWY 2/20 CLSD TKOF

34

Movement Area NOTAMs
Conditions that Restrict or Preclude the Use of Any Portion of a runway or a Waterway (con't):
Here's a tough one: !ABC 01/001 XYZ RWY 12/30 CLSD/PARL TWY 3000X75 AVBL DAY VMC/NO TSNT/NO PLA/NO STUDENT We'll break it down: At the Eckswhyzee Airport: Runway 12 and runway 30 are both closed (12/30

CLSD). 75 DAY

The parallel taxiway measuring 3,000 feet long by feet wide is available during daylight hours in visual meteorological conditions (PARL TWY 3000X75 AVBL VMC). No transient aircraft (NO TSNT). No practice low approaches (NO PLA). No student pilots (NO STUDENT).

Whew!

35

Movement Area NOTAMs
Right, Left, and Center:
Parallel runways at larger airports are designated with their number followed by the letter "R" or "L" or "C". These are "Right", "Left", and "Center", respectively. Example: !XYZ 06/004 XYZ RWY 10C CLSD TIL 0406111900 Translated: Runway 10 center (10C) at the Eckswhyzee Airport is closed (CLSD) until (TIL) 1900 GMT on June 11, 2004.

Change of Runway Identification:
Though rare, runway designations are sometimes changed due to the magnetic effects of the earth. Example: !XYZ 08/002 XYZ RWY 17/35 NOW RWY 18/36 Translated: Runways 17 and 35 at the Eckswhyzee Airport are now designated runways 18 and 36.

Rubber Accumulation on the Runways:
Rubber accumulation from the tires of landing aircraft can make runways slippery. Example: !XYZ 09/002 XYZ RWY 16L/34R RUBBER ACCUM NW 1500 Translated: Runways 16 left (16L) and 34 right (34R) at the Eckswhyzee Airport have a rubber accumulation (RUBBER ACCUM) on the northwest 1,500 feet (NW 500).

36

Movement Area NOTAMs
Snow, Ice, Slush, and Water Conditions:
Typical NOTAM contractions for these conditions include: AD APRON BERM CLSD DRFT FRZN IN IR LSR MUD PLW PSR PTCHY RAMP RMNDR RUF RWY SA SIR aerodrome / airport apron snowbank(s) containing earth/gravel closed snowbank(s) caused by wind action (sometimes called windrows) frozen inch, inches ice on runway(s) loose snow on runway(s) mud plow, plowed packed or compacted snow on runway(s) patchy ramp remainder rough runway sand, sanded packed or compacted snow and ice on runway(s) slush on runway(s) snow snowbank(s) caused by plowing swept or broom(ed) thin taxiway(s) wet snow on runway(s) water on runway(s)

SLR SN SNBNK SWEPT THN TWY WSR WTR -

37

Movement Area NOTAMs
Snow, Ice, Slush, and Water Conditions (con't): Measurement (Depth):
The term BARE is not used in NOTAMs in describing a runway condition after is has been plowed, or otherwise cleared by sweeping or deicing, during or after a snowstorm. Depth measurements of snow and sometimes slush, ice, or water are expressed as: Thin (THN) - less than 1/4 inch 1/4 inch (1/4 IN) 1/2 (1/2 IN) 1 (1 IN)

When 1 INCH is reached, additional depths are in multiples of one inch with no fractions; e.g. 1 IN, 2 IN, 3 IN. When variable depths of snow cover are reported, such as 3 to 4 IN, the greater depth is reported; e.g. 4 IN. When a snow depth over 35 inches (35 IN) is reached, additional depths are reported in multiples of FEET. If a snow depth report is halfway between two reportable values of FEET, the reported depth in the NOTAM is rounded off to the next higher foot; e.g. A measured depth of 3 feet 6 inches would be issued in a NOTAM as 4 FEET.

38

Movement Area NOTAMs
Snow, Ice, Slush, and Water Conditions (con't): Coverage:
A surface is either completely covered with snow, ice, water, or slush, or it has less than full coverage and is reported as patchy (PTCHY). So, patchy conditions could mean coverage of anywhere from one percent to ninety-nine percent. "PTCHY" will not indicate the location, size, or extent of coverage of snow, ice, water, or slush partially covering the runway. If the term PTCHY is not reported in a NOTAM, the entire surface of a runway, taxiway, ramp, etc. is totally covered with snow, ice, slush, or water.

Conditions:
Conditions that affect movement areas include: Snow Ice Snow and Ice Slush Water Drifting or Drifted Snow Plowing or Sweeping of Snow, Ice, or Slush Sanding and/or Deicing of Snow, Ice, or Slush Snowbanks Mud, Frost, Frost Heave, Cracks, Ruts, Soft Edges

39

Movement Area NOTAMs
Snow, Ice, Slush, and Water Conditions (con't): Snow:
A high volume of airport condition reports are repeatedly called in to flight service stations by airport management during snow events. As a result of flight service being overwhelmed by these airport condition reports, snow NOTAMs don't always report the true conditions at a given airport during snow events - particularly during major snowstorms. NOTAMs may not be issued in a timely manner due to the backlog of NOTAMs yet to be issued. Additionally, snow may be accumulating at a faster rate than current NOTAMs indicate. And when snow NOTAMs are reviewed by a pilot prior to departure, the snow depth may be quite different at arrival time either due to more accumulation of snow, or due to plowing of the runway. Also, runways or airports may close during snowstorms while the pilot is enroute. A nice feature of runway condition reports during inclement weather is the WEF (date/time group) which indicates when the snow, ice, slush, or water condition was reported. If this "effective from" (WEF) time is days old, a telephone call directly to airport management may prove helpful in determining updated conditions at your destination airport. After a major snowstorm has passed, and throughout the winter months, airport management typically reports surface conditions to flight service in the early morning hours. These NOTAMs are usually accurate in describing runway and other movement area conditions. If there is no reference to any runway(s) in a snow, ice, slush, or water NOTAM, all airport surfaces are covered. Example: !XYZ 12/018 XYZ AD 8 IN SN Translated: The entire airport (AD) is covered with 8 inches (8 IN) of undefined snow (SN).
40

Movement Area NOTAMs
Snow (con't):
!ABC 02/009 XYZ RWY 18/36 14 IN LSR WEF 0402231430 Translated: Runway 18 and 36 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with 14 inches of loose snow on the runway (LSR) effective from 1430 GMT on February 23, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 03/002 XYZ RWY 9/27 THN PSR WEF 0403161200 Translated: Runway 9 and 27 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with a thin (THN) layer (less than 1/4 inch) of packed or compacted snow (PSR) effective from 1200 GMT on March 16, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 12/004 XYZ RWY 2/20 PTCHY THN WSR WEF 0412101400 Translated: Runway 2 and 20 at the Eckswhyzee Airport has less than full coverage (PTCHY) of a thin (THN) layer of wet snow (WSR) (not slush), effective from 1400 GMT on December 10, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 11/005 XYZ RWY 6/24 1/2 IN SN WEF 0411291600 Translated: Runway 6 and 24 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with 1/2 inch (1/2 IN) of undefined snow (SN) effective from 1600 GMT on November 29, 2004.

41

Movement Area NOTAMs
Snow (con't):
!XYZ 04/003 XYZ RWY 7/25 THN LSR OVR 2 IN PSR WEF 0404021800 Translated: Runway 7 and 25 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with thin (THN) loose snow (LSR) over 2 inches (2 IN) packed or compacted snow (PSR) effective from 1800 GMT on April 2, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 02/004 XYZ RWY 11/29 3 IN RUF FRZN SN WEF 0402112300 Translated: Runway 11 and 29 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with 3 inches (3 IN) of rough (RUF) frozen (FRZN) snow (SN) effective from 2300 GMT on February 11, 2004.

Ice:
!XYZ 12/004 XYZ RWY 9/27 THN IR WEF 0412231100 Translated: Runway 9 and 27 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with a thin (THN) (less than 1/4 inch) layer of smooth ice or ice pellets effective from 1100 GMT on December 23, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 03/012 XYZ RWY 17/35 1/2 IN RUF IR WEF 0403061400 Translated: Runway 17 and 35 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with a 1/2 inch (IN) layer of rough ice (RUF IR) (or frozen slush) effective from 1400 GMT on March 6, 2004.

42

Movement Area NOTAMs
Ice (con't):
!XYZ 11/003 XYZ RWY 10/28 4 IN WSR OVR 1 IN RUF IR WEF 0411231700 Translated: Runway 10 and 28 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with 4 inches (4 IN) of wet snow (WSR) over (OVR) 1 inch (1 IN) of rough ice (RUF IR) (or frozen slush) effective from 1700 GMT on November 23, 2004.

Snow and Ice:
!XYZ 04/002 XYZ RWY 7/25 4 IN SIR WEF 0404111000 Translated: Runway 7 and 25 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with 4 inches (4 IN) of packed or compacted snow and ice (SIR) effective from 1000 GMT on April 11, 2004.

Slush:
!XYZ 01/014 XYZ RWY 17/35 2 IN SLR WEF 0401221900 Translated: Runway 17 and 35 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with 2 inches (2 IN) of slush (SLR) (not wet snow) effective from 1900 GMT on January 22, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 03/005 XYZ RWY 2/20 1/2 IN FRZN SLR WEF 0403121300 Translated: Runway 2 and 20 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with 1/2 inch (1/2 IN) of frozen slush (FRZN SLR) effective from 1300 GMT on March 12, 2004. Note: FRZN SLR (frozen slush on the runway) may also be described as RUF IR (rough ice on the runway) in a NOTAM.

43

Movement Area NOTAMs
Drifting or Drifted Snow:
DRFT (Snowbank/s caused by wind action) is used to describe one or more snowdrifts. When snowdrifts are variable in depth, the greater depth is reported in the NOTAM. Snowdrifts are sometimes referred to as windrows, however, the term DRFT will always be the contraction used in the NOTAM. !XYZ 02/003 XYZ AD 5 IN LSR 12 IN DRFT WEF 0402142300 Translated: 5 inches of loose snow (5 IN LSR) and 12 inch snowbank/s caused by wind action (snowdrifts or windrows) (12 IN DRFT) prevail throughout the airport (AD) surface at the Eckswhyzee Airport effective from 2300 GMT on February 14, 2004. Note: There is no reference to any runway(s) indicating all airport surfaces are covered. ******************** !XYZ 03/001 XYZ RWY 8/26 4 IN LSR 14 IN DRFT WEF 0403071900 Translated: Runway 8 and 26 at the Eckswhyzee Airport are covered with 4 inches of loose snow (4 IN LSR) and 14 inch snowbank/s caused by wind action (snowdrifts or windrows) (14 IN DRFT) effective from 1900 GMT on March 7, 2004.

44

Movement Area NOTAMs
Plowed or Swept:
One of the more perplexing aspects about snow NOTAMs is that if a runway is completely plowed or swept, no NOTAM will be issued to indicate this fact since there are no limitations to the runway. The terms PLW/SWEPT are used to indicate that a portion of a runway or other movement area has been plowed or swept. The plowed or swept portion is then either bare or has some snow, ice or slush depth or coverage, as reported in the NOTAM. The surrounding area of the runway or other movement area will have conditions different than the plowed or swept portion. The surounding area will then be described as the remainder (RMNDR). This information will be included in the NOTAM after the plowed or swept information. Examples: !XYZ 12/006 XYZ RWY 9/27 PLW 80 WIDE RMNDR 1 IN SIR WEF 0412171400 Translated: Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 9/27 is wider than 80 feet. The area inside the center 80 feet is plowed (PLW 80 WIDE) and is bare. The 1 inch of packed or compacted snow and ice (1 IN SIR) is outside the plowed area effective from 1400 GMT on December 17, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 03/005 XYZ RWY 6/24 PTCHY THN PSR SWEPT WEF 0403051600 Translated: Runway 6 and 24 at the Eckswhyzee Airport has less than full coverage (PTCHY), of thin packed snow (THN PSR) even though it has been swept (SWEPT) effective from 1600 GMT on March 5, 2004.

45

Movement Area NOTAMs
Sanding and Deicing:
!XYZ 02/004 XYZ RWY 2/20 1/4 IN IR SA WEF 0402241300 Translated: Runway 2 and 20 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with 1/4 inch (1/4 IN) of ice (IR) and the entire runway has been sanded effective from 1300 GMT on February 24, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 11/008 XYZ RWY 8/26 THN SIR SA 80 WIDE RMNDR BA POOR WEF 0411271900 Translated: Runway 8 and 26 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with thin snow and ice (THN SIR) (less than 1/4 inch). Less than the full width of the runway (80 feet) is sanded (SA 80 WIDE). The remainder of the runway has a braking action of poor (BA POOR) effective from 1900 GMT on November 27, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 12/002 XYZ RWY 1/19 DEICED SOLID WEF 0412101400 Translated: Runway 1 and 19 at the Eckswhyzee Airport has had solid deicing material applied (DEICED SOLID) effective from 1400 GMT on December 10, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 02/007 XYZ RWY 15/33 DEICED LIQUID WEF 0402261100 Translated: Runway 15 and 33 at the Eckswhyzee Airport has had liquid deicing material applied (DEICED LIQUID) effective from 1100 GMT on February 26, 2004. Note: The type of deicing material (solid or liquid) may have operational significance to pilots operating certain aircraft and is, therefore, always listed in deicing NOTAMs for their information.
46

Movement Area NOTAMs
Snowbanks:
!XYZ 03/002 XYZ RWY 7/25 4 IN LSR 24 IN SNBNK WEF 0403221600 Translated: Runway 7 and 25 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is covered with 4 inches of loose snow (4 IN LSR). A 24 inch snowbank (24 IN SNBNK) is at the edge of the runway effective from 1600 GMT on March 22, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 12/005 XYZ RWY 2/20 1/2 IN PSR PLW 80 WIDE 12 IN SNBNK WEF 0412031100 Translated: Runway 2 and 20 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is wider than 80 feet. The area inside the center 80 feet is plowed (PLW 80 WIDE). The plowed area is covered with 1/2 inch of packed or compacted snow (1/2 IN PSR). A 12 inch snowbank (12 IN SNBNK) is at the edge of the plowed area effective from 1100 GMT on December 3, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 01/007 XYZ RWY 15/33 3 IN LSR PLW 100 WIDE 14 IN BERM WEF 0401141800 Translated: Runway 15 and 33 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is wider than 100 feet. The area inside the center 100 feet is plowed (PLW 100 WIDE). The plowed area is covered with 3 inches of loose snow (3 IN LSR). A 14 inch berm (14 IN BERM) is at the edge of the plowed area effective from 1800 GMT on January 14, 2004. Reminder: A BERM is a snowbank containing earth and/or gravel. Note: It is assumed a snowbank exists at the edge of a plowed or swept area or the edge of a runway, taxiway, or other movement area even though it's depth may not be reported in a NOTAM.
47

Movement Area NOTAMs
Continuous Snow Removal Operations on Multiple Runways:
Note: These NOTAMs may be issued at tower controlled airports with multiple runways. The following conditions must be met: is 1. The air traffic control tower must be in operation. 2. The expected alternating closure time for each runway two hours or less.

!XYZ 01/018 XYZ RWY ALL RWYS ALTNLY CLSD SNOW REMOVAL WEF 0401122300 Translated: All runways (ALL RWYS) at the Eckswhyzee Airport are alternately closed (ALTNLY CLSD) for snow removal effective from 2300 GMT on January 12, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 01/005 XYZ RWY ALL RWYS ALTNLY CLSD ICE REMOVAL WEF 0401122300 Translated: All runways (ALL RWYS) at the Eckswhyzee Airport are alternately closed (ALTNLY CLSD) for ice removal effective from 2300 GMT on January 12, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 01/012 XYZ RWY INST RWYS ALTNLY CLSD SNOW REMOVAL WEF 0401122300 Translated: All runways with instrument approaches (ALL INST RWYS) at the Eckswhyzee Airport are alternately closed (ALTNLY CLSD) for snow removal effective from 2300 GMT on January 12, 2004.

48

Movement Area NOTAMs
Braking Action Reports:
Braking action report NOTAMs are issued during winter snow and ice conditions. Braking action describes the condition for the full length of a runway, and is reported as FAIR, POOR, or NIL. The most critical braking action is reported in a NOTAM. For example, if a runway braking action is reported as FAIR to POOR, the NOTAM issued will describe the braking action as POOR. Examples: !XYZ 03/010 XYZ RWY 9/27 BA FAIR WEF0403021600 Translated: Runway 9 and 27 at the Eckswhyzee Airport has a braking action of fair (BA FAIR) (kinda slippery) effective from 1600 GMT on March 2, 2004. ******************** !ABC 04/015 XYZ RWY 2/20 BA POOR WEF 0404012300 Translated: Runway 2 and 20 at the Eckswhyzee Airport has a braking action of poor (BA POOR) (very slippery) effective from 2300 GMT on April 1, 2004. ******************** !ABC 11/012 XYZ RWY 7/25 BA NIL 0411280500 Translated: Runway 7 and 25 at the Eckswhyzee Airport has a braking action of nil (BA NIL) (really slippery - slicker 'n snot!) effective from 0500 GMT on November 28, 2004. Note: A braking action report given by a pilot of a landing aircraft will be issued as a PIREP (pilot weather report) by flight service.

49

Movement Area NOTAMs
Runway Friction Measurement:
Runway friction measurement quantifies the slipperiness of pavement surfaces. The greek letter MU (pronounced "myew"), is used to designate a friction value representing runway surface conditions. A MU value of 40 or less is the level when aircraft braking performance starts to deteriorate and directional control begins to be less responsive. The lower the MU value, the less effective braking performance becomes and the more difficult directional control becomes. Runway friction measurement reports are typically used by the airlines and other users knowledgeable of the readings who can calculate their effect on aircraft braking. These pilots use MU information with other data including aircraft type andperformance, weight, previous experience, wind conditions, and aircraft tire type (bias ply vs. radial) to determine runway suitability. Readings are issued in thirds of a runway for the landing runway only, e.g., a MU reading is given for runway 18 and/or runway 36, not runway 18/36. The examples that follow show that some segment values may be above the value of 40 and still be contained in the NOTAM. A MU reading NOTAM will not be issued if all readings are above the value 40. If a NOTAM was previously issued and all of the subsequent readings go above 40, the previous NOTAM will be cancelled. No correlation has been established between MU values and the descriptive terms "good", "poor", and "nil" used in braking action reports. Simply stated, the lower the number, the more slippery the runway condition.

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Movement Area NOTAMs
Runway Friction Measurement (con't):
The following defined abbreviations indicate the various types of FAA approved friction measurement devices used in making runway friction measurements: BOW BRD ERD GRT MUM RFT SFH Bowmonk Decelerometer (Bowmonk Sales) Brakementer-Dynometer Electronic Recording Decelerometer (Bowmonk) Griptester (Findlay, Irvine, LTD) Mark 4 Mu Meter (Bison Instruments, Inc.) Runway friction tester (K.J. LAW Engineers) Surface friction tester (high pressure tire) (SAAB, Airport Surface Friction Tester AB) Surface friction tester (low pressure tire) (SAAB, Airport Surface Friction Tester AB) Skiddometer (high pressure tire)(AEC, Airport Equipment Co.) Skiddometer (low pressure tire) (AEC, Airport Equipment Co.) Vericom (VC3000) Tapley Decelerometer (Tapley Sales)

SFL SKH SKL VER TAP -

Runway friction measurement reports are expressed using the name of the above FAA-approved devices, followed by the word "MU" (pronounced "myew"), followed by the reported values, then followed by the actual time of the measurement. Examples: !ABC 12/004 XYZ RWY 18 SKH MU 52/30/42 WEF 0412251000 Translated: Myew readings for runway 18 at the Eckswhyzee Airport, using the Skiddometer, are 52 for the first third of the landing runway, then 30 for the middle third of the runway, then 42 for the last third of the runway (the middle third of the runway is the most slippery segment) effective from 1000 GMT on December 25, 2004.
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Movement Area NOTAMs
Runway Friction Measurement (con't):
!ABC 02/008 XYZ RWY 36 TAP MU 30/45/25 WEF 0402181200 Translated: Myew readings for runway 36 at the Eckswhyzee Airport, using the Tapely Decelerometer, are 30 for the first third of the landing runway, then 45 for the middle third of the runway, then 25 for the last third of the runway (the last third of the runway is the most slippery segment) effective from 1200 GMT on February 18, 2004.

Runway Friction Measurement Equipment Status:
!XYZ 01/005 XYZ SVC MU OTS Translated: The runway friction measurement equipment at the Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service, therefore, no runway friction measurement readings are available.

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Movement Area NOTAMs
Water:
!XYZ 04/002 XYZ RWY 9/27 1 IN WTR WEF 0404152200 Translated: Runway 9 and 27 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is completely covered with 1 inch (1 IN) of water (WTR) effective from 2200 GMT on April 15, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 05/007 XYZ RWY 4/22 PTCHY 1/2 IN WTR WEF 0405081600 Translated: Runway 4 and 22 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is partially covered (PTCHY) with 1/2 inch of water (1/2 IN WTR) effective from 1600 GMT on May 8, 2004. Note: The term "puddles" is not used in NOTAMs to refer to areas of water partially covering a runway, taxiway, or other movement area. The term PTCHY is used instead, indicating less than full coverage of a surface. The NOTAM will not indicate the location, size, or extent of coverage of water puddles partially covering the runway.

Mud:
!XYZ 05/003 XYZ RWY 4/22 PTCHY 2 IN MUD WEF 0405271300 Translated: Runway 4 and 22 at the Eckswhyzee Airport has patchy (PTCHY) areas of 2 inch deep mud (2 IN MUD) effective from 1300 GMT on May 27, 2004. Note: The term PTCHY is used to indicate less than full coverage of a surface. The NOTAM will not indicate the location, size, or extent of coverage of areas of mud partially affecting the runway.

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Movement Area NOTAMs
Mud:
!XYZ 04/002 XYZ RWY 11/29 THN MUD WEF 0404091200 Translated: Runway 11 and 29 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is completely covered with a thin layer of mud (THN MUD) (less than 1/4 inch) effective from 1200 GMT on April 9,2004.

Frost:
!XYZ 10/003 XYZ AD THN FROST WEF 0410271100 Translated: All surfaces at the Eckswhyzee Airport are covered with a thin layer of frost (THN FROST) (less than 1/4 inch) effective from 1100 GMT on October 27, 2004.

Frost Heave:
!XYZ 10/007 XYZ RWY 12/30 FROST HEAVE NW 500 WEF 0410231200 Translated: Runway 12 and 30 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is affected by frost heaving (FROST HEAVE) involving the northwest 500 feet (NW 500) of the runway effective from 1200 GMT 0n October 23, 2004.

Cracks:
!XYZ 03/002 XYZ RWY 11/29 NMRS 7 IN CRACKS WEF 0403062100 Translated: Runway 11 and 29 at the Eckswhyzee Airport has numerous (NMRS) 7 inch cracks (7 IN CRACKS) throughout the runway. The 7 inches refers to the length of the cracks (ocation and extent of the cracks is not given) effective from 2100 GMT on March 6, 2004.

54

Movement Area NOTAMs
Ruts:
!XYZ 04/004 XYZ RWY 9/27 3 IN RUTS E 1000 WEF 0404081700 Translated: Runway 9 and 27 at the Eckswhyzee Airport has ruts 3 inches deep (3 IN RUTS) on the east 1000 feet (E 1000) of the runway effective from 1700 GMT on April 8, 2004.

Soft Edge:
!XYZ 06/002 XYZ RWY 5/23 SOFT EDGES WEF 0406031900 Translated: Runway 5 and 23 at the Eckswhyzee Airport has soft edges (SOFT EDGES) effective from 1900 GMT on June 3, 2004.

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Movement Area NOTAMs
Certificated Airport Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) Equipment:
NOTAMs referencing ARFF equipment are of interest to air carrier operators, basically indicating that required ARFF equipment is inoperative or unavailable, and replacement equipment is not available. An ARFF Index for each certificated airport is published in the Airport Facility Directory (AFD). Legend item 16 in the AFD lists indices and ARFF equipment requirements. The below examples illustrate some NOTAMs you may ocassionally encounter. Unless you are involved with Part 121 Air Carrier operations, they are of no concern to you. Examples: !XYZ 03/012 XYZ SVC ARFF VEHICLE INDEX OTS INDEX UNCHANGED TIL 0403141200 !XYZ 06/002 XYZ SVC ARFF NOW INDEX A TIL 0406231000 !XYZ 11/008 XYZ SVC ARFF UNAVBL/AD CLSD TO ACR MORE THAN 30 PAX This one we'll translate: At the Eckswhyzee airport, certificated airport aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) equipment is unavailable (UNAVBL). The airport (AD) is closed to air carrier aircraft carrying more than 30 passengers (CLSD TO ACR MORE THAN 30 PAX). The airport remains open to all other aircraft operations. For those of you who want to know more, the ARFF index for certificated airports is published in the Airport Facility Directory (AFD). Legend item 16 in the AFD lists indices and ARFF equipment requirements.

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Lighting Aid NOTAMs
Typical contractions associated with lighting aid NOTAMs include: ABN AD AD LGT BCN HIRL INTST LGT LGTD LIRL MALS MALSF MALSR MED MIRL NGT OBST PAPI PCL RAIL RCLL RENL RLLS RRL SFL SSALF SSALR system SSALS TDZ LGT THR UNLGTD VASI - airport beacon - aerodrome / airport (former “AP” -APCH - approach - aerodrome / airport lighting - beacon - high intensity runway lights - intensity - light or lighting - lighted - low intensity runway lights - medium intensity approach light system - medium intensity approach light system sequenced flashers indicator lights - medium intensity approach light system runway alignment - medium - medium intensity runway lights - night - obstruction - precision approach path indicator - pilot controlled lighting - runway alignment indicator lights - runway center line lights - runway end lights - runway lead-in light system - runway remaining lights - sequence flashing lights - simplified short approach lighting with sequence flashers - simplified short approach lighting with runway alignment indicator lights - simplified short approach lighting touchdown zone lights threshold unlighted visual approach slope indicator system
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airport )

with with

Lighting Aid NOTAMs
Approach Light System:
!XYZ 08/004 XYZ RWY 27 MALSR CMSN WEF 0408011200 Translated: The medium intensity approach light system with runway alignment (MALSR) for runway 27 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is commissioned (CMSN) effective from 1200 GMT on August 1, 2004. Note: In the above example, the specific type of approach light system is noted. This is done whenever an approach light system is commissioned. Once commissioned, the approach light system will be noted in a NOTAM as an ALS (approach light system). Example: !XYZ 06/004 XYZ RWY 24 ALS OTS Translated: The (undefined) approach light system (ALS) for runway 24 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service (OTS).

Sequence Flashing Lights:
!XYZ 09/002 XYZ RWY 34 RAIL OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 34 runway alignment indicator lights (RAIL) are out of service (OTS). ******************** !XYZ 07/005 XYZ RWY 15 SFL OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 15 sequence flashing lights (SFL) are out of service (OTS).

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Lighting Aid NOTAMs
Runway Edge Light:
(Or more simply known as the runway lights) !XYZ 05/002 XYZ RWY 9/27 HIRL CMSN WEF 0405011200 Translated: The high intensity runway light system (HIRL) for runway 9 and 27 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is commissioned (CMSN) effective from 1200 GMT on May 1, 2004. Note: In the above example, the specific type of runway light system is noted. This is done whenever a runway light system is commissioned. Once commissioned, the runway light system will be noted in a NOTAM as RWY LGTS (runway lights). Example: !XYZ 07/013 XYZ RWY 18/36 RWY LGTS OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 18 and 36 runway light system (RWY LGTS) is out of service (OTS).

Runway Lights Obscured Due to Snow and Ice:
!XYZ 02/005 XYZ RWY 6/24 RWY LGTS OBSCD WEF 0402171300 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 6 and 24 runway (edge) lights are completely obscured (RWY LGTS OBSCD) effective from 1300 GMT on February 17, 2004. Note: Even though the reason for runway light obscuration is never reported in a NOTAM, it's usually quite obvious the reason is due to snow cover. Also, runway lights that are partially obscured will never be reported in a NOTAM. So, if you are making a night landing to a snow covered airport and don't see all of the runway lights, some of them are probably obscured or covered with snow.

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Lighting Aid NOTAMs
Runway Centerline Light System:
!XYZ 05/009 XYZ RWY 10/28 RCLL OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 10 and 28 runway centerline light system (RCLL) is out of service (OTS).

Touchdown Zone Lights:
!XYZ 06/013 XYZ RWY 21 TDZ LGT OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 21 touchdown zone lights (TDZ LGT) are out of service (OTS).

Runway Lead-in Light System:
!XYZ 10/002 XYZ RWY 27 RLLS OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 27 runway leadin light system (RLLS) is out of service (OTS).

Airport Lighting Total Power Failure:
!XYZ 12/016 XYZ AD LGT OTS Translated: All lighting at the Eckswhyzee Airport (AD LGT) is out of service (OTS). Note: This includes approach lights, runway lights, taxiway lights, the airport rotating beacon, windsock lights, and obstruction lights.

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Lighting Aid NOTAMs
Airport Rotating Beacon:
!XYZ 09/005 XYZ AD ABN OTS Translated: The rotating beacon (ABN) at Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service (OTS).

Stop Bar Lighting System:
!XYZ 08/006 XYZ RWY 6 STOP BAR LGT OTS Translated: The stop bar light (STOP BAR LGT) for runway 6 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service (OTS).

Pilot Controlled Lighting:
!XYZ 09/002 XYZ SVC PCL OTS Translated: The pilot controlled lighting (PCL) at the Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service (OTS). ******************** !XYZ 05/013 XYZ RWY 9/27 RWY LGTS PCL OTS Translated: The pilot controlled lighting (PCL) for runway 9 and 27 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service (OTS). ******************** !XYZ 07/002 XYZ SVC PCL NOW 122.8 Translated: The pilot controlled light system (PCL) at the Eckswhyzee Airport is now frequency 122.8.

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Lighting Aid NOTAMs
Pilot Controlled Lighting (con't):
!XYZ 03/001 XYZ RWY LGTS PCL CMSND KEY 122.8 7 TIMES HIGH/5 TIMES MED/3 TIMES LOW INTST 0200-1000 DLY Translated: Pilot controlled lighting (PCL) for the runway lights at the Eckswhyzee Airport have been commissioned. To activate the pilot controlled lighting, key your microphone button 7 times for high intensity runway lights, 5 times for medium intensity runway lights, or 3 times for low intensity runway lights from 0200 GMT to 1000 GMT daily (DLY).

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Lighting Aid NOTAMs
Obstruction Light Outages:
Many times, the heights and locations of these structures are of little consequence to the safety of flight. But many towers, antennas and other structures are true hazards to aviation due to their close proximity to airports or location along helicopter routes. And there are some big towers out there (over a thousand and, sometimes, over two thousand feet tall). Aircraft do occasionally run into towers regardless of height - especially helicopters. So, even though ponderous, it would be wise to note their locations if you self-brief or get a briefing from flight service. Example: !XYZ 02/004 XYZ OBST TOWER 1025 (365 AGL) 4.3 SSW LGTS OTS TIL 0402121845 (ASR 1059795) Translated: A tower 1025 total feet MSL in height, 365 feet tall (365 AGL), located 4.3 nautical miles south-southwest of the Eckswhyzee Airport (XYZ230015) has its obstruction light out of service (LGTS OTS) until 1845 GMT on February 12, 2004. Note: The "(ASR 1059795)" listed in the NOTAM refers to the FCC registration number. ASR = Antenna Structure Registration (Number) Note: Types of obstructions with light outages reported in NOTAMs are towers, cranes, stacks, hills. Out of service (OTS) refers to a top light or a flashing obstruction light regardless of its position on a tower. Note: The until time-date group (TIL 0402121845) in this example indicates when the obstruction light NOTAM will automatically cancel. The obstruction light may remain unlit with no NOTAM referencing it, unless the NOTAM is updated for another 15 days by the company owning the structure. Note: If an MSL or AGL tower height is unknown, the contraction "UNKN" will be substituted for the missing tower height.
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NAVAID NOTAMs
Typical contractions associated with NAVAID NOTAMs include: BC - back course CHAN - channel DEGS - degrees DME - distance measuring equipment FAN MKR - fan marker FREQ - frequency GCA - ground controlled approach (RADAR) GP - glide path GPS - Global Positioning System ILS - instrument landing system IM - inner marker LDA - localizer type directional aid LM - compass locator at ILS middle marker LLZ - localizer LO - compass locator at ILS outer marker LORAN - long range air navigation system MKR - marker MLS - microwave landing system MM - middle marker NA - not authorized NAV - navigation NDB - nondirectional radio beacon OM - outer marker PAR - precision approach RADAR PRN - global position system random noise number SDF - simplified directional facility SSR - secondary surveillence RADAR SVC - service RAIM - Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring TACAN - tactical air navigation aid (azimuth & DME) TAR - terminal approach RADAR TVOR - terminal VOR UNMNT - unmonitored UNUSBL - unusable VOR - VHF omni-directional radio range VORTAC - VOR and TACAN (collocated)
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NAVAID NOTAMs
NAVAID malfunctions, lack of monitoring, shutdowns commissioning, and decommissioning are reported by NOTAM D as in the following examples:

Unmonitored NAVAID:
!ABC 08/004 XYZ NAV VOR UNMNT Translated: The Eckswhyzee VOR is unmonitored (UNMNT). Note: "Unmonitored" means that the people responsible for monitoring the NAVAID have lost the ability to observe its operational status due to a communication line problem. More than likely, the NAVAID is functioning normally. Therefore, as all good pilots always do, simply tune and identify the unmonitored NAVAID. If a reliable signal is not received, notify ATC so they may confirm if the NAVAID is out of service by receiving a second aircraft check of the NAVAID. Also, confirm that your navaid receiver is working properly by tuning and identifying a neighboring navaid.

Restrictions to NAVAID's:
!ABC 06/010 XYZ NAV VOR UNUSBL 090-120 BYD 20 BLW 5000 Translated: The Eckswhyzee VOR is unusable from the 090 degree radial to the 120 degree radial when beyond twenty miles and below five thousand feet MSL. ******************** !ABC 02/007 XYZ NAV VOR UNUSBL 130-180/250-300 BYD 20 BLW 6000 Translated: The Eckswhyzee VOR is unusable from the 130 degree radial to the 180 degree radial and from the 250 degree radial to the 300 degree radial when beyond twenty miles and below six thousand feet MSL (for both sectors).

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NAVAID NOTAMs
Restrictions to NAVAID's (con't):
!ABC 11/003 XYZ NAV VOR UNUSBL 210-330 BYD 10 BLW 3000 PLUS SEE AFD Translated: The Eckswhyzee VOR is unusable from the 210 degree radial to the 330 degree radial when beyond ten miles and below three thousand feet MSL. PLUS SEE the Airport Facility Directory (AFD). Note: If a NOTAM contains PLUS SEE (title of publication), you should refer to the defined publication to determine what other published abnormal information is available. The published data would, most likely, indicate other sectors of Eckswhyzee VOR radials that have been unusable for an extended period of time. Note: "UNUSBL" means unusable for IFR flight. The navaid in the unusable sector(s) may be used for VFR navigation, but back up your usage of the navaid with another form of navigation.

Instrument Landing Systems:
!XYZ 09/006 XYZ NAV RWY 27 ILS 110.3 CMSN Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 27 instrument landing system (ILS), frequency 110.3 has been commissioned (CMSN). ******************** !XYZ 12/004 XYZ NAV RWY 9 ILS DCMSN Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 9 instrument landing system (ILS) has been decommissioned (DCMSN). !XYZ 08/006 XYZ NAV RWY 24 ILS GP OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 24 instrument landing system (ILS) glide path (GP) is out of service (OTS).

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NAVAID NOTAMs
Instrument Landing Systems (con't):
!XYZ 04/002 XYZ NAV RWY 36 ILS LLZ OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 36 instrument landing system (ILS) localizer (LLZ) is out of service (OTS). A localizer approach outage will be preceded by the contraction "ILS", as in the above example, even though it is not an ILS approach. ******************** !XYZ 08/006 XYZ NAV RWY 16 ILS OM OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 16 instrument landing system (ILS) outer marker (OM) is out of service (OTS). ******************** !XYZ 08/006 XYZ NAV RWY 6 ILS GP UNUSBL BLW 846 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 6 instrument landing system (ILS) glide path (GP) is unusable (UNUSBL) below (BLW) 846 feet MSL. ******************** !XYZ 03/009 XYZ NAV RWY 33 ILS LLZ UNUSBL 30 R CRS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 33 instrument landing system (ILS) localizer (LLZ) is unusable (UNUSBL) 30 degrees right of course (30 R CRS).

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NAVAID NOTAMs
CATEGORY 2 AND 3 INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM STATUS:
Category 2 and/or 3 approaches are automatically cancelled or not authorized when a NOTAM has been issued for any component needed for the approaches. Those components are outer marker (OM), middle marker (MM), inner marker (IM), glide slope (GP), localizer (LLZ), locator at the outer marker (LO), distance measuring equipment (DME), approach lighting system (ALS), sequence flashing lights/ runway alignment indicator lights (SFL/RAIL), touchdown zone lights (TDZL), runway centerline lights (RCLL), runway edge lights (RWY LGTS), RVR touchdown (RVRT), RVR midpoint (RVRM), and RVR rollout (RVRR). Suspension of category(ies) of operation due to abnormal status of ILS and ancillary electronic components occurs when: 1. One of the LLZ transmitters inoperative. 2. LLZ far field monitor inoperative. 3. Failure of one monitor in a dual channel LLZ or GP monitor system.

4. LLZ/GP operating on battery standby power source when main power source has failed. 5. ALS standby power source inoperative. 6. SFL/RAIL standby power source inoperative. 7. TDZL/RCLL standby power source inoperative. 8. RWY LGTS standby power source inoperative.

9. More than 10 percent of touchdown zone lights, runway centerline lights, runway edge lights, and taxiway lights are not functioning. Examples: !ATL 07/009 ATL NAV RWY 8L ILS CAT 2 NA !ATL 10/018 ATL NAV RWY 8L ILS CAT 3 NA !ATL 05/012 ATL NAV RWY 8L ILS CAT 2/3 NA WEF 0405251600- 0405251900

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NAVAID NOTAMs
Microwave Landing System:
!XYZ 08/012 XYZ NAV RWY 10R MLS CHAN 556 CMSN Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 10 Right (10R) microwave landing system (MLS), Channel 556 (CHAN 556) has been commissioned (CMSN). ******************** !XYZ 10/014 XYZ NAV RWY 28L MLS DCMSN Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 28 Left (28L) microwave landing system (MLS) has been decommissioned (DCMSN). ******************** !XYZ 01/017 XYZ NAV RWY 4 MLS ELEV OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 4 microwave landing system (MLS) elevation (ELEV) is out of service (OTS). ******************** !XYZ 11/014 XYZ NAV RWY 12 MLS AZM OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 12 microwave landing system (MLS) azimuth (AZM) is out of service (OTS). ******************** !XYZ 06/011 XYZ NAV RWY 10 MLS AZM UNUSBL BYD 25 BLW 2300 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 10 microwave landing system (MLS) azimuth (AZM) is unusable (UNUSBL) beyond 25 miles (BYD 25) below (BLW) 2300 feet MSL.

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NAVAID NOTAMs
Simplified Directional Facility:
!XYZ 09/003 XYZ NAV RWY 6 SDF OTS Translated: Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 6 simplified directional facility (SDF) is out of service (OTS).

Localizer Type Directional Aid:
!XYZ 10/014 XYZ NAV RWY 36 LDA OTS Translated: Eckswhyzee Airport's runway 36 localizer type directional aid (LDA) is out of service (OTS).

VOR/DME:
!ABC 07/004 XYZ NAV VOR OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee VOR is out of service (OTS). Unless otherwise listed as out of service by another NOTAM, the DME portion remains in service. ******************** !ABC 03/008 XYZ NAV DME OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee DME is out of service (OTS). Unless otherwise listed as out of service by another NOTAM, the VOR portion remains in service.

VORTAC:
!ABC 07/003 XYZ NAV VORTAC OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee VORTAC is out of service (OTS). (All components are out of service - VOR, DME, and TACAN).

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NAVAID NOTAMs
VORTAC (con't):
!ABC 07/003 XYZ NAV VOR OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee VORTAC's VOR portion is out of service (OTS). Note: Unless otherwise listed as out of service by another NOTAM, the DME and TACAN portions remain in service. ******************** !ABC 09/005 XYZ NAV DME OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee VORTAC's DME portion is out of service (OTS). Note: Unless otherwise listed as out of service by another NOTAM, the VOR and TACAN azimuth portions remain in service. ******************** !ABC 06/002 XYZ NAV TACAN OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee VORTAC's TACAN portion is out of service (OTS). Note: This indicates that either the DME portion of the VORTAC is inoperative, or that the entire TACAN (azimuth and DME) is inoperative. ******************** !ABC 03/005 XYZ NAV TACAN AZM OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee VORTAC's TACAN azimuth portion is out of service (OTS).

(Explanation continued on next page)

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NAVAID NOTAMs
VORTAC (con't):
(Explanation continued, TACAN AZM OTS) Unless otherwise listed as out of service in another NOTAM, the VOR and DME portions of the VORTAC remain in operation.

Terminal VOR:
Terminal VOR's (TVOR) may serve one or more airports. When serving one airport and not associated with the airway structure, the identifier of the airport is the affected facility in the NOTAM format. Example: !ABC 07/002 ABC XYZ NAV VOR OTS Translated: The XYZ VOR is out of service (OTS). Note: The "ABC" in the above example is the single airport served by the "XYZ" VOR. ******************** Terminal VOR's (TVOR) serving more than one airport - or associated with the airway structure, have NOTAMs issued using the TVOR as the affected facility. Example: !ABC 10/003 XYZ NAV VOR OTS Translated: The XYZ VOR is out of service (OTS). Note: In the above example, the airports affected by the XYZ VOR outage are not listed in the NOTAM.

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NAVAID NOTAMs
NDB:
Terminal NDB's (non-directional radio beacons) may serve one or more airports. For those NDB's located on or serving one airport, the identifier of the airport is the affected facility in the NOTAM format. Example: !ABC 09/008 ABC XYZ NAV NDB OTS Translated: The XYZ non-directional radio beacon (NDB) is out of service (OTS). Note: The "ABC" in the above example is the single airport served by the "XYZ" NDB. ******************** Terminal NDB's (non-directional radio beacons) serving more than one airport have NOTAMs issued using the NDB as the affected facility. Example: !ABC 12/004 XYZ NAV NDB OTS Translated: The XYZ non-directional radio beacon (NDB) is out of service (OTS). Note: In the above example, the airports served by the XYZ NDB outage are not listed in the NOTAM.

NDB/LO:
An NDB/LO (non-directional radio beacon/compass locator at ILS outer marker) may serve one or more airports. For an NDB/LO serving one airport, the identifier of the airport is the affected facility in the NOTAM format.

(See next page for examples)

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NAVAID NOTAMs
NDB/LO (con't):
Example: !XYX 05/004 XYZ NAV RWY 24 ALICE NDB/LO OTS Translated: The ALICE non-directional radio beacon/compass locator at ILS outer marker (NDB/LO) serving runway 24 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service (OTS). ******************** An NDB/LO (non-directional radio beacon/compass locator at ILS outer marker) serving more than one airport has multiple NOTAMs issued under the identifier of each airport. At one airport the navaid serves as an NDB/LO serving a specific runway at a specific airport. The navaid also serves as an NDB only for another neighboring airport. Example: !XYZ 11/002 XYZ NAV RWY 27 ANGEL NDB/LO OTS Translated: The ANGEL non-directional beacon/compass locator at ILS outer marker (NDB/LO) serving runway 27 at the Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service (OTS) - AND !XYZ 10/003 XYZ NAV ANGEL NDB OTS Translated: The ANGEL non-directional beacon NDB serving the Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service (OTS). Note: In the above NOTAM, the ANGEL NDB serves the XYZ Airport as an NDB only.

NAVAID Identification Change:
!XYZ 06/003 XYZ NAV VORTAC NOW ABC Translated: The Eckswhyzee VORTAC's identifier is changed to (NOW) Ayebeesee (ABC).

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RADAR Outages
!XYZ 10/012 XYZ SVC TAR OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee terminal area RADAR (TAR) is out of service (OTS). ******************** !XYZ 05/002 XYZ SVC SSR OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee secondary surveillence RADAR (SSR) is out of service (OTS). ******************** !XYZ 03/005 XYZ SVC PAR OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee precision approach RADAR (PAR) is out of service (OTS). ******************** !XYZ 10/012 XYZ SVC TAR/SSR OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee terminal area RADAR (TAR) and the secondary surveillence RADAR (SSR) are out of service (OTS). ******************** !XYZ 03/005 XYZ SVC GCA UNAVBL Translated: The Eckswhyzee ground control approach RADAR (GCA) is unavailable (UNAVBL). !XYZ 11/002 XYZ SVC ARSR OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee air route surveillence RADAR (ARSR) is out of service (OTS).

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Communications Outlets
Typical contractions associated with Communications Outlet NOTAMs include: ATIS CD COM CTAF EFAS HIWAS LAA RCAG RCO RTR - Automatic Terminal Information Service - Clearance Delivery - communications - Common Traffic Advisory Frequency - Enroute Flight Advisory Service - Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Local Airport Advisory Remote Communication Air/Ground Facility Remote Communication Outlet Remote Transmitter/Receiver

Service

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Communications Outlets
The commissioning, decommissioning, outage, or unavailability of communications outlets are reported by NOTAM D as in the following examples:

Automatic Terminal Information Service:
!XYZ 08/003 XYZ COM ATIS OTS Translated: The automatic terminal information service (ATIS) serving the Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service (OTS).

Remote Communication Outlet:
!XYZ 11/004 XYZ COM RCO 122.4 OTS Translated: The remote communication outlet (RCO), frequency 122.4 only is out of service (OTS). Note: In this example, the XYZ RCO serving the Eckswhyzee flight service station has another frequency of 255.4. It remains in service and is usable for communications. Notice the distinction in the example below where no frequency is listed in the NOTAM: !XYZ 11/004 XYZ COM RCO OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee remote communication outlet (RCO) is out of service (OTS). Note: With no frequency listed, this indicates that all frequencies of this remote communication outlet serving the Eckswhyzee flight service station are out of service.

Clearance Delivery:
!ABC 03/002 XYZ COM CD OTS Translated: Clearance delivery (CD) serving the Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service (OTS).

77

Communications Outlets
Local Airport Advisory:
!ABC 06/002 XYZ COM LAA OTS Translated: The local airport advisory frequencies (LAA) serving the Eckswhyzee Airport are out of service (OTS). Note: If one or several frequencies are out of service, but one is operating, the NOTAM will list the out of service frequency(s). Example: !ABC 04/001 XYZ COM LAA 123.6 OTS Translated: The local airport advisory frequency (LAA) 123.6 serving the Eckswhyzee Airport is out of service (OTS).

VOR VOICE:
!ABC 12/003 XYZ COM VOR VOICE OTS Translated: The VOR voice feature (VOR VOICE) for the Eckswhyzee VOR is out of service (OTS). Note: Flight service cannot transmit over the affected VOR to communicate with pilots who call flight service on 122.1 and listen over that VOR frequency.

Remote Transmitter/Receiver:
!ABC 09/003 XYZ COM RTR OTS Translated: The remote transmitter/receiver (RTR) serving the Eckxwhyzee ATC facility is out of service (OTS). Note: An RTR is an unmanned communications facility remotely controlled by air traffic personnel to extend VHF and UHF communication range. RTR's serve terminal ATC facilities, whereas RCO's serve flight service stations.

78

Communications Outlets
Remote Communication Air/Ground Facility:
!ABC 02/005 XYZ COM RCAG 135.6 VICE 133.15 Translated: The new remote communication air to ground facility (RCAG) frequency serving the Eckswhyzee ARTCC is 135.6 instead of (VICE) the old frequency of 133.15. Note: An RCAG is an unmanned VHF/UHF transmitter and receiver facility which is used to expand air route traffic control center (ARTCC) air to ground communications coverage which facilitates direct radio contact between pilots and air traffic controllers.

Enroute Flight Advisory Service (Flight Watch):
!XYZ 08/003 XYZ COM EFAS OUTLET 122.0 OTS Translated: The enroute flight advisory service (EFAS) provided by the Eckswhyzee flight service station, frequency 122.0, is out of service (OTS). Note: Upon request, EFAS provides timely weather information (especially about thunderstorms) pertinent to a pilot's route of flight and altitude. EFAS (Flight Watch) locations at selected flight service stations, are listed on the back cover of the Airport/Facility Directory.

Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service:
!XYZ 11/004 XYZ COM HIWAS OUTLET OTS Translated: The hazardous inflight weather advisory service (HIWAS) provided by the Eckswhyzee flight service station is out of service (OTS). Note: HIWAS is a continuous recorded broadcast provided to airborne pilots over selected VOR's. The HIWAS broadcasts information about AIRMET's, SIGMET's, Convective SIGMET's, urgent pilot reports, and Severe Thunderstorm & Tornado Watches. A HIWAS outlet area is typically a 150 nautical mile radius of the selected VOR providing the broadcast service.
79

Services
Typical contractions associated with services NOTAMs include: AFSS ARTCC ATC ATCCC ATSCC CD DLA FSS GC LC MSG NTAP RAPCON SVC TEMPO TIL TMPA TWR - automated flight service station - air route traffic control center - air traffic control - air traffic control command center - air traffic system command center - clearance delivery - delay - flight service station - ground control - local control - message - Notices to Airmen Publication - radar approach control (air force/FAA) - services - temporary - until - traffic management program alerts - tower (air traffic control)

Changes in Hours of Operation of an ATC Facility or Service:
!XYZ 08/006 XYZ SVC TWR 1000-2000 MON-FRI/ 1200-2200 SAT/1400-2300 SUN TIL 0408052300 Translated: The Eckswhyzee air traffic control tower (TWR) is open from 1000 GMT to 2000 GMT (1000-2000) Monday through Friday (MON-FRI), from 1200 GMT to 2200 GMT (1200-2200) on Saturday (SAT), and from 1400 GMT to 2300 GMT (1400-2300) on Sunday (SUN) until 2300 GMT on August 5, 2004.

80

Services
Changes in Hours of Operation of an ATC Facility or Service (con't):
!ABC 09/002 XYZ SVC TWR CLSD 0300-1000 MON-FRI/ 2300-1200 SAT/2200-1400 SUN TIL 0409121400 Translated: The Eckswhyzee air traffic control tower (TWR) is closed from 0300 GMT to 1000 GMT (0300-1000) Monday through Friday (MON-FRI), from 2300 GMT to 1200 GMT (2300-1200) on Saturday (SAT), and from 2200 GMT to 1400 GMT (2200-1400) on Sunday (SUN) until 1400 GMT on September 12, 2004.

Establishment of Temporary Air Traffic Control Tower:
!XYZ 03/004 XYZ SVC TEMPO TWR 121.0 1200-2000 DLY Translated: A temporary air traffic control tower (TWR) is available at the Eckswhyzee Airport between 1200 GMT and 2000 GMT daily (1200-2000 DLY). Frequency 121.0 will be used to control aircraft on all movement areas and traffic patterns. ******************** !XYZ 01/001 XYZ SVC TEMPO TWR LC 119.1 1200-2000 DLY Translated: A temporary air traffic control tower (TWR) is available at the Eckswhyzee Airport between 1200 GMT and 2000 GMT daily (1200-2000 DLY). Frequency 119.1 will be used to control arriving and departing aircraft from the designated runway(s) only (LC 119.1). Taxiing will be at pilot's discretion. ******************** !XYZ 08/002 XYZ SVC TEMPO TWR LC 121.0 GC 121.7 1400-2100 DLY Translated: A temporary air traffic control tower (TWR) is available at the Eckswhyzee Airport between 1400 GMT and 2100 GMT daily (1400-2100 DLY). Frequency 121.0 will be used to control arriving and departing aircraft from the designated runway(s) (LC 121.0), and 121.7 will be used for controlling taxiing aircraft (GC 121.7).
81

Services
Establishment of Temporary Air Traffic Control Tower (con't):
!XYZ 03/007 XYZ SVC TEMPO TWR LC/CD 121.3 1000-2200 DLY Translated: A temporary air traffic control tower (TWR) is available at the Eckswhyzee Airport between 1000 GMT and 2200 GMT daily (1000-2200 DLY). Frequency 121.3 will be used to control arriving and departing aircraft from the designated runway(s) and for issuing IFR clearances (LC/ CD 121.3).

Total Failure of an Air Traffic Facility (Loss of Communications):
Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) three letter identifiers: ZAB ZAN ZAU ZBW ZDC ZDV ZFW ZHU ZID ZJX ZKC ZLA ZLC ZMA ZME ZMP ZNY ZOA ZOB ZSE ZTL Albuquerque Anchorage Chicago Boston Washington Denver Fort Worth Houston Indianapolis Jacksonville Kansas City Los Angeles Salt Lake City Miami Memphis Minneapolis New York Oakland Cleveland Seattle Atlanta
82

Services
Total Failure of an Air Traffic Facility (Loss of Communications, con't):
!DCA 05/002 ZDC SVC WASHINGTON ARTCC OTS !DCA 02/003 ZDC SVC GREENSBORO APPROACH CONTROL OTS !MCN 02/005 ZTL SVC GREENSBORO APPROACH CONTROL OTS Note: If an approach control airspace is totally within one ARTCCs airspace and state, only one NOTAM is issued. However, if the airspace covers two or more states and/or one or more ARTCC's, a NOTAM is issued for each state and/or ARTCC. *See note below for possible reasons for the outage. !MIA 06/014 ZMA SVC MIAMI AFSS OTS !GNV 06/009 ZJX SVC MIAMI AFSS OTS Note: If a flight service station's flight plan area is totally within one ARTCCs airspace and one state, only one NOTAM is issued. However, if the flight plan area covers two or more states and one or more ARTCCs, a NOTAM is issued for each state and/or ARTCC. *See note below for possible reasons for the outage. !XYZ 11/006 XYZ SVC TWR OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee air traffic control tower (TWR) is out of service (OTS). *Note: The reason for the above outages is not given in the NOTAM. The ATC facilities may be unavailable due to a loss of radio communications capability, or lack of sufficient staffing, or evacuation due to air quality problems, or some type of threat.

83

Services
Traffic Delays:
!XYZ 10/008 XYZ SVC ATC DLA WEF 0410151600-0410151630 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport will experience an air traffic control delay (ATC DLA) effective from 1600 GMT on October 15, 2004 through 1630 GMT on October 15, 2004 (WEF 0410151600-0410151630).

Traffic Management Program Alerts:
!XYZ 05/012 XYZ SVC TMPA SEE NTAP RSVN RQRD WEF 0405221200-0405290200 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport has a traffic management program (TMPA) in effect. See the Notices to Airmen Publication (NTAP) for detailed information. Reservations are required (RSVN RQRD) effective from 1200 GMT on May 22, 2004 through 0200 GMT on May 29, 2004. ******************** !XYZ 08/005 XYZ SVC TMPA SEE TM MSG RSVN RQRD 1100-0259 DLY Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport has a traffic management program (TMPA) in effect. See traffic management messages (SEE TM) for detailed information. Reservations are required (RSVN RQRD) effective from 1100 GMT through 0259 GMT daily (1100-0259 DLY). Note: Details of each traffic management program are published in the Notices to Airmen Publication (NTAP) or included in a special traffic management program advisory messages. If unable to locate this information through your own resources, call a flight service station for detailed information. A TMPA usually involves aircraft operating under instrument flight rules.

84

Services
Flow Control Messages (arrival delays, such as ground stops, ground delays, airborne holding, etc.):
!XYZ 09/014 XYZ SVC TMPA SEE ATCCC MSG WEF 0409211800-0409212100 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport has a traffic management program (TMPA) in effect. See air traffic control command center messages (SEE ATCCC) for detailed information. The TMPA is in effect from 1800 GMT on September 21, 2004 through 2100 GMT on September 21, 2004 (WEF 0409211800-0409242100). ******************** !XYZ 03/007 XYZ SVC TMPA SEE ATCCC MSG TIL 0403240300 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport has a traffic management program (TMPA) in effect. See air traffic control command center messages (SEE ATCCC) for detailed information. The TMPA is in effect until 0300 GMT on March 24, 2004 (TIL 0403240300).

Fuel Unavailability:
!ABC 04/002 XYZ SVC 100LL FUEL UNAVBL WEF 0404011000-0404302200 Translated: One-hundred low-lead fuel (100LL FUEL) is unavailable (UNAVBL) at the Eckswhyzee Airport effective from 1000 GMT on April 1, 2004 through 2200 GMT on April 30, 2004.

85

Weather & Weather Reporting Equipment
Typical contractions associated with weather and weather reporting equipment NOTAMs include: system ALSTG AMOS ASOS AUTOB AWOS CIG DP LAWRS LLWAS M RVR RVRM RVRR RVRT SVC T TDWR UNREL VIS WND WX REP - altimeter setting - automatic meteorological observing - automated surface observing system - automatic weather reporting system - automated weather observing system - ceiling - dew point - limited aviation weather reporting station - low level wind shear alert system - missing - runway visual range - runway visual range midpoint - runway visual range rollout - runway visual range touchdown - services - temperature - terminal doppler weather radar - unreliable - visibility - wind - weather report

Weather Reporting Equipment Commissioning or Decommissioning:
!XYZ 05/016 XYZ SVC AWOS-3 CMSN 120.5/717-435-6160 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's automated weather observing/reporting system (AWOS-3) is commissioned (CMSN), available on frequency 120.5 and telephone number 717-435-6160.

86

Weather & Weather Reporting Equipment
Weather Reporting Equipment Failure or NonAvailability:
!XYZ 08/003 XYZ SVC AWOS-3 ALSTG NOT AVBL Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's automated weather observing/reporting system (AWOS-3) altimeter setting (ALSTG) is not available (NOT AVBL). ******************** !XYZ 11/003 XYZ SVC WX REP NOT AVBL Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's non-automated weather reporting service (WX REP) provided by the FAA or the National Weather Service is not available (NOT AVBL).

AWOS Unreliable or Inaccurate Elements:
Note: An unreliable element of an automated weather report will be contained in a disseminated weather report. The NOTAM reporting that element's unreliability must be noted to recognize the affected element's lack of reliability. !XYZ 01/004 XYZ SVC CIG/VIS UNREL Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's ceiling (CIG) and visibility (VIS) contained in the AWOS report are unreliable (UNREL). ******************** !XYZ 12/013 XYZ SVC T UNREL Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's temperature (T) contained in the AWOS report is unreliable (UNREL).

87

Weather & Weather Reporting Equipment
AWOS or ASOS Broadcast Frequency Inoperative:
!XYZ 03/019 XYZ SVC ASOS 120.7 OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's automated surface observing system (ASOS) broadcast frequency 120.7 is out of service (OTS).

Low Level Windshear Alert System:
!XYZ 07/012 XYZ SVC LLWAS OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's low level windshear alert system (LLWAS) is out of service (OTS).

Terminal Doppler Weather RADAR:
!XYZ 09/007 XYZ SVC TDWR OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's terminal doppler weather RADAR (TDWR) is out of service (OTS).

Runway Visual Range:
!XYZ 02/016 XYZ SVC RVR OTS Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport's runway visual range (RVR) equipment is out of service (OTS). Note: Other runway visual range readings include: RVRT - Runway visual range touchdown RVRM - Runway visual range midpoint RVRR - Runway visual range rollout

88

Airspace
Typical contractions associated with airspace NOTAMs include: ACFT - aircraft ACR - air carrier ACT - active ADZD - advised AR - aerial refueling track CAAS - Class A airspace CARF - central altitude reservation function CFR - code of federal regulations COM - communications CBAS - Class B airspace CBSA - Class B surface area CCAS - Class C airspace CCSA - Class C surface area CDAS - Class D airspace CDSA - Class D surface area CEAS - Class E airspace CESA - Class E surface area CGAS - Class G airspace DMSTN - demonstration HIBAL - high altitude balloon HR(s) - hour(s) INT - intersection SKED - scheduled NMR - nautical mile radius NVG - night vision goggles OPS - operation(s) PJE - parachute jump exercise R - restricted area UAV - unmanned air vehicle UAR - header contraction for information pertaining to Standard Terminal Arrivals (STAR) and profile descents USD - header contraction for information pertaining to Departure Procedures (DP) VIA - by way of WX REP - weather report
89

Airspace
Parachute Jumping/Sky Diving (PJE)
!ABC 09/003 ABC AIRSPACE PJE 2 NMR ABC090015/XYZ 5000/BLW WEF 0409121500-0409121600 Translated: Parachute jumping or sky diving (PJE) will occur within a 2 nautical mile radius (2 NMR) of a point extending from the 090 degree radial at distance of 15 miles from the ABC VOR (ABC 090015). The parachute jump is over the Eckswhyzee Airport (XYZ). The parachutists will jump from 5000 feet MSL (5000/BLW) effective from 1500 GMT on September 12 ,2004 until 1600 GMT on September 12 ,2004. Note: This parachute jump exercise (PJE) is referenced by the radial and distance from a VOR and is located over an airport. ******************** !ABC 07/005ABC AIRSPACE PJE 2 NMR XYZ180010 6000/BLW WEF 0407121300-0407121400 Translated: Parachute jumping or sky diving (PJE) will occur within a 2 nautical mile radius (2 NMR) of a point extending from the 180 degree radial at distance of 10 miles from the Eckswhyzee VOR (XYZ180010). The parachutists will jump from 6000 feet MSL (6000/BLW) effective from 1300 GMT on July 12, 2004 until 1400 GMT on July 12, 2004. Note: This parachute jump exercise (PJE) is referenced by the radial and distance from a VOR and is not located over an airport.

(more examples are continued on the next page)

90

Airspace
Parachute Jumping/Sky Diving (PJE) (con't)
!XYX 05/007 XYZ AIRSPACE PJE 3 NMR 8000/BLW WEF 0405231600-0405231900 Translated: Parachute jumping or sky diving (PJE) will occur within a 3 nautical mile radius (3 NMR) over the Eckswhyzee Airport. The parachutists will jump from 8000 feet MSL (8000/ BLW) effective from 1600 GMT on May 23, 2004 until 1900 GMT on May 23, 2004. Note: This parachute jump exercise (PJE) is located over an airport. ******************** !XYX 05/007 XYZ AIRSPACE PJE 30 SW 3 NMR 8000/BLW WEF 0405231600-0405231900 Translated: Parachute jumping or sky diving (PJE) will occur 30 nautical miles southwest (30 SW) of the Eckswhyzee Airport within a 3 nautical mile radius (3 NMR). The parachutists will jump from 8000 feet MSL (8000/BLW) effective from 1600 GMT on May 23, 2004 until 1900 GMT on May 23, 2004. Note: This parachute jump exercise (PJE) is referenced from an airport.

Aerobatic Aircraft and Areas:
!XYZ 06/017 XYZ AIRSPACE AEROBATIC ACFT 4500/BLW 5 NMR XYZ AVOIDANCE ADZD WEF 0406111400-0406111600 Translated: Aerobatic aircraft (ACFT) will be operating at an altitude of 4500 feet MSL and below (4500/BLW) within a 5 nautical mile radius (5 NMR) of the Eckswhyzee Airport. Avoidance is advized (ADZD) effective from 1400 GMT on June 11, 2004 until 1600 GMT on June 11, 2004. Note: The word "AREA" may be substituted for the word "ACFT" in some NOTAMs. Otherwise, the information given is identical.
91

Airspace
Unmanned (Model) Rocket Launches:
!XYZ 07/004 XYZ AIRSPACE UNMANNED ROCKET 3 NMR XYZ270016 FL250/BLW WEF 0407041600-0407042000 Translated: Unmanned rocket launch(es) will occur within a 3 nautical mile radius (3 NMR) of a point extending from the 270 degree radial at distance of 16 miles from the Eckswhyzee VOR (XYZ 270016). The unmanned rocket(s) will travel as high as flight level 250 (FL250/BLW) effective from 1600 GMT on July 4, 2004 until 2000 GMT on July 4, 2004. Note: Believe it or not, some model rockets built by enthusiasts are almost as big as telephone poles!

Hot Air Balloons:
!XYZ 08/005 XYZ AIRSPACE HOT AIR BALLOON 3 NMR XYZ180020 1500/BLW WEF 0408281000-0408281200 Translated: One or more hot air balloons will be airborne within a 3 nautical mile radius (3 NMR) of a point extending from the 180 degree radial at distance of 20 miles from the Eckswhyzee VOR (XYZ 180020). The balloons will be floating as high as 1500 feet AGL effective from 1000 GMT on August 28, 2004 until 1200 GMT on August 28, 2004.

Moored Balloons:
!XYZ 05/013 XYZ OBST MOORED BALLOON 1 NMR XYZ 360007 615/BLW WEF 0405291200-0405292200 Translated: A balloon secured with a line (MOORED BALLOON) is centered within a 1 nautical mile radius (1 NMR) of a point extending from the 360 degree radial at distance of 7 miles from the Eckswhyzee VOR (XYZ 360007). The balloon extends up to 615 feet AGL effective from 1200 GMT on May 29, 2004 until 2200 GMT on May 29, 2004.

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Airspace
High Altitude Balloon (HIBAL):
!XYZ 06/008 XYZ AIRSPACE HIBAL 20 S E BND REACHING FL600 TIL 0406142000 Translated: A high altitude balloon (HIBAL) will be released from a point located 20 nautical miles south (20 S) of Eckswhyzee VOR. It will rise and be carried by the winds aloft in an easterly direction (E BND), reaching 60,000 feet standard pressure altitude (FL600) at 2000 GMT on June 14, 2000. Note: Notice that the "S" and the "E" are separated by a space. Don't confuse this with southeast. The release time is not given.

Restricted Areas:
!ABC 10/015 XYZ AIRSPACE R5802A/B ACT WEF 0410121200-0410122200 Translated: Located in the vicinity of the Eckswhyzee NAVAID, Restricted Areas R5802 Alpha and R5802 Bravo (R5802A/B) are active (ACT) effective from 1200 GMT on October 12, 2004 until 2200 GMT on October 12, 2004. Note: NOTAM D's are issued for charted restricted areas that are activated at times other than those listed on aeronautical charts. Note: The nearest VOR/DME, VORTAC, or NDB will precede the restricted area identifier in the NOTAM. This will give an indication of the location of the restricted area so it may be located on an aeronautical chart.

Surface Area Hours of Operation:
!XYZ 05/004 XYZ AIRSPACE CESA HRS 0700-1800 DLY TIL 0405301800 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Class E Surface Area (CESA) hours of operation (HRS) are from 0700 Local until 1800 Local (0700-1800) daily (DLY) until (TIL) 1800 Local on May 30, 2004.
93

Airspace
Surface Area/Airspace Hours of Operation (con't):
!XYZ 09/007 XYZ AIRSPACE CDSA HRS 0600-1600 MON-FRI/ 0800-1700 SAT/0700-1800 SUN TIL 0409251800 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Class D Surface Area (CDSA) hours of operation (HRS) are 0600 from Local until 1600 Local (0600-1600) Monday thru Friday (MON-FRI), and from 0800 Local until 1700 Local (0800-1700) Saturdays (SAT), and 0700 Local until 1800 Local Sundays (SUN) until (TIL) 1800 Local on September 25, 2004. Note: Hours of operation of surface areas are Local time. Note: Changes in hours of operation of surface areas due to seasonal daylight changes are not issued as NOTAMs. Note: The "CDSA" above is for illustration. The other surface area and airspace designations are: CBSA, CBAS, CCSA, CCAS, CDAS, CESA, and CEAS

Temporary Loss of Communications Due to Hours Change of Surface Area:
!ABC 07/012 XYZ AIRSPACE COM UNAVBL BLW 3000 0300-1200 DLY TIL 0407201200 Translated: Eckswhyzee communications (COM) are unavailable (UNAVBL) below (BLW) 3000 feet AGL (3000) from 0300 GMT through 1200 GMT daily (DLY) until (TIL) 1200 GMT on July 20, 2004.

Unmanned Air Vehicles:
!XYZ 07/008 XYZ AIRSPACE UAS 10000-15000 WITHIN AN AREA BOUNDED BY EKN050010 ESL180015 ESL190025 EKN160014 WEF 0807151200-0807151600 Translated: Unmanned air vehicles (UAS) operating from 10,000 to 15,000 feet MSL within the above fix/radial/DME defined area effective from 1200 GMT on July 15, 2008 until 1600 GMT on July 15, 2008.

94

Airspace
Airshows:
!XYZ 08/017 XYZ AD CLSD EXC SKED ACR/AIRSHOW ACFT 10000/BLW 5 NMR XYZ AVOIDANCE ADZD WEF 0408121700-0408122200 Translated: The Eckswhyzee Airport (AD) is closed (CLSD) except for scheduled air carrier aircraft (EXC SKED ACR) and airshow aircraft (ACFT), 10,000 feet MSL and below (10000/ BLW), within a 5 nautical mile radius (5 NMR) of the Eckswhyzee Airport. Avoidance is advised (ADZD) effective from 1700 GMT on August 12, 2004 until 2200 GMT on August 12, 2004.

Demonstration Aircraft:
!XYZ 08/016 XYZ AIRSPACE DMSTN ACFT 10000/BLW 5 NMR XYZ AVOIDANCE ADZD WEF 0408111700-0408112200 Translated: Demonstration aircraft (DMSTN ACFT) will operate 10,000 feet and below (10000/BLW), within a 5 nautical mile radius (5 NMR) of the Eckswhyzee Airport. Avoidance is advised (ADZD) effective from 1700 GMT on August 11, 2004 until 2200 GMT on August 11, 2004. Note: Airshow NOTAMs and demonstration aircraft NOTAMs are frequently clustered together covering events over a period of days. It takes an astute eye to thoroughly study and understand the dates and times of the various activities and restrictions associated with airshows. Read these NOTAMs very carefully!

Lights Out/Night Vision Goggle (NVG) Operations in Military Operations Areas:
!XYZ 09/004 XYZ AIRSPACE LGTS OUT/NVG TRNG KIOWA MOA 2000/BLW AVOIDANCE ADVISED WEF 0809140200-0809140300 Translated: Night vision goggle operations will be conducted in the Kiowa Military Operations Area 2,000 feet MSL and below from 0200 GMT until 0300 GMT on September 14, 2008.
95

Airspace
Departure Procedures (DP):
!USD SAN AIRSPACE BORDER THREE DEPARTURE JULIAN TRANSITION: FROM OVER BROWS INT VIA JLI R-182 TO JLI VORTAC Note: DP's and STAR's are issued by the United States NOTAM Office (USNOF). The contraction "USD" refers to departure procedures (DP's), whereas the contraction "UAR" refers to arrivals (STAR's).

Standard Terminal Arrivals (STAR's):
!UAR SAN AIRSPACE BARET FOUR ARRIVAL IMPERIAL TRANSITION: FROM OVER IPL VORTAC VIA IPL R-258 AND MZB R-076 TO BARET INT. THENCE...

Aerial Refueling:
!XYX 08/004 XYZ AIRSPACE AR118 ACT 0100-0400 DLY WEF 0408140100-0408190400 Translated: In the vicinity of Eckswhyzee, aerial refueling track 118 (AR118) is active (ACT) from 0100 GMT until 0400 GMT daily (DLY) effective from 0100 GMT on August 14, 2004 until 0400 GMT on August 19, 2004. Note: These NOTAMs are issued for established aerial refueling routes published in the Military Flight Information Publication (Military FLIP).

Airspace and Altitude Reservations (CARF):
!CARF ZNY AIRSPACE STATIONARY AIRSPACE RESERVATION WITHIN 50 NM RADIUS ETX 360030 6500-FL250 WEF 0406121400-0406121600 Translated: Central altitude reservation function (CARF), in New York Center (ZNY) airspace will occur within a 50 nautical mile (50 NM) radius of a point centered off the East Texas (ETX) 360 degree radial at a distance of 30 nautical miles. The base altitude is 6,500 feet MSL, and the upper limit altitude is flight level 250 (6500-FL250).
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Airspace
Airspace and Altitude Reservations (CARF) (con't):
The airspace reservation is in effect from 1400 GMT on June 12, 2004 until 1600 GMT on June 12, 2004. Note: CARF NOTAMs are issued by the United States Notam Office (USNOF).

Missile Firing and Offshore Airspace Reservations:
A008/04 NOTAMN A) KZOA B) 0403240351 C) 0403240455 E) THAT WATER OPERATIONS WILL BE CONDUCTED WITHIN THE FOLLOWING AREAS: KZOA 3411N12456W 3451N12322W 3426N12319W 3417N12453W PHZH 3040N14545W 3054N14453W 3037N14447W 3023N14539W IN THE INTEREST OF SAFETY ALL NONPARTICIPATING PILOTS ARE STRONGLY ADVISED TO AVOID THE ABOVE AREAS. IFR TRAFFIC UNDER ATC JURISDICTION SHOULD ANTICIPATE REROUTING IN VICINITY OF IMPACTS. F) SFC G) UNL

Note: The above is transmitted as an international NOTAM. Explanation: A008/04 - This is the eighth NOTAM issued in the year 2004 for this affected location. NOTAMN - This is a new NOTAM, indicated by the "N" immediately following the word "NOTAM". A) KZOA - This NOTAM is for the affected location of Oakland Center (ARTCC). B) 0403240351 - The beginning time. C) 0403240455 - The ending time.
(continued on the next page)

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Airspace
Missile Firing and Offshore Airspace Rsvns (con't):
D) - The letter "D" is not used.

E) - This is the description of the missile firing or airspace reservation, giving latitudes/longitudes and/or navaid fixes. F) SFC - This is the base altitude, in this case, the surface (SFC). G) UNL - This is the upper altutude limit, in this case, unlimited (UNL)

98

FDC NOTAMs and TFR's
Typical contractions associated with FDC NOTAMs include: effect ADIZ AMDT CFR CNL FDC FI/P FI/T FRZ PROC NA SCAT SCATANA SFC SIAP UFN UNL WIE ZZZ
ZAB ZAN ZAU ZBW ZDC ZDV ZFW ZHU ZID ZJX ZKC ZLA ZLC ZMA ZME ZMP ZNY ZOA ZOB ZSE ZTL

- Air Defense Identification Zone - amendment - Code of Federal Regulations - cancel/cancelled - Flight Data Center - flight information, permenant - flight information, temporary - flight restricted zone - procedure not authorized - security control of air traffic - security control of air traffic and air navigation aids - surface - standard instrument approach procedure - until further notice - unlimited - effective immediately/with immediate - identifier for an urgent special data NOTAM
Albuquerque Center - ARTCC Anchorage Center - ARTCC Chicago Center - ARTCC Boston Center - ARTCC Washington Center - ARTCC Denver Center - ARTCC Fort Worth Center - ARTCC Houston Center - ARTCC Indianapolis Center - ARTCC Jacksonville Center - ARTCC Kansas City Center - ARTCC Los Angeles Center - ARTCC Salt Lake City Center - ARTCC Miami Center - ARTCC Memphis Center - ARTCC Minneapolis Center - ARTCC New York Center - ARTCC Oakland Center - ARTCC Cleveland Center - ARTCC Seattle Center - ARTCC Atlanta Center - ARTCC

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FDC NOTAMs and TFR's
An FDC NOTAM pertains to flight information that is regulatory in nature that includes the following: Interim IFR flight procedures, either temporary (FI/T) or permanent (FI/P), such as: 1. Airway structure changes. 2. Instrument approach procedure changes (excludes departure procedures (DP) and standard terminal arrivals (STAR)). 3. Airspace changes in general. Temporary flight restrictions (TFR's), such as: 1. Closed or restricted airspace due to security concerns. 2. Disaster areas. 3. Special events generating a high degree of interest. 4. Hijacking. Flight restrictions in the proximity of the President and other parties. Certain airport condition changes. Snow conditions affecting glide slope operation. Air defense emergencies. Emergency flight rules. Substitute airway routes. Special data. U.S. Government charting corrections. Laser light activity. FDC NOTAMs are numbered consecutively beginning with 0001 each year. The year of issuance and the serial number are separated by a slant. Example: !FDC 4/0342 Translated: The 342nd FDC NOTAM issued in year 2004.
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FDC NOTAMs and TFR's
Airway Change - Interim IFR Flight Procedure:
!FDC 4/0342 ZKC OK.. FI/T AIRWAY ZFW ZKC V140 SAYRE (SYO) VORTAC, OK TO TULSA (TUL) VORTAC, OK MEA 4300. Translated: This is the 342nd FDC NOTAM issued for the year 2004 (4/0342). This is temporary flight information (FI/T). The affected locations are Kansas City Center (ZKC) and the State of Oklahoma (OK). The affected airway is within the boundries of Fort Worth Center (ZFW) and Kansas City Center (ZKC). Victor 140 (V140) from Sayer VORTAC (SYO), in Oklahoma (OK), to Tulsa VORTAC (TUL), in Oklahoma (OK), has a minimum enroute altitude of 4300 feet MSL (MEA 4300). Note: Airway changes involving two to three ARTCC's and multiple states will be issued under each ARTCC's location identifier. As a result, the same FDC NOTAM text describing the airway change will be issued two to three times. Note: Airway changes involving four or more ARTCC's will be issued using "FDC" as the affected location. Therefore, only one FDC NOTAM is issued.

Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) Interim IFR Flight Procedure:
!FDC 4/0643 UNV FI/T UNIVERSITY PARK, PA. VOR-A AMDT 3... PROC NA Translated: This is the 643rd FDC NOTAM issued for the year 2004 (4/0643). The affected location is the University Park Airport (UNV). This is temporary flight information (FI/T). The VOR-A instrument approach, amendment 3 (AMDT 3) procedure is not authorized (PROC NA).

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FDC NOTAMs and TFR's
The following examples illustrate other typical FDC NOTAMs. For the most part, the text contained in each NOTAM is self explanatory. Refer to the NOTAM Contractions listed on pages 9 through 17, if needed for any decoding.

Snow Conditions Affecting Glide Slope Operation:
FDC 4/1436 IPT FI/T WILLIAMSPORT REGIONAL ILS RWY 27... DUE TO EFFECTS OF SNOW ON GLIDE SLOPE. MINIMUMS TEMPORARILY RAISED TO LOCALIZER ONLY FOR ALL CATEGORY AIRCRAFT. GLIDE SLOPE REMAINS IN SERVICE; HOWEVER, ANGLE MAY BE DIFFERENT THAN PUBLISHED.

Note: Snow and ice accumulation in the vicinity of glide slope antennas may affect glide slope performance, requiring restrictions to ILS landing minimums.

Laser Light Activity:
FDC 4/0102 - PA.. LASER LIGHT DEMONSTRATION WILL BE CONDUCTED AT THE MILLERSVILLE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH SITE, 9 MILES SOUTHWEST OF THE LANCASTER AIRPORT IN MILLERSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA AT 58,000 FEET AMSL. 395926N/0762310W AND THE LANCASTER /LRP/ VORTAC 221 DEGREE RADIAL AT 9.1 NAUTICAL MILES. WEF 0401060500 UTC - 0402160500 UTC. THIS IS A VERTICAL LASER. LASER LIGHT BEAM MAY BE INJURIOUS TO PILOTS''/PASSENGERS''EYES AT 58,000 FEET AMSL VERTICALLY OF THE LIGHT SOURCE. FLASH BLINDNESS OR COCKPIT ILLUMINATION MAY OCCUR BEYOND THESE DISTANCES. THE HARRISBURG CONTROL TOWER,717-948-2697, IS THE FAA COORDINATION FACILITY. WIE UNTIL UFN

Air Defense Emergency:
AIR DEFENSE EMERGENCY DECLARED THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES AND POSSESSIONS. SCATANA HAS BEEN IMPLEMENTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PLAN FOR THE SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC AND AIR NAVIGATION AIDS (SCATANA). UNTIL FURTHER ADVISED, NO AIRCRAFT WILL BE ALLOWED TO OPERATE WITHIN THE AIRSPACE OVERLYING THE FOLLOWING AREAS: ....

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FDC NOTAMs and TFR's
Air Defense Emergency (con't):
In the unlikely event an air defense emergency is declared, an FDC NOTAM will be issued specifying: a. The emergency declared. b. The geographical areas affected. c. The security control of air traffic (SCAT) rules in effect. d. The applicable portion(s) of the "Wartime Air Traffic Priority List for Movement of Aircraft."

Temporary Flight Restrictions:
TFRs can be considered no-fly zones for most aircraft. They temporarily prohibit flight over certain areas and are disseminated by FDC NOTAM. After the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 numerous TFRs have been established for security reasons. Pilots must check all NOTAMs during flight planning. During this national emergency, TFRs are changing and new ones are being created frequently. The TFR NOTAM will begin with the phrase "FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS" followed by: The location of the TFR area. The effective period. The defined area. The altitudes affected. The FAA coordination facility and commercial telephone number. The reason for the temporary flight restrictions. The agency directing any relief activities and its commercial telephone number. Any other information considered appropriate by the issuing authority.

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FDC NOTAMs and TFR's
Temporary Flight Restrictions (con't):
A TFR restricts or prohibits air traffic operations due to a real or perceived hazard or condition. A TFR temporarily restricts or prohibits flight over a specified area, such as: For national security purposes. Presidential or vice-presidential "no fly zones". Sports stadiums. Disaster relief areas, such as floods, earthquakes, and volcanoes. Fire fighting operations. Aircraft accident sites. Toxic gas leaks or spills. Nuclear accidents or incidents. Rescue operations. Department of Defense (DOD) Operations. The purpose in designating an area as a TFR is to: Protect persons and property on the surface. Provide a safe environment for the operation of disaster relief aircraft. Prevent unsafe congestion of sightseeing aircraft above an event of high public interest. TFR's: Are not depicted on aeronautical charts. Are usually short term in duration. Can appear, disappear, or change almost daily. Are disseminated as FDC NOTAMS, explaining: Where the TFR is located. How big it is, usually in terms of a radius. How high it extends in altitude. How long it is expected to remain in effect.

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FDC NOTAMs and TFR's
Temporary Flight Restrictions (con't):
TFR information is available from: a. Flight Service Station weather briefings (1-800-WXBRIEF, up to the minute status) Always note the date and time you called flight service as proof you received all available TFR information. If you experience an incursion into a TFR, recordings of briefings maintained for 15 days. Request a transcript of your briefing. b. DUATS (Up to the minute status). c. AOPA Online - unofficial information that may not be up to the minute. d. Other unofficial websites that may not be timely. It is the pilot's responsibility to avoid flight into TFR's. Inadvertently entering a TFR may result in: Law enforcement officials greeting you upon your landing. Suspension of your pilot certificate. Interception by military aircraft. If intercepted by military aircraft, follow the procedures listed in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), Section 6, Para 5-6-2, Tables 5-6-1 & 5-6-2. Even though a pilot may be completely familiar with all TFR information pertinent to a route of flight, incursions may still result from: a. The issuance or change of a TFR after receiving a weather briefing. b. Pilots misled by air traffic controllers: Even though ATC helps pilots to avoid TFR's as much as possible, VFR vectors followed by radar service termination may mislead a pilot into continued flight on the last assigned vector into a TFR. Therefore, always maintain positional awareness when flying in the vicinity of a TFR. Do not blindly rely on ATC to keep you out of TFR’s. Refer to your charts throughout your flight.

are

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FDC NOTAMs and TFR's
Temporary Flight Restrictions (con't):
Certain aircraft may be authorized entry into a TFR: Aircraft operating under an IFR flight plan. Aircraft participating in relief operations. Aircraft carrying law enforcement personnel. Aircraft carrying accredited news officials. Aircraft operating to or from airports located within the TFR - with prior authorization. To protect yourself from inadvertent entry into a TFR: Call Flight Service for a weather briefing and ask for NOTAMS and TFR information. After receiving TFR information either from Flight Service or DUATS, refer to your charts to determine if the plotted TFR is pertinent to your proposed route of flight. Discuss TFR's with Flight Service briefers and your fellow pilots to better understand them. If you receive a pilot weather briefing from Flight Service, record the date, time, and name of the Flight Service station you received your briefing from. The recording of your of your briefing can then be transcribed if you violate a TFR and you believe that you were not informed about the TFR by the pilot weather briefer. Besides the national security TFR's issued since September 11, 2001, other reasons for issuing TFR's include toxic gas/fuel/nuclear spills, rescue or firefighting operations, possible volcanic eruptions or hijackings, and Department of Defense (DOD) operations.

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FDC NOTAMs and TFR's
Temporary Flight Restrictions (con't):
Two national security TFR's to always keep in mind are:
X/XXXX - ... SPECIAL NOTICE ... FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE, PURSUANT TO 14 CFR 99.7, SPECIAL SECURITY INSTRUCTIONS, OPERATIONS WITHIN THE TERRITORIAL AIRSPACE OF THE U.S. THIS IS A RESTATEMENT OF A PREVIOUS ADVISORY. PILOTS ARE ADVISED TO AVOID THE AIRSPACE ABOVE, OR IN PROXIMITY TO, SITES SUCH AS NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS, POWER PLANTS, DAMS, REFINERIES, INDUSTRIAL COMPLEXES, MILITARY FACILITIES AND OTHER SIMILAR FACILITIES. PILOT SHOULD NOT CIRCLE AS TO LOITER IN THE VICINITY OF SUCH FACILITIES. WIE UNTIL UFN X/XXXX - ...SPECIAL NOTICE... FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS. PURSUANT TO 14 CFR SECTION 99.7, SPECIAL SECURITY INSTRUCTIONS, PILOTS CONDUCTING FLIGHT OPERATIONS WITHIN THE TERRITORIAL AIRSPACE OF THE U.S. ARE ADVISED TO AVOID THE AIRSPACE ABOVE OR IN PROXIMITY TO ALL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. PILOTS SHOULD NOT CIRCLE OR LOITER IN THE VICINITY OF SUCH FACILITIES. PILOTS WHO DO SO CAN EXPECT TO BE INTERVIEWED BY LAW ENFORCEMENT PERSONNEL AT THEIR DESTINATION AIRPORT AND THE PILOT''S NAME MAY BE ADDED TO THE TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION (TSA INCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM. WIE UNTIL UFN

In the below FDC NOTAM example, which is a TFR, take special note of the phrase, "TITLE 14, SECTION 91.141 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS." The TITLE 14, SECTION 91.141 is a red flag that this is a TFR concerning the President or Vice President of the United States. Read these TFR FDC NOTAMs very carefully.
FDC X/XXXX ZFW TX.. FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS WACO, TEXAS, JANUARY 1, 2008 LOCAL. PURSUANT TO TITLE 14, SECTION 91.141 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, AIRCRAFT FLIGHT OPERATIONS ARE PROHIBITED WITHIN THE FOLLOWING AREA(S) UNLESS OTHERWISE AUTHORIZED BY ATC. 3.0 NMR BLW 3000 FEET AGL OF 313816N/970427W OR THE ACT089010.0 FROM....

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Wide Area Augmentation System Global Positioning System (WAAS and GPS)
Typical contractions associated with WAAS and GPS include: APV GBT GLS GNSS GPS LAAS LGF LNAV LORAN LPV MNM NA NAS NAV PRN PVT RAIM RNAV RR SBAS SVM UNREL VDB VHF VNAV WAAS WMS WRS - approaches with vertical guidance - Ground Based Transceiver - GNSS Landing System - Global Navigation Satellite System - Global Positioning System - Local Area Augmentation System - LAAS ground facility - Lateral Navigation - Long Range Navigation - vertical approach minima - minima - Alternate Minimums Not Authorized - National Airspace System - navigation - global position system random noise number - Position, Velocity, and Time - Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring - Area Navigation - Reference Receiver - Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems - Service Volume Model - unreliable - Very High Frequency Data Broadcast - Very High Frequency - Vertical Navigation - Wide Area Augmentation System - WAAS Master Station - Wide Area Reference Stations
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and

WAAS and GPS
The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is a GPS based navigation and landing system that provides precision guidance to aircraft at thousands of airports and airstrips where no precision landing capability currently exists. Used for both IFR and VFR navigation, WAAS improves the availablilty and accuracy of GPS standard positioning service. WAAS avionics can be used for all phases of flight, including approaches with vertical guidance. WAAS will eventually cover most of the National Airspace System (NAS).

WAAS NOTAMs - Site Specific / Unreliable:
WAAS site specific NOTAMs are issued when the WAAS SVM* predicts vertical and/or lateral availability for an airport will not be available. *A predictive model of WAAS determines service availability and areas expected to experience outages. This model, used to generate WAAS outage information and format this information as NOTAMs, is referred to as the WAAS Service Volume Model (SVM). Site specific WAAS NOTAMs will use the word “UNRELIABLE”. Example: !OSH 05/016 OSH NAV WAAS LPV AND LNAV/VNAV MNM UNREL WEF 0305231700 - 0305231930 Translation: The LPV and LNAV/VNAV minimums for RNAV approaches at Oshkosh are predicted to be unreliable for WAAS equipped aircraft. Note: WAAS UNRELIABLE NOTAMs are predictive in nature and published for flight planning purposes. Site-specific WAAS UNRELIABLE NOTAMs indicate an expected level of service, for instance, LNAV/VNAV or LPV may not be available. In flight, Air Traffic Control will not advise pilots of WAAS UNRELIABLE NOTAMs.

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WAAS and GPS
WAAS NOTAMs (Con't): WAAS NOTAMs - Area Wide / Unavailable:
WAAS area wide NOTAMs are issued when WAAS assets are out of service and will contain the term “UNAVAILABLE”. However, they may also be issued when the WAAS vertical and/or lateral availability for a large area is predicted to be “Unreliable”. Area wide WAAS UNAVAILABLE NOTAMs may also be issued if all airports with RNAV approaches within a center’s boundry do not have WAAS availability. Examples: !KFDC KFDC NAV WAAS ATLANTIC STAELLITE UNAVBL, WAAS LPV AND LNAV/VNAV MNM UNAVBL EAST OF 110 DEGREE WEST LONGITUDE FOR CONUS AND PUERTO RICO WEF 0810281400 Translated: This indicates the WAAS Atlantic Ocean Region West Geostationary Satellite serving the Eastern part of the United States being out of service. !08/0264 FDC ZDC NAV WAAS LPV AND LNAV/VNAV MNM UNREL WEF 0806231200-0806231400 Translated: This indicates the WAAS vertical guidance LPV and LNAV/ VNAV for all airports with RNAV approaches in the Washington Center airspace are predicted to be unreliable from 1200 GMT until 1400 GMT on June 23, 2008. In flight, Air Traffic Control will advise pilots requesting a GPS or RNAV (GPS) approach of WAAS UNAVAILABLE NOTAMs if not contained in the ATIS broadcast.

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WAAS and GPS
GPS NOTAMs:
A print-out of GPS NOTAMs does not present fully usable data for a flight. More information is required.

Example:
GPS GPS NAV PRN 14 OTS Translated: Satellite # 14 is out of service. GPS GPS NAV PRN 24 OTS WEF 0406131945-0406140745 Translated: Satellite # 24 is out of service at 1945 GMT on June 13, 2004 until 0745 GMT on June 14, 2004. Flight service stations have access to RAIM Availability Prediction data that allows for specific airport-area signal determination based upon satellite movements or outages in the GPS notam. Pilots can call flight service for this RAIM data concerning GPS NOTAMs for each flight. RAIM information will usually be provided referencing a two-hour period. That being an hour before and an hour after your proposed ETA - or for a 24-hour time frame at a particular airport. This same information is available for a GPS departure procedure. Asking flight service to look at their RAIM data would reveal the specific airports at which GPS approaches are unusable for specific periods of time due to these satellites being out of service.

Ground Based Transceiver (GBT):
Ground Based Transceivers are linked to ARTCCs via geo-stationary satellite instantly retransmitting signals of various data, such as air traffic positions and weather. When a Ground Based Transceiver is out of service for more than 30 minutes, a NOTAM is issued with the three-letter identifier of the NOTAM being the location of the Ground Based Transceiver. Example: !BET 05/003 BET NAV GBT OTS WEF 0805141200-0805141600

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