This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
reaction analysis. Introduction Hydrocarbons are the compounds containing only the hydrogen and the carbon elements. The vast number of hydrocarbons is indicative of the number of different ways the carbon skeleton can be arranged. The major uses of hydrocarbons are as fuels and solvents. The properties, which make them ideal for such, will be investigated. The bonding patterns vary with each hydrocarbon family (alkane, alkene, alkyne, aromatic). The difference in chemical reactivity will be studied. The alkanes are simple organic compounds of carbon and hydrogen only. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single C-C bonds, so-called sigma (σ) bonds. All carbon atoms are sp 3 hybridized to form covalent bonds with each other and hydrogen atoms. Alkanes form a homologous series of saturated hydrocarbon with a general formula of CnH2n+2.The reaction of alkanes includes combustion with limited and excess hydrogen. The alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbon with one double bond. Unsaturated compounds contain at least between two carbons atoms is the so-called pi (π) bond. In general, pi bonds are more one C=C or C≡C bond (double or triple bond). The second and third bond are reactive than sigma bonds. In many cases, the pi-bond will react and the sigma bond remains unaffected. Alkenes form a homologous series with the general formula CnH2n. In alkenes, the carbon atoms can be sp2 or sp3 hybridized. Two useful tests for unsaturation in laboratory analysis are the reaction with bromine and the reaction with potassium permanganate. n-hexane is one example of cycloalkene. The presence of double bonds in the Kekule structures means that addition reaction should occur in n-hexane as is with alkenes. The reactions of cycloalkenes include halogenations, nitration, and many more. Test with Br2: The п-bond of alkenes is extremely reactive toward addition of bromine. The red color of Br2 will disappears almost immediately in the presence of a C=C. In time many alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons will also decolorize bromine by a substitution reaction. The time factor is important to distinguish the addition reaction of alkenes from a substitution reaction. Test with KMnO4 (Baeyer Test): The п-bond is also reactive toward the strong oxidizing agent KMnO4.The purple color of KMnO4 will disappear as it is reduced. Under neutral or basic conditions a brown precipitate (Mn02) will be observed. Under acidic conditions the colorless Mn2+ is produced. In all cases, though, the purple color of the permanganate ion. Procedure Each student will be assigned an unknown. As you are performing the classification tests on known compounds, test the unknown also. At the end of the period you should be able to identify the unknown.
Steps 1 and 2 repeated for each hydrocarbon.2mL of water is added. The color may be used for comparison with the other hydrocarbons. Part C: Reaction of alkenes: I: Reaction with bromine: Caution: Bromine gives severe burns on the skin. The results are observed. Toluene is the common name of methylbenzene which is an aromatic compound. 3. 2. Results recorded. The hydrocarbon has not dissolved in water if two layers are formed. 10 drops of the hydrocarbons placed in the smallest test tube. the compound is saturated. A blank solution is prepared from 2 mL acetone in a test tube and 2 drops of purple KMnO 4 solution is added to the test tube. In some cases. and 1-2 drops (not more) of KMnO 4 solution. and the residue (if any) is noted. 2. Each sample of test tubes prepared as follows:2 mL acetone (solvent). The hydrocarbon has dissolved in water if only one layer is formed. 5 drops of each compound to be tested was placed in a clean test tube. Part B: Solubility of hydrocarbons: 1.Part A: Combustion of Hydrocarbons. In case the bromine solution is spilled the skin. 1. Do not pour the organic solvents into the sink. sometimes heavier. . shaked and observed. The bromine solution is added by dropped it wisely. 2.4 drops of the liquid to be tested. The compounds is unsaturated if the red color disappeared. the hydrocarbon is lighter than water. 2mL of n-hexane is added. Because it is aromatic. Caution: Be sure all loose hair is tied back and papers are safely away from the reaction area. the type of the flame. toluene. Natural gas: The burner ignited. The disappearances of red color within 15 seconds indicate unsaturation because bromine is added to the п-bond. The quickness of the reaction. and cyclohexane. Discoloration of bromine is a test for unsaturation. II: Reaction with potassium permanganate (VII) 1. stopped. apply glycerol quickly to the affected area. No reaction should occur. Test the following for combustility: Natural gas (predominantly methane). The waste disposed in the proper container. 2. Note the relative densities. If the red color persisted. 10 drops of the hydrocarbon placed in a small test tube. shaked after each drop until 10 drops have been added. and shaked. you will observe properties unlike unsaturated compounds. The flame produce is observed. Carefully ignite it in the Bunsen flame and immediately remove it from the burner. 1. Liquids: 1-2 drops (not more) of hydrocarbons placed on the end of the scapula. Wash off the glycerol with soap and water. Stopped. The result is evident after 5 minutes. Most compound will decolorized if allowed to stand 10-30 minutes by a substitution reaction.
yellow flame. no residue 7s. no residue 0s. blue flame. residue 8s. blue flame. residue 6s.Results Part A: Combustion of Hydrocarbons Compound n-hexane toluene acetone methane petrol cyclohexane turpentine unknown Part B: Solubility of hydrocarbons Solubility in water miscible or Relative immiscible density < < + < > < < < < Solubility in n-hexane miscible or Relative immiscible density + = + > + > + > + > + > + > + > Observation 5s. no residue 12s. residue 12s. -: immiscible. no flame. yellow flame. density is more than: > . no residue 11s. yellow flame. blue flame. or less than: < solvent Part C: Reaction of alkenes Compound n-hexane toluene acetone methane petrol cyclohexane turpentine unknown Reaction with Br2 saturated unsaturated unsaturated saturated saturated unsaturated saturated saturated Reaction with KMnO4 no change no change control no change reddish purple brownish no change no change . blue flame. no residue Balanced Equation C6H14 + 19/2O2 → 6CO2 + 7H2O C6H5-CH3 + 9O2 → 7CO2 + 4H2O CH3COCH3 + 4O2 → 3CO2 + 3H2O CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O C8H18 + 25/2O2 → 8CO2 + 9H2O C6H12 + 9O2 → 6CO2 + 6H20 C10H16 + 14O2 → 10CO2 + 8H2O - Compound n-hexane toluene acetone methane petrol cyclohexane turpentine unknown Legends: +: miscible.
the C-H bond itself is almost non-polar because differences in electronegativities of the carbon and hydrogen atoms are negligible indeed. Alkanes burned to form water and carbon dioxide. Write a generalized statement regarding the solubility of hydrocarbons in a polar solvents (water) and non-polar solvents (n-hexane). and cycloalkene forms a different result when react with bromine water and potassium permanganate (VII).Discussion 1. the hydrocarbons are non-polar molecules or we can conclude that the hydrocarbons are less polarity. alkanes undergo halogenations. The actual position of the C=C bond in an alkenes can be determined by oxidizing it using hot acidic potassium permanganate (VII) solution. What conclusion can you make regarding the polarity of hydrocarbons? Polar covalent bonds means a bond in which the electrons are attached more strongly by one atom than by other and may thus be shared unequally. To be polar molecules. So. Moreover. • Alkanes. • We conclude that the unknown hydrocarbon is alkane because of its physical and chemical properties that we had observed in this experiment • We can conclude that. Besides combustion. compounds should have partially positively and negatively charged particles. alkenes. Conclusion • Alkanes have the general formula CnH2n+2. which both of them are partially positively charged particles. . In hydrocarbons they only have carbon and hydrogen atoms. • Hydrocarbons that contain C=C double bond as their only functional group are called alkenes. 2. the hydrocarbon does not dissolve in polar solvents (water) and dissolved in non-polar solvents (n-hexane). Hydrocarbons are non-polar molecules and will dissolve in non-polar solvents such as nhexane and do not dissolve in polar solvents like water.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.