Steam Turbine

AESK Specific
Leelanand Pilanawithana

1

Turbine Design Data

2

Turbine Design Data

3

Steam Turbine – Construction  Function • Drive an AC generator at speed of 3000 rpm  Construction • Outer casing  consists of  Front section – HP  Made of cast steel.  Rear section – LP and Exhaust  Fabricated (exhaust)  Bolted to front section.  Bottom part is bolted to the top part.  Horizontally split  Top part rest on front bearing pedestal. 4 .

prevents inlet steam come into direct contact with outer casing. Control valves (2 No)  Connecting lines were pre-stressed during installation to compensate for thermal stresses at operating temperature 5 .Steam Turbine – Construction  Front Section • Admission section consists of Four steam inlet connections assembled onto the outer casing.  Angel ring facilitate a flexible link between inlet inserts and inner casing without steam leak.  Inner casing  Inlet insert assemble in outer casing.  Main shout off device between steam supply system and turbine. • Consists of   Emergency Stop valve.  • Control valve chest ( 2 No) • Placed beside the turbine and rest on separate foundation.

   Rigidly attached to turbine foundation. Lower part of the bearing housing and the front paw of the upper part of the outer casings are rested on bearing pedestal independently. the bearing housing follows the movement of outer casing. • Consists of  Bed Plate/Pedestal.    6 . Aligned to the turbine axis and there is a free movement along axial direction.  Bearing Housing.Steam Turbine – Construction  Front Section …. Sliding surfaces are coated with special graphite substance. When thermal expansion occurs. Out casing and bearing housing are allowed to slide on pedestal with thermal expansion This arrangement avoid any tilting of bearing housing as a result of thermal movement of outer casing.

Steam Turbine – Construction • Front bearing  Main Oil Pump  Directly driven by turbine rotor through an oil lubricated flexible tooth coupling.  Tooth coupling accommodates any displacement between turbine rotor (expands with rising temperature) and the pump shaft (does not expand) due to the thermal expansion. Pump shaft Rotor shaft Tooth coupling 7 .  Pump is mounted on bearing shaft.

Turbine Cross section Front Bearing

8 8

Turbine Cross section First expansion Stage Of HP Turbine
17A

4 Nozzle groups

Labyrinth seal

Steam flow is indicated by arrows

1ST Guide blade carrier fixed to inner casing

15A. Labyrinth seal 17A. Inner Balancing Piston (Area covered by dotted line)

9 9

Steam Flow
 The flow of steam is indicated by arrows.  First steam flow through control valve, interconnection piping and inlet insert to the middle of the turbine to the Inner Casing (Slide 18).  Four nozzle groups direct the steam to first wheel which is an Impulse Wheel. (together calls impulse turbine)  Steam escaped from the impulse stage inters into the Wheel Chamber from there steam enters to the reaction turbine stages.
(Wheel chamber pressure is a useful monitoring point for the turbine. By monitoring this pressure some important information such as blade fouling, inlet strainer (slide # 26) blocking and governor valve failure could be diagnosed.)

10

it absorb extra heat energy from the process. 11 .  Then steam flows to the middle section and then to the exhaust section. cools the inner wall of casing admission section.  Steam has now lower temperature than inlet.Steam Flow  After steam emerges from reaction turbine and inner casing. its flow is reversed by the Ddummy Piston (slide # 9 & 12) and its Labyrinth Seal and passes through in between inner and outer casing toward to next expansion stages. While cooling.

Balance Piston (Dummy Piston)  Every reaction stage develops an axial thrust on rotor by its rotating blades.  In order to counteract this force and reduce the load on the thrust bearing.  This thrust acts in the direction of steam flow. a dummy piston is forged into the rotor  The balancing piston diameter is so calculated in such a way that the thrust force produce by it on the rotor is balanced out by the total thrust forces produce by rotating reaction blades. 12 .

Balance Piston (Dummy Piston)  This condition must be maintained at all loads.  Two dummy pistons are provided at position 17A (of slide # 9 and 14). 13 .  Labyrinth sealing strips on rotor to prevent steam leak also exerts little help toward balancing thrust on rotor.

3 & 4th expansion Stages 17A 14 14 .Turbine Cross Section – 2.

Turbine Cross Section – LP & Exhaust Top Half 15 .

Turbine Cross Section – LP & Exhaust .Bottom Half 16 .

Turbine Cross Section – Turning Gear and Rear Bearing 17 .

Inlet Insert – Live steam inlet . Upper section of the inner casing Sealing rings Nozzle group – 2 in each half Lower section of the inner casing Supporting brackets – rest in recesses in the lower section of the outer casing. 5. Shims – for vertical alignment. 12. carrier 15 3. First guide blade 15.Inner Casing And First Guide Blade Carrier 1. 6. 4. 13. Angle ring – connect Inlet Insert to nozzle passage Outer casing 18 . Prevent direct contact of live steam with Outer Casing. Steam ahead of the valve block. 2. 10. Lug for axial alignment. 9. Supporting brackets Eccentric bolt – for radial alignment. steam leak from 1st balancing piston. Sealing ring – Prevents 14. 7. 11. 8.

 Consists of.Steam Turbine – Construction Inner Casing  Front section… • The admission section. 19 . Constitute fist expansion stage of the HP turbine. — Four Nozzle Groups. which admit steam to Control Stage (consisting one wheel of Impulse Turbine) and then to the Wheel Chamber (space between impulse turbine and reaction turbine?). Live HP steam inlet Reduces and Protects outer casing from high inlet pressure steam.  Inner casing     Symmetrical in design and axially and horizontally split.  Supported by outer casing and could be expand to all directions.

( Labyrinth seals arrest hot gas leak through two surfaces one of which moves relative to the other with has no physical contact. which provide a flexible link between the Inlet Insert and inner casing Nozzle Passage without steam leak. which mess up with sealing rings of the rotor to forms the labyrinth seal.Steam Turbine – Construction Inner Casing Inner casing  Consists of… — Sealing rings.) — Angle ring. (See image in next slide. 20 .

Rotor sealing strips sealing ring Stationary Member Guide Blades Hole for Joint Assembly Bolts Labyrinth seal. Rotating member Circumferential groove Face for mounting Lugs for carrying adjusting Slims 21 Guide Blade Carrier # 1 .Steam Turbine – Construction Inner Casing ─ Guide Blade Carrier # 1 – It fixed to the inner casing and carries first 16 fixed guide blades known as Diaphragms.

Casing Labyrinth Gland Inner labyrinth gland Outer labyrinth gland Air Rotor Air Packing Gland Passage #1 Gland sealing steam supply Passage #2 Gland Leak off steam 22 .

 Passage #1 for supply of gland sealing steam (for negative pressure use) or to collect leaking high pressure steam (for positive pressure use)  Passage # 2 for to collect leak off steam by the gland steam condenser. subsequently dissipating kinetic energy by forming steam eddies between strips. 23 . the internal steam space is sealed to the low pressure side or to the atmosphere by labyrinth glands. • Inside these sealing strips potential energy (pressure) of steam is converted to kinetic energy (velocity). • Two passages are incorporated.Casing Labyrinth Gland  Location • Where the rotor shaft penetrates the turbine casing and exhaust hood.  Design • At casing ends on the periphery of the inner surface fixed in sealing strips together with the corresponding sealing strips on rotor shaft are forming a seal without mechanical contact.

or air into the turbine casing where the turbine rotor shaft extends through the turbine casing.Casing Labyrinth Gland  Purpose • Prevents the leaking of steam out of. Has to block penetration of air into the casing.  Use  Sealing against Positive pressure for high pressure steam  Sealing against negative pressure (vacuum) for exhaust. 24 .

Control valve Chest Control Valve Actuators Emergency Stop Valve ESV Actuator Control Valves Steam In Steam Out 25 .

Emergency stop value Connected to valve actuator (Governor control) 26 .

Control Valve 27 .

Turbine Rotor 28 .

(Jacking oil system).  Minimizes wear at start-up. from thrust bearing collar (5) to the rear coupling flang(15).  Jacking Oil  Journal bearings accommodate rotor shaft lift oil system. warming-up and cool-down with a shutting down.Turbine Rotor  Forged from single blank.  Which enables rotor to be raised form contact with the bearing while rotor at slow rolling. 29 .  It is supported by two pressure lubricated Journal bearings Pos(6 and 17).

• It also forms the fix point of the rotor in the front bearing housing. with respect to the rear coupling flange of the rotor is negligible and could be tolerated. • Since the rotor temperature rises at the same time. 30 .Turbine Rotor  Thrust Collar (Pos 5) • Rotor is located axially by a thrust bearing collar Relative to the casing (front). • The overall rotor movement. rotor expand toward rear bearing of the turbine. • When the temperature of the turbine casing rises. rotor is carried forward by forward bearing housing. • Absorb any residual steam thrust from rotor bladings.

Main Lube oil Pump Discharge Compartment Impeller Shaft Nut Baffle Bar Cover Lube oil Combine Radial and Thrust bearing Radial Bearing Pump tooth coupling Suction Feather Key Rotor Shaft Bearing Housing Sealing Ring Lube oil Drain Pump Discharge 31 .

 Use to prevent rotor warping. Turbine Shaft  Manual Baring Wheel Blade wheel (Pos #16) is used when above is not available. Segment Shape Nozzle Housing 32 Lube Oil In .  Motive force is developed by the Aux Lube Oil Pump discharge pressure.  Use lube oil as its motive fluid.Hydraulic Turbine (Turning Gear Pos # 14 )  Drives the rotor when machine is being warmed-up or cooled-down.  Its operation is controlled by a motorize valve.

 Efficiency of the turbine depends on the blading.  33 Typical Impulse blade Typical reaction blade Tapered and Twisted .  All fixed and moving reaction blades has same profile and same angle of incident.  Made out of rust resistance steel.Turbine Blades  Type of Blade Used • Impulse for control stage • Reaction type for drum blading • Tapered and Twisted blade for low-pressure condensing turbine Converts thermal energy into mechanical energy.

Blades – Impulse Stage Blade Nozzle or blade Moving blade 34 .

Blades – Reaction Stage Shrouding DAMPING WIRE Drum blading – Moving blades with shrouding Fig 1 Low-pressure blading with damping wire Fig 2 35 Shroud .An extended metal rim enclosing the ends of the tips of blades .

Blade Foot Spacer Segment of fix blade – Low Pressure stage 36 .Turbine Blades – Fixed Blade Revert Reverted Shrouding Blade Pitch could be adjusted at installation time using spacers which are screwed and also braced.

Rotor Drum Blading Several blades are assembled together Root – Inverted T 37 .

• Tapered form is to accommodate the centrifugal force. twisted form prevents this action.LP Condensing Turbine Blading  Tapered and Twisted Blades – (Slide 28. Fig 2) • Twisted form is to accommodate the substantial circumferential velocity difference between at the hub and at the blade tip. ─ At this stage possibility to form water droplets are very high. ─ This allows uniform distribution of steam across the blade. that could be produce by the water drop lets. ─ Due to the twisted form water droplets if any. ─ Twisted form ensure the steam enters at the correct angel. 38 . travel toward the tip of the blade and tends to atomize due the high circumferential velocity.

 But in reaction stages. blade tip sealing has been introduced in all medium and low pressure reaction turbines. fix or moving blades in an impulse stages. there is a pressure drop across fix and moving blades. as well as fix blades and the rotor.  Blade tip sealing is accomplished by shrouding the blade and caulking labyrinth seals at blade clearances of guide blade carriers and rotor.  To prevent any leakage of steam between the clearance of the moving blades and blade carrier.Blade Tip Sealing  There is no steam pressure drop across. Caulk material to fix the seal strip Seal Groove Stator Blade Shroud Blade tip seal Rotor Blade Rotor Blade Tip sealing arrangement for moving blade Note. -Similar arrangement with fix blade and rotor 39 Shrouded Turbine Blades .  Therefore no blade tip sealing is required in impulse stages.

Bearing Shell Lower half. 4. 5. 3. 6. Jacking Oil passage for rotor lifting. Reduces dry friction.Journal Bearings 1 8 3 7 2 9 10 6 2 6 4 11 5 12 8 1. Tapered Dowel Pin used to secure the two half relative positions. Oil Pocket for Jacking oil 40 . 5 Bearing Shell Upper half Oil Pockets for bearing oil. 2.

Bearing Oil Passage (A hole drilled through the bearing up to the annal oil channel)  Lube oil flows through this to the bearing oil pockets and to the rotor and the bearing babbit contact surface.  Rotor and bearing contact ` area on the bearing surface. 9. 10. Annular Channel  Pressure oil flows intothis form external pipe connection. Bearing Babbit Surface. Fillister head screw  Assembles the two half together. It receives lobe oil from Annular Channel (Pos # 9).Bearings . 8. where the bearing metal is coated.Journal 7. 41 .

Steam Turbine Bearings – Journal 11. Larger diameter between two oil pockets (Pos # 2). 5. 5.1. 12. to adjust the pressure a variable orifice is provided. 2. 3. The cross section area of the bearing inside is slightly elliptical in shape. Embedded Thermocouple  To monitor bearing metal temperature ( both half). When the rotor is lifted. For jacking oil. To prevent this. Oil quantity could be throttled by a adjustable orifice 4. This ensures uniform oil flow and allows to form a thing oil film between the entire contact surface. It prevents axial or radial displacement of bearing shell. Note: . A cylindrical pin is inserted at the parting line of the bearing shell and the lower part of the bearing housing. 42 . in front bearing two jacking oil ports are provided at equivdistance from the vertical center line in either side of the bearing. still it could shifts to a one side. Jacking oil connection.

Steam Turbine Bearings – Thrust Pivot Edge 15 43 .

8.  Takes axial thrust from rotor collar and transmits it via thrust casing (3 & 9) and Liner ring (2) to front bearing housing (1). Identical)  Several pivotal segments (contact surfaces are Babbit Lined) form segment ring. Segment Ring ( 2 No. Top half of the Thrust-Bearing Casing 4. Inner Oil Channel  Receives oil flowing through as a thing oil film between the thrust pads 44 and collar due to the centrifugal force acquired with the rotation. Liner ring  Provides precise axial position for thrust bearing with respect to bearing housing 3. And # 13. .Bearing Housing 2. 7. Thrust Collar  Forged and machined with rotor. Cylindrical Pin  Segments are retain radially by them and are thus secured against displacement. 6.Steam Turbine Bearings – Thrust 1. 5. Radial Oil Hole  From Outer Oil Channel (14) oil passes through toward rotor.

Bottom half – Thrust Bearing Casing 10.  There are thermocouple embedded in the thrust pads to monitor metal temperature of the thrust pads.Axial Oil Drain  Provides several oil drain passages only on top half connected to inner oil channel.Thermometer  Discharge oil temperature measurement. 12. 11.Pivoting Edge.Steam Turbine Bearings – Thrust 9. 14.Outer Oil Channel  Between the bearing housing and thrust bearing casing  Facilitates Lube oil flow to thrust bearing 15. 45 .  Provides required tilt depend on load.Sealing Strips  Prevent aspiration of air along the shaft into the thrust bearing.

Rear bearing Housing Assembly Exhaust Hood Nozzle Nuzzle Segment Rear Journal Bearing Labyrinth Gland Rear Oil Gland Hydraulic Turbine Moving Blade Oil Gland Oil entry for Turning Gear Oil Drain Lube Oil Entry for Journal Bearing 46 .

Front Supporting System Casing Moves with temperature Fig 2 – Adjusting Element 5A Fig 4 Fig 3 47 Fig 1 Front Support .

Turbine Casing 2. Adjusting Element  Bearing housing # 5 and it supports # 5A rest freely on this. Turbine Supporting Brackets  The hole diameter of the supporting bracket where the screw bolt # 4 is passed is larger than the bolt diameter. 3.Front Supporting System 1. 48  Aligns Bearing Housing # 5 vertically (See fig 4) . Shaft bearing housing – 5A. 5. Casing Support  Anchored in the turbine foundation. Screw bolts  Fix the turbine to the front support and in tern to foundation (Prevents turbine lifting off). This is to facilitate the moment of the casing in horizontal direction which takes place with the rising temperature of the turbine casing and it is free to expand. 6. # 5 Support  Free to move with casing  Carries Front bearing and Thrust bearing. 4.

Screw Bolts  Fix bearing hosing to front support  These bolts allow few hundredth of a millimeter free play between shaft bearing housing and casing support so that bearing housing can glide free 10. Center Rail 49 .Front Supporting System 7. Bolt 9. slide 47) 11. 12. Adjusting element  Turbine Casing/Bearing housing. Cup Springs  Load the screw bolt # 4 to prevent any loosing due to vibration. Screw In Adjusting Element  Upon which supporting brackets # 2 of the turbine casing is rest and align Turbine Casing # 1 Vertically (See Fig 2. 8. Horizontal.

50 . Over speed primary trip.Protective Equipments  Trip Bolt – Emergency Governor (Primary) • Auto stop the turbine immediately in the event of rotor speed is being exceeded by 10 to 12%.

 Trip Bolt…. 2. Threaded Cap Plugs the opening of radial bore in the shaft 5. for Over speed trip setting 4. 6. Socket-Head Cap Screw Lock in position Threaded Cap # 4 to the shaft. Guide Ring Guide the movement Eccentric Bolt # 6 and Compression Spring # 8. 1. Eccentric Bolt A bolt under the strong influence of the compression spring # 8 which can move few millimeters outward direction of the rotor shaft. 51 . Socket-Head Cap Screw Lock in position Screw Plug # 3 3. Screw Plug with a drilled hole in the center Hole gives access to the Adjusting Screw # 7.

Tight Fitting Bolt  Assembled into this and fixed to the turbine shaft by Threaded Cap Note:.There is a facility to test this system while turbine on load without affecting the operation. Trip Bolt… 7. 52 . 8.  At set speed it will hit the emergency governor lever and deactivates the governor trip oil system tripping the turbine.  Above the rated speed bolt protrudes from the shaft surface.  Sets the Eccentric bolt position in such a way that its center of gravity is shifted off from the center of the turbine shaft by an amount which ensures that up to the rated speed the eccentric bolt will remain in it normal position inside the shaft. 9. Compression Spring  Tries to keep the eccentric bolt in position by counteracting the centrifugal force produce by the bolt. Adjusting Screw  Sets over speed trip setting.

This condition rupture the diaphragm there by protecting any damage to the turbine internals.Breakable Diaphragm 3. excessive presser builds-up in the turbine exhaust. Atmospheric relief Diaphragm – Rupture Disk When there is low vacuum trip.Rupturing Disk 2. 1. At normal operation with vacuum atmospheric presses forces the diaphragm and rupture disk against the flange.Gasket 5.Supporting Flange 4.Cylindrical Cage 53 1 2 3 4 5 .

• Consists of  Steel disk which carries in it periphery equally space axial identical holes. the produce a AC voltage.  Electromagnetic pickups screwed into the cover in front of the rotating disk. • Secondary over speed trip – Electrical. frequency of which is proportionate to the rotor speed.  When disk holes move in front of the pickups.Monitoring Device  Speed Monitoring • Feed Back for turbine operation. 54 .

Speed Monitoring… 55 .

3. .Slider Attached to bearing pedestal. 3 3 1. startup and shutdown.Bedplate 4 2 1 • This device should be observed all the time especially. 2. during load changes. • This and rotor position indicator permits conclusions to be made 56 with regard to the axial position of the rotor.Casing Expansion Measurement • Measurement of absolute displacement of the bearing pedestal as the result of the thermal expansion.Scale Venire scale attached to bedplate.

5. 4. • Frequent checks permits early recognition and detection of rotor displacement.Measurement of Rotor Axial Position • Axial displacement beyond specified limit can have serious consequences such as clearance between stator and rotor blades. Gap Rotor 57 .  Instrument operates on eddy current principal. bearing clearance. 2. 4 3 2 5 1 3.  Measures and reports the HF signal strength continuously.  Arrangement  Thrust bearing forms the fix point of turbine rotor. Conductive Measuring Surface  An eddy current is produce on the measuring surface. Transducer  Produce a magnetic field in the vicinity.  This eddy current in tern reduce the HF signal strength.  Located in front bearing housing immediate vicinity of thrust bearing.  Strength of the eddy current is depend on the distance of the gap between the transducer and the measuring surface. 1. Proximitor  Generates a high frequency (HF) signal and fed to the coil in the transducer # 1.

 Direct Rotor Vibration (Bentley Nevada Proximity Sensors) • Sensors operate on same principal describe as before on slide 57 for Measurement of Rotor Axial Position. 58 .  Transmits to external bearing housing surface through the bearing oil film which has the damping effect and reduce the magnitude of the actual rotor vibration. • Two sensors are arranged as shown.Vibration Measurement  Vibration originates from the rotor. • Uses for vibration alarms and tripping of turbine at an abnormality.  Bearing Housing Surface vibration (Secondary vibration) • Gives general indication vibration behavior of the turbine.

Vibration Measurement Vibration Sensor Proximity Sensor 900 450 450 Gaps Rotor Shaft 59 .

 These thermocouples measure metal temperature of the each half and direct Differential Temperature measurement is obtained. Separate limits of outer casing differential temperature are specified for startup and steady state operation.  A hole is drilled up to the 50% of the body of the outer casing on each half of casing. • Arrangement 60 .Monitoring Device  Outer Casing Differential Temperature • • This measurement help avoiding distortion to outer casing.  These thermocouples are pressed down against the bottom of the holes by a compression spring.  Thermocouples are installed in this holes.

Turbine Stress Evaluation Measurements  Rotor Simulation • Using this measurement. an estimation of rotor temperature after the impulse stage is made.  Leads of them are routed through inner casing to outer casing and terminated to a junction box. • This estimate is also used for turbine stress evaluation. 61 . • Arrangement  Thermocouples are mounted into the inner casing to measure the temperature just after the impulse stage.

one 50% of the valve wall body and the other 100 of the wall body are drilled to install these thermocouples.Turbine Stress Evaluation Measurement  Valve block Wall Temperature • Measure valve block body casing metal temperature. • The difference of thermocouple measurements also are used for stress evaluation.  Which are pressed down against the bottom of holes by a compression spring 62 . • Uses two thermocouples.  Two holes. • Arrangement  Thermocouples are installed just after the right side emergence stop valve.

63 .Turbine Stress Evaluation Measurement  These measurements are fed to the ―Turbine Stress Evaluator‖ (TSE – Procontrol System) which regulate the startup and loading of the turbine.

End 64 .