Production Technology

PLANT LAYOUT

1. Define Plant layout? What are different types of layout used in industry? Give suitable example of each?

Ans: - PLANT LAYOUT Plant layout is defined as techniques of locating different machines and facilities like person, storage space, material handling equipment and all other supporting services within in the factory so as to get maximum output with desired quality at lowest possible cost.

TYPES OF PLANT LAYOUT IN INDUSTRY The various plant layout are used in the industry are 1. Product layout Example: Sugar plant, bottling Industry

2. Process layout Example: Chemical Industry

3. Fixed position layout Example: Ship Building Industry, Air cra ft production.

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

2. Give the main objectives of Plant Layout? Ans: OBJECTIVES OF PLANT LAYOUT A good layout is one which provides maximum satisfaction to employees, management and consumers.

The main objectives of good plant layout are

1. Streamline the flow of material through the plant. 2. Effective utilization of men, machines and available space. 3. Easy supervision and better production control. 4. Provide workman safety, convenience and comfort. 5. Minimization of material handling and manufacturing cycle time.

3. State the symptoms of Bad Plant Layout? Ans: - Symptoms of Bad plant layout The symptom of bad plant layout are as follows: 1. Long transportation lines 2. Poor utilization of space. 3. Mental or physical stain in the workers. 4. More frequent accident 5. Difficult to supervise and control. 6. Over-crowding of men, material, machine and equipment. 7. Scrap or wastage of material is more. 8. The amount of the work in process is large.

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

4. Explain the Muther principle of Good Plant Layout? Ans: Muther principle of Good Plant Layout According to Muther, there are six basic principles to design best plant layout These are 1. Principles of overall integration A good layout is one that integrates men, m aterials, machines, services in such a way that the best comprise is obtained.

2. Principles of minimum distance or moment A good layout is one in which the total distance travelled by men and material is minimum. Straight line movements are preferred.

3. Principles of flow A good layout is one that makes the material moves onl y in forward direction towards the completion stage without backtracking.

4. Principles of cubic space A good layout is one that make effective utilization of available space in three dimension i.e. length, breadth and height.

5. Principle of satisfaction and safety This principle considers workers safety and satisfaction and protecting the plant and machinery against the fire, theft etc.

6. Principles of flexibility. The plant must be flexible to absorb necessary changes whenever required without consuming much cost and time.

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

5. What are the techniques used in Plant Layout? Explain any two OR State the plant layout techniques used in and explain any one of them? Ans: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES USED IN PLANT LAYOUT The various tools and techniques used in plant layout planning are 1. Operational process chart. 2. Flow process chart. 3. Flow diagrams. 4. Machine data cards. 5. Templates 6. Three dimensional models. 7. Relationship chart (REL)

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

Relationship chart (REL)

1. The relationship chart is developed by ROBER MUTHER. 2. The relationship and interdependence of one department to another is shown by REL chart rather than exact flows and related costs. 3. This chart shows how close on workstation is one to another. This closeness is expressed on a scale. 4. After checking, the degree of closeness suitable placing of department and machine is possible. Figure shows REL chart 5. Each block in the chart shoes the relationship between the two workstations and rating is given in the adjacent tables.

Value
A E I O U X

Closeness
Absolute Essential Essential Important Ordinary Un-important Not desirable

where 1, 2……5 are the depth or workstation

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

Three dimensional scaled model. 1. It is modification of the template model. Here in place of templates,3 dimensional scale models of workstation and other facilities are prepared and are placed on the factory plan at suitable places. 2. These models are made from wood ,plastic and metal.etc 3. This technique gives more realistic view of future plant layout like height and projection of machine parts, overhead structure,arrnagment for safety ,ventilation etc.

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

6. Short notes on Types of Plant Layout? Explain any two Ans: - PLANT LAYOUT Plant layout is defined as techniques of locating different machines and facilities like person, storage space, material handling equipment and all other supporting services within in the factory so as to get maximum output with desired quality at lowes t possible cost.

TYPES OF PLANT LAYOUT IN INDUSTRY The various plant layout are used in the industry are 1. Product layout Example: Sugar plant, bottling Industry

2. Process layout Example: Chemical Industry

3. Fixed position layout Example: Ship Building Industry, Air craft production.

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

1. Product layout

a. It is also known as line layout. It is used in mass production. b. In this layout, all necessary machinery and equipment are set out in same are in the sequence of manufacturing process. c. This layout is used when there is high demand of one or several product. Example: Sugar plant, bottling Industry , Automobile and TV sets.

Figure: Product Layout

Advantage a. Low cost per unit b. Better use of cubic space. c. Work in a process is high. d. It needs less skilled workers. e. Production cycle per unit time is low.

Disadvantage a. Machines are not used to full capacity. b. Less flexibility. c. High capital investment due to SPM. d. Same kind of work makes the worker feel boredom and montous. e. For expansion purpose is not possible to add machines

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

2. Process Layout. a. It is also called functional layout. It is suitable for volume production. b. In process layout, the machines of similar category are grouped together and one not is arranged according to particular sequence of operation. c. It is suitable when the product is non standard and there is major variation in processing time of individual operations.

Figure: Process Layout

Advantage a. Process layout makes the best use of ma n and machines. b. Lot of flexibility. c. Low capital investment due to GPM. d. Variety of job makes the job challenging and interesting for workers. e. For expansion purpose, it is possible to add more machines.

Disadvantage a. High cost per unit. b. Poor use of available space c. Work in process is low. d. It needs specially skilled workers. e. Production cycle time is per unit is more.

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

3. Fixed Position layout a. It is used for the products which are very massive. b. It is very inconvenient or it is not desirable to move them c. In fixed position layout, the works remains in fixed positions. d. The machines, material, equipment and workers are needed for productions are brought to the site of the workers.

Figure: Fixed Position Layout

Example: Ship Building Industry, Air craft production, Assembly operation Industry,

Advantage a. Capital investment in the plant layout is minimum. b. Higher flexibility. c. Effective used of skilled workers. d. It is easy to measure the progress of work e. The worker identify themselves with a product in which they took interest and pride in doing job..

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

7. Describe the procedural step involved in making a plant layout? Ans: - PLANT LAYOUT PRCOEDURE A step by step procedure for planning or designing a plant layout is given below. 1. Collect the data regarding the product, process etc and record the data systematically. 2. Analyze the data using the various techniques of analysis. 3. Determine the machinery a nd equipment recorded. 4. Select the material handling equipment. 5. Draw the plan of site. 6. Design the individual workstation. 7. Fit the individual layout into total layout. 8. Determine the storage space required also make floor diagram. 9. Plan and locate service area s. 10. Check the final layout and prepare master layout. 11. Present the layout to management and get approval. 12. Install the approved layout. 13. Follow up.

8. List the factor to be considered while designing layout? Ans: - The factors considered while designing layout are 1. Types of Industry 2. Nature of product 3. Production system 4. Production capacity 5. Types of layouts 6. Arrangements of material handling system 7. Types of building 8. Total space available: Machines and equipment should not be fixed very close each other. Sufficient space should be provided between them to work conveniently.

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

9. Name and describe the various techniques used for layout planning ? Ans: -The various techniques used in layout planning 1. Operation process chart It represents the basic activities involves in product. It gives the information regarding distance moved and time required for various activities.

2. Flow process chart It is the graphical representation of all producti on activity occurring on the floor of the plant.

3. Flow diagram The flow diagram is the plan of the work area. It is drawn to the scale. It indicated backtracking, cross traffic, obstacles in the way of the product.

4. Templates Templates are pieces of cardboard or paper representing the equi pment of a shop at smaller scale. Templates show the visual picture of desired layout. The templates are so arranged so as to give best layout.

5. Machine data cards. These are cards prepared for each machine showing its capacity, space and other requirements, handling needs and corresponding activities.

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

10. Compare the product layout and Process Layout Ans:

Nos

Product layout

Process layout

Product oriented layout 1 2 Less flexible

Process oriented layout

More flexible

3

Better use of space

Poor use of space

4

Work stations are arranged as per sequence of product operations.

Work stations are arranged according to the function.

5

High capital investment is needed.

Low capital investment is needed.

6

Applicable to the mass production.

Applicable to the job or batch production.

7

Work in process is high.

Work in process is low

8

Volume of production is high.

Volume of production is low

Production cycle time per unit is 9 less.

Production cycle time per unit is more.

10

Per unit cost is less.

Per unit cost is more

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

11. Explain the need for good facilities planning Ans: - THE NEED FOR GOOD FACILITIES PLANNING The need for good facilities planning 1. Plant facilities influence the costs of operating and therefore profits. 2. Planning allows facilities to comply with laws ad/or regulations. 3. Facilities involve high capital -cost expenditures. 4. Facilities are fixed investments, not readily convertible to money or resale. 5. Facilities are inflexible (i.e. physically fixed and have limited opportunities to be changed). 6. Facilities are long term commitments with protracted periods of financial return. 7. Facilities planning, design and construction require long lead times. 8. Sound plans for implementation can avoid disruptions in production, and discontinuities for shipping or delivery. 9. Operations often produce detrimental wastes that affect entire communities. 10. The safety, convenience, appearance, and comfort of industrial facilities influence the attitudes of and the ability to attract suitable employees. 11. Industrial facilities must be planned to meet anticipated future requirements yet compete profitably today. 12. Facilities need to be planned for an appropriate degree of flexibility, expandability, versatility… 13. Good planning buys time for making commitments; it minimizes being taken by surprise. 14. If plans are made, managements can react faster and take advantage of business opportunities that arise. 15. Good planning, especially if presented well visually, is an aid to obtain financing monies. 16. The single most important cause of high materials handling costs is “ad hoc” expansion of plant facilities “in the absence of a strategic site development plan.”

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Production Technology

Plant Layout

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Vaibhav Vithoba Naik