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5

Compression Work

23

Problem 1.32. By applying a pressure of 200 atm, you can compress water to 99% of its usual volume. Sketch this process (not necessarily to scale) on a PV diagram, and estimate the work required to compress a liter of water by this amount. Does the result surprise you? Problem 1.33. An ideal gas is made to undergo the cyclic process shown in Figure 1.lO(a). For each of the steps A, B, and C, determine whether each of the following is positive, negative, or zero: (a) the work done on the gas; (b) the change in the energy content of the gas; (c) the heat added to the gas. Then determine the sign of each of these three quantities for the whole cycle. What does this process accomplish?

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(b)

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VI V2 Volume

Figure 1.10. PV diagrams for Problems 1.33 and 1.34. Problem 1.34. An ideal diatomic gas, in a cylinder with a movable piston, undergoes the rectangular cyclic process shown in Figure 1.lO(b). Assume that the temperature is always such that rotational degrees of freedom are active, but vibrational modes are "frozen out." Also assume that the only type of work done on the gas is quasistatic compression-expansion work. (a) For each of the four steps A through D, compute the work done on the gas, the heat added to the gas, and the change in the energy content of the gas. Express all answers in terms of PI, P2, VI, and V2. (Hint: Compute 11U before Q, using the ideal gas law and the equipartition theorem.) Describe in words what is physically being done during each of the four steps; for example, during step A. heat is added to the gas (from an external flame or something) while the piston is held fixed.

(b)

(c) Compute the net work done on the gas, the net heat added to the gas, and the net change in the energy of the gas during the entire cycle. Are the results as you expected? Explain briefly.

Compression of an Ideal Gas To get a feel for some of the preceding formulas, I'd like to apply them to the compression of an ideal gas. Since most familiar gases (such as air) are fairly close to ideal, the results we obtain will actually be quite useful. When you compress a container full of gas, you're doing work on it, that is, adding energy. Generally this causes the temperature of the gas to increase, as you know if you've ever pumped up a bicycle tire. However, if you compress the gas very slowly, or if the container is in good thermal contact with its environment, heat

11. VI (1. called an isotherm. Most real compression processes will be somewhere between these extremes. Vi Volume * Scuba tanks are usually held under water as they are filled. we can use the first law of thermodynamics and the fact that for and ideal gas U is proportional to T: Q=AU-W=A (1 2NfkT ) -W=O-W=NkTln VI Vi. (1. which is so fast that no heat escapes from the gas during the process. For isothermal compression of an ideal gas. If the gas expands isothermally. though.30) the work done is positive if Vi > VI. that is. This almost certainly implies that the process is quasistatic. To calculate how much.NkT Vi) lVf V. I'll start with the isothermal case. The work done is minus the area under the graph: W =- Vf l Vi P dV = . which is so slow that the temperature of the gas doesn't rise at all.29 to calculate the work done. if the gas is being compressed. then. since it's simpler. the PV graph is a concave-up hyperbola. for constant T. and adiabatic compression. without changing its temperature. In this section I'll consider two idealized ways of compressing an ideal gas: isothermal compression. As always. so I can use formula 1." The difference between fast compression and slow compression is therefore very important in thermodynamics. the work done on the gas is negative. that is. Suppose. is a concave-up hyperbola (called an isotherm).31) Figure 1. that you compress an ideal gas isothermally. -1 dV V = -NkT Notice that (In VI -In Vi = NkT ln~. to prevent the compressed air inside from getting too hot. as shown in Figure 1. into the environment. heat must be flowing out. with P determined by the ideal gas law. the work done is minus the area under the graph. On a PV diagram. the formula P = NkTjV. usually closer to the adiabatic approximation. . As the gas is compressed isothermally.11.24 Chapter 1 Energy in Thermal Physics will escape as the gas is compressed and its temperature won't rise very much. that is. the same equation applies but with Vi < VI.

The PV curve for adiabatic compression (called an adiabat) begins on a lowertemperature isotherm and ends on a higher-temperature isotherm.U=Q+W=W If it's an ideal gas. we need to write the pressure P in terms of the variables T and V. Then the energy change along any infinitesimal segment of the curve is dU= ~NkdT. If you do work on a gas but don't let any heat escape. Now let's consider adiabatic compression. To find an equation describing the exact shape of this curve. In practice this usually isn't a bad approximation.1.5 Compression Work 25 Thus the heat input is just minus the work done. however..12).36) Figure 1. and therefore must be steeper than either of the isotherms (see Figure 1. I'll still assume. (1. the work done during quasistatic compression is .12. for isothermal expansion. plugging in NkT/V for P and canceling the Nk gives f dT 2T -V' dV (1.32. etc.32) l::. 5 for a diatomic gas near room temperature. applied to an infinitesimal part of the process.33) where f is the number of degrees of freedom per molecule--3 for a monatomic gas. Q is negative because heat leaves the gas. let me first use the equipartition theorem to write U= ~NkT. The needed relation is just the ideal gas law. however. heat must enter the gas so Q is positive.P dV. U is proportional to T so the temperature increases as well. Vi Volume . (1. so equation 1. which is so fast that no heat flows out of (or into) the gas. The curve describing this process on a PV diagram must connect a low-temperature isotherm to a high-temperature isotherm. that the compression is quasistatic. To solve the equation.35) This differential equation relates the changes in temperature and volume during the compression process.34) Meanwhile. becomes f -NkdT 2 = -PdV. (1. For compression. the internal energy of the gas will increase: (1.

atmospheric air is quickly compressed to about 1/20 of its original volume.37) To simplify this equation. and explain why a Diesel engine does not require spark plugs.38. Problem 1. you can now calculate the final temperature. Vf Vi (1.39) Given any starting point and any final volume. exponentiate both sides and gather the i's and f's.38) or more compactly. Meanwhile.38.) (a) What is the final volume of this air after compression? (b) How much work is done in compressing the air? (c) If the temperature of the air is initially 300 K. is an abbreviation for (f (1. Problem 1. After a couple of lines of algebra you'll find Vf Tf/2 . In the course of pumping up a bicycle tire. Which of the two bubbles is larger by the time they reach the surface? Explain your reasoning fully. . In a Diesel engine. + 2)/ f.26 Chapter 1 Energy in Thermal Physics Now we can integrate both sides from the initial values (Vi and Ti) to the final values (Vf and Tf ): -In2 Ti f r. called the adiabatic exponent. (1.37. bubble B rises slowly (impeded by a tangle of seaweed).35. The result can be written VI' P = constant.Vii'Tf/2 f (1. However. so that no heat is exchanged between it and the water. = -In-. To find the final pressure you can use the ideal gas law to eliminate T on both sides of equation 1.40 from equation 1. Problem 1.39. so that it always remains in thermal equilibrium with the water (which has the same temperature everywhere). both bubbles expand as they rise. what is the temperature after compression? Problem 1. (Air is mostly diatomic nitrogen and oxygen. VTf /2 = constant.36. Derive equation 1. a liter of air at atmospheric pressure is compressed adiabatically to a pressure of 7 atm.40) where 'Y. Estimate the temperature of the air after compression. then rise to the surface. Two identical bubbles of gas form at the bottom of a lake. Because the pressure is much lower at the surface than at the bottom. bubble A rises very quickly.

then B is defined as the change in pressure divided by the magnitude of the fractional change in volume: 6. and this increase results in a (negative) change in volume 6. the adiabatic B is the one we should use. one musician remarked that the high altitude threw their bagpipes out of tune. Would you expect altitude to affect the speed of sound (and hence the frequencies of the standing waves in the pipes)? If so. If the temperature gradient IdT/dzl exceeds a certain critical value. convection will occur: Warm. if we imagine applying an increase in pressure 6. in terms of its temperature and average molecular mass. where p is the density of the medium (mass per unit volume) and B is the bulk modulus.P to a chunk of the material. a measure of the medium's stiffness. in terms of its pressure P. The result should be a constant. (b) Argue that for purposes of computing the speed of a sound wave. Use the result of Problem 1. for both isothermal and adiabatic compressions. The condition for convection to occur is that the rising air mass must remain warmer than the surrounding air despite this adiabatic cooling. while cool. Compare your result to the formula for the rms speed of the molecules in the gas. the temperature of the bottommost 10-15 km of the atmosphere (called the troposphere) decreases with increasing altitude. The decrease of pressure with altitude causes a rising air mass to expand adiabatically and thus to cool. By applying Newton's laws to the oscillations of a continuous medium. because I haven't said whether the compressionis to take place isothermally or adiabatically (or in some other way).1. Ordinarily.P B == -6.V. so that the vertical forces on a convecting air mass are always approximately in balance. one can show that the speed of a sound wave is given by cs=~. independent of temperature and pressure. (a) Compute the bulk modulus of an ideal gas. . however. (c) Derive an expression for the speed of sound in an ideal gas.V/V This definition is still ambiguous. which evaluates to approximately -lO°C/km.16(b}to find a formula for dT /dz in this case.40. due to heating from the ground (which is warmed by sunlight). More precisely. the temperature and pressure are related by the differential equation dT dP = f+2P' 2 T (b) Assume that dT / dz is just at the critical value for convection to begin. in which direction? If not. (d) When Scotland's Battlefield Band played in Utah. high-density air sinks. however. (a) Show that when an ideal gas expands adiabatically.5 Compression Work 27 Problem 1. In Problem 1.39. low-density air will rise. This fundamental meteorological quantity is known as the dry adiabatic lapse rate.16you calculated the pressure of earth's atmosphere as a function of altitude. assuming constant temperature. why not? Problem 1. Evaluate the speed of sound numerically for air at room temperature.

41: C=!L= sr ~U-W ~T' (1. is called the heat capacity at constant volume.) The most important thing to know about the definition (1. on whether you are also doing work on the object (and if so. so W is negative. A more fundamental quantity is the specific heat capacity. The symbol {)indicates a partial derivative. Cv is 1 caIre or about 4. (1. For a gram of water. just plug the first law of thermodynamics into equation 1.41) of heat capacity is that it is ambiguous. when there is no work being done on the system.43. then the total heat . so C is larger than Cv: you need to add additional heat to compensate for the energy lost as work. the work W done on the object can be anything. since if it were. m C (1. varying as the derivative is taken. regardless of whether the energy actually enters as heat.41) (The symbol for heat capacity is a capital C.42) (The symbol for specific heat capacity is a lowercase c. not V. Usually this means that the system's volume isn't changing. specifically. denoted Cv.44) (The subscript V indicates that the changes are understood to occur with the volume held fixed. If the pressure surrounding your object happens to be constant. To see this. ll~' (1. there are two types of circumstances (and choices for W) that are most likely to occur. defined as the heat capacity per unit mass: c= -. for the particular case where W = 0 and V is constant. per degree temperature increase: C=.2 JrC.28 Chapter 1 Energy in Thermal Physics 1. so C can be anything. objects often expand as they are heated. however.) A better name for this quantity would be "energy capacity. From equation 1.6 Heat Capacities The heat capacity of an object is the amount of heat needed to raise its temperature. the larger its heat capacity will be. In everyday life. per degree.43) Even if the energy of an object is a well-defined function of its temperature alone (which is sometimes but not always the case). Perhaps the most obvious choice is W = 0. how much). too. in this case treating U as a function of T and V. with only T. So the heat capacity. The amount of heat needed to raise an object's temperature by one degree depends on the circumstances. In practice. the more of a substance you have. In this case they do work on their surroundings." since it is the energy needed to raise the object's temperature. there would be compression work equal to -Pll V.) Of course.

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