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A great achievement

Stephen Hawking was born in Cambridge in 1942. Hawking (1) known to millions of people all over the world (2) his best-seliing science book 'A Brief History Of Time', (3) ~ __ ----:_-:---:-_ has helped to bring about a revival of popular interest (4) science. Diagnosed as having motor neuron disease (5) he was only twenty-one, Hawking has had to overcome many obstacles. Motor neuron disease causes gradual paralysis and by 1970 Hawking could (6) _______ walk norwrite. Fortunately, the disease does (7) affect the parts of the brain which control thought and memory, so he has been (8) to continue with his research into the origins of the universe. Now in (9) fifties, Hawking weighs less (10) _--,-:-- + 40 kilos and is almost completely paralyzed. But, (11) he can only speak by means of a computer and voice-synthesizer, his attitude to life remains the same - cheerful (12) ___ -:-:--_:---:positive. Hawking, who is considered (13) many to be the world's greatest living scientist, (14) achieved far (15) than most able-bodied people could ever accomplish. Or, for that matter, would ever dream of accomplishing.
1

Friday the 13th Fear of Friday 13th,and the number 13 generally, is \ common than you might expect. A recent survey carried out 1. Britain revealed that 41% of British people feel uncomfortable about Friday 13th while 4% live in dread of it. The unwillingness o'superstitlops sailors to sail on Friday 13thwas once considered to !> reached such a levef that in 1791., govemment attempted to prove that the superstition was both ridiculous and false. Construction t started on a new ship on Friday 13th;she was named HMS Friday; she was lC!}lnched a Friday...;.' on _ she began her first voyage from London on a Friday. Neither the ship the crew was ever heard of again. Richard Hall, from Sheffield, has' . involved in four crashes on Friday 13th.He has also broken several bones, fallen , ariver, been knocked down ###BOT_TEXT### . a motorbike and walked through a glass door. Now he never gets our \ bed on that day. Friday \ 13thinterferes with hospital schedules' 1. many patients refuse to have operations on that date ....,..-:---=--:- it does not seem to be the case that ,., accidents happen on Friday 13th than on any other Friday. However, experts claim that the number 13 is not really as unlucky as people say. What \ej really brings is surprises, which can \, good as well as bad.

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The history of the Chunnel

The Channel tunnel, which joins Britain to mainland Europe' the first time, was officially opened in 1994, but the history of the 'Chunnel', back nearly two hundred years, At the th beginning of the 19 c~ntury, a British politician went to France to discuss closer trade links'3_-=-=-_:--_:--_ the two countries. The of a tunnel wfs mentioned in talks with Napoleon. A French engineer prepared plans for a tunnel in two sections, meeting at an island build in the middle of the English Channel. Another plan involved the laying of air-filled wooden ~bes at the ~ ,of the sea. These1 schemes were abandoned when war out between Britain and France. In 1875 a Tunnel Committee was formed, and a Convention was 3 . The British Channel Company bought I. , near Denver and started digging. There were still arguments about whether there should be a tunnel. The British were against the idea, saying that once the tunnel was , Britain would no longer be an island. Publicll. was increasingly hostile and in 1884 all work stopped. In the early zo" century the idea was\~ again but was soon lorgotten when the First World War began. Thr~ughout the twenties and thirties the idea was always " because of security and I worries. After that, it was not lC the 1960s that the two governments started talking seriously again about the tunnel.

Mini Televisions Scott Newman wouldn't be without his pocket-size TV, 1 he mainly watches in bed. 1'ILonly watch programmes which last about 2 hour, as any longer strains my eyes," I use the TV for general entertainment, though it is also really good for , . .' .." , keeping 3 , with current affairs. The main problem with the set is that il' s not . " loud 4 , even when you use headphones. The reception is all right 5 IORg nothing moves in front of the aerial.d Scott admits that he is a bit' of a gadget man, bu}.·doesn' t regret buying the set since he uses 6 . nearly every day. Retired engineer Paul Hardcastle 7 owned a pocket TV for a number 8 years. l'tI use it mostly in the bathroom. I wanted to use it outdoors, 9 the trouble is that in bright light you 10 see the picture. I ...,,_~e res..~J,g,ea.ble"b.atterie§ as..omj,p~ ong,~ld""f}~J.ac~m~~~~Aha~~is!$'0i',,,t>~f~~' ----- .._-- could be improved 11 the screen was slightly bigger and it didn't use up batteries 12 quickly: he can only get hali an hour' s viewing 13 ______ the batteries run out.

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FIT FOR SPORTS
It's not always easy to decide which sport to (O) take up. When choosing, it is important to remember that excellence in sports resuits (1) a number of factors. For some sports, the body shape and structure with (2) you are born are important. Top runners are typical examples of individuals (3) have selected a sport because of their natural body type. Many other sports are more dependent (4) training and technique, and anyone following a well-structured and appropriate training programme should do well. The aim of all sports training (5) . to improve fitness and skills, and to develop training programmes that are both safe (6) effective. To do (7) properly, an understanding of (8) physical demands of sport is needed. All sports require a combination of strength, speed, endurance, agility and flexibility to varying degrees. (9) is important is how these elements are combined to build up the skills of the sport (10) question. Other factors to be (11)' into account in a training programme are diet, the importance of avoiding injuries, your general state of health, and the nature and role (12) _ other team players, Bearing (13) (14) (15) considerations in mind, anyone prepared to work it can expect to progress to a very reasonable competitive level, even only a few people will go on to break world records.

The first known mention (O) J!L the Italian tomato in Italy dates back to the year 1544.It was then (1) the herbalist Matioli called it 'Pomodoro', (2) _ means 'Golden Apple', (3) possibly to the golden colour of the original yellow vegetable known at that time. Tomatoes were then cultivated into bright red varieties and (4) to Matioli were first eaten fried in oil with salt and pepper. In 1811,the Italian cook Filipo Re discovered that if tomatoes (5) crushed, cooked and (6) dried in the sun they turned (7) a dark red paste. This was an ideal (8) of preserving the tomato throughout the year, allowing (9) preparation of many dishes such as sauces and stews. Around the 1840s(10) product started to be commercialised and sold in markets, (11) it was cut into slices and served on fresh fig leaves. (12) was recognised that the tomato w-aspacked (13) of many precious qualities such as vitamins (14) other substances contained in the seeds, (15) with a low calorie count and a vast number of culinary uses. The initiai technology for preservation (16) the various forms that we now know was created, (17) tomatoes to be used throughout the year. In the (18) one hundred years the tomato became second (19) to the potato (20) the most popular vegetable in the world.
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rifjhewords in capitals: of hostels in London. (SHORT) in scoring a goal, they would've won the to come home at 2 a.m. (TO PERl'vfIT) in the conference. (PART) between men and women in this respect. to you. (DEBT) , which means we can use them.

1. There is a 2. If they had championship. (SUCCES) 3. He had 4. Our Foreign Minister was one of the 5. There are no major (TO l)IFFER) 6. You helped me a lot in this project. I'm 7. They claim that these chemicals are
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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Put the correct CAPITAL letter into the table below.

It was a terrible experience to her and it put her flying forever. off B out C away D through W'hen I got back, they had eaten the whole cake and just a few were left on the plate. grains B drops C crumbs D shreds It to be seen whether I've made the right decision or not. remains B continues C stands D keeps It was such a funny sight that I couldn't keep a face. plain B smooth C straight D level \lhen our original plan failed, we had to think of something to do _ otherwise B instead Cor else D in place Sleeplessness produces a number of effects. beside B part C relative D side The excavation revealed the oval of the building. l\ outcome B oudetC outline D outlook 8. The children were to play football in the garden. A banned B forbidden C prevented D stopped 9. She uses cream to obtain her lovely A aspect B complexion C feature Doudine 10. \V'e ctept doser to the wild animal, try1ngnot to it by making a noise. A dread B shake C shiver D startle 11. You're to for the children's bad behaviour. You spoilt them! A accuse B blameC fault D guilt 12. If he had go of the branch, he would have fallen. A dropped B let C lost D made 13. He's guite happy in the factory because he's got a good A employment B job C task D work 14. Wby were you so angty? Wbat made you loseyour ? A feeling B moodC nerves D temper 15. The river is so polluted that of the species of fish is safe to eat. A anyone B no one C none D one 16. The murder weapon had been in the grass for several days. A laid B Iain C laying D lying 17. Are you going to pay by chegue ar ? A by cash B in cash C by money D in money 18. Competition in sport is so fierce that it is a hard life for the players at the _ A crown B top C height D roof 19. She alittle sugar on the top of the cake to make it sweeter. A flung B poured C spilt D sprinkled 20. Rest that we will do everything possible to help. A assured B insured C guaranteed D reassured A 2. A 3. A 4. A 5. A 6. A 7.
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Read the article about working mothers. Match statements 1-9 with paragraphs A-D. When more than one answer is required, this is indicated next to the statement. A So the shine has come off Supermum. According to a Cambridge University report published this week, enthusiasm for equality in the workplace peaked in the 905 and is now waning. More people now think that a woman who works does so at the expense of her family. Who is or was Supermum anyway? I am a woman who works, and who also has a small child. Ninety per cent of the time these two things hang together, and I am in no way super - never have been, never will be. B I meant to wear high heels yesterday, but never changed out of my cycling shoes. My one-year-old daughter went to nursery in her pyjamas, and I couldn't get her to stand stilllong enough to brush her hair. But these are details: looking at the big picture, it pretty much works out. Of all the many myths about motherhood, the one that says you can't hang on to ademanding job is the worst. I remember worrying in the early months of pregnancy that, some time around the six-month mark, my mind would go to mush and all judgment desert me - because everyone said it would. And it didn't happen. You can be a mother and not lose your mind. You can also be a mother and work, and still not lose your mind. C I recently heard a senior executive in the City shrug off the fact that there were only two female company chairs in the top 100 companies. She said that some women were sensible and stayed at home to look after their kids; others were a bit crazier and pursued eat-you-alive jobs and didn't have children. It was a sad opposition, and one that was very revealing about the City's all-ornothing male work ethic. Nearly- alU[le women I knQ.W who didn't go back to work after having childrenworked In the City - as lawyers, traders, ban kers. You could say they made their own choices; I would argue that their hands were powerfully forced. D What does nobody teil you about being a working mother? That it can be a lot offun. Life feels incredibly full, and often in a good way. So don't count yourself out because everyone tells you it can't be done and something will have to give, and that that something will be vou. And most importantly, don't count yourself out because without you in the workplace the situation won't keep improving - which it is. As a colleague told me after I returned from maternity leave, ves, there will be days when you have to make big decisions after being up all night - but you have had hangovers before, and lived, and on those days when it does work, being a working mother is the best thing in the world. It's what the suffragettes chained themselves to the railings for. Let's not quit while we're ahead.
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1 Some jobs aren't compatible having children.

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2 Some people sav that employed women neglect their families. 3 I don't always manage to do everything the way I wish to. __ 4 Working mothers can have a challenging job. 5 According to some people it is not important that there are few women in some industries. 6 Some people say the interest in being equal to men in the workplace is decreasing. 7 Some people claim that reasonable women stop working after they give birth. 8 Working mothers are admired less now. 9 It's worth having a job despite occasional difficulties. ,.~ _

1 Complete the text with sultable words, using one word
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The Indian ia:,':i!y A B C D was very curious about the author. scared the author very much. made pleasant smeliing dishes. got an apology from the author.

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How 1 travelled through different cultures to same acquired tastes
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A few years back I wasn't particularly fond of Indian dishes with their strong spices. Then an Indian family moved in next door and I immediately became friends with the lady. Being very hospitable people they kept asking me over. Seeing as I had no choice, I gave in, went over and waited in horror. They served a lot of strange-looking dishes, whose aroma was inviting enough for me to succumb and sample them. And boy, was I sorry I did. My tongue felt like it was on fire! But I saw it through to the end so as not to endanger our nelghbourly relationship. Needless to sav, I was asked to come back for more. It took a few months, but I have actualiy come to love same hot Indian curries and overly honeyed desserts. In contrast, American steaks and burgers now strike me as downright dull, although I used to devour them. Then there's Japanese cuisine, which I associated with a smelly sushi bar next door until I went on a trip to Japan. I was served dishes of suspicious od our day in day out and, although they didn't seem particularly delectable, upon my return home I found myself repeatedly wandering into that sushi bar around the corner. The smeli I had thought disgustingly fishy before now seemed familiar and mouth-watering. However, IstilI can't stand the sight of tofu and have yet to muster up the courage to try what might be considered the most exotic of their dishes, but I will get there one day. In short, I have acquired the taste for same foreign dishes but not for all the food of any particular cuisine. In away, the ability to acquire the taste for new foods has to do with a person's abilitv to assimilate a culture. The 'acquired taste' for food goes beyond ataste bud experience. It has a lot to do with what a person associates the food with, like friendly neighbours or a memorable journey. Similarly, many of us find our mother's cooking incomparable. But that isn't necessarily because of our mother's superior kitchen skills but because we associate her cooking with the warmth of home,

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Read the article. Complete the text by matching sentences (A-G) to the gaps in the text (1-6). There is one sentence which you do not need to use.

~
" Complete the text with the torrect words a-d. Thirty years ago, at 7.30 a.m. on a Tuesday, t.stood' __ a roomful of restless pre-adolescents. had been placed in front Unexpectedly,

Disappearing

country

(t,

I

Faced with the prospect of being swamped by rising sea levels, the Pacific island nation ofTuvalu is considering evacuating its 9,300 residents. With a highest point just five metres above sea level, Tuvalu is one of the world's lowest-Iying countries.
1_ _

of 70

of them with the instructions: , Ja in. Keep get here.' ten per cent and

c'They can't use the playground becauseofthe thern busy untit2_,_teachers !looked out over their faces, 3_.__ that [4__ hopefulness

With global sea levels

something interesting,
, _.

predicted to rise by more than 80 cm over the next century, ,Tuvaluans are living on borrowed time. The government's solution is to transport the entire population overseas.

-90
c

per centcyn iciim that any adult 5__ to entertain them, ,. kndwin~whatersetodo, f began to

Theirbodies
6__ :

werestumped.their

anus were folded. They were

me
N6t

'We don't know when the islands will be completely covered,' says Tuvalu government secretary Panapasi Nelesone. 'But we need to start working on this now.'
2

7__

. _..

astory;

· Within'.moments"theirpbstures ·relaxed. Theireyes,rolled rernalnedentranced
"8__

changed. Their fates

slightly back. Best of aH,they

But Tofiga Falani, the president of the Tuvalu

throughout the fifteen rninutes
those fifteen mirlute$'-ChalT~eq.· I fcillowedt~e,.storY· outof rnYfeachingjob,

church, says that more urgent action is needed. 'We must know that someone will provide land for us, before a storm washes our islands away altogether,' he said. He !s lobbying Australia to set aside land to serve as a new home for Tuvalu's people when they finally quit their nine inhabited atolls. 3 Until recently, the data collected changes around Tuvalu for ten from monitoring Pacific Ocean levels showed that there

the storv.
9_' _._',it,but

IhC!d.DO way
rnylife:

10_,_'_.

the nextfewvears,

response' of children and

adults>

·into fr~elanEeperfoJming,
.···~torytelling·coach.

and.flnallv intorny

rbl~'aš"; ~ .

1
iJ·fa~ed b fating
r

6

had been no significant years. Some

a

assuming

analysts

even suggested that the aftermath of

El Nino could cause sea levels in the area to drop by up to 30 cm in the future. That view is changing. 'Tuvaluans
4

.,c havtng fac·e"d
dface

are used to seeing islets vanish beneath the long before the waves finally elose over But the seepage of salt water into farmIand

-

b chaHehging c considering d inquirlng
7 a sav. b teil . c talk

,j
•.a the. other b . other

wave s with cyclones, but their country is likely to became uninhabitable them. 5__

c

.theothers another

cl

d make 8

has destroved crops and made the people dependent on canned imports. luvalu's Polynesian people arrived in the Islands 2,000 years ago by way ofTonga and Samoa. 6_ A Nearly 3,000 Tuvaluans already live overseas, and government year.
il

3 čl .that released

a of
b while
cdu.rins· -

·b tliaf~oniaijleđ c which rcyo~Jcd

d
4

which conflfmed

,d througho~t 9

programme is now relocating 75 more every

B The neighbouring state of Kiribati has dozens of uninhabited
islands, but it is facing its own population pressures. ( It seems, however, they will have to leave their homeland very soon.

,,~a will say ', b Would sav . ~"~, aid sav , d would.have said ' S-

a

to haveknown

b of knOWing::
c . how to krrow

d howknow 10

D The most recent figures suggest that Tuvalu's sea levels
have risen nearly three times as fast as the world average

a alwayswould -b even might
, ,cever cQulde; neverwill.J,.

a

Over

<
::,

-,

over the 12P5,LcL~~ade,.MI.Qare 5cm higher_than in 199L-~__>d now

"'" ','
1_

Complete the textwlth suitablewords,

-' c - ~~. z. " , &.o 'S c: ",
Bulgarian the moment they
~ Prague's Ruzyne:Alrport.

'After

pulling him 7 . an~ ~-raYing his bag, the officers confirmed their suspicrons: the softmaterial
a double bottom, in
8_,__

--

b White Iri,

,-

,.::::O.l....f~ __

"-

_

--------bag

Customs officers suspected there Was something adl
the twenty-year-old spotted him 2~

'~ontained

2.74 kg of herain

lay wrapped in two layers of black plastic. For airport customs officers, this seizure was 9__ '
'

The man, who had fustarrived

on a.dtrect
he had
theairport's
6

cornmerclal

secand major herain haul in as many months. In December, a Romanian man in his twenties arriving on a direct commercial had been stopped, also flight from Istanbul, with back of his

fltght

fromIstanbul,

was edgy and uncertain, and 3_ suggested that never really security sense that

awkwardbehavlour travelled
4__ .

Even

5__

2.5 kg of heroin concealed in the reinforced rucksack. With a street value of (€30-€40) heroin
11 __ 10 __

camera monitor, customs officers

800 to 1,000Kč

his trendv clothes and carry-on bag belied his provlncial demeanour.

per gram, officials estimate the value of man was carrying to be in the millions of

Czech crowns.

E Decade by decade per capita food production Read the following article about the genetic modification

is rising.

F However, the green revolution did not solve all poverty and malnutrition. G But only at of food. Same parts of the text have been removed. Cornplete the text by matching the sentences (A-G) with the gaps in the text (1-6). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. We were told that the genetic modification lead to the use of more chemical sprays.
1__

a price,
Use
of

of food would Geneticaiiy

ExAM TASK -

English

modified (GM) cotton growers in India, Australia and China are spraying less than half as much pesticide on their crops; GM corn growers in the United States are spending less than before on insecticide. British growers of GM sugar beet are spraying herbicide once instead of-five times. bring back wild life. 3__
2__

1 Complete the text with suitable words. The Mava arernysterious.
1

This is how this ancient culture has presented a picture of a understand. Lots

always been portrayed, and recently a long

series of documentaries

people with practices and a world view that is very difficult for modern people
2

Of course, the organic farming lobby argues that lt, too, can Because organic crops require nitrogen grown elsewhere rather than manufactured from the air in a factory, organic farming is land-hungry. The economist Indur Goklany has calculated that if the world tried to feed its current population, of six billion people using the (mainly organic) technologies instead of 38%.
4__

of researchers have decided to study Mayan culture and history and it seems that events of a mystical nature have guided everyone the Maya. The most extraordinary example in
4__ __ 3

has taken up the study of

history

and yields of 1961, it

of Mayanism is probably the story of Knorozov who was guided to the translation of the Mayan script. His story is worth recounting. During World War II Yuri Kn'orozov was a young student in Leningrad
5 -

would require 82% of the world's land area to be cultivated Speaking of food, in Europe it is common to hear the argument that the world now produces enough food without GM foods. Yes, but how did it achieve this? By rapidly adopting fertiliser, pesticides and highyielding varieties. This 'Green Revolution' depended on genetically new varieties created by artificial mutation using nuclear radiation and chemical mutagens. Pessimists might sav that despite the Green Revolution, there is still poverty and malnutrition. But for the past century the world has got steadily better for most people. You do not believe that? I am not surprised. You are ted such a strong diet of news about how bad things are that it must be hard to believe they were once worse.
5__

he was drafted into the Red Army.

In the final assault on Berlin he saw the National Library 6 _ f1ames and so rushed in and 7 _ randorn grabbed a book to save it. The book turned out to be a facsimile of the only three surviving Mayan Codices
8

_were known at the time. Back in Russia he he published the solution

was encouraged to take on breaking the Mayan code and seven years
9_ _

in a Russian journal of linguistlr s It tnok sorne thirty additional years for this solution to be accepted in the West I can only imagine that he himself
!".

Longevity

is increasing faster in the poor south than in the rich north. Infant mortality is lower in Asia than ever before. 6__ Here at home, we are healthier, wealthier and wiser than ever before. Pollution has declined; options open ed. All this has been achieved primarily by that most hated of tricks, the technical fix. By invention, A The birds, butterflies not legislation. prosperity increased;

have concluded that grabbing that particular book was a mystical event as it determined his mission in life.

and flowers are coming back into

the fields where GM crops are grown. B But choose any statistic you like and it will show that the lot of even the poorest is better today than it was in 1903. C The opposite proved true. D That means ploughing up the Amazon, irrigating the Sahara and draining the Okavango.

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Flying in Sti'le,
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.'s,.i.e:e'dl'·'· ' ,,' ,r.rm(l~t
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(O)

days commercial airliners are becoming larger," (13) makes flying cheaper but in many ways more impersonal. Perhaps (14) a response to this, amore oldfashioned way of taking to the air is gaining popularity in Britain.
,.

Arecent

proposal

to limit the speed cars (O) put

reach is provinq: by the Institute for- Road;

controversial. Safety, digital

The idea, fitting

(13)
with

involves

vehicles

a communications

box containirig

a

map of the road network. box - which to traveion car's speed.

(14) (15)
section

a car is in motion, the. fast the vehicle of road - automatically therefore becomes to is, :

number of companies today oHer charter flights in small aircraft. You hire the plane and pilot, just as you might hire a chauffeur(IS) ,

communications legally permitted the

knows

a particular

driven car, and

(16)

,

are yours for the day.

regulates

(16) impossible for a vehicle fitted with (17)

..

adevice

exceed

If you are flying on ashort trip (17) Britain to the continent, . a light plane can get you (IS) almost as quickly as ajet: airliner. In fact, the whole journey takes far (19) time, since you don't need to be at the airport hours (20) advance. And if you share the cost with friends, it can be chea per tha.n a scheduled flight. The atmosphere
(2l)

the speed limit.

There are plans

(18) (19)

charge motorists to drive into the centre box could be used to identify vehicles time a vehicle does so, :

of major cities, and a communications that enter this zone. At present, its number plate

is photographed.

(20)
vehicles,

..

the number

is

board is relaxed and friendly, with

compared

cqoinst a list of authorised from foolproof.

but this system is costly and

formalities (22) .... ..... .. passport control and customs, if not entirely eliminated, at least kept (23) .. a minimum. Instead of walking for (24) seems like miles through a vast airport terminal, (2S) it's time to take off, you simply stroll over and ease (26) into the plane. Even the flight itself is more fun, as (27) .. as the weather is fine. And if you want to descend and take a closer look at something on the ground, just ask the pilot; you're the boss!

(21) .
The system wished

\;)/,,""·"'..t\..,-,j~

(22)
(23t
purpose. regard who for another

be put in place quickly

if the gover'nment has already been

as part

;
it

the technology

developed

Electronic vehicle identification

is unpopular of

with so me people, -the'ir rj·ghts. the speed hesitote

(24)
may

an infringement

(25;)
of their car's, through

would certainly

object to the plan to restrict make the government drivers to slow

(26)

to

go

with
public.

ito

But

by

forcing

(27)
populor

..

, the scheme would save lives, and this is likely to be

with the general

A new look at the Midd1e Ages
The Institute for Medievql Studies is holding a series of lectures to (O) ~.(.~~terest a period of history which is all too often (1)... (2) some of the misconceptions that (3) in . It is hoped that these lectures will . to this day about the long and eventful span of time between the crowning of Charlemagne and the Renaissance. It is true that Europe was (4) century, while the terrorsof Living (~) .... (7) literate. However, these (8) negative aspects of medieval life cannot be properly . The Middle Ages saw the of as modern were a(n) ,inf'luence on by the plague in the latter part of the fourteenth by modern standards, and

Va,llilla ;:S9rp rise
r
r

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.-._---.-------....-plant is a(n) (1) . they of the; by are pollinated

co
Vanilla is such a(n) (O) one of the world's Americas. hummingbirds Its flowers (4)

;V

w--. <> ~ flavour that it comes as a surprise to learn that it is also,
cro ps. The vanilla in (2)
I,

most expensive grow

, and in nature

and bees. The (3)

seed pods resemble oversized French beans, and fragranee 'during the curing to a fifth oftheir process. After

and develop their the Inquisition east a grirn shadow over the continent.

flavour

har:vesting, the beans are treated with heat or hot water and are plaeed in the sun every day for many weeks. When they have (5) are (6) aeeording to size and quality. original size, they

for the majority of people were appalling

life (6\ ... " was low, The peasants suffered under a brutal feudal system and the of learning was open only to the clergy and the small minority who were Like other spiees that we (7) for granted today, vanilla has a faseinating with failure: the plants would history. In the sixteenth eentury, the Spanish imported the spiee to Europe. However, attempts to grow vanilla in other loeations (8) pods, and it was only when away the commerciai exploitation evaluated unless they are viewed in the broader (9) . construction of the magnificent cathedrals thatgrace (10) (11), . of a rniddle class. Many institutions ,part we think not produce that was found to pollinate the flowers artificially

of this valuable erop (9) ~ ..... under way. as well as in the dish in certain

so many European cities and the Today vanilla is used in the manufacture of perfumes andeosmeties culinarv arts, where it is often a(nl (10) used in more (11) restaurants --:provingthat buds. ehefs can (12) of puddings. ways. Lobster and vanilla is now a popular Recentlv; it has also been

of medieval-Iife, Progress was being made in science and technoloqv, styles that had a powerful and (12) centuries.

and artists were forging 'subsequent

up with amazing ideas to tiekle the taste

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A great achievement

Stephen Hawking was born in Cambridge in 1942. Hawking (1) known to millions of people all over the world (2) his best-seliing science book 'A Brief History Of Time', (3) ~ __ ----:_-:---:-_ has helped to bring about a revival of popular interest (4) science. Diagnosed as having motor neuron disease (5) he was only twenty-one, Hawking has had to overcome many obstacles. Motor neuron disease causes gradual paralysis and by 1970 Hawking could (6) _______ walk norwrite. Fortunately, the disease does (7) affect the parts of the brain which control thought and memory, so he has been (8) to continue with his research into the origins of the universe. Now in (9) fifties, Hawking weighs less (10) _--,-:-- + 40 kilos and is almost completely paralyzed. But, (11) he can only speak by means of a computer and voice-synthesizer, his attitude to life remains the same - cheerful (12) ___ -:-:--_:---:positive. Hawking, who is considered (13) many to be the world's greatest living scientist, (14) achieved far (15) than most able-bodied people could ever accomplish. Or, for that matter, would ever dream of accomplishing.
1

Friday the 13th Fear of Friday 13th,and the number 13 generally, is \ common than you might expect. A recent survey carried out 1. Britain revealed that 41% of British people feel uncomfortable about Friday 13th while 4% live in dread of it. The unwillingness o'superstitlops sailors to sail on Friday 13thwas once considered to !> reached such a levef that in 1791., govemment attempted to prove that the superstition was both ridiculous and false. Construction t started on a new ship on Friday 13th;she was named HMS Friday; she was lC!}lnched a Friday...;.' on _ she began her first voyage from London on a Friday. Neither the ship the crew was ever heard of again. Richard Hall, from Sheffield, has' . involved in four crashes on Friday 13th.He has also broken several bones, fallen , ariver, been knocked down ###BOT_TEXT### . a motorbike and walked through a glass door. Now he never gets our \ bed on that day. Friday \ 13thinterferes with hospital schedules' 1. many patients refuse to have operations on that date ....,..-:---=--:- it does not seem to be the case that ,., accidents happen on Friday 13th than on any other Friday. However, experts claim that the number 13 is not really as unlucky as people say. What \ej really brings is surprises, which can \, good as well as bad.

-f'

The history of the Chunnel

The Channel tunnel, which joins Britain to mainland Europe' the first time, was officially opened in 1994, but the history of the 'Chunnel', back nearly two hundred years, At the th beginning of the 19 c~ntury, a British politician went to France to discuss closer trade links'3_-=-=-_:--_:--_ the two countries. The of a tunnel wfs mentioned in talks with Napoleon. A French engineer prepared plans for a tunnel in two sections, meeting at an island build in the middle of the English Channel. Another plan involved the laying of air-filled wooden ~bes at the ~ ,of the sea. These1 schemes were abandoned when war out between Britain and France. In 1875 a Tunnel Committee was formed, and a Convention was 3 . The British Channel Company bought I. , near Denver and started digging. There were still arguments about whether there should be a tunnel. The British were against the idea, saying that once the tunnel was , Britain would no longer be an island. Publicll. was increasingly hostile and in 1884 all work stopped. In the early zo" century the idea was\~ again but was soon lorgotten when the First World War began. Thr~ughout the twenties and thirties the idea was always " because of security and I worries. After that, it was not lC the 1960s that the two governments started talking seriously again about the tunnel.

Mini Televisions Scott Newman wouldn't be without his pocket-size TV, 1 he mainly watches in bed. 1'ILonly watch programmes which last about 2 hour, as any longer strains my eyes," I use the TV for general entertainment, though it is also really good for , . .' .." , keeping 3 , with current affairs. The main problem with the set is that il' s not . " loud 4 , even when you use headphones. The reception is all right 5 IORg nothing moves in front of the aerial.d Scott admits that he is a bit' of a gadget man, bu}.·doesn' t regret buying the set since he uses 6 . nearly every day. Retired engineer Paul Hardcastle 7 owned a pocket TV for a number 8 years. l'tI use it mostly in the bathroom. I wanted to use it outdoors, 9 the trouble is that in bright light you 10 see the picture. I ...,,_~e res..~J,g,ea.ble"b.atterie§ as..omj,p~ ong,~ld""f}~J.ac~m~~~~Aha~~is!$'0i',,,t>~f~~' ----- .._-- could be improved 11 the screen was slightly bigger and it didn't use up batteries 12 quickly: he can only get hali an hour' s viewing 13 ______ the batteries run out.

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*

=-1

FIT FOR SPORTS
It's not always easy to decide which sport to (O) take up. When choosing, it is important to remember that excellence in sports resuits (1) a number of factors. For some sports, the body shape and structure with (2) you are born are important. Top runners are typical examples of individuals (3) have selected a sport because of their natural body type. Many other sports are more dependent (4) training and technique, and anyone following a well-structured and appropriate training programme should do well. The aim of all sports training (5) . to improve fitness and skills, and to develop training programmes that are both safe (6) effective. To do (7) properly, an understanding of (8) physical demands of sport is needed. All sports require a combination of strength, speed, endurance, agility and flexibility to varying degrees. (9) is important is how these elements are combined to build up the skills of the sport (10) question. Other factors to be (11)' into account in a training programme are diet, the importance of avoiding injuries, your general state of health, and the nature and role (12) _ other team players, Bearing (13) (14) (15) considerations in mind, anyone prepared to work it can expect to progress to a very reasonable competitive level, even only a few people will go on to break world records.

The first known mention (O) J!L the Italian tomato in Italy dates back to the year 1544.It was then (1) the herbalist Matioli called it 'Pomodoro', (2) _ means 'Golden Apple', (3) possibly to the golden colour of the original yellow vegetable known at that time. Tomatoes were then cultivated into bright red varieties and (4) to Matioli were first eaten fried in oil with salt and pepper. In 1811,the Italian cook Filipo Re discovered that if tomatoes (5) crushed, cooked and (6) dried in the sun they turned (7) a dark red paste. This was an ideal (8) of preserving the tomato throughout the year, allowing (9) preparation of many dishes such as sauces and stews. Around the 1840s(10) product started to be commercialised and sold in markets, (11) it was cut into slices and served on fresh fig leaves. (12) was recognised that the tomato w-aspacked (13) of many precious qualities such as vitamins (14) other substances contained in the seeds, (15) with a low calorie count and a vast number of culinary uses. The initiai technology for preservation (16) the various forms that we now know was created, (17) tomatoes to be used throughout the year. In the (18) one hundred years the tomato became second (19) to the potato (20) the most popular vegetable in the world.
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_ _

/I. Complete/he

sentences with mE CORRECTFOR}.II

rifjhewords in capitals: of hostels in London. (SHORT) in scoring a goal, they would've won the to come home at 2 a.m. (TO PERl'vfIT) in the conference. (PART) between men and women in this respect. to you. (DEBT) , which means we can use them.

1. There is a 2. If they had championship. (SUCCES) 3. He had 4. Our Foreign Minister was one of the 5. There are no major (TO l)IFFER) 6. You helped me a lot in this project. I'm 7. They claim that these chemicals are
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III. 1.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Put the correct CAPITAL letter into the table below.

It was a terrible experience to her and it put her flying forever. off B out C away D through W'hen I got back, they had eaten the whole cake and just a few were left on the plate. grains B drops C crumbs D shreds It to be seen whether I've made the right decision or not. remains B continues C stands D keeps It was such a funny sight that I couldn't keep a face. plain B smooth C straight D level \lhen our original plan failed, we had to think of something to do _ otherwise B instead Cor else D in place Sleeplessness produces a number of effects. beside B part C relative D side The excavation revealed the oval of the building. l\ outcome B oudetC outline D outlook 8. The children were to play football in the garden. A banned B forbidden C prevented D stopped 9. She uses cream to obtain her lovely A aspect B complexion C feature Doudine 10. \V'e ctept doser to the wild animal, try1ngnot to it by making a noise. A dread B shake C shiver D startle 11. You're to for the children's bad behaviour. You spoilt them! A accuse B blameC fault D guilt 12. If he had go of the branch, he would have fallen. A dropped B let C lost D made 13. He's guite happy in the factory because he's got a good A employment B job C task D work 14. Wby were you so angty? Wbat made you loseyour ? A feeling B moodC nerves D temper 15. The river is so polluted that of the species of fish is safe to eat. A anyone B no one C none D one 16. The murder weapon had been in the grass for several days. A laid B Iain C laying D lying 17. Are you going to pay by chegue ar ? A by cash B in cash C by money D in money 18. Competition in sport is so fierce that it is a hard life for the players at the _ A crown B top C height D roof 19. She alittle sugar on the top of the cake to make it sweeter. A flung B poured C spilt D sprinkled 20. Rest that we will do everything possible to help. A assured B insured C guaranteed D reassured A 2. A 3. A 4. A 5. A 6. A 7.
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In which paragraph does the writer say the following?

,.

1 Some jobs aren't compatible having children.

with

2 Some people sav that employed women neglect their families. 3 I don't always manage to do everything the way I wish to. __ 4 Working mothers can have a challenging job. 5 According to some people it is not important that there are few women in some industries. 6 Some people say the interest in being equal to men in the workplace is decreasing. 7 Some people claim that reasonable women stop working after they give birth. 8 Working mothers are admired less now. 9 It's worth having a job despite occasional difficulties. ,.~ _

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The Indian ia:,':i!y A B C D was very curious about the author. scared the author very much. made pleasant smeliing dishes. got an apology from the author.

q., Jr

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How 1 travelled through different cultures to same acquired tastes
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something to 2_ people occupied white stranded in an anonymous airport. Many items bought at airports one seems to
3_

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A few years back I wasn't particularly fond of Indian dishes with their strong spices. Then an Indian family moved in next door and I immediately became friends with the lady. Being very hospitable people they kept asking me over. Seeing as I had no choice, I gave in, went over and waited in horror. They served a lot of strange-looking dishes, whose aroma was inviting enough for me to succumb and sample them. And boy, was I sorry I did. My tongue felt like it was on fire! But I saw it through to the end so as not to endanger our nelghbourly relationship. Needless to sav, I was asked to come back for more. It took a few months, but I have actualiy come to love same hot Indian curries and overly honeyed desserts. In contrast, American steaks and burgers now strike me as downright dull, although I used to devour them. Then there's Japanese cuisine, which I associated with a smelly sushi bar next door until I went on a trip to Japan. I was served dishes of suspicious od our day in day out and, although they didn't seem particularly delectable, upon my return home I found myself repeatedly wandering into that sushi bar around the corner. The smeli I had thought disgustingly fishy before now seemed familiar and mouth-watering. However, IstilI can't stand the sight of tofu and have yet to muster up the courage to try what might be considered the most exotic of their dishes, but I will get there one day. In short, I have acquired the taste for same foreign dishes but not for all the food of any particular cuisine. In away, the ability to acquire the taste for new foods has to do with a person's abilitv to assimilate a culture. The 'acquired taste' for food goes beyond ataste bud experience. It has a lot to do with what a person associates the food with, like friendly neighbours or a memorable journey. Similarly, many of us find our mother's cooking incomparable. But that isn't necessarily because of our mother's superior kitchen skills but because we associate her cooking with the warmth of home,

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~
" Complete the text with the torrect words a-d. Thirty years ago, at 7.30 a.m. on a Tuesday, t.stood' __ a roomful of restless pre-adolescents. had been placed in front Unexpectedly,

Disappearing

country

(t,

I

Faced with the prospect of being swamped by rising sea levels, the Pacific island nation ofTuvalu is considering evacuating its 9,300 residents. With a highest point just five metres above sea level, Tuvalu is one of the world's lowest-Iying countries.
1_ _

of 70

of them with the instructions: , Ja in. Keep get here.' ten per cent and

c'They can't use the playground becauseofthe thern busy untit2_,_teachers !looked out over their faces, 3_.__ that [4__ hopefulness

With global sea levels

something interesting,
, _.

predicted to rise by more than 80 cm over the next century, ,Tuvaluans are living on borrowed time. The government's solution is to transport the entire population overseas.

-90
c

per centcyn iciim that any adult 5__ to entertain them, ,. kndwin~whatersetodo, f began to

Theirbodies
6__ :

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anus were folded. They were

me
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'We don't know when the islands will be completely covered,' says Tuvalu government secretary Panapasi Nelesone. 'But we need to start working on this now.'
2

7__

. _..

astory;

· Within'.moments"theirpbstures ·relaxed. Theireyes,rolled rernalnedentranced
"8__

changed. Their fates

slightly back. Best of aH,they

But Tofiga Falani, the president of the Tuvalu

throughout the fifteen rninutes
those fifteen mirlute$'-ChalT~eq.· I fcillowedt~e,.storY· outof rnYfeachingjob,

church, says that more urgent action is needed. 'We must know that someone will provide land for us, before a storm washes our islands away altogether,' he said. He !s lobbying Australia to set aside land to serve as a new home for Tuvalu's people when they finally quit their nine inhabited atolls. 3 Until recently, the data collected changes around Tuvalu for ten from monitoring Pacific Ocean levels showed that there

the storv.
9_' _._',it,but

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rnylife:

10_,_'_.

the nextfewvears,

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had been no significant years. Some

a

assuming

analysts

even suggested that the aftermath of

El Nino could cause sea levels in the area to drop by up to 30 cm in the future. That view is changing. 'Tuvaluans
4

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are used to seeing islets vanish beneath the long before the waves finally elose over But the seepage of salt water into farmIand

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has destroved crops and made the people dependent on canned imports. luvalu's Polynesian people arrived in the Islands 2,000 years ago by way ofTonga and Samoa. 6_ A Nearly 3,000 Tuvaluans already live overseas, and government year.
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programme is now relocating 75 more every

B The neighbouring state of Kiribati has dozens of uninhabited
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a

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b of knOWing::
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D The most recent figures suggest that Tuvalu's sea levels
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-' c - ~~. z. " , &.o 'S c: ",
Bulgarian the moment they
~ Prague's Ruzyne:Alrport.

'After

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the twenty-year-old spotted him 2~

'~ontained

2.74 kg of herain

lay wrapped in two layers of black plastic. For airport customs officers, this seizure was 9__ '
'

The man, who had fustarrived

on a.dtrect
he had
theairport's
6

cornmerclal

secand major herain haul in as many months. In December, a Romanian man in his twenties arriving on a direct commercial had been stopped, also flight from Istanbul, with back of his

fltght

fromIstanbul,

was edgy and uncertain, and 3_ suggested that never really security sense that

awkwardbehavlour travelled
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5__

2.5 kg of heroin concealed in the reinforced rucksack. With a street value of (€30-€40) heroin
11 __ 10 __

camera monitor, customs officers

800 to 1,000Kč

his trendv clothes and carry-on bag belied his provlncial demeanour.

per gram, officials estimate the value of man was carrying to be in the millions of

Czech crowns.

E Decade by decade per capita food production Read the following article about the genetic modification

is rising.

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1__

a price,
Use
of

of food would Geneticaiiy

ExAM TASK -

English

modified (GM) cotton growers in India, Australia and China are spraying less than half as much pesticide on their crops; GM corn growers in the United States are spending less than before on insecticide. British growers of GM sugar beet are spraying herbicide once instead of-five times. bring back wild life. 3__
2__

1 Complete the text with suitable words. The Mava arernysterious.
1

This is how this ancient culture has presented a picture of a understand. Lots

always been portrayed, and recently a long

series of documentaries

people with practices and a world view that is very difficult for modern people
2

Of course, the organic farming lobby argues that lt, too, can Because organic crops require nitrogen grown elsewhere rather than manufactured from the air in a factory, organic farming is land-hungry. The economist Indur Goklany has calculated that if the world tried to feed its current population, of six billion people using the (mainly organic) technologies instead of 38%.
4__

of researchers have decided to study Mayan culture and history and it seems that events of a mystical nature have guided everyone the Maya. The most extraordinary example in
4__ __ 3

has taken up the study of

history

and yields of 1961, it

of Mayanism is probably the story of Knorozov who was guided to the translation of the Mayan script. His story is worth recounting. During World War II Yuri Kn'orozov was a young student in Leningrad
5 -

would require 82% of the world's land area to be cultivated Speaking of food, in Europe it is common to hear the argument that the world now produces enough food without GM foods. Yes, but how did it achieve this? By rapidly adopting fertiliser, pesticides and highyielding varieties. This 'Green Revolution' depended on genetically new varieties created by artificial mutation using nuclear radiation and chemical mutagens. Pessimists might sav that despite the Green Revolution, there is still poverty and malnutrition. But for the past century the world has got steadily better for most people. You do not believe that? I am not surprised. You are ted such a strong diet of news about how bad things are that it must be hard to believe they were once worse.
5__

he was drafted into the Red Army.

In the final assault on Berlin he saw the National Library 6 _ f1ames and so rushed in and 7 _ randorn grabbed a book to save it. The book turned out to be a facsimile of the only three surviving Mayan Codices
8

_were known at the time. Back in Russia he he published the solution

was encouraged to take on breaking the Mayan code and seven years
9_ _

in a Russian journal of linguistlr s It tnok sorne thirty additional years for this solution to be accepted in the West I can only imagine that he himself
!".

Longevity

is increasing faster in the poor south than in the rich north. Infant mortality is lower in Asia than ever before. 6__ Here at home, we are healthier, wealthier and wiser than ever before. Pollution has declined; options open ed. All this has been achieved primarily by that most hated of tricks, the technical fix. By invention, A The birds, butterflies not legislation. prosperity increased;

have concluded that grabbing that particular book was a mystical event as it determined his mission in life.

and flowers are coming back into

the fields where GM crops are grown. B But choose any statistic you like and it will show that the lot of even the poorest is better today than it was in 1903. C The opposite proved true. D That means ploughing up the Amazon, irrigating the Sahara and draining the Okavango.

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