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OFDM v OFDMA l g? S khc bit k thut gia OFDM v OFDMA l g? Khi OFDM s c s dng so vi OFDMA?

Trng hp l OFDM s dng ngy nay? Lm th no hiu qu quang ph l OFDM / MIMO cho cc cu hnh ngten khc nhau? Do h thng OFDM v OFDMA cung cp bt k li th cng ngh trn HSPA, m l da trn UMTS / WCDMA? Long Term Evolution (LTE) mt cng ngh OFDMA v khng cung cp cc li th hn HSPA? Lm th no OFDMA s c s dng trong LTE? Hiu sut ca OFDM cho LTE l g? iu g lm cho OFDM nhn c tn hiu mt cch x l tp trung t hn so vi CDMA? S khc bit gia OFDM v SC-FDMA, giao din khng kh cho cc ng ln LTE l g? Cng ngh da trn OFDM / OFDMA v ti sao? Lm th no c OFDM v OFDMA lin quan n WiMAX v IEEE 802,20? Flash OFDM l g? Siu di ng bng thng rng hoc UMB l g v lm th no lin quan n OFDMA? OFDM / MIMO c th c s dng trong ch TDD v FDD cho LTE v WiMAX di ng? Lm th no 3GPP, 3GPP2 v cc c quan tiu chun khc s thng qua v gii thiu OFDM / MIMO? Cc nh cung cp chipset chnh pht trin cng ngh OFDM / MIMO l ai? OFDM s l mt phng tin hiu qu cung cp cc dch v bng thng rng khng dy? OFDM v OFDMA l g? Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) v truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao (OFDMA) l hai bin th khc nhau ca giao din khng kh cng mt bng thng rng khng dy thng b nhm ln cho nhau.OFDMA l mt hnh thc ca OFDM, l cng ngh c bn. Long Term Evolution ( LTE) l mt cng ngh da trn OFDMA tiu chun ha trong 3GPP Release 8 v pht hnh 9. C hai giao din lm vic bng cch tch mt tn hiu duy nht vo sng mang con, hoc, ni cch khc, bng cch chia mt tn hiu cc k nhanh chng vo rt nhiu tn hiu chm. S phn chia tn hiu ti u ha truy cp in thoi di ng, nh cc subchannels sau c th truyn d liu

m khng chu cng mt cng ca multipath bin dng phi i mt vi tu sn bay duy truyn. Cc sng mang con rt nhiu sau thu nhn v kt hp li to thnh mt truyn dn tc cao. OFDM i khi c gi l iu ch a m ri rc bi v, thay v mt tu sn bay duy nht l iu ch, mt s lng ln subcarriers khong cch ng u c iu ch bng cch s dng mt s m-phn Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). y l mt k thut tri ph tng hiu qu truyn thng d liu bng cch tng thng lng d liu bi v c tu sn bay nhiu hn na iu chnh. Ngoi ra, vn hy b tn hiu a ng dn v can thip quang ph c gim i rt nhiu la chn iu ch "r rng" ngi vn chuyn hoc tu sn bay b qua vi t l li cao bit. Tr v u trang S khc bit k thut gia OFDM v OFDMA l g? S khc bit l OFDMA c kh nng t ng ch nh mt tp hp con ca sng mang con cho ngi dng c nhn, lm cho phin bn a ngi s dng OFDM, bng cch s dng B phn Thi gian hoc Multiple Access (TDMA) (khung thi gian ring bit) hoc Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA ) (knh ring bit) cho nhiu ngi dng. OFDMA cp ng thi h tr nhiu ngi dng bng cch giao cho h subchannels c th cho khong thi gian. Point-to-point h thng OFDM v khng h tr OFDMA. Point-to-multipoint h thng c nh v di ng l hnh thc OFDMA ca OFDM. Tr v u trang Khi OFDM s c s dng so vi OFDMA? OFDM cng ngh thng chim tiu chun du mc, c nh v truyn ti mt cch khc nhau, t truyn hnh truyn Wi-Fi cng nh cc h thng c nh Wi-MAX v mi hn multicast khng dy nh FLO ca Qualcomm (Forward Lin kt Ch). OFDMA, tuy nhin, cho bit thm di ng thc s trn, to thnh xng sng ca nhiu ngi trong s cc cng ngh mi ni nh Long Term Evolution ( LTE ) v WiMAX di ng. Tr v u trang Trng hp l OFDM s dng ngy nay? OFDM ang c s dng trong mt s ng dng khng dy v dy lineLTE, WLAN, m thanh k thut s v pht sng video, WiMAX c nh, ADSL, ADSL2 +, in thoi di ng WiMAX v LTE. Tr v u trang Lm th no hiu qu quang ph l OFDM / MIMO cho cc cu hnh ng-ten khc nhau? Ty thuc vo cu hnh ng-ten ti cc trang web di ng v thit b in

thoi di ng, OFDM vi Multiple-Input Multiple Output ( MIMO ) c th cung cp trung bnh 2,6 bit / giy / Hz trong mt h thng anten 2x2 (2 Tx v 2 Rx ng-ten). t s ny vo quan im, pht hnh 6 HSPA s cung cp, trn trung bnh, t 0,7-0,8 bit / giy / Hz. Tr v u trang Do h thng OFDM v OFDMA cung cp bt k li th cng ngh trn HSPA, m l da trn UMTS / WCDMA? i vi h thng s dng di 10 MHz bng thng, cu tr li phn ln l "khng." Bi v n truyn subchannels trc giao ln nhau ti mt t l biu tng thp hn, li th c bn ca OFDM l n thanh lch gii quyt vn can thip intersymbol gy ra bi a rt n gin v cn bng knh. Nh vy, h thng OFDM - gi s h s dng tt c cc k thut tiu chun khc ti a ha hiu qu quang ph c th t c hiu qu quang ph cao hn mt cht hn so vi CDMA da trn h thng (chng hn nh UMTS-HSPA). Tuy nhin, kin trc my thu tin tin bao gm cc ty chn nh phng php tip cn cn bng thc t v k thut hu b s can thip thng mi c sn trong chipset v gn nh c th ph hp vi li th ny hiu sut. l vi bng thng ln hn (t 10 n 20 MHz), v kt hp vi phng php tip cn ng ten tin tin nh MIMO hoc thch ng Antenna Systems (AAS), OFDM cho php trin khai thc hin t hn tnh ton phc tp hn so vi nhng ngi da trn CDMA. V vy, OFDM l d dng thc hin c trong cc thit b di ng. Tuy nhin, cc nghin cu ch ra rng li th phc tp ca OFDM c th l kh nh (c ngha l, t hn so vi h s hai) nu b cn bng min tn s c s dng cho cng ngh da trn CDMA. Tuy nhin, li th ca vic gim phc tp l mt trong nhng l do 3GPP chn OFDM cho d n LTE ca n. N cng l mt trong nhng l do tiu chun WLAN mi, s dng 20 knh pht thanh MHz, c da trn OFDM. Ni cch khc, OFDM l mt phng php a thch cho cc h thng v tuyn c tc nh rt cao. OFDM cng c mt li th ch n c th m rng d dng i vi s tin khc nhau ca bng thng c sn. iu ny, n lt n, cho php OFDM c trin khai dn dn trong quang ph c sn bng cch s dng cc s khc nhau ca sng mang con. Trong 5 MHz ca quang ph, s dng UMTS HSPA, tin b lin tc vi cng ngh CDMA - thc hin trong HSPA +thng qua cc phng php tip cn nh cn bng, MIMO, hy b s can thip v iu ch bc cao cng nh hai nh cung cp dch v s cho php CDMA phn ln ph hp vi cc h thng da trn OFDMA. Bi v OFDMA c li ch khim tn so vi CDMA trong 5 knh MHz, tin b ca HSPA l mt chin lc hp l

v hiu qu. c bit, n ko di tui th cc khon u t 3G ca cc nh khai thc ln, gim u t c s h tng tng th, gim chi ph vn v hot ng v cho php cc nh khai thc cung cp dch v cnh tranh. Tr v u trang L LTE mt cng ngh OFDMA v khng cung cp cc li th hn HSPA? LTE l mt cng ngh OFDMA nh LTE c th tn dng tt hn cc knh pht thanh rng hn (v d, 10 MHz) khng yu cu bng tn bo v gia ngi vn chuyn pht thanh (v d, nh khai thc HSPA). Vi mt s trong nhng li th ca mt phng php tip cn OFDM, 3GPP quy nh c th OFDMA l c s ca LTE. LTE kt hp k thut pht thanh tt nht-ca-ging t c mc hiu sut vt ra ngoi nhng g s c thc hin vi phng php tip cn CDMA, c bit l bng thng knh ln hn. Tuy nhin, trong cng mt cch m cng tn ti vi th h th hai (2G) h thng trong mng li tch hp 3G, LTE s cng tn ti vi c hai h thng 3G v cc h thng 2G. Thit b a chc nng trn LTE / HSPA hoc thm ch l LTE / HSPA / EDGE, ty thuc vo hon cnh th trng. Tr v u trang Lm th no OFDMA s c s dng trong LTE? LTE s dng OFDMA trn ng xung, m l rt ph hp t c nh cao tc d liu bng thng ph cao. Cng ngh WCDMA i pht thanh hiu qu nh OFDM cung cp tc d liu nh cao trong 5 +5 MHz bng thng. Tuy nhin, t c tc nh 100 Mbps vi cc knh pht thanh rng hn s cho kt qu trong thit b u cui rt phc tp v khng thc t vi cng ngh hin ti. OFDM cung cp mt li th thc hin khi mt nh iu hnh c 20 MHz ca quang ph. Phng php tip cn lp k hoch trong lnh vc tn s cng c th gim thiu s can thip, v do nng cao hiu qu quang ph. Trn ng ln, tuy nhin, mt kt qu phng php tip cn OFDMA tinh khit trong nh cao T l trung bnh (CCHC) ca tn hiu, lm nh hng hiu qu nng lng v cuc sng cui cng ca pin. Do , LTE s dng mt cch tip cn gi l SC-FDMA, trong c mt s im tng ng vi OFDMA nhng s c mt li th 2 n 6 dB ci cch hnh chnh so vi phng thc OFDMA c s dng bi cc cng ngh khc nh IEEE 802.16e. Tr v u trang Hiu sut ca OFDM cho LTE l g? 3GPP thit lp cc mc tiu hiu sut cho OFDM / MIMO da trn LTE c tc d liu nh cao 100 Mbps, tc di ng trung bnh l 3-4 ln

hiu qu quang ph ca pht hnh 6 HSPA, v cnh mt t bo thc hin l hai n ba ln Th 6 HSPA hiu sut. Kt qu nh gi t cc nhm 3GPP LTE tiu chun lm vic ch ra rng nhng mc tiu c th t c vi OFDM / MIMO. Trong thc t, LTE hiu sut vt qu mc tiu ban u c pht trin bi 3GPP. Mng LTE thng mi ngy nay trung bnh ngi s dng in hnh trong sut tc 8-12 Mbps. Tc s lun lun thay i ty theo nhiu yu t. Tr v u trang iu g lm cho OFDM nhn c tn hiu mt cch x l tp trung t hn so vi CDMA? cung cp tng ng vi hiu sut bng thng rng cnh tranh vi cc dch v bng rng c nh ngy hm nay, mt thit b tc bit cao hn l hon ton cn thit. Trong CDMA, nh tng t l bit kt hp vi cc nh cung cp dch v bng thng cao hn c s dng, tc chip CDMA s c th rt nhanh chng, dn n thi gian con chip rt ngn. Chip thi gian ngn c th c vn trong mt mi trng v m thi gian a ng dn c th ly lan qua hng trm cc thi k chip. Kh nng tnh ton cn thit thc hin mt b cn bng min thi gian nhn loi b s bin dng tim nng ny s c vt qu kh nng ca cng ngh hin nay. Mt khc, vi mt tn hiu OFDM min thi gian, ln ca sng mang con v giai on c th d dng c pht hin bng cch s dng mt k thut x l tn hiu rt n gin v d hiu da trn off-the-shelf Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) thut ton. Hn na, tn hiu OFDM l in tr bp mo con ng a v do , OFDM nhn khng yu cu thc hin cn bng phc tp. Thay vo , nhiu con ng bin dng c loi b hon ton ch bng cch n gin l d phng trong mt thi gian hi di truyn vo cui mi k biu tng bng cch lp i lp li mt phn ca tn hiu truyn bit nh Cyclic Prefix (CP). Tr v u trang S khc bit gia OFDM v SC-FDMA, giao din khng kh cho cc ng ln LTE l g? SC-FDMA l vit tt cho truy cp n Tn s nh cung cp Nhiu B phn v c la chn bi 3GPP LTE uplink v Power Amplifier (PA) ca n c im thn thin. Cc tn hiu hn hp ca mt tn hiu iu ch SCFDMA c T s 2-3 dB thp hn in cao im-to-trung bnh (PAPR) hn l mt tn hiu iu ch OFDM. Yu cu PAPR thp hn dn n vic s dng PA hiu qu hn dch vo tui th pin di hn cho cc thit b ngi dng cui. S dng x l tn hiu, d liu iu ch c ln ghp vo cc sng mang

con v thut ton chuyn i Fourier ri rc (DFT) c p dng. Sn lng ca sng mang con DFT c nh x vo mt phn ca cc ban nhc truyn, ly lan trn ton b ban nhc truyn vi c im tng t nh mt sng mang con OFDM trc khi chuyn i tn hiu min thi gian truyn nhanh Inverse Fourier Transform (IFFT) ch bin . Bng cch truyn mt tu sn bay duy nht trong mt thi trang OFDM, c im tu sn bay duy nht nh PAPR thp hn c th c bo tn.Ngoi ra ngi s dng khc nhau c th l trc giao ghp vo cng mt chuyn i IFFT. Tr v u trang Cng ngh da trn OFDM / OFDMA v ti sao? Cng ngh da trn OFD / OFDMA bao gm: IEEE 802.16/WiMAX, nhanh Flarion Technologies thp tr truy cp vi Dn bn giao OFDM (Flash OFDM), 3GPP LTE, IEEE 802.11a/g/n, IEEE 802,20, quan h i tc th h th ba D n 2 ( 3GPP2) UMB, 3GPP2 Enhanced Broadcast Multicast (EBCMCS), k thut s ETSI Video Broadcasting-H (DVB-H) v lin kt Chuyn tip ca Qualcomm (FLO). OFDM / OFDMA cung cp mt cch tip cn hiu qu cho cc h thng pht sng, h thng v tuyn bng thng cao hn v mc d liu nh cao trong cc khi ln ca quang ph. N cng cung cp tnh linh hot trong s tin ca quang ph c s dng v rt ph hp cho cc h thng lp k hoch cho thp k tip theo. Tr v u trang Lm th no c OFDM v OFDMA lin quan n WiMAX v IEEE 802,20? OFDM cng ngh chim cc tiu chun du mc, c nh v truyn ti mt cch khc nhau, t truyn hnh truyn Wi-Fi cng nh WiMAX c nh. v cc multicast h thng khng dy khc. OFDMA, tuy nhin, cho bit thm di ng thc s trn, to thnh xng sng ca WiMAX di ng (802,20) v LTE. IEEE 802,20 l mt c im k thut in thoi di ng bng thng rng ang c pht trin bi Tp on bng thng rng khng dy di ng truy cp lm vic ca IEEE. ng gp ban u tng t nh trong t nhin vi chun IEEE 802.16e-2005, trong h s dng OFDMA, xc nh lp vt l (PHY) v lp kim sot truy cp mng trung bnh (MAC), a ch channelization linh hot n 20 MHz, v cung cp d liu mc nh cao ca hn 100 Mbps. Vi cc nh cung cp tp trung rt nhiu vo cng ngh LTE cho cc dch v khng dy th h tip theo, n l khng r liu c lc trong tiu chun ny lm cho n mt cng ngh kh thi. Ti thi im ny, khng c iu hnh cam kt vi tiu chun c th v tiu

chun 802,20 c a vo ng ng thng 3 nm 2011 do thiu hot ng. Tr v u trang Flash OFDM l g? Flash OFDM l mt mng khng dy cng ngh c quyn c pht trin bi Flarion Technologies. Qualcomm mua cng ty ny trong nm 2006. Mt s cc nh khai thc chu v chu u trialed flash OFDM. Mng li thng mi u tin c a ra ti Slovakia trong nm 2005 ca T-Mobile Slovakia s dng tn s pht hnh t dch v tng t NMT bng tn 450 Mhz. Mt cam kt trin khai ti Phn Lan, ni m chnh ph cp giy php hot ng trong bng tn 450 Mhz cho mt mng li ton quc. Nextel Communications, trc khi c mua li bi Sprint, trialed flash OFDM trong mt s t cc th trng Bc Carolina nm 2005. Flash OFDM c da trn OFDM trong 1,25 knh radio MHz. N s dng nhy tn s m (subchannels), cung cp a dng tn s v cho php 1/1 ti s dng. Mng li ny l tt c da trn IP v thc hin chc nng thoi bng cch s dng Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Flarion tuyn b tc ng xung in hnh ca 1 n 1,5 Mbps v tc ng ln trung bnh 300 n 500 kbps, vi tr in hnh t hn 50 phn nghn giy. giai on u h thng Flash-OFDM c d kin s c tip tc pht trin thnh mt tiu chun 4G. iu khng xy ra. T mt quan im hiu qu quang ph ca xem, Flash OFDM tuyn b t c xp x gi tr ng xung ging nh HSPA, kt hp vi in thoi di ng nhn c s a dng, v khong gi tr ng ln tng t nh HSUPA. Bi v cng ngh ny l c quyn, chi tit khng c sn cho mt nh gi khch quan. Mc d Flash OFDM c mt li th thi gian th trng trong thit b ca n c sn trc khi cc OFDM cng ngh khc, bt li ln ca n l c h tr c sn ch t mt c s nh cung cp hn ch v cng ngh khng da trn cc tiu chun m. Tr v u trang Siu di ng bng thng rng hoc UMB l g v lm th no lin quan n OFDMA? Siu di ng bng thng rng (UMB) l s tin ha da trn CDMA vt qu EV-DO Rev A v Rev B. 3GPP2 xc nh EV-DO Rev B cho php s kt hp ca 15 1,25 knh pht thanh MHz trong 20 MHz - ng k thc y cao im l thuyt t l n 73,5 Mbps. Mt nh iu hnh c kh nng s kt hp ba knh pht thanh trong 5 MHz. Mt cch tip cn ca chnh n khng nng cao nng lc tng th, nhng n lm ngi s dng

cung cp mc d liu nh cao. Ngoi Rev B, 3GPP2 pht trin tiu chun Revision C, cn c gi l siu di ng bng thng rng (UMB). UMB l tiu chun ha da trn mt phng php tip cn OFDMA nh LTE v WiMAX di ng (802.16m).UMB l h tr cc knh pht thanh t 1,25 n 20 MHz. Tuy nhin, Qualcomm cng b vo cui nm 2008 rng n c nh ch pht trin hn na trn UMB v thay vo tp trung nghin cu v LTE, do li tng lai ca EV-DO s pht trin vt ra ngoi Rev B trong khng kh. Dn u cc nh khai thc CDMA nh Verizon, KTF v SKT cng b k hoch trin khai qu trnh tin ha 3GPP, chn LTE hn cc phng php truy cp v tuyn khc nh h ang tin gn n cui l trnh cng ngh hin c ca h. Tr v u trang OFDM / MIMO c th c s dng trong ch TDD v FDD cho LTE v WiMAX di ng? C, c hai hin thc l c th. LTE c trin khai thng mi trong c hai Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) - l ph bin rng ri ph v Time Division Duplex (TDD) bng tn. Tuy nhin, WiMAX di ng ch l bc u chun ha cho cc bng tn TDD c gii hn sn c ca ton cu. Mt s WiMAX cc nh sn xut thit b di ng c lm vic vo nhng g c gi l bn song cng FDD cho cc cng ngh, m s cho php mt ngi dng ch truyn ti hoc nhn c thng tin ti mt thi gian, khng ging nh kh nng full-duplex FDD ca h tr c truyn v nhn tn hiu tng t thi gian. Tr v u trang Lm th no 3GPP, 3GPP2 v cc c quan tiu chun khc s thng qua v gii thiu OFDM / MIMO? 3GPP LTE c chn cho OFDMA / MIMO trn ng xung v SCFDMA/MIMO PA-thn thin v pin hiu qu trn ng ln. 3GPP2 tiu chun ha mt bin th ca OFDMA / MIMO cho Rev C pht hnh (UMB). Tr v u trang Cc nh cung cp chipset chnh pht trin cng ngh OFDM / MIMO l ai? Nhiu nh cung cp con chip c d kin s c tham gia vo th trng cng ngh OFDM / MIMO v n s l c s cho tt c cc din bin trong tng lai ca cng ngh khng dy. Ring i vi 3GPP LTE, tt c cc i tc 3GPP m OFDM / MIMO v n cng s c h tr bi cc nhm thng thng ca cc nh cung cp v c s h tng v bn chipset. Vi s ph bin ca OFDM / MIMO, c kh nng tn dng mt nn kinh t quy m ln hn vi mt chipset OFDM / MIMO ph bin trn

tt c cc cng ngh mi. Tuy nhin, LTE OFDM / MIMO c li th l cng ngh khng dy ch o vi ngnh cng nghip rng, chnh ph v h tr ngi dng m bo mt tiu chun ha v chi ph di c mng tri chy, hiu qu t 3G IMT-Advanced . Tr v u trang OFDM s l mt phng tin hiu qu cung cp cc dch v bng thng rng khng dy? i vi cc gii php bng thng ln, OFDM cho php nhn n gin trong thit b cm tay, c th dn n cc thit b chi ph thp hn. Tuy nhin, khi lng v quy m cng l thnh phn quan trng cn phi c bao gm khi xem xt so snh vi cc gii php UMTS-HSPA. Ti thi im ny, n xut hin rng LTE s tr thnh mt tiu chun ton cu thc s nh vy, tip tc nhng li ch c cung cp bi gia nh 3GPP cng ngh vi phm vi v quy m to ln.