Sheet-Metal Forming Processes

Process Roll forming Stretch forming Drawing Stamping Characteristics Long parts with constant complex cross-sections; good surface finish; high production rates; high tooling costs. Large parts with shallow contours; suitable for low-quantity production; high labor costs; tooling and equipment costs depend on part size. Shallow or deep parts with relatively simple shapes; high production rates; high tooling and equipment costs. Includes a variety of operations, such as punching, blanking, embossing, bending, flanging, and coining; simple or complex shapes formed at high production rates; tooling and equipment costs can be high, but labor costs are low. Drawing and embossing of simple or complex shapes; sheet surface protected by rubber membranes; flexibility of operation; low tooling costs. Small or large axisymmetric parts; good surface finish; low tooling costs, but labor costs can be high unless operations are automated. Complex shapes, fine detail, and close tolerances; forming times are long, and hence production rates are low; parts not suitable for high-temperature use. Shallow contours on large sheets; flexibility of operation; equipment costs can be high; process is also used for straightening parts. Very large sheets with relatively complex shapes, although usually axisymmetric; low tooling costs, but high labor costs; suitable for low-quantity production; long cycle times. Shallow forming, bulging, and embossing operations on relatively lowstrength sheets; most suitable for tubular shapes; high production rates; requires special tooling.

Rubber-pad forming Spinning Superplastic forming Peen forming Explosive forming Magnetic-pulse forming

TABLE 7.1 General characteristics of sheet-metal forming processes.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Localized Necking
/2
1 2 2

=

3

1

2 ~110° Diffuse neck Localized neck

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

FIGURE 7.1 (a) Localized necking in a sheet-metal specimen under tension. (b) Determination of the angle of neck from the Mohr's circle for strain. (c) Schematic illustrations for diffuse and localized necking, respectively. (d) Localized necking in an aluminum strip in tension; note the double neck. Source: S. Kalpakjian.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Lueders Bands
Yupper Ylower Stress Yielded metal Lueder!s band Unyielded metal 0 Strain (a) (b) (c) Yield-point elongation

FIGURE 7.2 (a) Yield-point elongation and Lueders bands in tensile testing. (b) Lueder's bands in annealed low-carbon steel sheet. (c) Stretcher strains at the bottom of a steel can for common household products. Source: (b) Courtesy of Caterpillar Inc.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Stress-Corrosion Cracking

FIGURE 7.3 Stress-corrosion cracking in a deep-drawn brass part for a light fixture. The cracks have developed over a period of time. Brass and 300-series austenitic stainless steels are particularly susceptible to stresscorrosion cracking.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Shearing Process
F Fracture surface Punch A Sheet Die c Clearance B D C T Slug Sheet Die Punch Penetration

FIGURE 7.4 Schematic illustration of the shearing process with a punch and die, indicating important process variables.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.5 Characteristic features of (a) a punched hole and (b) the punched slug. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Hole & Slug Penetration depth Rollover depth Burnish depth Sheet thickness Fracture angle Burnish dimension Fracture depth Burr height Breakout dimension (a) Burr A Burr height B Ideal slug Flattened portion under the punch Dishing C Rough surface D Smooth surface (burnished) FIGURE 7. 5th ed. Note that the slug has a different scale than the hole.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . FIGURE 7. Weaver and K. 140 200 180 160 140 120 160 180 200 Force 0 2. (a) 3. penetration curve in shearing.25-in. Penetration (b) FIGURE 7. The shape of the curve depends on processing parameters and material properties.J.) thick AISI 1020 hot-rolled steel in the sheared region.4-mm (0. Maximum punch force: Fmax = 0.7(UTS)tL Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. c 1.P.7 Typical punch force vs. 5th ed. Weinmann. The area under the curve is the work done in shearing. rather than being sheared. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Shearing Mechanics 140 (HV) 180 200 200 180 160 140 120 Punch 160 220 120 120 Die Clearance.6 a) Effect of clearance. on the deformation zone in shearing. the material tends to be pulled into the die. (b) Microhardness (HV) contours for a 6. c. Source: After H. Note that. as clearance increases.

5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.8 (a) Punching and blanking. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) Examples of shearing operations on sheet metal.Shearing Operations Discarded Parting Perforating Slitting Notching Punching (a) Blanking (b) Lancing FIGURE 7.

5th ed.Fine Blanking (a) Blanking punch Upper pressure pad Stinger (impingement ring) Sheet metal Blanking die Lower pressure cushion Support Clearance (b) Slug Die Punch Sheet Upper pressure pad Fracture surface Lower pressure cushion FIGURE 7. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.9 (a) Comparison of sheared edges by conventional (left) and fine-blanking (right) techniques. (b) Schematic illustration of a setup for fine blanking. Source: Feintool International Holding. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. a process similar to opening cans. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .10 Slitting with rotary blades. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Rotary Shearing Driven cutter Workpiece Ilding cutter Clearance FIGURE 7.

11 Schematic illustration of shaving on a sheared edge. Pearson Education ISBN No. Compare these designs with that for a common paper punch. (b) Shearing and shaving combined in one punch stroke. 0-13-227271-7 . Sheet Die (a) Sheared edge Die Sheet Clearance (b) Punch Shear angle Die Bevel shear (a) (b) Double-bevel shear (c) Convex shear (d) Blank thickness Punch Die FIGURE 7. (a) Shaving a sheared edge.12 Examples of the use of shear angles on punches and dies.Shaving & Beveled Tooling FIGURE 7. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

13 (a) Schematic illustration of producing a washer in a progressive die. 0-13-227271-7 .Progressive Die Ram Blanking punch Pilot Scrap Die Stop Piercing punch Stripper Strip Slug Part Strip Finished washer Scrap First operation (a) (b) FIGURE 7. Note that the part is attached to the strip until the last operation is completed. (b) Forming of the top piece of a common aerosol spray can in a progressive die. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed.8 mm 2.5 mm 0. Geiger and T.5 mm 0. Zinc amount 20/20 g/m2.5 mm Shock-absorber support 0. Source: After M. laser cutting Laser welding Stamping 1 mm 1 mm g 45/45 1 mm 1 mm g 45/45 m 20/20 0.0 mm 2. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.7 mm 1. Zinc amount: 60/60 (45/45) g/m2.5 mm 0.5 mm 0.14 Examples of laser-welded and stamped automotive body components. Girder Fender with integrated reinforcement (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.7 mm Floor plate FIGURE 7.25 mm 0.7 mm 0. Nakagawa.8 mm g 45/45 Tailor-Welded Blanks g 60/60 Legend g 60/60 (45/45) Hot-galvanized alloy steel sheet.7 mm 1.Blanking.5 mm 1. (a) 1. m 20/20 Double-layered iron-zinc alloy electroplated steel sheet.7 mm Quarter inner with integrated shock-absorber support 2.7 mm 1.0 mm Motor-compartment side rail 1. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

and HSLA Titanium Titanium alloys Material Condition Soft Hard 0 6t 0 4t 0 2t 5t 13t 0.Yang. low alloy. L Bend radius (R ) Thickness (t ) 20 15 10 5 0 Bevel angle (a) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Tensile reduction of area (%) (b) R = (60/r ) . and that the length of the bend is the width of the sheet. Lb Setback T Length of bend. (b) Relationship between the ratio of bend-radius to sheet-thickness and tensile reduction of area for a variety of materials.Bending & Minim Bend Radius Bend allowance.5t 0. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Bend radius.7t 2. Material Aluminum alloys Beryllium copper Brass. Note that the bend radius is measured to the inner surface of the bend.T.5t 0. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.2 Minimum bend radii for various materials at room temperature. Note that sheet metal with a reduction of area of about 50% can be bent and flattened over itself without cracking. Datsko and C. similar to folding paper.1 t Bend angle. R FIGURE 7. 0-13-227271-7 .5 (a) Bending terminology. Source: After J.6t 6t 4t 3t 4t TABLE 7. low leaded Magnesium Steels austenitic stainless low carbon.

0-13-227271-7 . compare this part with that shown in (a). Sachs and G.16 The effect of length of bend and edge condition on the ratio of bend radius to thickness for 7075-T aluminum sheet.Bending Mechanics Plane stress 4 Rough edge Plane strain Cracks No cracks Rolling direction 3 Bend radius Thickness 2 Smooth edge 1 (a) Rolling direction Elongated inclusions (stringers) (b) (c) 0 1 2 4 8 Length of bend Thickness 16 FIGURE 7. 5th ed. Source: After G. (c) Cracks on the outer radius of an aluminum strip bent to an angle of 90°. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. This example shows the importance of orienting parts cut from sheet to maximize bendability. Pearson Education ISBN No. FIGURE 7. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.17 (a) and (b) The effect of elongated inclusions (stringers) on cracking in sheets as a function of the direction of bending with respect to the original rolling direction. Espey.

Springback T After f i Ri Rf f FIGURE 7.20). (c) 2024-T aluminum.0 Springback factor (Ks ) 0.5 e a b c No springback Springback factor: αf (2Ri/t) + 1 Ks = = αi (2R f /t) + 1 Increasing springback 1 5 10 R/T 20 FIGURE 7. A factor of Ks =1 indicates that there is no springback. Note that the bend angle has become smaller.6 0. Before 1. 0-13-227271-7 .8 d 0. (d) 1/4-hard austenitic stainless steels. There are situations whereby the angle becomes larger.18 Terminology for springback in bending.7 0. Source: After G. 7.19 Springback factor. Sachs. Springback estimation: Ri RiY =4 Rf Et 3 RiY −3 Et +1 Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. for various materials: (a) 2024-0 and 7075-0 aluminum.9 0. (b) austenitic stainless steels. and (e) 1/2hard to full-hard austenitic stainless steels. 5th ed. called negative springback (see Fig. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Ks.

20 Schematic illustration of the stages in bending round wire in a Vdie. Source: After K. Turke and S. 7.Negative Springback Punch Wire specimen Die (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 7. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . which does not occur in air bending (shown in Fig. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.24a). This type of bending can lead to negative springback. 5th ed. Kalpakjian.S.

Cupka. and H. Tyamoto. 90° 90° 90° Wb Pcounter (a) (b) (c) (d) Sheet Die Rocker 1. T. Source: After V. (e) 3. 90° . 0-13-227271-7 . FIGURE 7. 5th ed.Springback Compensation .21 Methods of reducing or eliminating springback in bending operations. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. Nakagawa. 2. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Bending force: (UTS)Lt 2 Fmax = k W Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . (7.Die-Bending Operations Punch Die W W (a) V die (b) Wiping die FIGURE 7.11). Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. showing the die-opening dimension W.22 Common die-bending operations. used in calculating bending forces. as shown in Eq.

Press Brake Operations Channel forming (a) Joggle (b) Hemming (flattening) (c) Main gear Crown Main gear Connections Ram Die holder Bed Flywheel Motor Clutch and brake unit Side housing Floor line Two-stage lock seam (d) Offset forming (e) (f) FIGURE 7. Pearson Education ISBN No.23 (a) through (e) Schematic illustrations of various bending operations in a press brake. (f) Schematic illustration of a press brake. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of Verson Allsteel Company. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

Bending Operations Punch FIGURE 7. . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. (b)-(d) Bead forming with two dies in a press brake. Die Air bending (a) Bending in a 4-slide machine (b) Sheet Adjustable roll Driven rolls Roll bending (c) (d) Polyurethane roll Die Formed bead 1.24 Examples of various bending operations.25 (a) Bead forming with a single die. (b) (c) (d) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 7. (a) 2. Pearson Education ISBN No.

note. (d) Flanging of a tube. however. due to its diametral expansion. In this operation. note the thinning of the periphery of the flange. (b) Dimpling. (a) Flanges formed on flat sheet.26 Illustrations of various flanging operations. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (c) Piercing sheet metal with a punch to form a circular flange. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Flanging Operations Piercing punch Straight flange Spring-loaded stripper Sheet Joggled flange Stretch flange Die block or die button Spring-loaded pressure bushing Reverse flange Shrink flange (a) (b) Slug Piercing punch (retracted) Stripper plate Sheet Die (c) (d) Before After Flange Tube FIGURE 7. a hole does not have to be prepunched. the rough edges along the circumference of the flange.

5th ed. (b) Examples of roll-formed cross-sections. Source: Courtesy of Sharon Custom Metal Forming. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Roll-Forming (a) (b) FIGURE 7. Inc. showing the stages in roll forming of a structural shape.27 (a) The roll-forming operation.

Using internal mandrels. Compressive stresses are beneficial in forming operations because they delay fracture.L.Bending and Forming Tubes Stretch bending Draw bending Compression bending Form block (fixed) Wiper shoe Mandrels for tube bending Plug Chuck Form block (fixed) Form block (rotating) Clamp Balls Laminated Workpiece (a) Chuck Pressure bar (b) Clamp (c) Cable (d) FIGURE 7. Remmerswaal and A. Source: After J. Pearson Education ISBN No.Verkaik. using an axial compressive force. Note that the tube is supported internally with rubber or fluid to avoid collapsing during forming. Die Punch Tube Rubber or fluid Stops Die Punch 1. prevents the tubes from collapsing during bending.28 Methods of bending tubes. FIGURE 7. or filling tubes with particulate materials such as sand. 5th ed. Solid rods and structural shapes are also bent by these techniques.29 A method of forming a tube with sharp angles. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 2. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) Stretch forming in a hydraulic press. Aluminum skins for aircraft can be made by this process. Source: Cyril Bath Co.30 (a) Schematic illustration of a stretch-forming operation. Pearson Education ISBN No.Stretch-Forming Workpiece Tool Stretch gripper Hydraulic stretching unit Table-mounted gripper (a) Crosshead Ram Stretching Upper tool Clamping fixture Workpiece Lower tool 1. 2. (b) 3. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Bed Turntable Adjustable slide FIGURE 7.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Bulging Before After Fluid Die Fluid Ring Punch Knockout rod Rubber plug Die insert Two-piece die (hinged) (a) Bulged tube Workpiece (b) Compressed tube (c) FIGURE 7.32 (a) Bulging of a tubular part with a flexible plug. 5th ed.A. 0-13-227271-7 . (c) Sequence involved in manufacturing of a metal bellows. Water pitchers can be made by this method. Source: After J. the bottom of the piece is then punched out to produce a “T” section. Schey. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (b) Production of fittings for plumbing by expanding tubular blanks with internal pressure.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: Polyurethane Products Corporation.33 Examples of bending and embossing sheet metal with a metal punch and a flexible pad serving as the female die. 5th ed.Forming with a Rubber Pad Metal punch Blank Polyurethane pad (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 7. Pearson Education ISBN No.

3. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. also called fluid forming. 4. FIGURE 7.34 The principle of the hydroform process. 0-13-227271-7 .Sheet Hydroforming Pressure-control valve Forming cavity (oil filled) Rubber diaphragam Punch Blank Draw ring 1. Part 2. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: Schuler GmBH.Tube Hydroforming Slide plate Centering Die holder plate Top die Seal punch Bottom die Horizontal cylinder Cylinder holder bracket Die holder plate Bed plate Hydroformed part (a) (b) FIGURE 7. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (b) Example of tube hydroformed parts. 5th ed. and hydraulic and pneumatic fittings can be produced through tube hydroforming. bicycle frames. Automotive exhaust and structural components.35 (a) Schematic illustration of the tube hydroforming process.

Note that in shear spinning. such as aluminum kitchen utensils and light reflectors./rev). is the same as that of the blank.36 Schematic illustration of spinning processes: (a) conventional spinning. 5th ed.37 Typical shapes produced by the conventional spinning process. FIGURE 7. 0-13-227271-7 . the diameter of the spun part.Spinning Blank to Blank t Mandrel Mandrel f Tool Cone (a) (b) Roller FIGURE 7. unlike in conventional spinning. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. and (b) shear spinning. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. The quantity f is the feed (in mm/rev or in. Circular marks on the external surfaces of components usually indicate that the parts have been made by spinning.

0-13-227271-7 . Kegg.2 1.L. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.2 0.15.Shear Spinning to t ! tf Mandrel Blank to Maximum spinning reduction per pass (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Tensile reduction of area (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Tube spinning Shear spinning Spun piece Flange Roller 0 0.6 0. the spun part thickness is reduced. The reduction in thickness at fracture is called the maximum spinning reduction per pass. Source: After R. Kalpakjian. Pearson Education ISBN No.39 Experimental data showing the relationship between maximum spinning reduction per pass and the tensile reduction of area of the original material. Note that as the roller advances.8 1. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.6 1.4 0. See also Fig.38 Schematic illustration of a shear spinnability test.8 True strain at fracture in tension (Pf ) FIGURE 7.4 1. Source: S. 7. FIGURE 7.0 1.

and the process variables involved. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Tube Spinning Forward f f Backward Roller to Mandrel t External Ft Workpiece (a) Die Internal f f (b) FIGURE 7. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.40 Examples of (a) external and (b) internal tube spinning. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Incremental Sheet-Metal Forming Clamp Blank Rotating tool (a) (b) FIGURE 7. Note that the part does not have to be axisymmetric. Jesweit. 5th ed. Source: After J. (b) An automotive headlight reflector produced through CNC incremental forming. Note that no mandrel is used. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. and that the final part shape depends on the path of the rotating tool. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.41 (a) Illustration of an incremental forming operation.

The pressuretransmitting medium should have a high density and low compressibility. water is a commonly used medium. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.8 kg (4 lb) of TNT. their energy can be controlled and employed in forming large parts that would otherwise be difficult or expensive to produce by other methods. 0-13-227271-7 . Although explosives are typically used for destructive purposes.43 Effect of the standoff distance and type of energy-transmitting medium on the peak pressure obtained using 1. Pearson Education ISBN No. In practice.5 400 Peak pressure (psi FIGURE 7. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. m 103) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Water Air 1 2 3 4 5 Standoff (ft) 300 200 100 0 MPa 0 0.5 1 1.Explosive Water level Ground level Explosive Forming Workpiece Standoff Hold-down ring Die Vacuum line Tank Pressure generated: √ 3 W p=K R a FIGURE 7.42 Schematic illustration of the explosive forming process.

Electrohydraulic and Magnetic-Pulse Forming Switch Charger Capacitor bank Die Switch Electrodes Water Clamp Sheet FIGURE 7. and (b) aluminum tube collapsed over a hexagonal plug by the magnetic-pulse forming process.44 Schematic illustration of the electrohydraulic forming process. Before FIGURE 7.45 (a) Schematic illustration of the magneticpulse forming process. 0-13-227271-7 . After forming Coil Mandrel Coil current Eddy current Tube C L (a) (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. The part is formed without physical contact with any object. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Such structures have a high stiffness-to-weight ratio.Superplastic Forming Stop-off Clamp Before Mold After Mold Product (a) (b) FIGURE 7. 0-13-227271-7 .46 Two types of structures made by combining diffusion bonding and superplastic forming of sheet metal. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Inc. Source: Rockwell Automation. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

such as an aircraft-skin panel. Source: Metal Improvement Company. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Note that the sheet is stationary and the peening head travels along its length. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.47 Schematic illustration of a peen forming machine to shape a large sheet-metal part.Peen-Forming Traversing gantry machine Stationary workpiece Track Track FIGURE 7.

Honeycomb Structures Adhesive Slice Sheet Block Roll Corrugated sheet Roll Corrugating rolls Corrugated panel (b) Corrugated block Expanded panel (a) Face sheet Adhesive impregnated scrim cloth (optional) Expanded honeycomb core Face sheet (c) FIGURE 7. (c) assembling a honeycomb structure into a laminate. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.48 Methods of making honeycomb structures: (a) expansion process. and (b) corrugation process. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .

Deep-Drawing Before Punch After Pressure plate Punch Blank holder Blank Die Spring stripper ring Blankholder force Blankholder Blank Die (draw ring) c F Do Dp Rp T Rd Blank (a) Drawn cup (b) FIGURE 7. including the blankholder force. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Note that only the punch force in this illustration is a dependent variable.49 (a) Schematic illustration of the deep drawing process on a circular sheet-metal blank. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. The stripper ring facilitates the removal of the formed cup from the punch. all others are independent variables. (b) Variables in deep drawing of a cylindrical cup. 5th ed.

5th ed.50 Deformation of elements in (a) the flange and (b) the cup wall in deep drawing of a cylindrical cup. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Deformation in Flange and Wall B A (a) (b) FIGURE 7. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Hosford and R. Source: After W. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. the bead prevents the sheet metal from flowing freely into the die cavity. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Pure Drawing vs. Caddell.M. (c) Unsupported wall and possibility of wrinkling of a sheet in drawing.F. Pure Stretching Blankholder Punch Die Bead Unsupported wall Blankholder force A Die Punch Die A! Failure Deforming area Failure (a) Deforming area (b) (c) FIGURE 7. 0-13-227271-7 .51 Examples of (a) pure drawing and (b) pure stretching.

(b) Metal flow during drawing of a box-shaped part. Pearson Education ISBN No.) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Draw Beads & Metal Flow Bead Blank edge after drawing Original blank edge C L Bead Bend-andstraighten Deep draw Punch Blankholder Draw bead Die Zero minor strain Bead (a) C L (b) (c) FIGURE 7. 0-13-227271-7 . (See Section 7. using beads to control the movement of the material.7. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. (c) Deformation of circular grids in drawing.52 (a) Schematic illustration of a draw bead.

after being deep drawn into a cup. Pearson Education ISBN No. generally in three steps. 0-13-227271-7 .53 Schematic illustration of the ironing process.Ironing Punch Die Cup FIGURE 7. Cans with separate tops and bottoms are known as three-piece cans. Note that the cup wall is thinner than its bottom. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. All beverage cans without seams (known as two-piece cans) are ironed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

for various sheet metals.R= w t w t Anisotropy Normal anisotropy: l FIGURE 7.0-5. in terms of width and thickness strains in a tensile-test specimen cut from a rolled sheet. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.8-1.4 1.8 0. Material Zinc alloys Hot-rolled steel Cold-rolled rimmed steel Cold-rolled aluminum-killed steel Aluminum alloys Copper and brass Titanium alloys (α) Stainless steels High-strength low-alloy steels ¯ R 0. R. or rolling direction. 0-13-227271-7 .8 0.6 0.0 1.2 0. Note that the specimen can be cut in different directions with respect to the length.4-1.3 Typical range of the average normal anisotropy ratio.6-0.0-1.9 3. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.2 wo ln wf εw R= = to εt ln tf Average anisotropy: ¯ = R0 + 2R45 + R90 R 4 Planar anisotropy: R0 − 2R45 + R90 ΔR = 2 TABLE 7. of the sheet.6-0.54 Definition of the normal anisotropy.0 0.9-1. R.4-0.9-1.

55 Effect of grain size on the average normal anisotropy for various lowcarbon steels.8 1.0 Zinc 1. Atkinson. brass. Blickwede. R on limiting drawing ratio (LDR) for a variety of sheet metals.Anisotropy and Effects 3.0 1.6 1.0 6. Source: After D.0 led kil minu 2. Steel aluminum Titanium Int ers titia l-fr ee 3. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.4 0. 0-13-227271-7 .2 4 6 8 10 ASTM grain number 12 0. FIGURE 7. caused by the planar anisotropy of the sheet metal.6 2. 5th ed. Source: After M.0 Copper. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. FIGURE 7.0 Average strain ratio (Ravg) FIGURE 7.4 1.0 Average normal anisotropy (R ) 2.0 m Ri ed m 0. Pearson Education ISBN No.56 Effect of average normal anisotropy.0 4.J.0 2.57 Typical earing in a drawn steel cup.2 um Al Limited drawing ratio (LDR) 4.

it should be 5 to 10 times the sheet thickness. .Punch Force Ironing Punch force (F ) Maximum punch force: Do Fmax = πD pto(UTS) − 0. Note that ironing does not begin until after the punch has traveled a certain distance and the cup is partially formed. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 7. Because friction between the cup and the punch aids in the drawing operation. (b) Punch corner radius too small. Arrows indicate the initiation of ironing. 5th ed. (a) Die corner radius too small. excessive lubrication of the punch is detrimental to drawability.59 Effect of die and punch corner radii on fracture in deep drawing of a cylindrical cup. Die corner radius Punch corner radius (a) (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. typically. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.7 Dp Increasing clearance Stroke FIGURE 7.58 Schematic illustration of the variation of punch force with stroke in deep drawing.

3. Pearson Education ISBN No.Redrawing & Tractrix Die Punch Blankholder Drawn cup Die Punch Blankholder Drawn cup Die Punch Sheet Cup partially redrawn Die Cup partially redrawn 1. Small-diameter deep containers may undergo several redrawing operations. the construction for which can be found in texts on analytical geometry or in handbooks. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.60 Reducing the diameter of drawn cups by redrawing operations: (a) conventional redrawing. using a tractrix die profile. Cup (a) Conventional redrawing (b) Reverse redrawing FIGURE 7. The tractrix is a special curve.61 Stages in deep drawing without a blankholder. . 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 7. and (b) reverse redrawing. 2.

clamped along the narrower edges.Punch-Stretch Test Sheet width Bead Sheet Punch Bead (a) Side view (b) Top view FIGURE 7. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. the more uniaxial is the stretching.) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. (See also Fig.62 Schematic illustration of the punch-stretch test on sheet specimens with different widths. Note that the narrower the specimen.65. 7. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (b) Illustrations of the definition of positive and negative minor strains. the state of strain in forming must be such that it falls below the curve for a particular material. the sheet is thinner than the original thickness because the volume remains constant during plastic deformation. negative Plane strain Major strain After stretching Before stretching Minor strain Major strain. Hecker and A.K. The region above the curves is the failure zone. Note that the major strain is always positive. R is the normal anisotropy. positive FIGURE 7. If the area of the deformed circle is larger than the area of the original circle.Forming Limit Diagram 140 120 100 Major strain (%) 80 60 40 20 0 260 Simple tension (for R = 1) 240 220 Pure shear Failure zone Equal (balanced) biaxial Low-carbon steel Brass High-strength steel Aluminum alloy Safe zone 0 20 40 Minor strain (%) (a) 60 80 (b) Minor strain.S.63 (a) Forming-limit diagram (FLD) for various sheet metals. positive Minor strain. Source: After S. Ghosh. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. hence.

Keeler. FIGURE 7. the state of stress changes from almost uniaxial to biaxial stretching. From left to right. Note that the crack (tear) is generally perpendicular to the major (positive) strain. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.65 Bulge test results on steel sheets of various widths. 0-13-227271-7 . The first specimen (farthest left) stretched farther before cracking than the last specimen. Pearson Education ISBN No. Inc. Source: Courtesy of Ispat Inland. Source: After S. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.P.64 An example of the use of grid marks (circular and square) to determine the magnitude and direction of surface strains in sheet-metal forming. 5th ed.Formability Testing FIGURE 7.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.Strains in an Automobile 10 Major strain (%) 8 6 4 2 0 24 22 0 2 4 Minor strain (%) 1 53 7 Trunk lid Major strain (%) 10 8 6 4 2 0 24 59 1 Roof Major strain (%) 10 8 6 4 2 0 24 1 3 75 22 0 2 4 Minor strain (%) Front door 22 0 2 4 Minor strain (%) 10 Major strain (%) 8 6 4 2 0 Front fender 1 3 24 22 0 2 4 Minor strain (%) FIGURE 7.66 Major and minor strains in various regions of an automobile body.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.2 mm 11.4 mm Closed corner 3 x sheet thickness (a) Relief notch Closed corner 3 x sheet thickness (b) Relief notch FIGURE 7. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.6 mm Better Best 13. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: Society of Manufacturing Engineers.67 Efficient nesting of parts for optimum material utilization in blanking. FIGURE 7.68 Control of tearing and buckling of a flange in a right-angle bend.2 mm 39.Design Considerations Poor Better Poor 43. Source: Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Before Sharp radius Sharp radius After FIGURE 7.70 Stress concentrations near bends.71 Application of (a) scoring. (a) Use of a crescent or ear for a hole near a bend. Source: Society of Manufacturing Engineers. 0-13-227271-7 . (a) (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: Society of Manufacturing Engineers. unless properly designed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.69 Application of notches to avoid tearing and wrinkling in right-angle bending operations. these features can lead to fracture. However. Source: Society of Manufacturing Engineers.Design Considerations (cont. FIGURE 7. 5th ed. (b) Reduction of the severity of a tab in a flange.) Poor Tearing Good Notch Poor Good Poor Poor Good Notch (a) Bend line x Bend line x R Better Poor Good R (b) (c) (a) (b) FIGURE 7. Pearson Education ISBN No. or (b) embossing to obtain a sharp inner radius in bending.

Economics of Sheet-Metal Forming 8 Cost per part (relative) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of parts (x 103) 0. Note that for small quantities.3 m diameter Drawing 0. Pearson Education ISBN No.72 Cost comparison for manufacturing a cylindrical sheet-metal container by conventional spinning and deep drawing. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.19 m Spinning FIGURE 7. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . spinning is more economical. 5th ed.

As-cast 2. Hang hole punched 7. (a) (b) 1. Source: Courtesy W. 3.73 (a) A selection of common cymbals. Hammered 4.74 (a) Manufacturing sequence for production of cymbals. Pearson Education ISBN No. Blanchard. multiple rolling/annealing cycles necessary 5. (b) detailed view of different surface texture and finish of cymbals. 5th ed. Stretch formed and trimmed 6. Sabian Ltd. Blanchard.Cast Study: Drum Cymbals FIGURE 7. Source: Courtesy W. Lathe-turned and polished Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Sabian Ltd. 0-13-227271-7 . Stretch formed FIGURE 7. After rolling.

Sabian Ltd.Cymbal Hammering (a) (b) FIGURE 7.75 Hammering of cymbals. Source: Courtesy W. (a) Automated hammering on a peening machine. (b) hand hammering of cymbals. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Blanchard. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.