3 

 
   



      !

  " #
! $ !%&  '!  
"()*"% )&( %   

!+ ,  -+!%
(! 
. .!/  )0'$.
() 
/ " #%   ")!% 

! 5%  ! /&-  312 /()   ) (  *6# ! 4       ./43 1.  .(  ".)&( . "%   1  )12*3 3 ).  )  " #".

    . 12 * 3  3/ 5 &    .

1 (*6#!4  +)% 5% 05 .   /&17) 6 (*6#   3.

2 (*6#!4   )0'$.   3. .

 .3 (*6#!4  )/( (&/&(! $.   3.

#/&(! $.4 (*6#!4  ) )'%. .   3.

   3.5 (*6#!4   .

   3.6 (*6#!4   )/)2 + .

1  .   3.

   !"!#$% "&'( Good Compounding Practice for Non-Sterile Products in Hospitals  .

  &"  2 . 4) ( /)!+ (Non-sterile Products) 2.3 (7% ? 1 1. 05 (Sterile Products)   .

   .1!)  3/5   1!)%!)) " # 1!) )". / / 2 (!( 2%)  3/5)  4) .&   (/&-2%! + 0 1!) 1!) 5& 7 ".

# (Elixir)  &"! .   +)%!%. (  53  . "1.+2" (Dosage Form) 5%  &5) .   1) .  .

 1 .5 ( .

/&  (    )       %   1!)  ) .

  "%  ."(% .

 . $. 12*3  .

  X)(*6#!4  +)% 5% 05 .

   5%! (  .

CD  2.1 12*!2c 2.+)%1!&1!)/.' (((% !*  .1.1./) )"/ /!% ) Y% 0  )$ (% !*% (!* (1&'"%1 + (!*)1 2% ( ( " % ( !* ) 051! " !* ) 4)( /)!+ 1.".3 )% % ) %  1 %  % ( !*   5&1!) /.Z2 .  (   +)%) " &1!)/.)* .2! ! &  &1!)/.(  21 ".!553/5) 2.% ".4 )  .  2. .% .1 3/5 )  27. &1!)/. !* !  ./) .  )/Y ". ".2      3/5)(     5% ! 1!0 '.!  .& ()Z2  `a 2*#(  5% Z_ %".  ) ().. ! /  2 (( *& &(  Beyond-use Date) 2". _  /  `a 3  (Z2   % ( (  - ( % !* ! +)%1!- ^ ".  )4 )0'd 6   % & (% )3/5. )&(  12   %+  1.1  1!  % !*/.-  !/1!)1 /3".   +  % ().^$ ".2 '*.3 )1 1!12)2*(3) 1!)5 ". @A 1.2*#  5 !Y2 Z[(  )/"./ +bb_ (( %  +)% -Z2 ( /(2 ( `a 1.)% &  1. /. *.

   )12*/)". 2 .

1 ! 2.1!)().2.3 / 12*/)  "% ? ".2./) /)Y&( +)() )1!) ".2.2    3/5) 1!+Z[/  3/5   % %   Z [/ .i  ! 5% 1!)1 !".2 Z[1 1 3/5) 5% /) (Levigation)  /) (Trituration) /)" Geometric Dilution 2.5   X+ 2.4 1& !* 3/5) !4Z[/  &+.2.-' 2.! 2.1 Z[ 51 ) 5  5% 1 5 ".

   /4 ".Z[X % %  .

3.2 )" () . / 2./ .12)  2. * 5/1)  1!/!)"!%  Y2 ) (  ".  (  (.1 /%/12)/. & "%    2.) Z[X '*.(%  ! )" .3. "."% ! !.) . ! )_    . %  5% ) (  )".)  _    `a  ! !." *.  ".3  "%  1!"%   ! /     / . ) /.

1% ? .2 1!))    !/23 ) /%! 211 .4  /23 )     2.+! /23 %  d.4. 1 1 2.1 ( X  . & (1!)/ ( %  1!" 3/51!12) )_  ( (  "!"%* 2.4. )/23 )  ".

 $.  %  ( &    ) .

  3 .

3  /!)52X  /.% j%5 ().2./)  X !)Y ()!12)) ^ Y2 ) )1!)& 2.4.4.4 (  .

D&( &(EF(C# .1% ()"^!*!(   %  ()X   !  )  3.

 3/55 &(  5 "."'1 ) 2*# 5   . ( &75 5 &/ &( !4 5 ".12*'*.

&2d ( % /3 ".! Y/( ) 5% Glycerol (Glycerin) ( Mineral Oil  % (+( .   .     (    1!)")% &  (Accuracy) )/2 ( % ? 1 +)%1!! )/  !% 20%  ) . 3)  )k  3/5) .! (() ( 5!45 . ) 1 +)%1 +(! % ".2 1 !  51 !  % ().1 1 5 1! %  )1!)5 & !   .!   %    (  )!%   ) /   !  .! /4*/2 3.) /+!!  5" ! !/1 5 Remingtonms Pharmaceutical Sciences./) 1! 5.(% 5% )() 1!)!/31 5  .2 3)". The United States Pharmacopoeia-The National Formulary (USP-NF) ( USP DI Volume III: Approved Drug Products and Legal Requirements 1!!/ &( &/2/)Y5 + 1 5  5 5 &( /)*  ? 1! 51 5 +! (Sensitive) Y 5 &( / &!%1%&/25 + 1! 5!4 Aliquot 5 3. &( +! *6#)k .

(Specific Gravity)  /" Y/ ! ))  ) 5 Micropipets . 1& !*1!)Y%! &.

 !+1!)^ / Y /)5 /)Y! /+.(!% 10 +).

! .1 Y 5 ) .

+)%1! 5.1 (Conical Cylinder) 5& ! 1!)/.! .! /)/ ! !  "%)1!)")% &  !%.! ".

4 .1 ) )  !% 25 ).

3.3 2*#/)( )  1!).

% 2 .3 1  .

% "! ". .

% Porcelain ( Wedgwood .

5 )/ .% "! 5// (Stain) () (Oily) ".3 Antineoplastic Agent /&(.

% Porcelain )!( !% 5   /)  ( +)% (. 3 ! /&17 . !*/)  )./3!. (D#F (H(I  4. /1)/! /&17 ".' # "% "!1 +bb_  - ".2 *" #+)%.!! 5%  2 ". .1. 12*/)  31) ".! 5%! 4."5%"-   4.2" (Dosage Form)   ( ) ".1.5Y+ 4. ! ()/(+)%) . (3/5 &(  1! 5/1) (/1 "   i  &) 5 "  +"% .1  )k )&  (Pharmacopoeia)   )(  5  5  )  1!)/24 (Certificate of Purity) &)! ". (Slab ( Tile) /) )2*# (). '*.1. "  (./) 5% ! .. "(% .'5  %   ) Spatula (   ( 5 (Spatula  -!% 6 ! 5/) "(   (7%!% 6 ! 5/)1)( )* )) )./43/ /2 1.

!  (  ". "(   & /  &"! . Y/1) &   (!". ( "1. . Y/1) & (  "  "% 2 (Divided Powders) 5% . )" ! ! ?   .# . 5  ! " . 1. "  & 5%  & /  &5) ( . Y/1) &  (! . 1!)/.# ( )5 5 .1 ' .

 Y  "(  5$  . ./ ) 5.3‚4  (Extended Release ( Delayed Release) +)%1!  &) 5  ! /&17 4.2 .! !% 2 ! . 5   Prodrugs .+)%‚4) ( " 5% .4. ) 1!)1 ! !  & % ( First Past Effect ".3 $ Y! /&17 $1!!/5   (. # .1!) %.

. )k ".1 . &( )* "%.1!)) "%.

   .

 !+.&1   !1. .1!)1 ! Y ++1!& !!1.-+! .)1!)1 ! ))  " 5  /(!4 ) 1!&!1.(#". )*  /  ". HL(DF   )  ) / (     .!+)%  !%!&(  - /  %  6.(#.(# 1) () !% )12*3/)&/)".

/).   1!!/!%  )    3 * 6# 5    &( %  (+)% Y)&( % !!% / &"%  (+)% Y!/"!!% 3*6# &( % )/% ? ().

./43 ' ) 1!)  / % 1! 53*6#    *+)%)3*6#&( %   1!1&  Y ./3!.) / (/!5  . ! . (1!)1 !) / 2 3/51!$  ./5. &   + 5 % + .52) (1 ) .(!%  ".1 5' 1!) )  /()./ 1#  5  .!Y2.. .(!% -' Y+)%))1!)1 ! 1!35 .! 5  Y&   1!!// % 5Y 1!)+)%1 ! .  5!4 "    ./) 12*/) 1)  3 ". .

2! /  2(*& .) -' % ().2 1! 5% ! "./)/&(1 + 6 . .

 N O@ D  EF "P .7.

 7. /1)". 7..5 +!  (k  5 0''*.!53*6#  ? 7.!53*6#.1 1!-))k 3/5& ()" &( % " .3.   5 (()./) 1 1!12)2*(3) 30+2  0. /1) ".&&(  !- '  7.2 -'  1!)/24 "./&/1)/!53*6#"%. /  2*(3 ) 5 0'1!)1 /3 &   /%! 1!12) 2*(3 ) (  .3 1!-')2*(3)&(  (-/1)".^/  _  "/ )$&. & 5% - 35 .2!4- ".1 2*(3)( 1!12) (Controlled Room Temperature) )+ 2 1!)() .

3 2*(3)5% "- (Freezer) .3.(!% 2 Y 8  0. /) 7..(!% -20 Y -10  0.0+ . %. %.2 2*(3) - (Refrigerate) ..)* 25  0.. / 7. / (2*(3)( !+ .. %...3. !+() Y 2*(3) ( 0.4 /1)   5% .(!% 23 Y 35  0. / 7.

 ".'*. (Acetone) 1!" -% ( 1!) 3 ) !-'/1)".!53*6# (% ))+ USP DI Volume I ".1 1!)1  ! USP-NF &  ( 1!)1  !     "%  ? +! !%    ) 12*/)  3-1)  25!!  ).()  *. Section   !  USP-NF ". General Notices and Requirements Section ". % 1!12)12*3( %!  3 (3 . &+ 5 )12*/)".&  ? 8. D D  EFD"L !(  8./43 ' +)%)1!) ' ) 1!)1 !)&( -'".

   i ).   7 . 35 .%1!)1 !  +"% 2*(3) "/ /!% 1!)5 0   231 1!) % 1!)/24 & 12*/) /. 2  `a ".

.. (Beyond-use Date) &( 1! 5% ! .! /  2 3*6# .. 0 )1!)1 ! /1)&( ) (" &( % (  3/ 5 &    ".    &  ( %    Y 53*6# &( %  "(%  //&17  1& !*1! 5 % ! ......2 1! 5% ! .   .. .8.!/ ! 5  (  3/ 5 3 * 6# /&  .) (!41& !*+ USP DI volume I) . ...

 !+&( ! 1! 5%   .

   5" ! ! ?   .  .

.+)% 6  !  . NF &(  ( 1! 5% ! . . 5!Y2 5% 5/1) ! /&17 USP ". ..

    .% 5Y 1!)+)%1 ! 3*6# ..! 5 '".+)% 30 ! 1!!/'*. 25  !( % "%+)% 6  !  1.  ! /&17 (&(  1! 5% ! . * ? () 2%. .... 5 /&- 5% )- ( "1.

/) ."!  ) 5.1 35 ./&( /)/ +.) 9.1+)%" 35 .+)%&X  / +)%   1!)5 % % ^^ ".!-'% % (1 + *   ! +)% 1  ! "./)( ()."!/5().1!)  ) c /  &    +)%  .2().(!%  ". P"F%C %C EF #ST 9."! (/   ) 5 ) 35 . (1  "%. & !/ ./)"  35 ./ /&-  ) 5!4  5% )-  (  "1.2 1!35 .

1./) 9.1./)1!)  ) 5) .().1Y!%".!  &  & (1!)3 1!)" 12*3 "."! 1! 35 . 3 )( .!%35 .1 )&( !4&1!)/./ ))k  3/5& 9. "/ /&( 35 .1!)/24   " + &(  8 .2 +)%1!&X   1)".

2.2.9. 0 9.2 1)(  2 (/( .3 ^$ 1!) $/&(  .!/ ? 9.1  &  2 !" ! / 5 _   "/ (  !/   +  )k 9.3 /)Y_  /)12*3 1!) "/ /!% ".3  2 Y2 /).1.2 2  9.-1+ 5 .2. .2 9.

   .1 5 ! /&17 ./  +! $! .  5/)7 (5 1)  * ./ %  5%  &5).25  &. )! /&17 ! "% 5 & .3.! 9.

.25! /&17  5/)7 +)%1! ()51X % $ "1.#/15 ). )  5 Syrup USP  &. &(  ))%)   9. (.25 )) $5%! 1! &"( % (- +5 ". )#)! /&17 Y & ! -) 1!)#$. . ( 8.2)*! /&17 % 1 "1.2 1!)"     %"  ! % 5%  &"! .2 1!)"  //&17% 1 Dose 5% 125 ).3.$5%!  /%1!) $5%!   $".3 )*2 9.^+ $".3.2) 9.3.! /  2/1! 5% ! .  &..4  9././5 ).6 !4-'  Y 53*6# &( %  "(% ) ! /&17 (. & ! -) +)%)20  ) 5% 25 )) +)% 5 25.)   1!) ((-  % 5 9 ./  & (Sugar-free Vehicle)   9.2 Y 35 . ( 10 )1!! .3."/.5 !  ".2-  !%.0 )) Y  !%& ! -) ( )0 #( 20  ) 5% 0..3./  ( 5 &.

&  1 10' 5%  )/%! /) 5 +)%+ (Aliquot Method) ! /  2 ( 1! 5% ! .!4 (2)   .  "'1 )/2*# 5  (4)  "(% /1) ".! (1) /&".! 1 ( 10.    /)2 21  )  . .) / 5  . /)YX).1!) "  ! /&17"..  10.!  & )* 5 !4 ". ( @DDC  V EF  3/51!&/ .1 /& ". .(Beyond-use Date) ".&+".!4  /)2  ("- .!4-'  -'1!12)  )&!'! /&17 * )! /&17)!%(  &1!12) )5! /&1725  /.2   !  .10. )/ 5 (Batch Records) (3)   !  ".! 5".

"  . & 1%) % 1% 1 10.2*# )1&" .1!)" (Strength) 1.3  ".'1 )/2*# 5  1!"'1 ) ". 5 ".1& !*!  & $. ) ! 10 . )* ".!4-' 10. !  7.   . (Beyond-use Date) "..& ! ( %!  (Dosage Unit) .4 1!)) 5  1 +  (" % !% )1!)1 !   3". 5! *  /&(! $. 5. ! /  2/1! 5% ! ˆ  .  (Lot Number) . "(% ) !Y2 !)  2%  (Lot Number)  5 .+)% 1 ". 5/5!/ ". ) .

11. DDC DC.

3 &(  k  1!12)12*3)  11.!Y2 ())k 11.2 ) !/ 12. )12*/)().4 *  +)%) ( %! !1. +%  !1.5 ) /2%)! % !/ ".!1.Z  11.4.3*6#/&- 11./)".3.2 3*6#2 ".4.2 )1%)!41!12)12*3 11.3 )!4X+ 2)"!  /2%)! % !/ !Y2 35 .2 )51!12)12*3 ./*# !/ ".(#/)&(  11./1 /!5% ? + 12.1 )1 )2 *#   . / 11.(#12*3 (( X315 + )k ).4 &!!1.3.). " /./ 43 21+Z[) )(*6#!4  11.3.3.&   + % ) .1 1!12 )12 * 3 /%! (   (  *6#! 4      !  /2% )!  %   & (  ! 1.8 )&)k !4X (SOP)  1!12)12*3 11.(#12*3  1!)&(  k  1!12)12*3)  11.7 ) !/ !1.3.(#/&( +! 11.P (Quality Control) 11.6 )1!12)12*3  ".3.3. /".1 )%!/ ! 1)!# .(#/ 11.(#)!4!1.(# /   1#  .1 )" /% !!Y2".(# 11. ( @(L("  3/5.3.  +  /%! 55 !1.* 2)  () !% !Y2 !/2/&(2".

   1*.3/50/# (   11 .

12. Pediatric Drug Formulations: Physiciansm Desk Reference. AHFS Drug Information ".2. Thai Pharmacopoeia 12. Martindale: The Extra Phamacopoeia. Contemporary Compounding Column in IS Pharmacist. Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists: Extemporaneous Oral Liquid Dosage Preparations. Handbook of Institutional Pharmacy Practice ".1 & +"%3/5&% ? 5% Remingtonms Pharmaceutical Sciences. &+"% Stoklosa and Anselms Pharmaceutical Calculations.2.2 " . The Merck Index 12 .2 !/ (  //& 12. ASHPms Handbook on Extemporaneous Formulations. The USP DI.

2  .3.

 1  ) /&(! $.      $O TF Good Compounding Practice for Extemporaneous Products in Hospitals Extemporaneous Compounding (  )0'$. " # ( )  " +)%)&( %   (+)% ) .

(  + % Y E    $O TF " !  ) 0'$./43 ' ".  *(*6# 3/5)Y  (+ Y  " ()./) )1!)1 ! )'*.!-! /&171 ).  (+ )1!)) )  " ()./) )1!)1 !  ))./43 ' . 5 .      )1!)& 3/5 )  ) 0'/&( ! $.  3 /)Y )+ % ".

 ) ( i  1&  Y -1"(%   5 !Y2 1!))   ) 1!)1 ! ! /&17 &.& 1!)&!  1!)1 ! ". 5   .-' */&  ) 0'$. )  5 ) *) " #/ % (! % 1  . /  c  &./ ) 5  ) 0'$.  .c  /&" %  /%!  )) 5)*  +)%) ) 1 1! 1!&0'1 1!)/& %5Y/ / 2 .2 "./  5 /& &( ! /  2  35 .

 %.

!  )Y /./ ) 5 .!  !/+ 13 ./) 5% c  &./)%1!)1 !". 1!)) ().!%(  ( ! 1.! ". 0'"  ) . 0'c /&().!-! $. 1!12)./. 0'i )%1!)1 !  1)". 3 ! /&17 . )(*6# *  . &(    $O TF  ) 0'$. 0'.

$V O#^%%  !(D D H( @ID _ i )%1!)1 ! 1)".1!)1 !  )   1) ".1   ))1!)) &(  "./)  ( ) "%. ?   )*"".1!)1 ! "  ) 5% !Y2 5 1!))   ) &. *Y 1!)/)Y (  ! ".!!-!"./ ) 5 . 5 ./. 0'". "  &5 .!%/ 5 ".! 5   ) 0'$. (Emulsion) ".1 "(%  !Y2 & (Brand of Ingredient)  & ( )-  "(% ( '   %  )  ) 0'$." (" # ! Y 1!))  ) (  ( % "./)))c /& &. 35 . (Suspension)  &"! ..  3 ()1!)/. "  &5 .   3. $V O]#EH(  "  )0'$. 3 ! /&17 ".   1. . ) .-'Y ./  5 ) 1!)  % 2*(3) 1!)5 "/  ) . % % )  ! +)% 5!   ( %!  3/5)  1!)(*6#% ?  Y (). 5 . /%! (7%  & )-) ) "  & i7( % (  -1 1!)) " # / 5 ! "%. 5   ) 0'$.5.. 2.2". ^$4 !4 5 1&" . &  5  7. ) %( " 5%   (Trituration)  & / (Solution)  &"! .) 3/5 0/# 14 .  "%  & (( %!  3/5) )&( 1!))  (). D HL HLH(   ) 0'$.%  !)Y % %&( ! /  2  ) 3. .!  )". /%! (7%) ) % "  &"! .  (+ )1!)1 ! Y 3 ).&( ! /  2  ) Œ.)%1!)1 ! 1)". 3 ./43 ' !)Y )1!)/.

) %  .  )  ("%  +   "(%  !Y21! "(% )1!) %5 Y ".2 1!))   (Drug Concentration)  ) 0'$.  *! /  2 !Y2! 3. "  &5 . )1!))  "%  .1!)) -. / )/  ! "%    1!)1 !  "%.)1!)%    )&( 1!) ) (). "./) .

 2%) Structured Vehicle 5%! "! . ! % /)&/)  ! %  c  /& &. (Suspending Agent)  5 &. ( .  Deflocculated System "! 5 &./ )/5%! "! ./)12*/) 1) "./ ) 5  /Y /23-"(% 5)(5  . 1!)( )%12*/) +( /5%! "! . % ? ) 5.!"%   5 &. 3   .  ().2 1!)1 ! X ./  (Vehicle)  ) 0'$. 3 ! /&17 (Active Ingredient) 3. "%  5 " "%. "  &5 . ) % "  &"! . /%! (7%.")12*/)$./ "   %12*/) 1)".4 /5%! "! .(!% /5%! "! . ".3 &. &+ 5  +)%-+!    )&  &"! ./ )/5%! "! .  )1 %+-1! 51!)) &( 21 3.

 /%! ) +"% Natural Gum 5% Acacia. Tragacanth (/!.

   ) - +.!  52  #+    5 / .)# 5% Methyl cellulose.)# Oxidase & ( /)/ ". Carboxymethyl Cellulose Sodium (CMC)  5 Natural gum )-+!.)..

5%  /.25%-1.)# 5% CMC1500  ) 5 1!)) 0.

)1!)/. + & )1!)1 ! pH 3-11 ./).2 .(# ).! %  )  ().11 +# / 1.".  5 /5%! "! . 1%  ! ) mucilage ) pH   ".  ) &./ ) 5 15 .

/) ( 5  /&(/ 5 Buffer  pH +"% 25% citric acid solution ". hydronium ion )% Hydrolysis  ! /&17  1!0'c /& () pH ().5 (Oxidation) X .1M-1M NaOH   3.5 ".(!% 5-6  pH (). pH . ( (  ) (  /2 5% .5 1!) -% (Acidity and Alkalinity) 1!) %  i (   /&17) /2%1!)1 !     1!))  hydroxy ".5 )%1!)1 ! ! /&17 / )& ( .6 . 0. "/ .3./)  Hydrolysis .

(. - *Y / ) /& 1!0.(  !)Y 2*(3)    ) 0'$.

2*(3))% X   .  1!2 35 ./) _  "/ ". . Sodium Bisulfite ( Ascorbic Acid   1!( .5 5% & 1! Purified water /&) Chelating Agent 5% Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA).(../) 3. / )  +) Arrhenius Equation 1 log k = log A  (Ea/2.)X  ( / ! !  %X )  2-3 % 2 ? 10  0. )  ().- )2*(3)().303 RT) .  ! .( (/ ) % X .7 2*(3) (Temperature) 2*(3))%. 0 "/ ". Citric acid )/ Antioxidant 5% Sodium Sulfite.  5  ) 0'$.

5 .1% )12*/)  / /  5%! pH 5 (& !% / /   ))5 (  1 paraben )12*/) / / 5%! pH 16 .)12*/) 1)"%  5%! & ( )1!) 1 ! / / &    pH   ) / /  5) +" % Sodium Benzoate 0. Ea : Energy of Activation. A: Frequency Factor.987 Calories/deg/mole). T : Absolute Temperature   1!-  )0'$./) 3.  2*(3)().05%-0. k : Specific Reaction Rate.8 / / (Preservative) / / "%. R : Gas Constant (1.

Propylparaben .!  ) 5 Methylparaben ".

  ) Paraben Concentrate . 2% Propylparaben . ).! 10% Methylparaben ". 5 . Propylene Glycol  ) 0'$. )  &"! . .

!  )  1! ) ! 1  1 )" 5 (Aseptic Technique) . +)% )   51 !)  .

 5   .  )/&(-"+)%1! /%/ / .  . )!4 )"%  -  )" !Y2 ! /&17    )-(  )-  (  (  .   + 4. Y  )  "  & "! . $. F    $O TF]#E'IEHF (  )  0'$.'".

 ( .% "! Levigate   % 5 ? ! Levigating Agent & ! -     ) Ready-to-use Vehicle /%! (.  . (+)   )-1 (Film Coated Tablet)  )-1 (  .  % /)&/) ".

 "0' ()&&  "  )0'$.  % 0)%1!)1 !     35 ./) ".2 (().  ". (+)   )-‚4   ".&(  (2 !/5_  "/ ^/  (Tighted-light-resistant Container) %  . %CEF  N O  )0'$. )-(  "1. /%! 1)-  "! Levigate ! Ready-to-use Vehicle & ! -     ) Ready-to-use Vehicle /%! (. 1!2 () !% ! (Headspace in Container)  /&( %  ( + "%+)%1!) !% !() +  . "  &"! . 5.% Levigate ! && ! -   . 5 .

 17 . +)%&  -  - "%1!)" %   1!)1 ! ! /&17 &(  (-  - 2*(3) 2 Y 8  0. / 5%  &"! . Clindamycin 5 .. / ! Y) Stability Data &( !%  )  1!-2*(3)( 20 Y 25  0 ..

)^^35 . +!   +.i 7 (  /  2 %     ! . 51&!% Expiration Date‘ "% /&(&  )0'$. ))/ / 2 +)%) 1! 51&!% Beyond-Use Date‘ ( 1! 5% .1 .. .) )!5/ / 2 ! /  2 !  !%-)   )! +  /) ("! ! "%.25! 5!  /&17 1!))  ! /&17 !4. %!% 5   ) 0'$. 1 &( ! /  2   1 1!!!))/!5&% ? +&!1. .Y-  &"! . 1&(     ) 0'$.%  ! /  2 !4-'".. "  &5 .*! !% )*! /&17) 1!)" (  !% 90 %  1!)"   &( ! /  2  )0' $./43'  ) . #ST $^ !  )0'$. ( (.  ! ". &( ! /  2+)% 30 ! ! /)  ")  5 .. &( 5%! ! /  2/ !%(%! /  2 )/ !5 5/ / 2 1!))  . )%1!)1 ! ! /&17+ ! )-'   - )2*(3)+)% +)&( ".  ) )*   5  .‘ 7. 5 . ( &( ! /  2  . '*. ../43 '   .! ()1!)/  /2 % +)%).(#".  )0'$.!/ "%! &  5  . Reconstitute 1 "  2 ! ... 1 . 5 .6..)#+! "!/ / 2 &( ! /  2  )0'$. "  &5 .  I @'(C    /2  ) 0'$.). 5 ." %    (Caking) &( ! /  2  )!+.) ? 1! !   ( ! +  + .!   !% 30 !  ) )   0'$..   (     5 1&  ( )" # / .

 !(   !/5 /%  %  "( 18 .

!/  !2 &./)   )!   5  (/)  "(  &.  " ./  ( ./ "(). 5  . &!  !4/) ".

 " +! $  .2 (Y ! /  2 ". ) 1!)/&17 '". ) 5)*) 1!&0'! 1!)1 ! ! %  ) 0'$. 5 .-'( ! /)   "! c /&  )0'/&(! $.) 5% 1  /Y /23-"(% 5)(5  5% 2%) j%5!*.

1 2%) .

1(! ".1!) .

(   /%! /&) 5 +)%) 1 1!  0'!!))  5/ / 2 1!)1 !  ) .

. . / 8.  - 2*(3) 2 Y 8  0.!4 ) % %  . &  5  ! /  2 -' ".5 %  /1!12)) ./  5 !4 ) $" . +&( +! / 1!12) "%. " +! 5% 5  5 1 1!)"   5  !  Y2  & !  5  )  )  ) "  ) 1!))  /& &./43 ' 1!)3 ".   )) .   " )- (+  &)1!)) )  /  1&  Y 1 1!)1 !  ) . ( @DDC   ) 0'$. ). /%! (7%&(  (-  )0'$../  ) 5 ) 0'$. !)Y c  &. "  &5 . 12*3  )   )c /&".! !*) (Literature Review) % ? @C#  ) 0'$.

!%  /)Y 5 (()./43 '   1!0'(1!)1 !  ) )/)"!) 2/ )  c /&/)Y'1!)1 ! !  ()./)12*/)  "%.( 1% 5%  .! % !-!% ) + )1!)1 !".)./43 '+!+   ! /)Y( +1)&( !%  /  2 !)Y .5  1!)/.")12*/)$. c & &./ ) 5 ()( " "%.

5 # '".1!)3  5  19 .

3  .3.

)1!)3  5   1. @A (Aseptic Section) 1. X) (*6#!4 + &( +!  ( 5/( (& +/( )12*3)k ) ().          @(( &( I @I  ]L #`   TF Good Compounding Practice for Parenteral Nutrition in Hospitals  )/( (&/&(! $. .1 &(  ( +))k /Y  05 ./) ".

( X  )12*/) +)12*/) 21 )/ (*6#!4   +)% 5% 05 .2 *+)%/)Y& ((  )/( (& Clean Room + 1!)( /.  )3  Laminar Air Flow 2.3  ) ." ) //%! 1. CD  (Personnel Sanitary) 2. 1!"  .1 21". )    5% Cytotoxic Drug 1.

   '*#' (   ) /( (&  )3/5 %  1 1 2.Z[)(  !  )/( (&  1 15 (Aseptic Technique)  % %  )1!) ().  ‘  2 21 2.1!)    5   (       !     ) /( (& "%./) 3. D&( &(EF(C# ..3 ()/".2 &  ( (    " .

/) Z2  ( 5.1 2*#".1!)$.+)% /.1 ) % (  )1!& Stainless Steel (!/2+)% % / (/ /% ?  `a + 3*6# ". (Equipments) 3.& %  3.2 2*#".1 ) &1!)/.+ % ".

1 20 .

.  +! (k 3.3.!&(  "./  4 3  1  )  &   5% 1   0 (Laminar Air Flow) .1 )% ? ).4 )  !/.3 ()&2 '2*#".

/) 21 . 5 + 4.5 .2+ !  +   2 )    5  '*# ' 4.! .3 )!/1!)) 1 ) 1!)Y  !Y2 "./) _   `a .6 ))().(!%        _  (  $ "/ Y  ! 2  5    5 ./     %  /%!  " #   3/5  (+/( ) 12*3)k )&(  4.1 )! / /( (  (&  .!   .4 1!12)12*3. !1!)-!) (! Plate / `a  5".2! ! ^ 5 &(  2 +!  $ ".().2+! /&(  4. )/& (  ! $.  +! (k 4. 4.!  ) ().9 ! 25 )"% 5  ).7 /)/(  )&/).&  /)Y_  1!)//  ! "%.2+!2   "  ? ./ % ? % 21 4. H '(H(   (Process) &   )/( (& /&(! $.2  !  ) X).(!%  !*  +)%/ %12*3 /( (& ( `a  5+ 4./)(_  // (^$ 4.- /3!.(!%  4.  ) & (   &    %  5  21    !   +  ) )  .8 (   ^$  *+)%/)Y&  +  )!4 ().

Clarity Test 5.((% ./335 .10 )1!12)12*3!Y2 .4.  /1 (*6# ! 4     )/( (   (  &  .2 ".! /  2 . 12*3 .. ( @ (Document) / /%! /&17 .

/ 1#    &  (   . ) 2  .2 / )1!)5 " ".$ 22 .Batch Production Report .3 1!)! 2 / ( /)  %/)      .1!)  X     /)Y!/)  ) *% ( ) i7(    5.&   % 5  (!/+ % 5.  !   " ! X  ".Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) .1 /&  +1!)(- 5 5%  5.

4  .3.

     O!( d@I ]L#` TF  Good Compounding Practice for Cytotoxic Drugs in Hospitals (  *6# ! 4     )  ) ' %  .# /& (    ! $. .

  ) )'%.  )/&(! $.    . 12*3 //  ) '%   (  )..- .! 1!12)". )( %! 5.# (Cytotoxic Drug) .

1!12 ) 1!)/. /%3  /&(..!  . /Y    )  )  .!  )   51 15 (Aseptic Technique)  ._    "%. $. .3 (  ".

@A (Aseptic Section) 1!" /Y  ) )'%.1!)3   ) 1.0 1!" .  ) 3  Laminar Air Flow Hood 5  Vertical _   `a (Contamination) ".# !* )  1.0/Y  ( )  ? .1 1!12).

HEPA Filter !) 0"./77*   . )( " ) //%! )1 0 (Air Condition) ()2 ! 0 (  )  ". ./77* * . &. ? ) +! (k *+)%/)Y& ((  )  Clean Room +  %  .1!) 0/ ".1!)!/. (  ) ./)  /%!* )  X  ".1!) 0".0Y()2 ! ) 5 1! .. - !* )   1!12 )1!) 0 (" %     !* )  % ()."'1!)/.!/2/  % ? 1!% "#- (Air Lock) 0% /%!* ) 1! % Prefilter ".

2 !* )   )   &3 !*_    %X  . /)&/)  (+ (  ) /./2 1.

   ) 3  Laminar Air Flow Biological Safety Cabinets (Class II ( Class III) 23 .

 13# ( ( )2 X   !  )  %! )()2 ! (  )  %  2 6  2."(% .  )5) .1.-! /)13# & .1 /2 ) /%! 211 2. CD  (Personal Sanitary) 2.2.1.1 X    )/23 ())3!.2 + !  !* X    "%  .2 X  ". /!)2*#_  ! ) .

&+ 5" 21)) 1% Baseline .5 ()   .2 Routine Examination  ! ( X.2.! Urinalysis 2.3 ()/!)52X   !* )  2. Creatinine.1 Baseline Examination 1%.1. (  1 ! &) /2( (- (+!3 !* )  2.6 (X))k % ? &( +! % 1% 1 2.1.X  2.2. )! Baseline +"%  ! (CBC). *./!)1 . 2 *# _   5 + " % "!%    3 52X  _  Y2 ) !) 2*#5%! (  2.1. Urea. Electrolyte ".& .  !.4 X  +)%1! 51 /& ". ! Biochemistry 5% Liver Function Test.2 !/23 2.1.

3 ) 21 !  )". ( &   !  1)&  !%!/.!%  !/%3!.3.! 3/5 0'3/50/# ".(  )'%.&.#  +Z[) 1 1().21 Z 1 15%!  ) X    21  !  .). 2.1   X) / )  )'%./) 21 %!.# 24 . 21(%  .!   2.)-) !+! Medical Record  21"%. 1!& Routine Examination  %  2 6  ".

5   &1!)/. ? ".4 &   Laminar Air Flow 2.2. . D&( &(EF(C# .& .) 1!)". /%  )1)&   1!).3.( .! / 5 .1!)/)Y X   . )'%.3.#  % ".3.3.3. +! (k 3.6 -'".!  ) "5 (Aseptic Procedure) 2. (Clean Room) 2.3   X /% X  !*( /. /)  2. ".2 !4X    (Worksheet) ".

522*# ) 1)& !) 522*#  (  1! " Luer-lock _  ( /    Syringe 5  .1! Plasticbacked Paper Liner (  ) /-"%.) '*.2*# 5 1 )". 1! (  ) /- (  () 1)&( 3. (Equipments) 3.5 +)%1!2  Syringe ())*  2 Syringe 25 .+)%1! &+ 5 !* )  ? Y&  52*#.2*#  %  & ‚4  `a % . 1! 5-))  (7% (# 18 ( 20) 5%! 1!)/ "  / ? Syringe -)# )  5 ) 1)&  1 -))  +)%-!%# 21g/1. . !+ 5 !* )  ? .3 2*# 5 ) 1)& 1! " 5"! ( / .1 1 )".1 Syringe ".8 mm 3.1.2*#% ?  5 !* ) )'%. &1!)/. Lock -) 3.1  !* %! 3.! ()) 1)&( 3.1.4 1!! Plastic-backed Paper Liner   ! Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC)  5 )  _  1)&( BSC ".# 1!" +! !* %!%  ".1.1.2 -) 5/.1.  !.

" Zip Lock ". /) 5% Y /)Z^ !"! )Z^ (Y.1.1.3.6  )/-"!1!2 35 .$!%   3.7 1!)35 .

1.! 1)& 1!$ (!%   1)&.1.8 Syringe ! &".)Z^ 1! )2*# %!+! BSC % )X  3.(.!4-'(    +)%Y 5  3.! 1)&  1!$ 5 ! (! 5     ) () !4( /-! (  ! /!  ) ! /  2 ".9 Syringe ! & ".

! ‘ 3./43 1 % 5  ()% 1!&!/.. 1 1 3./43  1  %  d.2 2*# 5/&(X  (Containment Equipment) &!/&   1 Biological Safety Cabinet (2*# ?  5/&(X  )+)&( % *1  2*#++! !* 1!&/. /)YY  "%  /+ .3 HEPA Filter  HEPA Filter " Bay-in Bay-out‘ .

^ 5%  ! ". $ Y2 / ^ "! .%/ +)%/)/ 03  Y+)% /)Y HEPA Fiter " %! 1!Y "%  / % . "%  ".! ".-+! Y2 / ( ^ Y2 /"! ( /%Y2 / 5 (  ".2 1) & .).

 )1!)!%  &+&  .

 Y . 2*(3)/ ‘ 4. H '(H(   (Process)  ) )'%.#.

  X %+  1) “!%! /23".(!%  /%   3) !4&   % 3 ! 1 1Y% /5 "%.) (Leak) ./)(+)%  )  Y  )5    . /% /Y  ) +  ! !% +)%)  `a  (Contamination) (!.  ".1!)3 2) 1!12)!/ 5%    (! !%().1 26 .

 .  % !* %! (() ". (Disposal)  ) 1)& 51 15 (Aseptic Technique)  (! +3*6#)12*3 5 1 1   _  /)/   ) +! 5.1 !4X) ( .4)   /( (Spillage) ".&1!)/. HL(DF     (Precaution) 5.!* %! .   521 )2(2 %! ".

!* ( %  3 1 5.1.)+ 5%  (  Y  & ! -  (5-! d ( (  d  ".'. 5.2 )* )  5.!* %!! & &1!)/. &+&  .1!5-&1!)/. & + "!5-&1!)/.  ( 5 (() .1. `a  () !!) /%Y2 ".1 )*   *  &Y)(& ! -   5- ("( ! . !/2 5&1!)/. "!)! & /.

%  Y2 )(52X   /!) /% ( /)/.2 !4X)+/)/  *X/)/  +)%!%. &2*(3)/ 5.

  !*(  (.1 YY2 )(52X  /!) /%  5.2.-   X )    5.3  !(  /%! /)/! ! /%". & (  (Neutralizing Solution) + - ( 5 !(  /%! /)/!  5.2.5 /% (" #!  2  1     (2  *#  %  ! .2.  X   ! 27 .4 *  ( ! &)*) ? 5.     +!   (  k ". & 5.2  !(  /%! /)/!  ! &)*) ? Y/)Y 5 /.2.   +! !5.2.

1 " - "%.    . 35 .5  ". %  N O!( d 6.1    )" ! .2 )-3 ". - (()..) !  7. /% +  (! 7. %     _   " ! (   `a *. H@! 7.2!*- (5 6.2  ^$1!)  1)& ./) ( "( !.6.

3 .800-2.11 - (  ) 9.10 &2 '1 ) 9.!/2% ? ) `a  - 35 .100 °F ( 1000-1.!  ) 1)& 9.2*#  ) ". g@I #h   (Standard Operating Procedure) 1!  & )k /&  ( ! 4  X        '*#   '   _   +)% ( X/)/!  )k /&(!4X  1!& 5% 9.7 &1!)/. &  !  ".4 /!)52X ) 1)& 9.2) "( `a ) ".2 . `a )'%.!/2 `a !  %! 9.5 /%! % ?  5 9.# ".)35 . ^ /   .9 !4X)(2  9. & 1  () "/ !%  /1)    .8 &1!)/.200 °C 9.1 - Stock  9.! ‘ 8.6  /% 1)& 9.).&    35 ..5 &1!)/.  I% HF# #ef( O!( d  ./% / (Order) 1)& 9.(  ) 1)& 9.12 1 1 )   28 .^  /    %! &  2*(3)/ 1.

3.5  .

   Good Compounding Practice for Ophthalmic Products in Hospitals  ) .

 3/5 .

 & "! . % /. ( / /&17  )  .     )3*6#05 * +)%)&( %   3*6#(%  5 (  ($  (5% Intracameral) ".

 )   (  .   +"% 1!)05 .(!%   ) 1!)Y  1& !*"._  5"./7/ 1!)/)Y ) (-   `a 5 . .

3*6#  + 27. &  (    (" % !% 05 )1!) 1 ! ".1!) +  (*6#!4    .)5%!   '"1 ()1!)  % 2 " 1 1 )/. Subconjunctival ($ ).  5 " !"! & ( )1!)) )  2 %1!))     ( ++1!/ .

  %+  " ! 3/51! &+X )&   )3*6#  .

%  5/1)  )  3/51!! / () 1!)/)Y &) 5 &(  3*6#.! 1) 1!)05 2) Tonicity 3) pH./) 3*6# /&((  % 2. i /&17 /  )3*6# ./) 29 .1!12)12*3   2/() 1./ ().) 1!)().   "%+)%/)Y &) 5 &( ". Buffer 4) 1!) '  5) 1!)  5/ / 6) 1!)/)Y . 7) 1!)1 ! &.(   Y+)%)/ ( ) 3/5 0 1!)5& 7  3/5) .

 "/  . 2  !) 1 10 5 ". )/"/   /&(/)/%! .-'3*6# 3. % ) )3*6#  1!! 1& !*. /1) "%.8) 1!)(  9) 2((% ". 5 (& (05   /2 5% Autoclave 4. - + % !4 ).5  ".

 !/ 2 1 1 (  5 ! 4  1&  !*  1!)   ( )    /2  ! 4    ) 1!)/&17/&(  5% $  .  ( 1 1!) ./)Y5 ! +Y 1!).! /) (    + % /)&/) .  )  )*).0  )  )3*6#(% & ( )) % 2 " 5. 1!)+)%")% &5 ! ! )*  ? "% . )   5  ".

)1!)5 !57  )  X)(1!12)12*3  )  05 . &  Laminar Air Flow (( Isolator ( Biological Safety Cabinet. $. BSC)  )  )Z[('. )  6.  Y1 15(& (05 % 1% 1    /%! /&17  )   )3*6# . ".

 )   . "%.2/%! /) ()+ .5 1! /% Syringe "     1% /%!) Syringe  (7%!% .%05 /.   ".&(  1!)Y .! 2     )3*6# 1!)*  (1)  )  1!/)/% ? 35 .

)*) (5% Y ) 4.5 ml Syringe   5 ml "%+)%)  4.&..5) 1! 5 Syringe 2  ))5 " 30 . 5 syringe  -/2 2 )/%! /)  Y+)%)) +)%1!. / -)+  Syringe (7%+)% )-) % (2) 1!)Y 5 ! 1!.

(3) 5-)". Syringe 5  Disposable .

 1! 51  !"! 2  (  `a ".2 5!1!! _  // (5)  )   Sterile Powder  &). *  )  (05 1!!4& (05 ". &% 5 (  (! Ampule 1! &/%! /) ()) % Filter   5 µ &0' % ? 7._  1!)/(1 (4) Y & ( 1 1!.!/1!)Y     ! 4  &  (  05  . $ (Label) +!35 .

 ". &+ 5 ! & (05.  &"! .22 µm  35 .   12 * /)    3*6# ".35 .2/2 Y& (05"!  % +-)!4 +)%(). &3*6# /2 )& (05% ./)  )'*.2 !4& (05  ) 1  % Filter   0.  ) ) /%! /)  +)%+ & (05.

 )1!12) 12*3.(!%  ) (). Autoclave 3*6#  35 . +)%1! 5/ / &$+  (Intraocular Injection) ./) 8. / /  5 )'%..2/2 "% *!%3*6#)1!)1 !( % Autoclave (+)% ".

 (1!)3 &  /1)(%  10.  )  Cytotoxic Agents (/   ? 3/5. 3/51!.1 / 3  9.2 Sterile Vials )!%.Y2 (/&(2 & (05"! 5 $ +)%+ 5 (  )/- 1!.+)%1!.)^ _   `a 11. 35 .2 % 1!.2 Syringe 35 .)%1!) 1  ! "../2 2  )1!)()./  4 3   ( 5   /)Y2 !/   &  ( 05"!  5 )2/&((  !(5  2(( "   5  1!./) ".&( ! /  2  .

1!) ++  `a  2  # !   1!)1 ! 1) 31 . ))1!)1 ! 3*6#".

( ( "! . /%! /) / / ".! /  2 (5 .Y  *$  )..6%-1./ / !  $-1!. $  ) 5 ". Isotonic  % 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solution  % + -) 1!))  /)Y +  % 5%! 0. .) 1!)1 ! 3*6#  () 12.2!4-  Handling ".35 .  ) %+  1.    $ % (!  ( %  (/1  HL(DDIVAV   @F i  !  )/.2 &(  1!))  //&17".8% /)) # Sodium Chloride   5  Hypertonic   )!  )*/  Hypotonic 1!) /  + tonicity (+)  /%! (7%  ) 5 Sodium Chloride.2 1! &)* . pH/Buffering 1! 5/1!) % )*    ( & pH /%/3!. Tonicity & /. 1!) / (Clarity)  0Z2  ")  5!4  ( / ()/& ( / (Clarifying Agents)  5  5% 1% Polysorbate 20 ( 1% Polysorbate 80 2. Boric Acid ( Dextrose 1!)%  1 300 mOsm/L ( % 5%! 200 Y 600 mOsm/L) 3.

 !+1! 5) Buffering Capacity  !% 0./)/&( 1 4-8 4.05 1% pH (). & (05+ % ? . 1!)05 (Sterility) /.

 / (Preservation)  5( ? 1 1!)/ / )1!)().  + //&17 & 32 .45 ( 0. Autoclave ( Gas Sterilization (Ethylene Oxide) 5./) ".2 +)1 !4 ? 1 Dry Heat.  ! Sterile Membrane  2 0.

0. Dose Syringe 05". 1  % +   ).1% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).) + !   1!)(     % .+)%)-) 33 .25% Methylcellulose 4000.5  5  5% 0.5 (Antioxidation)    ) /  . 0. /)1!)(  (Viscosity Enhancers) )1!)( .   1 / (  /%/)1!)( "! /)1!)(  5 0.1% Sodium Metabisulfite ". 0. 0.! (!   .  !)(( 05("% 2 "%.5-1% Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose ( 0. .6.1% Thiourea   7.  5   3 * 6#    ) 1!)1  ! (   / .& (/. / . 2 (Packaging) 1!2/.5-1% Polyvinyl Alcohol 8.)* 25-50 cps ". .1% Sodium bisulfite.

6  .3.

      % @ C  Good Compounding Practice for Herbal Products in Hospitals /)2 + !Y2. &c /)2 +    5 .0+ +  1!.

0 ).0+ ".2  1   % .)*!%.            .

1". % ? 5%    b_   + -1 .

)* 5000   ".1!(   (%  ))1%  & d 2542 .

 1!)  "!.

 /%! (7%"! (%  .)'*. Low Dose ".  % ? ) ) /)2 + "  &! Mixtures  % "! . Large Volume    ) /)2 + .

i2 )  /)2 +( 5  % 75 ("(% 5    /)1!.    +)% 5%  ( ++)%+ .

 ).(# . )// 1.  % ? 1!)  )  )/)2 +  75 ("(% 5 g % @ C 3*6#/)2 +%  " i2 .

))  `a )1!)"%  - ! "( - ! "  . @A 1.") .!4 3*6# /)2 + )!Y2+5 .1 1".! ".1!12)12*3 1. )%12*3   /%!  .1 !*- !Y2/)2 +1!)" - !*$. $. ).3      / /&17)/2  ) /)2 + 1 "12*3 !Y2)+". ). 0  %  ) _  /!#"./43".'*.

!* ? . $. 1/Y -'!Y2"./43 +)% ()  ! 25) % !Y2/)2 +  )  /% 0'  1!)/./!#)bi ".  )!/).

 $. /%! &(  -//  # /1)  /%! . $  )/)2 + )/&-"! )&( 5%  ! ) !+ +)% 5% 05 34 .2 ".Z2 . &  35 .

2 !*& 5%  ! !+ .1.

1  . 1!.! Z2 .".X!5%  !21   )  )!+ "% ))  /)2 +)) 1 2.(!% /2%)! % 5 &(  /) ".!  0'. CD   )1!)1!)5& 7  ". ".!  /)2 +   . .(   `a Z2 .  )"&1!)/. `a 2.

3     20 #".   : 21 ( %! 1!12)12*3  )1!)5& 7  !Y2/)2 +/3*6#/)2 + /)Y!/'*# !/ `a % /  /+)%/)&/) !Y2/)2 + )1!) &)k /)2 +   5    ".      '*.3 3    '*.

1).

bbd 2. & WHO Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants Material 1992 3. D&( &(EF(C# .2    : /2%)! %   21)1!)5& 7 /)2 + /2%)! % (X)" .

 . )1 )))  "%. (   . 5  1  )  5%  !  )  ! + "% Y  ( ) "1.  "  ) Y % "  & 1)   1+) #(   .

1 &1%)  )!Y2"%.!   )  /+! .". % /%    AC @ C 4.   "%)(" -' 2*#5%  !  )!+ /&171 /.5  ))k ".-  ! 5%  2- !    (   ((%  Y /%."( 4.

!4. 2. &  ./ ?  5.! "./% %12*3  &  & +!/) !) "(%  . 5% 2– j%") 4. ".2 - !21  )$&".! &- ! 5  ? !) /1)".(!% .) 35 .- ! )1!)&  %    5  )* ".

4./)!)  ). !%   /)     ! .3 !Y2%   Y.

2 /Y -!Y2/)2 + /.! "  5.  1 1X  5.1 1"(% ". 5%! . ? 5.!Y2/)2 +"(% +)%  %  1!.5 (0'"%(  (    ! 5/)2 + +)%!%.!  ()1 !) 12*/)% ?  /)2 +". Contract Farming 1!12)12*3 "./)2 +)1!)/&17 % )  1  %  +)%1!.   '*# '/) 5%  +! /&( 12*3 /     )  ) !3)0/#(  /30(/!#! 5%!  - ! +!! 4. .!Y2/)2 +-+! !  .4  . '*.. ( . HL(EFI   % @ C 5. /) )/ ! 4.(!% !Y2/)2 +".3 +)%1!.

!'*#().2 /  . 6.5‚'0/# ./&17 % "! (!/ Markers ( TLC Finger Print 36 .)  !Y2  )&(  !Y2 &)& /)2 + . +)%& 5.)_) ) 12  ! "  .3  20 # .!4& ("( "."  .4 /)2 + 5 ) ‚ 5% ).3  !Y2/)2 +('*.'*. ( @ 6. . "(% ) 5 .1 12*'*./) 1! !//.

05Y+ Y+)%) &)k  /)2 +"%.2 &(  3*6#/&- !/ 51!12)3*6#/&- ()/‚4)&(   5 12*3"..(#)*/‚4 Y+)% (!1.5 )* Y/‚4 (!1.(#!Y2))k Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia ( Pharmacopoeia  % .(# Markers " (1!12)12*3.!1. 5 +! 6.

 (solvent) 5 % ? !'*# %  1!& TLC Finger Print  !Y2/)2 +".!  1!12)12*3 /1!)1 /3 ".3*6# *+)%//&17 /&(&(  ? ( +) )k   "  ? 5% Y  &!+ 53 )&(  2  # )*% - ( Y)  6. /2%)! % 1!) 1% )  5      ) ! 4  X   5   2    .3 1%). ()*// (extractives) ! &.

) X  21 .2  1# .! Y2 /)2 +(  3*6# ". )  .% ? 5% 1 ) !/2 !4  % .  "% .

   5%  !  )!+ 7. /)2 + . )/1!12)  ". DI$  (Glossary) Markers () Y /% ! . 5 1!12 ) )k  /)2 + .  ! % 5".

 !+ Marker .) 1!)/) 4#//&17‚4 /)2 +  ? . /))*)(!1.(#+ % ".

 //&17))*  ()!4 !1.(# 2%  5 Markers .) 12*3 !Y2(3*6#/&-+ .

 5 Marker % )* 37 .

38 .

39 .

74 .