[i IEmerald .


,Adv,anclesln Speclall, Education

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Tl'oI"I'Efll"OR .nN l'E(WLE



Frederick 1. Brigham




Julia B. Stoner

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Dike Okoro















os iakor


Kagendo Jktu tua and James Siders


Michelle J... McC()llin and Festus E. Obiakor




Al.McCoIUn Slippery Rock University. USA IX . USA Elizabeth Drame Barbara J.t Buffalo. USA Exceptional Bducation Department State University of New York College a...J. Dray Departmen t of E:d. Colorado State University. University of Alabama.lu::aion and t Human Development.]Iwaukee. VA. Ehlers-Zavala Department of Bnglish.Emily C" Bouck Department ef Educaticnal Pu rdue University. USA Department of Special Education. EN. Frederick ." USA Department ofExceptional Education. IL.. Tuscaloosa.USA Studies. M. Slippery Rock~PA" USA KagendoMuma Department of Special Educationand Mml[tiple: A bilities. Fort ColUns. fairfax. Buffa~o. Olive Harvey College. U niversity of Wisconsin-Mil waukee. Mlnwaukee. Univeesity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Obiakor Dike Okoro Departmen t of EngHslljW orld Literature. University of Colorado Denver. Brigham Departmen t of Human Development. Satasha L.USA Department of Exceptional Education.W~.W~. CO~. Chicago. George Mason University. Green Michelle ]. NY. CO~ USA Fabiola P... West Lafayette. Denver. USA Festus E.

George R. Peterson-Karlan Department of Special Education. University of Alabama.. Tuscaloosa. Illinois State University. MO. Stoner Departmen t of Special Ed ueation. USA Department of Special Education. AL~USA jl. Jr. Illinois State University ~Normal. USA James Siders Department of Special Education and Multiple Abilities. Parette. Normal. IL. University of Miss ouri. EL.llitJ B. Department of Special Education. USA Cathy Newman Thomas . Norma]. u. USA Illinois State University. Columbia.UST OF CONTRmU'ID'ORS Howard P.

::rte(i to placement and inclusion. multicultural considerations for instruction. Volmne 1. lransHjonpl[lnning~prepam tion. instructi 0[1. and. The special education literature knowledge base should reflect these changes.[]ngW special education. The ~ayoiIJt of Curren: Issues and Trends in Spechll. with challenging conditions such as attention-deficit h. there ts no current resource that effectively and comprehensively does this. namely. and labeling by reviewing historical aspects and then discussing current coneerns. identification > placement.9:' Identification.sre:iI]. assessment. psychologists.Current Issues and Trends in Special Education is di. the use of assistive technology with special needs students.~tlJ(l~'i!l. is to fuJfHI this void. im plementa tion. and transitional programming . Then this vQ~umea.9 and 2{~1 provide the reader with <'I XI. language. Volumes ]9 and 2iOaddress the top issues and trends in special education by providing chapters written by active: researchers and practitioners in their respective ureas.tm disorders.Education fbnows the specia I educati 0'[1 process. Assessment and In.' Research. and.Hvi~y.~tructi()n and Vobmte 20.Uism specttl .ide:avo'tS. programming students.videdhuo two volumes. administrators. scientifica]ly supported and unsupported interventions. manner that builds and enhances their knowledge base" Volumeg. instructional methods such as response to intervention and positive behavioral supports. such 8!S preparation ofteechers.ddFesses newer inncvations and issueSIfe]. and quantitative and qualitative research €i1. The field of special education constantly changes <1S a result of legi8Iatio]l~new lnstrucrlonal formats and current researchinvestigations. . communication) and education. school counselors and.1IJEl3. This process allows readers EO progress through the chapters in a sequential.ypeF~)(. and practicing clinicians to keep up with these changes and be current in all !. namely.Jtme 20~'1dd[esses issues that impact all teachers •.. Technology. The purpose of Current issues and Trends in Specia! Ed:umtion.. however. VO]l.~. Vo]ume] 9 first delineates traditional topics such as identification. tomd Teacher Pveparatien. It can be difficult for general and special educators.

Bakken Anthon}' F. comprelleng.1] PREP ACE for genera] and special educators.).each chapter has the breath and depfh to stand OIl its OWII.C:h volume can be read separately in. Rotatori .omce F estus E.s. 0 biakor Jeffrey P.. As snch. individual chapters from E::<?I. any order as.i'N~re. Editor» .



OS:jSO(l·"O~4!OIJ(2(110i~(l0002(1004 Il1llill 'Je-a:tfu<:F PtrreplllmtiClim 3 . .oil'·rel!:liodluc:tian i]l lin)! f\1rmre..~~n~dI : ~SS:N: 'O(li'O. : IN EDU'CATION: IMPACT ON EVIDENCE-BASED [NSTR UCTIO'N Frederick J.. is 'O!Jr. '..f:i.g~'~Ile COte of quantitative research. Brigham Quantitative research techniques are very wen suited. ··1 . m .... In addition. It is dear. 3--l7 Co. = ~. Q·~ ·N····IT. a summary definition of what is meant by E...··T~·JV<E· R·····E·.r~l1lrtlssue. nd 'IL •. moceis ... . .1i. di . 2008) clearly point toward models derived from bi ]O~Og]CiL.·C..ll[ilne iUl..J(l13/~o~: 1O..BP and its development in the field of special education as well as ]11 related fields.<W~.1Jh:~ GrolllPl~u'blis!lli~~ UllIDi~~d Anr!igl~m .filfliC) ·'f'IL. This chapter traces the impact of quanritative research ideason EBP. rather than logic of describing and searching for meaning. it makes no suppositions that this (01'1111 of inquiry is in anyabsolute sense superior to others.·~· ···H.ll~friiglu ·zuJl1!U boy IDntIe. to the specific purposes for which they were developed. It briefly outlines the basic assumptions of quantitative researchand the kind of questions that it serves best to answer.. however.. No Child Left Behind Act 0/200J (NCLiB. I ano ]JUYSU:::@ ] sciences (111'!" ']·1·. . Although this chapter addresses the impact of quantitative research 011 evidence-based practice (E. '"_ . that current calls for increased rigor in educational research such as is found in the. The development of quanti tative research techniques and tools of analysis hasencouraged the expression of the kinds of questi(:lli S that yieki to the logic of counthig and measuriI1i..f1~s· I:ilSp~laJl EdwcilJI:io:iii.use ..CHAPTER 1 UIA. primarily in tbe area of medicine.. A..~·R·..A~..·· 2..BP). .·S-E··A.···..'~ ..Temnllll]QJg}'. tilllil: R~~elll"()llI. Vo. '_ ~""""'~" '. .. ~e ~yj~.s and Trends in Sped3~Edl1{.vV'lJI}'" ~ ne biological.--1 'II· sed meaicat. and the core of qualitanve research (admittedly oversiniplifiealions of each research tradition). •. ' .·IT--... mediealvaud physical sciences are predominantly quantitative. """ .

and interpretation/application. frequencies and response latencies) (Tawney & Gast. callednomethetic and is contrasted with idiograpbic research that focuses on the uniqueness of the individua.O~l a logic that is similar W that foundin group designs relative to demonstrating that an effect is caused by @ specified iuterventiou ill! such a W1!lY that alternative explanations .ssi:l]]. 1982).~['e extremely implausible.e~e:rm "single-subject research" (SSR} suggests E]Il~d~. knowledge.L his clear that I.g. design. analysis.secan be broken ]11~() fou]" interrelated parts. The general dJisclJssion that follows app. ~ students in. nomothetic models. BRIGHAM delineated. broad strokes.~9g4). . quantitative research reflects current ideas alb!l)utEBP. possible ~'i!iid desirable . once established.. More :umportantly SSR re]i€.UiC[groups of people (e. Statistical approaches suchas randomization trials (Todma:n . This form of reasoning involves studying groups. The refo re. beyond theindividuals includedin the study.& Dugard. Th. is followed by an examination of the way that t:h:ink]~. the research enLerp]"i. implementation.scu.arge-sca~e experiments with random assignment to trea tment are based on.ITATIVE RESEARCH QlIJa:Ullimtive research. and SSR. episternic benefs that can be traced back to David Huene . we' can develop generalizable laws that. as are quasi-experimental studies where ]I1J.case: studies) and produce outcemes that are not intended 1:0 generatize . QUANT.. However.. the present treatment of quantitative research wMJinclude both.a~10mo~he~]c: potoposilioii" AddntiOitaUy. be replicated with reliability.o·gr. SSR i~ characterized by the use of quantitative measures (e. current trends in SSR suggest that generalization beyond the participants of a given study ]s. a particular classroom) are assigned to treatments.g. of individuals and is often. group/quasi-experimental research. Through observing these regularities..FRE. The chapter concludes with a di.. :W(H) and other tools thatare more commonly associated with group studies are also approprlate for SSR (Kazdin. . his wake suggested that we cannever directly observe cause and effect.lgin. Hnme and others who followed in. describe predictable patterns that can. This deHneaHQI1J..s.Rather we perceive what is caned "constant conjunction" OF' the. regularities of rela tionships among events. of responsible practice: in the absence of complete and certain. Is based on.phic approach" Many idiographic approaches to research are nenquantitative (e.g .DE[iUCK~.~i€:s to both kinds of research" In..n.

Experimental designs are employed to produce data that allow warranted conclusions to be drawn at the conclusion of the study (Scheenfeld 2006).. slllntlmary . which areconcernedwith the populations.t is "a study in which. part serves a differer. Another word for fidelity isintegFitl{ . .!G..r. ~.D that it deserves Us own. d. tile experiment can be generalized (Thompson. This element however. 2005. which. Thereare two kinds of design va]]d~Jy issuesimrernal design validity issues.-. section in this discussicn. ea. Cook.lk parts will help to demonstrate the impact of quantitative research.An exper. or t[ieaJtl'lle:l:!lts re ]trlp[e:rne:l!J.. Francis.im.e'{' . !Une ···f. It ]s a necessary but insufficient com. 200~J. -.U. Van. we meum that they are dearly described. setting variables. ".I~dity.. . " . Like desl.ofthet l. and so forth on which the effect noted in.S mga. . and. settings. :EBP. .2. Acker.n . &.m. Alsof1deHty carr Jnclude concepts such.e:l!J. and so forth (Fletcher..... 0·.~ed with a fidelity Oil' integrity. 12). . dese . . "1' j .so th ~" ~..S duration ofthe intervention.anitt]tallive :rese~rrCl~. .5 Bach . fidelity ofimplementation data isnecessary but insufficient for determination that a g]Ve11 interventions reflects EBP.in~e1·ven~]Q11B.g['1.cu o. andrecords are maintained to indicate theextent to which the experimenters mirrored the descriptions ]I!J.. on. 2006} The importance of clear and high-quality design is quite prominent hil discussions of ERf'. Conclusions are most warranted when TIlledesign rules out likely sources of design v~11dlty issues.ermm~. j lmplemen:tatkm.. Each of the parts of [he research endeavor shows up . their work..f. . . I des~gn va:~idittyissues. 200. fide:lity of treatment implementation in research hJIIS: a major influence em judgments of EllBP~ S.'& Camp bell. numbers inasking uses and answering these questions but there is much more 1.g_.'.LUlI:iJ.0 quantitative research than numbers.. Yen..poIl!ent of EBP."-"I'i-. p. is usually subsumed under dlscussions of interual v~'1. anintervention is deliberately Introdueed to observe its effects" (Shadish. Bradley...~'B'P". €zx:tenl@. are concerned with the extenr to which theinterveotion caused the Ob:S€'FVed effects.!Jx function and all the parts combine [0 answer questions such ast Whar do you know? How do you know i~? and How tnJtSllwonhy is your knowledge? Qu.~-' . dir . When. Implemeetation of a study refers to the extent that the experimenters delivered each treatment under eonsideratien with fidelNy .I.. Morris" & Lyon.. .

at a basic level Sleek~ to protect against accepting random events as observable patterns. [994).QI.true score and the observed score were the same value.. If Hl. a manner that any analysis at all would yield only spurious results are pointless and misleading.y:s of approaching data ~Hlial. . be quite simple. 2008. of . describe the phenomenon or phenomena fit hand. There are numerous waJ.1. no). Such studies cannotinform EBP. 200l p.)~]tleas"ute:rnent consists of rules for numbers to objects in... 2004). intervention that we are attempting to measure are classifed 3S error.DE[iUCK~. and placing om a scale (ibid. Thompson. Thesepurposes form the basis for the systems of measurement that we use in education and other SOc:iJI. the admission that error is. That is [be traditional p.FRE. appears to be acceptance of . observed score plus error" (National Research Council. areas of assigning attributes hallmar li:: In very science. such a way as [:0. present in an measures" parti. g j Abe~:S'OIJL~ 1995.ng aSfionFandoItL Several . naming and countingcranking. At its oore. all measurement tasks would.5 starernent in research reports.0'5 as the gate for acceptability of outcomes in statistical analyses.:S. aualysis is a fundamental pad of ESP. BRIGHAM AH~or:rns...jl"lenoe the: emphasis of pFOpoer dataanalysis.e. Tbll1s~~he analysis of quaatitative data. general terms theinfluences on Ute score: or measurement that are different from the influences of the. Studies in which the data are incorrectly analyzed or collected in. In very simple form~sUl!tisUca] testsanswer the question: what are the chances that our OOnChIS]Ons: are based simply on chance (error] and not on the reliable and true observation of the phenomena we think we aremeasuring (Abelson.5). Statistical methodology is the of qusntitative research in [he: SOc:l8J[ sciences. lear and c properly executed data. such.ysis nd few abS.0. The custom In most educational research. Creswell.eulady these of abstract phenemena. (Krathwohl. Quantitative research ItSeSnumbers forthree basic purposes. control use numbers to.cendeavor that werk to predict and. Ne:ve'rt11e~ess. It should be noted that there Is nothingmagical about J)5 as the benchmark for acceptance of a ffindi.ute a rules.Jt'thOFS (e. forwbich tool louse (Ka vale & Forl1less jI99. Howe'Ver. .).~. 1995).' The basic model for measurement in j quantitative research may be expressed in this way: "the true score arises from an. .). 2006) have argued for a more sophisticated approach to statistical reasoning. however. represent quantities of (Nunnally &lBernst:ein.sd!entH~. leads us to employ statistical tools for verifying our fmdings.

s.~O measures ofpracti..:e.'C1!.. orlarge.f1 and Application No single study can fully answer any of the important questions hi edncatiooat research and. gt01!. teaching technique ]:s powerful (i.tl importaace (Thompson.c. arbitrary scale foritl!l. There are several effect size statistics available.effect size statistic. medium. Each . saying that it. however..g efifecns sizes isa legs than desirablepractice for making education decisions.ntitative researchers developed a statistic caned an "effect size' (Lipsey &WHBon.Studies wi.BP when theyproduce statistically significant results tha [ are of tangible practicelimportanoe.e. SSR outcomes can be statistically aggregatedin ed a manner similar jo effect sizes called the pen. Effect sizes can be classified assmall. 2004)~weU-des.I. ]987).il1rrplerllentu601"1.determination of E!'3:P.For SS R. dam.IEBP..~>C![ sizes are primarily associated with group designs. But what ]s EIBP and how does it relate to this model of researcb? . Thompson (20Q6) pointed out that strict adherence to an. q1l18 .effect size C21~. the concept of pIacttica~il:!J]:ror'wnoe as manifested byeffec~ sizes has a substantial role to play im. researchers nlrm..I.igtled.nf of nCln()verlapping data s:tat~.. 2:006}. Also. something wirhimpaet).re (:~iJnied out with high degrees offidelity and analyzed appropriately can provideindications of the: extent to w hieh an effect issys.ure of practical importance.2J[m~). & Casto.~h high-quality design O)md.lp:S on a standardized metric enabling interpretation of outcome results to be madein a consistent manner across diffarent studies. cbaracteeistica add jo de~ertl1j[jJO)~]·olJlof E. places differences between. is important or tbat a given.e~rpreHr!J.Em.sticI(Scruggs~ Mastropieri. Nevertheless. but their discussion Is: beyond the scope of the present chapter.Inferpl'et(:l'titJ.. That an outcome is not Iikely to have happened by chance is notthe same thing as.. Although there is no chance of a perfect study ever being conducted (H~~nte·t & Schmidt. and various classification schemes have been developed for this purpose. Additional decisions about the practical importance of the ·effect<'l:!le added. im P1!lJC[ is often determined by visual inspection of graph . in the fOllJ]]of . For measures ofi:nrlpac:t. .<'ldol1l.mmm]c and a nonrandom event. stvdies that ~. To address tbet1leed for ame']:$.

It is easy to' look back at the tragic events snrrounding that practice (wh~. students with di..• Despite the censensual op]Iii.e:Dlek Cmrett ShrHI! (the Oprah 'of his day). The history ofspecial educationis fined with well-Intentioned people who madethe best effort they conld it'll.ys at conferences changed toinclude the p:tuaseEBP intheir titles.]i!J.earners taught though the auditory channel. understanding of education. mg. erroneous ideas havebeen discarded from thefield because they have been replaced by other.. Some.biHties (Burns & Ysseldy ke..Bettelheim WaJ. it work with their own eyes. 1 . & Mulick.[OgS and displ. Bruno Bettelheim claimed to have found the cause (refrigerator mothers) and a cure for autism.. . Thus. After a great. [be names of many textbooks appearing on publisher's CaJHI. yet the smugn.-. deal ofexpense. . 20(9). BRIGHAM EVIDENCE~BASED PRACTICE The first p:mb~!eni} in defining E. 2005)" Many teachers continue to report using this contraineticared in their work with. Modality-based instruction is far fr-om the O!]Jy fraudulent or unfounded >- .ess is unjustified. shows such as Th... the evidence . behavior. as meeting the ESP standards.gg:regate :research to d!e~eFrnine EHP. . cognirion.aJ. more effective approaches. Such. am.DE[iUCK~. Throughout the late lS)'61}s and early I 97'{)is.ent> claims were found '~o he his fraudulentWorse than simple fra1lld.at the timewas considered to be the best available) with a degree of smug self-assurance that we wouldnever make a similar mistake given our more developed.8 [8 a ]--}l.. 2008).science doesl1lot support interventlens based on th]sidea (Jacobson.. .'s claims about the cause autism induced guilt and shame for many parents that were simply undeserved (Oftit .'i!g problem in a human development OF education and. For example.)) believe t]]. rug 'I. Despite numerous studies that refute the ideas. and d~sapp. In: the face of evidence to the contrary ~educators regularly protest tbat they have seen. of "mcdality-based ~]'a]:rlJ.'I-I] " en erpnse mo d· 11Fr s [eng ftl .FRE.S:quite p]"(]in(l~..I a ] Y .understandmg and trea~i~.2009) •.sa.c)I:iI [hat modality-based instruction works.BP is that there Is no of[ic:ia~.g" (the idea that visualIeerners should be ~aj)lght visually.lBette]heim.. auditory J.. . effort. anyone is free 1:0 call anything they wish an EBP.. I(WTI\I eha . As theterrnElff' became fashionable. most university students and educators (estimaresare up to 9Q ~. .oint~lfI. Few of these texts actually spentmuch or any time discussing whatthey meant lbyEBP and how they screened the infcrmadon in thei r texts.dl. Fox».. claims are the reason that we need to conduct and a.(11 marehinginstmction to .vevldence-based practice.y b enenera Len ternri . got it wrong. and kinesthetic learners taught kinestheticaljy'). and. body that sanctions the use of the term.n!enl talk on..

.. Deparnneut of Education... emotionaland behavioral disorders. 1~].Lear "... .].. " The Foregoing discussion..9' practice JIll special education .'I.]..d.e:n the mRS began Fa'tt]IlJ. . NCU3 compels educattors to employ practices. hh hildren's Division lfor ...I. does nor explicitly represent Elsl' in the meaning that ESP cnrrenrlyholds. Topics suchas w]i. rca]]y believe. ' . <. ..I. " through a vague claim of "research shows" .1..1.excellent resource for practitioners and teacher-rrainers. . and similar conditions.. Wll..S. 2{~!tl5). it.This standard ..er that speeial educarors have only recently acquired the ve desire to engage in EBP" Over the history of special education research and advocacy.stltlJle of Education Sciences (IES) on various topics....... special educators developed the idea of "best practices. validity.em Practice Alert series jointly sponsored by the Council for Exceptional ." One example of best practice analysis is found in the Curr... C'CUHttrlt Practice Alerts.U]"' ...Research ....a.. current practice can be found in Jacobson et al.. The "What Works Clearinghouse" (yNWC.... in.. A more complete description o. .. .1. (2005).e.. U....eqlila~e as data from large-scale studies w using random assignment to treatments (Odorn etal. '-'Sde... . Through the U .. The series was founded in. major part of many of the analyses provided.ntijically Proven .. IL]. n. . """'.). the 0111y type of evidence that wasaccepted as adl. of problems in interpreration and jmplemenraricn of educational research demonstrates that belief and vague claims are msunicienr to guide our endeavorv In an effort to overcome the disparate claims made under the "research shows" banner.IJI. Thecurrent practice alerts series Sire practitioner-friendly summaries of individual topics related to education of students withlearning disabilities.. however.g t". 1999 and continues to date.iL'.... and effectsizes are 3.biIHy. the Division . ..f fads and frauds in. the Alerts series clearly reflects the influence of quantitarfve research. The RUl~-Up to EBP Best Practices It is hard to be:m.·• Disabibties . .. Department of Education..1.g educational practices..1" .) providesa series of guides than rare the mn..I. '. h l. .d. .." n. .....1 ... The analysis ofthe topics considered . lh...S..' With the arrival of the No Child Left lJehtJ~d act of 200l" the term "seientijically proven" became prominent in discussion of how to Judge praeticesin edueation. The series is am.~. that have been proven to work . ..... there seems to be iii trajectory from "1 reamy..

benefit students with disabilities enough 100 resolve the problems [hey f<'lce Is <'I dubious pmpos](.s~]bollt EBP back to quemtitati ve methods . Dissatisfaction with the restrictiveness of mES~va&uati.to a uumber (If research methods including those outside' of the qualitative realm.).QtI . of questions would require different types of methodologies to answer them (Odom et al.I. Theextent to whichimproving the generaleducation curriculum will. TheWWC isnot directly aimed at services for students with disabilities.Fhls was not because the practices ' did not yield significant fh'ldings with tangible effects. and physical science'S. 2002)"Purfhern100re. 8).happe~ling and questions about how things work are~]keiyW yueld. & Towne. (b) questions about cause and effect. l.) the NAS effort stated that each of the three types of questions was scientific and that the different types. other forms of researchmay beas useful in determining EBP in special education .10 FRE. BRIGHAM is clearly aligned with [he quantitative research traditions in bio logica I. It is likelythatmany things found on these sites will help to improve SdlOOI:s and improving schools islikely to help many students with disabilities.era]~ypes of questions: (a) descriptions of what i~ happening.y restrictive approach applied by IES yielded few practices that could b(C. medica].TIe of educational research with an eye toward improving ins quality.P. Expw~diIig the Quest ions The National Academy of Sciences (NA S) examined the SUl..B. . Committee on Scientific Prieciples for Educaticn Research.DE[iUCK~. the "Nothing Works Clearinghouse" (Viadero & H nff.::lOOS). but because the studies were conducted with smaller numbers of students in applied settings where random assignment to treatment wasnot feasible.. Shavelson.i.. . This observation opened the door for[ES and other agencies to consider methcdologles other than large-scale random assignment studies in establishing EHP. determined [0. expressed in NCUB and theWWC about 110wto reliably and. however.t proposed that there were at least three: ge[IJ. Questionsebout what ]g. systematically improve student achievemeut leads most Ollllestiol1l. The concern that ]8. and (c) questinnaabont how [be process or mechanism under consideration is happening (National Research Councfl (U. 2'Oij'9). Nevertheless. The NAS made several critical recommendations .S. Firstt.FurthermOFe~ Ole higl~.cm of educational practices has resul ted in some authors referring toWWC as. 2006~ p. meet the criteria fo:rrE:. questions about ea useand effeet remain the purview of quantitati ve research for most scientists in education (Brigham.

iated '~o the essential concern for internal and externa I va~~dilYthat characterizes both forms of research. the number of participants and adequacy of their description. .S]Or. ""'1" L "C· . 2009). Tankersley.er.. 2005'.v~.'1'" eate d ..n .(t .".' .at]oFlJ. considerations of :EBP because they were the on]y domains witlil dear standards for ElIBf'. Kalberg... The techniques included ..BP Efforts in Special Educa: ion The Council fer Eseeprional Chi~.". Cook.O. ]fanytl:ljng the outcomes of any f(H~li)of research mean (but..dren·s D~. teams of educational researchers evaluated five d~JTe:rerl!t educational techniques and.. ..5 deady evident in [hat statement. 2009). . et.<1>..(1 or ." r. also provided reeommendations for determining EIBf' in expeeimental and quasi-expertmental research as did. Horner et al. 2009). H is impossible to say what. &. self-regulated strategy development for <! . :reported their judgment of the techuiques relative to ESP. an for initiativsto develop quality indicators (0'18) that eould be used [0 evaluate research in special education..." . for secO':n.. Gersten el al. vdei '.. correlarlonal d.. & Apiclrataburra.~ MWnr" c ... •. Each of these papers listed and described the features that W0111~d be present in high-quality research and whose omission would suggest thac the research was of substandard q uality. explan.e!Hgns(Thompsoi 1 Snvd . '1{' terli "'-G'.~ my er.II.H'lnl}. ['.01: behavioral disorders (E/B..IuiS for Doubler...D) (Lane. Research launched...!. QI s were described for group experimental studies (Gersten et al. '11[). clearly identified ftdelity of treatment implementationprocedures.. Richardson.ey suggested tha t the: decisiontomovethese two forms of research forward was pro bably boca use theywereuniqu!ely suiled~o provide experimental con~w L '"['he influence ofquantitative research designs 1. gee Maxwell.Dotaker ) .'" readi . Tfu..de''''. .1~1I. &:8 Ely.. L. . "'L.' h ." I.'L . lu . Groupjquasi-experimenral studies and SSR had somewhat different reeommendations. function-based interventions.. eller .· a.. Jini}enez~K]ingnerj' Pugach.0' \ ·l[.lative.d~uy students with emotional . . bot the recemmendatieus all re. ..E. for SSR.1. l'e. cognitive strategy Instruction in mathematics (Montague & Dietz. "t-''' .~ . qualitative studies (Brantlinger. nomothetic researchers suggest that without eseablishing clear experimental control.I.u.i"l a]terr. and landrum (2009) noted that only experimental and single-subject designs could currently be used ]1iJ.'-'. The recommendations include examinations of the number of studies.In fact. 2004 for a... as well as indicaticns of treatment magnitude. 2005).(.hlmon..ard' .. 2005).. &: Shepcaro.. 20(5)~ SSR designs (Horner etal.n(lp:so:n~ Diamond ." Asa trial for the proposed standards ofEBl?..

Although onlyinterventions that producepositive outcomes can be determined to be EBPs~ positive outcomes are not enough. Chard. Spooner) Mlms. 2009) failed to meet the methodological criteria to qualify asEEiF'. special education's in. standards for EBP are clearly the l1Leededlj... continuing meed of improvement.ality of the research base supportingtbeintcrvention. the impact of dle intervention can be expeetedto be strong and positive.o09}~Cor cognitive strategy Instruction in mathematical problemsolving {MoJ:!l~ague& Dietz.:fiJnd u8~ing time delay to teach literacy skills jo students with severe developmental disabi]iti.suUs.12 FRE.lBrowde:r et al. that we never get anything done (Neiman.We can be so cautious. the qij. i Summary The: influence of quautitativetesearch determining the current 'efforts of EBP is quite dear" EBP determi nation is a statement regarding proceduresin . More studies on clearly defined topic conducted with thehigh degree of rigor set forth 1111. "best practice.(I etermination is also an assessment . researchled tomixed re.0(9).. 2. in. the research is consistently positive enough that. 2009'). The EIB. One is that research. It Sh01Ldd. adequate forERI? statuaBaker et a]. 2009).EBP is not identical to. the. be noted that an theinterventicns elected for this application effort poOssessufflcienr fmpact 10 qualify as 1iI.of the d qu. each of the other examinations" the research evidence for function-based interventions for students wHhEHD (Lane et al.way it had in the past.estiOii:S addressed will require occasion a] revisiting to ensnre fhat previously established knowledge sUU applies in the same. of research rigor andpromoting better ~n~e:rveF"in]OIII practieesiu a timelymanner.. KeUerHI1L~GeUer~Apichatabutra. Thus) the determination that the intervention is an . The second is Uta t the standards themselves may need ad] ustment.1. Two things are clear from these efforts.~tld.'u. and for repeated reading interventions for students with LD (Chard et <11. determinatien that the intervention is mrely to produce positive outcomes.) as condttions in society eontinne to change.. {2JCl09) etermined the research basein support of d time delay procedures for literacymsrrucnon wiJh individuals who have severe developmemal d:i£l~biJ]ties10 IDe." .. (2 009} found tll.~11Lother words. BRIGHAM teaching writing (Baker. The evaluation of five topics in special education. support of self-regulated strategy develcpntent to be sufficient for making it an ERI> as well 1111.es (Rrowdet~ Ahlgrim-Delzell. 2(09).DE[iUCK~.e research ]IIJ. & Doa bler. &: Baker. Further efforts will beneeded to determine the optimal mix. 2.

S. The researchin each of the areas includedinthe report mm. in the special education data base.ta~]veidea:swHI continue to inttuence determination ofE-BP moreheavily tban will other kinds of research ..in. and teachers were encouraged to empl.e. RESPONSIBLE PRACTICE IN THE ABSENCE OF CO'MP'LETE KNOWLEDGE Bfforts to determine EBP fCH special educators areclearly warranted and also exceptionally dlfflcult to cnny out Otl. Lloyd..e of the major problems isflnding s.egb\buiot!J.. & Brigham. we can make some tentative steps toward using techniques that are likely [0 attain EBP status an some point in the future. it islikely th:l]t qr~~mti. Neverth. that started much of the: EE. Teachers andprogram admlnlstrators could probably evaluatethe quality of [heir programs by the number of examples of each category of finding they em.e]ess.13 both. (he adequacy of [he research base and the :i11l]!)1!I!C[ of theintervention under consideration.~]typrograms and excellence in professional practice .. One way of judging probable EltlPs is by examining the meta-analytic liUratu. Solong as the evaluation of this kindof research dam remains more developed.tbere ]8 insufficient research to guide j . strong effect sizeaanda void those with weak effect sizes. It makes sense that the EBP deternl~n<1t]ons should be heavily inffuenced by qaantitative research.re tofind studies that are associated with thelargest effect sizes.hjgh.cl[lhy in establishing EBPac:oording to the stringent standards that theseriousness of our enterprise warrants.~].uffident numbers of well-planned and executed studies to populate our decisieupeucedure.S possessing strong. Pindings were ranked aJ. treatments asscciated with strong effectsin 1998 continue W yield strong effects in S ubsequem research). 2(00). Quantitative research in education is more developed than other forms of researeb. and Kavale (1998) summarized. the metricsinvolved in quantirative reseerch lend themselves to scale and rubric-making so that evaluations of tbe research base can be carried out in a relatively straighttorwardmanner. Despite the diffi. AddidomaUy. the l"elSUUS remain important.gstrOlllg treatments should be the hallmark of . medium.-ql[1. Ironically summative assessnrent.3!10S roughly on the same trajectory (i. the hallmark of rhe NCLB ~. the Flndlngs of l8n1eta-allIJJj~yf>e. or weak effect sizes.oy those with.p]oy or avoid" Avoiding weal: treatments and plIF~u. of techniques. Despite the age of this paper. Forness. efforts jn educatien would not be considered an EE·P aCt:olf(Hng to currentunderstandings of ESP I(Bligh~u[l~Tochtermau.

the Current Practice Alert series C 'Current Practice Alerts)" n. to improve o.es of behavioral and cognitive psychology seems [0 be a good place to..e must still make decisions about what (. special education just as it does ]1:i. line: wUhEBP. JJ".t are outside of the findings 00:1" cognitive psychology. in the gaps. rhe a senoe 0. sWJ ~arge~yunrealized step in the rigbt direction. and to.l.14 FRE.DE[iUCK~.j deep 'iJlllde'r~talll. [hey are probably engagingin activities that are likely to be EBPs.m. ]lOW e .in the gaps" according to sound educational principles.or. When educatorsact in accordance with the principles of their discipline and employ techniques that am inline with the most effective approachesavailable. Brigham et at (20M) suggested that professionals were responsible to B'.d..l..g~..~. to Incorporate [hem into practice in. nile principles that Willingham describes are more likely to be' in line wlth Elll's than are: ideas tEUI.'t' . Also..]1o. oomp. We have much eh(]t we can do. rrronitor vthe professional literature (an admittedly daunting task) for new developments and. in.euiJ summary of the Iarger ideas of cognitive psychology that could be useful in screening treatments wBU. Engaging In powerful treatments that are based on sound theoretical prinei ples from cognitive and behavioralpsychology and tbat yieldreliable outcomearemains amajor and. start.·h· .P is.L medicine and other areas of professional practice where HI3. Kauffman and Brigham (200.A fkmunder8tandimg of tJileprindpl.on while awaiting the results of E~Bf determinations..gham (2009) provided a gen. .uca .e:i. Suggestions that are in line: with.. e e . d absen . Sl!. Clinical judgment willremain a [part: of professional practiee in.1iI. BRIGHAM that edncators vmusr vneake. ill knowledae..ggest~. efforts with EBP.di..il'I. Although EBP~ arenot yet in place for special education 011 a wide scale.ge~e .Sii. Similarly. however) seem to have difficulty discerning the differencesbetween well-established principles and fads and philosophical statements. of strong pireparati. . Educators.al1r. WHlin.s . Brigham.urprofe.Fschools and classrooms.e.ons that are in linewith the peinciples outlined by Kauffman and Brigham are liJ:::ely IJO be.e: and experience. ."eat deal of guidance for practi tioners who wish to al(g:n their own.g of ~he p:dmdples of rhe d]seipl:iii..9) provided ageneral overvfew ofappficarion of behavioral prindple:s~o working with chUdren and you'l:hswhopltesent behavior managementissues. there clearly is much about professioual practice that can be improved so that the arrival of EHP recommendations will not be so jarring to m8!uy of .L~ . Gusrashaw. a timelymaoner. d. ..oUF practitioners .()ii. (2004)·· t.. and f "t F]g.0 do in tll. '·I]JI. guiding force. Clinical judgment is based O~1J the union. edu every decision carry out the extant research..) produced by the CClUflCU forExceptional Children's Division for Learning Disabilities and the Division for Research provide a.

M" & La!l.Baker.u. 2613.ly.D ..mpOtHilIlt8]]1the simp~e'r modelsto gcnenne and evaluatecomplex theories and to examinethe extentto whk. E.W.ffiSS of the science. K!eu.1 ChiMreJi. Teaching writ~[lg 1:0f1H~st studenrs: The' quality of evidence for self-regulated str.Mer.. R" Kling~er. GlL5ta~lmw.. C.1tabih.s[rate the.l~~tm. Tanken>ley.. ]. the ideas ofuntemal andextemal validity apply to thesemorecomplexmodels as well as to the simplerapproach employed here to mU. tendons.[d. M. & .rn~l1g disa bHl. D..h the~~ variables mediate or influeneethe 'talfg. loul'1!aloj ]:_gm'.. 71(2).uth emotional and behavioral disorders and! theur teachers in tmlt-link.~yposition. Pap.1{/.. RnmtJinge!'. and joints. M. It G..cy to students with severe developnaenta]l dLs:abilities.• Ahlgrim-Detzel]. pm!J. There are more complex models of analysis (e. of Ap~p'roveclPrivare $c:llOols.u::ti.PU~. iEviJ£1l0G>-:basGdllnllctlcel> in spaeial 'OO!lK~lIhol:l:State of the art.iuli1l.nll..'f!pli01. .. ~md according to some... e n Brigham. Practitioners have stated that having students stand up when U]eyheaf an example of justice and.. Tcehrermaa.r.(109)_ Delenni!Ji!]g ev:i.i. J" KeUef~itl~Ge:~lef.dCMkJnm. (lJ'gwl:1i?1!l" i~lsdl1}k. 200-206. REFERENCES Abelson.erpuesentecl i'H~he a~~ua~meedtlg of the MasSfLCh. 303. M_ K.atHs of tl:le evidence.~ of "dvo~o!q in S.ces if) $reda~ educatlen. 430).4.• Chaw. K.e'rl~I~-Geneii. (20M}. &.P.peciOiii dllC1ltk~~].. N. <oJ m:cm. 16{ 1).{lntsW'. 1~'5--201. P.g... Cook.arlborough.. r. weigl~t. A more parsimonious explanation is that the adivity encouraged the 8t:lIde!. Brow-de!t". E_. 2. :!iys~em. 75(3). M" & Rk~]a. l'. F.Edl.343. T. S.I'llu:lpleJ.F" J" (2009).lli~s~oP~]Yattention and prevented.oo.~ 9--27. p.' &: IEkig. Associates. N]: lawrell~ H Edballm Baker. 7)(3). C. E_ (2iQOO).. [:t. or movement of the muscles.gh. Jim~ne7:. S~.. & Y~Myke c . ArsS(!:JiSfIUtm lor E:fTel:thre lmerwmtioll. prevalence of ev1deiI1Qe!--i:t.~dlson..de!r!oe~oosed p. theirminds from wandering too fat during the lessen.ion of these models is beyond the scope of this chapter.al Chile/rei!. 11.D.). Spoo'~.er.Q~alinative Brit~.. Re:peated!refldiifi..et variable. studies in spacial education. How this sense oo]1veys~he meaning of abstract concepts isillioonceivable..i. (2.P" (20(lO). concept. . 365_ Burns.. S. J.g interventions for students wutYI le3.ll.L. structural equationmodeling) that allowresearchers toinclude manyef the elements that <Ire' classified as errol!' oo." DN. & Doebler. Stalhtlcsas Publishers.C'tltio~l.Excepti(mai ChiM~'m.15 NOTES .37(3). J_...I:ies: S~.. (2005}.ls-ed inst!'uct~onal practicesm special {lclucatiO'!L Journal of Sj}{u:itd . R. C" &. Mim:s. S. HI. R" Ap'lchatf~butra.ll(ieU:s Association Br. 3-~ L C~£I. (21)004). the body's posifion ill space. Discllss.!#f':(gi~(IhJ'IWes. V. L. E~n.~. 75(3). MA.. Us:ung time delay to leach I!~-eil:a. J". J. Apicbminutra. E~r:()eptim. L. s. .l. K . Additkmally.. Kinesthesia is the sense that detects bo(].. (200:9).5(3.Sde!'!ti~c practice and t~e uaditio..p" (1(95). .}tegy deveiolm1ent. F J. Baker. 7. Rdgil1:am..iI.i~down when they hear au example of injustieeis a way of involving kinesthesia in learniog abstract concepts. s. :ReIKI!'too. (20M}. Ex:c1tpNonai Chi(dreJ~.Iild. Except iOJ1. S.drum.Jl. .

c('mducliJlg.Oliit~gt1le..E.~al1a~i(l1I]. use 0:1' E. MahwiLh.coodr. TlliQUSf~ml O!l. E~"r. JL A" (2. A.&.'d U:ll:iversit..[{. A. s~:!!illle-slJJlbjoctresG\l!l.. G"Camilli & p_RE~L'mJre (Eds). (20015). L. {::!OOn.lhods JOf dill teal and appited SeuiJlgs.se<Ji:rchCo.• Odom..liOcl({/ sd(~n(:.h. KauffLl[I1.. JflJCObSOIi.5) . C.. K. R" & SheI)Ca. Kno1i'ii~g lf/H. WL Full Ior uasi-experimeeral researeh CcurtPrsss.. Nll: Princeton U~Jive. Cmn:umIHe€ on Scientific Pr. R. H'iJ-I. (2009).:rnUXldl prac:hcein special education.'.~clbrg !trw!' wui bios irl re~'~ar-dijll1(.. D .d ed.research designs: Me. . Methods OII~[H!UHllu~'}':!ik CO..fol. .1 W" (JOOill)" .rch(pp.Iu. Mm"cd dadiJI: A . &: Lyon.gr.up:{jWW\¥ . M" . National rt~~eill\C~ Couucll.'a.I:. R.iil..l Chiltb'i2:ft.p. 3-1. M.3S."'.II.y Ptess. K. Kmocl.i'9" Hunter. Horner.M. 1. (l9K:!). and setesce illp~'ofe8M'Onal /JnJctice. W" fun. (2005).'iwen.12. S. PJ'{[(. 8.. qualirative I)e... Publishers. MaxweJ~. J. D" C()~lie-.C. liaUe. In: J_ L G11rel].Ma. NJ: Lawrence Brlbaum Assoeiaes.303-55)" Ne-w Y ol'k: n'i.I~.n_ Washingl'O'I1I.)" Work/fIg ~1rUl! ti'oubie. Francis. J.lt2} Scir?ntiflc research in etfu.). str~tegy instruction and mathemaricalproblem solv.34(3)1.fe.. J. It. [-I" C!i1.~n::lr: An ili·f{~gN#t!(i (lj)fJf(J(Jcl1 (211d ed.li'lliC:f'iS.B] 871B1 IFletc~el'. Mahwah.art!f(J kmJw.).ro. from . Kavale. S.:1i). Mel/Jads of ~dr. M01"!'is.M... t/. .11. HrlgJ. 3J(4).rch to idl1u6f:y evidsnca .GMleRiver. A. (20(J~'). Long Grove.im::lples for Educafien Research.l!lIlu:i~{llS).atin:g qJumtilatiwz am:l qltcdiw'~'Il(~1'i~JJ'tjan::1r {3r. R. amJ (!l!wJu.. EV8Jl~athag the ·(. NJ: Lawrence J Er~~:nmmAssoeiates. Excepti'mwl Childre.design of e.t! l'eSft(. 11.1.. ]rnrn()ceiilJi.M .widleliceb~.luli ChiMriJIJ.. Slngle"('(J.Ural m!tuNmal)l:1tl:. J..' Critical . 2&5.q~lliry in education.. L S.F J_ POrD9.506-5. G. J_ M" . D.& ~ScbJmkU.DC: National Academy Press" Neiman. NI] ~iPearw['ijrM:er~I1 Preli.eptiQ..le. Grce[lwood. {200:5).h\'i':ah. TiM setence (l~d .IL J" & Towne. 19'$-:2(10. JOl~n1al!Jf CHrtfml Child &: A.~cali(JJlaf end .~'I. DC: Nllt:. J. .Erhlcatio.)l. cA. S~. Thousand O".a ed.~. Lloyd.due-mfofwl essessmens..L'sity Press.e. &. R.L (200. IL: Wavekmd P1'e.. ..~sl1.' CIfJ~f.se for ({)gmJ:lt~.HcmdlNmk of comp/tm'[{tnlflfJ' mr?. S.~:ellH]'~Ogy and educational research.atfo1J.I:nd seientific il1l.b~l~. R.ing.MMl:~gto~l.). J . M. :S. & Forness.dil]g middle and high schools.& M-1I1ick.lii::s. C:(jnlfD'"It!f:l>i[lt lliempitJ's/or d~~''eivpm!t1Uaf disabilWes: 1'(1(.O'rdenl lIUelil. R (2004. (W9. M . The..cati'o. Princeton. . ..DE[iUCK~. 75(3).cf[l'i?id = DEA 7&64A-C09F1D6F"F9~O:BABf5...]lIm. Causal exp..ge [1).lOmll Academy PressNational Re..d. Arilexamluariou of~hle evidence base for function-based interventionefer students with ernotionel lIud!O'r behavioral dis. . A. (2U05}.~'{1.• &: Wo~enl.tiflgl> (21i..l!p icll?tili:Jd:!i (Rev.. 09~K~). G. S.(j. f . K....16 FRE.sl~ftm.. 33(2}. S..(J. D.IL Vemna...'i!{. KeJly...em.004). Publisi1ers.ttce Hall CWir. [l. Publicarions. ImrtF~\rtn:{t()n in Schooi' . 32L Lipsey.. W" &Wilsol!l. L.M.k:!:" CA: :Sage Publications."N. &.runt Prae. G" J_ pOrno)" IEph.t!jQ!.rhmJ~ ill INluca:tiall !yz. Lane..t!tt!m!1im~' of dia:gJwsis ami classf)ic.mJ.). EvhienCoe" 00 sed assessment ofIeaening disabfiltielOin children a1!i1ddolescents. Tht! mmm:! of leanling clis-abilities.E. . NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assecates. 71(2). &. Dietz. W" Foruess. Upper Sa.do.BRIGHAM Cre..'llnt a Ps>!~hQJ()gy. Gersten. L (20f. Exceptimw. (20m). . 75(J}. W. Kalberg.J.·Compt{)l. grvH?I'J. ed. McGee" G . 7 1(2» 149-~ 64..d childre.searcc~.). Exceptional Chitdre1~. QtUfllity indiearera ~roUp c:xpoeritne:tU$LI8JndI q :un:lspecifll education. Ed!~calirmal Researcher.. Krarhwchl..s (n. (2009). P!lIlilti5hers.l~lce Aler~.dd. Some lfJJed~(l(:h"a~'e more effective than others.aJ easaarci«: Plarmi1~.t Jt:u. Sha\'elscm..

&. G. J. P.n .B.It. WuUlmigh<lm". R . Elmore {Eels)I. Fr. L. New Y (irk: MoGr. s E.17 No Ch~. ].r. New Y ork: Guilford Pruss.s. (1987).~iti. 71(2).s.. (a.h]miIl~s" Ott c.wrenC'e El'lbaum Assodm:es. (2D05).ight:-lxrs.I.1& 1-1.. B_ Rurherford. SCfl!!lggs. Greea. 14-3:'t SluuJ!sl]. from hHp:/1dww. {2(05)< Evaluating Ult': qJmllity of evidence from conelahm!lal. P <. 71(1).T. M.rol'a/ disorda. Thompson. Behul. Ger...Hofilcr.(er-wwr!. M..a!idaluon. (21]00). O:mk. ]mi~ R. Tawney.u~.. W" & Gast. '['he CJ!ua!Hi~a. de.s" K.\tlludd.L.signs/vJ' s: Cam.. O(lom.Bet. 8{2}. R..ge:r" B.lfeooa:rr:I] fOJ' evid(lllce. Offit.tiveymhesis ofs~:!JIgLe~subj:ec~ s research: Melhm~o~iDID'and. B...fdde W Nlftd()~lizmi(J'n tests.thli. New York G~MJordPru~.pbell. (2008).h (3f. M.im. Del}<!l·tmel1t. I l:iCmt/lmaK.lu2t<~.D. B." T~. R {1004}.n: J . R. P:'J'r:hamel'ri(' IhooJJI {3rd ed.fe(ll'chf{)!' 1Icunf. (2006).iR".& ... &.(}(}n'J'.. .cepUonat Chlkb'i.: {[llil qJ1. N iHti'ifiUy. H. (I ~94).m. J. J. O~'3~.. & fliirti. (20[16).b<l56dprad:ice.'(. N~.(fl g.W.rdraVli(wai sWti!>Ur:~: An iru..vYork: Columbu11.t<liB.lIm::uooQ~ JosseY'·Ba&·L San .. L.n. C" . M. D< T< (2!flfJ!2)" EJr. D.~ [Ja(/sdem:e. ~f (. 8-'9. PlIb]isher:s. £d~lcaU(m !'Veek. K.P_ A (2008)< AutJ'gm'gjid..)..'\i. Hwr.flt~.~l1lCr. A" &.Expgrifl1flemihl~.137.. "One stJop" research s~op seen as slewte y]e:~d views ~ha~ educators canuse.~ aoora lw'W the: mi~Jdn'ol'k=~ m~d 1. Snyder.E. L.(l:rr:ptm'lf:1emal gr:mer-ali:J<fui calis-al ir.ed. D< "f.Rf!me:tii<ll &. NJ: b.•md If~'(t. x. Cf]m. Fo!(rf. H()..e[lts. Snydler.rd bdull. Wh}l dOil" SUjy{ems rjke schoof?'A C()gl.{tatimlL~oj f. Doillg wiaa~ works. Mahwah_. J. Meuill P~Misllin.l!b:ir!a l'rJsfdc!f't'h i1~ £Pfddc~t fddlieatf[)I~'. R . Research ~~~peci"l OOl!lll. Thompson. QUil1:11I & S .~o'vli:lldex. BI1l!dley.E. . N§: lawre~1ce Brlbaom A!Js(lcia~e.. McWiIlU1I1l1.dtJuok of m~e:arch iIi cmotirm~JI w.. Singl>t! .D-> & Hl!Iff.p..g Cm:n~lliJy. S. 5116-.oitJJPson.1(! scif!IJ:tisl an. Sci1o(.~r (lE(J!s).~dIAct of WfH § 20 USC § 631. S.1iflflli{ n'!e.Exr:eplif)lwf C/JlictMfl. M. 193-205}. US.p!Hlmemai Ho£w~. Diamond.UI]iversity Press.~:lW~~~lin. A •.om:pJ'elJ:U!rJU~I'JImelhml:s irl(!(/ucCltiml J'f:!Jfear-(.13.s (pp..R.}.566). W" R. 94" Todmaa. Publishers. Mahwnh.d ed" pp.~Sf.m~~fol' )lour d:C/.).T.M Left..." M<lsn'Qipiel'i... Special Edm:wiml..'&.c.ghton Mifflin. lDes:ign e:>:per.ll'~m]: Scie4ltific methods and evidence-based praetlees.. E.~. G.~ky I'tledicille. Hrnn. Casto. DUgolN. Vi"dero. Yen. qUI?"Ul()JI.ed approach. C(J. 26(5). Sil~gl~HXJiSe (met'small"nexperjm(!'~tcd J:estgns: A! pmc{:i('. B<.9. . research desigmi~in Him stl!ldy of chuldren and yml~h vdth emotional andbehavieral disorders. (2001). "l. R (2006.~p~'Op.c:fm Van Acker.~i.s.nstdii.).s. of Education..d.


\h].r~l1lrtlssue. Kliugner. 2.OTHER METHODS OF SEEKING KNO'WLEDGE Julia B. & Richardson.ll[ilne iUl.00:8. themethodology is chosen .l!lI Re.of special education that have used qualitative methodology are summarized.ll~friiglu ·20'1.OS:jSO(l"l'0-4013(2QIOi~(lOO(l2(1005 ll1il. 'Je-a:tfu<:F PtrreplllmtiClim 19 .e research question that 'O!Jr. future value of qualitative research in the field of special education.f:aJh:~GrolllPl~u'blis!lli~~ UllIDi~~d Anr.0 boy IDntIe. A. Several research studies in the ReM. Stoner Qualitative research has been used in the field of education for decades and has made significant contributions to the specificarea of special education (Brantlinger.li.s-ear<:b beg]l]. This chapter is organized to provide a bask description of qualitative research and.LIT ATIVERESEARCH The rese~rcll question must be well articulatedand specific. 2. and their contributions are h]gh]jglated.00'7). a discussion of the essential components for providing quality in qualitative research studies. tilllil: R~~em'()llI.Thus.{. Temnllil]QJg}'.&. Torul]. Once the research question ]S . CHOOSING 'QUA.deip.s and Trends in Sped3~Edlil.~~n~dI ~SS:N: 'O(li'O. Jimenez.J(l13/~o~: 1O. 19--39 Co.gs to be answered. established.. .. . 2005~ McDuffie . ]I is th.~j!d fhe current and.igl~m . Vo.CHAPTER 2 QUALITA'TIVE RESEARCH IN EDU'CATION: .~e:$ti01'l that be.S:crug:gs~ M~s~lfopie'[~i.Pugach. it is necessary to havea fouudationalunderstandiug of the nature and concepteal framework of qualitative methodology.oil':rel!:JIodiuc:tian i]l lin)! f\1rmre.& SCHlggS. McDuffie.s with ~ ql.<Wv~uu:~sI:il Sp~laJl EdwcilJI:io:iii.

public schools .e. qualitative research is '<a systematic approach to understanding .Qns. then qualitative methodology would be used.oes the term "qualitative research" mean? Several terms. 196).tnl. 2008).2. inquiry. large group of'individuals.. The underlying theme..jwo studies (B<1Hey~ Parette. is that qiL]a~~tat]ve methods seek to understand a phenomenon that individuals have experienced . if one wants to broaden and enhance understa nding and to fully and de. Stoner e~ 211. whkfu often. 1998)..any researchers (i. Lincoln & Guba.e effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PEeS) for adults with Intellectual disabilities. the field of education was multifaceted andincluded {a) comprehensive understanding of participants' uniqueexperiences (Strauss & Corbin.. and Cipko (2008) reponed on preservice teacherartftudes about teacbing students withJearning disabilities (LD) " However. Essentially. many merhodolcgieshave been usedto answer research questi. 2 006:a.ces (Strau.. & Angell. then. the field of special education. & Carroll.hJJ.vidual education plan {rEP)~eams and perspectives of familymembers regarding augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) use in. 201)61b)deseribed the perspectives of members of hldi. single subject design to determine tll. Appreximately 30 years ago) qualitative methedolegy in education emerged as a means to study and focus om. (2006c) used <11. (b) identified barriers and facilitators to AAC device use. quantita tfve research may be used .alternative to q uantitative a pproaehes. case studies.. For example.gtile meanings participamlS@J.. 200'5~ p. regardless of the terrninolcgy used. Bailey Stoner ~ Parerte.e'ply comprehend the perspectives of fndividuals. ]I)08)~ and I j determines (c} hrves~]ga~Ln. find (c) provided strategies for effective use of AAC devices .' are synonymcusly used with qualitative research (IBrandil!J.geret al. Quasi-experimenral methodology may be the appropriatemethodology for determining the erfeetiveoess of intervention witha group of students.0 jUlIA R STONER the method()~. 1'985)called for am. The findings of these studies (a) offered indepth understanding of the process of 0btainlng AAC devices.. for students at risk was cenducted byWoodwaFd and Brown (2006) using quasi-experimental research . Angell.. participants themselves (Creswell. through the use of qualitative methodology. the rationale for the use of qualitative methodology in.[1"' the research questioncenters onattltudes or opinions of fl.Welsh. For example. So what eKacdy d. and field studies. According to Branthnger et at (2005).ogy. ethnography.ss & Corbin. Haeg]e Hill. (b) describing the setting in which their experiences occurred (Creswell. M.Brown. The effectiveness of twomath curricula . Stoner. such as "naturalistic. employed a[Hl]daJ~~experimental envirenmeuts that were (iiS$]mjl·a:r to p~'l:rti!ci'pa]jts' lived experiences. 19981.bilHed to tl~eir expe:!J"i:e(i!J.

case is am individual) group" classroom.II.Uy~IS. 1995) that is bounded.Butera (][)()'5) used a cage study and collected data through.. events. ethnography. discourse analysis.vestig:ani(:m of a case. [flat these deseriptions do tim provide guidance em how to conduct thesetypes of studies. and. terms of "time. 196). mEf') reviews to describe team collaboration with fi!. collective cage study approach. wUtdl1l aparticular " (p.1.". and. occur CIvet many sites. The types include case sttudy (both S]r!J. however. (0) use many individuels. d context TYPES OF 'QUALITATIVERESEA. or somephysical boundaries" (Creswell.. studies). in-depthunderstanding of the cage. . field observations.~ . the case study" grounded. and documentation {Stake. or the essentialnature of a phenomenon. phenomenology. or school . 2. interviews. i[ should he noted.h iaimportant to understand that cases Oal11 be individuals. 4~year~old child in. and. 476). of special education (McDuffie & Scruggs" 2008}. actionresearch. object of study (Stake. 2008~ p. Using .g~e case studies and collective case. place. ethnographic content analysis (for a complete degc:d'pl~.gml!Jltipl~e data collection methods.a. observations. Horn.1J.. ccnversaticnal analysis.on. 2000).ed" the: researcher investigates them il]~depth~~ypk. . programs.f.qualities. However.Pnreejl.1I]~eir (2007) investigatedineluslne of students with disabi lities ]nlive preschool prognlms. Once cases are clearly deilt!J. Collective case studies (a} involve multiple cases. and gathered data through interviews aud focus groups.sintervlew:s.RCH There are several types of qualitative research.g. narrative research. . (b) cam. West Virgini. or separated for research in. J _ .l1. such a. The conceptual framework for case studies ]S that by gathering in-deptbinformation about a case. theory." This df::fin~J]o[] ominates the premise of this chapter. which call be d~e:fined'1Sall entity or an. schools.). the researcher wi]] achieve: am.0(5). and ethnograpbyhave been the types that have been used the IIJOIQst in the field. classrooms or groups. document (e.~' Case studies involve thei. Case Studie.of the various types of quaJ]tfl![iver€seard1L. _. whether [hal. grounded theory.]i:!J. and Pa.) see Hm]11t~ingere~ at. Following are brief descriptions of' each of these three types {If qualitative research.

provide understanding of the group's behavior and beliefs.::]ctirO~]j or ]IlJ. 2008).UIi approach that allows the researcheeto develop or discover a theory based on rhe study of a phenomenon and was originally articulated by Strauss and Corbit] (1'9'98). documents. structure. These researchers developed fIJ procedure [h101l. Klingner.One approach [0 conducting a grounded theory studyis continually retnrnfng to the.22 Grounded Theory jUlIA R STONER Grounded theory is . The conceptual framework ofethnographies is that immersion into the culture of the group will allow the researcher to view Hie: world from the group's perspective.edin the data" When using grounded theory. and.:'I!cl.43:5) focuses on a group's culture..]mgabout g[O'~UPS of peop~e" (Creswell. interviews.. and than view will.. 2008.( conformed no "basic scientific tenets andprinciples' [Shank.. This type of research focuses on buildiog a record of the behavior and beliefs of a group over time (gee Creswell. 21I)OO')" A grounded theory ~ppro~ch was used by Bays and Crockett (20007) to investigate instructionalleadership for special education m elementary schools. and functioning (McDuffl!e & Scruggs. and records). For example.ing: experiences of participants. .ta. interviews. 200'6). investigating similarlties and differences. find documents.Ethnography that "Hte:n'aUy means w:n'[t.terac~]onamongparticipants thatwas gronnd. Harry. the researcher purposefully (a) choosesparticipants who have experienced the phenomenon being studied.This conceptual framework allows voices of participants to emerge. Han (2005) published an ethnographic study of African American students in special education in a eulturally diverse urban SCllOO] district. The reseercher becomes immersed in the group I:Q understand Ita inner workings. p. Ethnographies require tbat thefesearcber participate. focusing on the interrelatienships among emerging themes (OKnmaz.. 2006) while allowing eno ugh flexibility for the: researcher to develop a theory that explained a ]In)ceS. either as an observe]" or active participant. 2008). andjc) . Data is typically gathered through cbservariens. data and compa:r.. (b) analyzes the data (i. and.e. requires that there:searche:r idcntifymajor themes or OOI]OOpts from participant d:fl.Sj.. and provides an avenue to develop a theory from participant perspectives .:'ippt(). over aco~1JS]delfable~etligth 'of time with the groupunder study (Shank.'iJes phenomenon under study without preconceived the notions .. Bthnographies are in-depth @!na]ysisof social groups.

. 20(6)" In terviews. can be obtained from various fonns that mayinclude in terviews. conversations among participants. IN QUAIJ. HI. For examplev when investigating trust between parents of child ren . A thorough qualitative studywill use many forms of data. data ]:15.nts? Choosing patddpalius is the flrst step. not only for analysis but also for confirmation of the findings . and documents &[\ethemost eommou type of data collected.e findings clearly. the baslc objective off all three types of qualitative research describedabove is ~o understaruL Uudetstandingmust be comprehensive.S. observations. = CO'L~LECTING DA. Researchers must choose.. de~uiled information call! be gathered (Creswell. III qualitative research. (b) analyze the data systemaricajly. The researcher aims to 'cl}oo!le participants from whom rich.0 (a) collect enough data to adequately represent participants' views. and Shelden (2009') beganinterviews with the request.. . or semi-structured and typically ]11 volve asking broad questions . deep. To accomplish this. .' This allowed p~n~cipan1S W guide the researchers and explaiu their perspective ofHlIe phenomenon under studywhile providing an opportunity for the researchers to probe emerging ..S a strong obligation to allow voices of participants to be heard clearly. which shup]y means chaosing participants who l't~tved]rec~:~y experienced the phenomenen in questinu. (d) <lind report tlil. participants who have experienced the ph.TA. Angel I) Stoner. "Tellme about " your roelat]otlsh:ip with edueationprofessionals. Qualitative researchers typica]ly use purposeful sampling..Overall.TATIVE RESEARCH So how does the researcher gain the perspective of the Pl(l~"tidp(]. 20(8).(c) confirm that = .e:l:!io:~lrl.€: thorough .. Datta. field observatious.. and aocurate]y portray participant's perspectives so that their voices can be heard ."vitll. . questionuaires. These are explahredin the following sections. di. Interviews can be unstructured. open-ended questions 011. researcher strives (.Data collection requires a substantial amount of ~ime because ]1 is nsually collected over a pw[onged period (Shank.s~biUties and education prcfessionals.The qualitative researcher lJUI. docume~1Jt. ..e!noti that isbeing studied. participants weretruthfu]. or even pictorial documents. the substance from which the researcher gains understanding of [he phenomenon under study.

p<l.) probefor other information and related to rhe phenornenon under investigation. this can beabenefit to the participant. stated that "there isa positiveimpact on the person who is being listened to' attentively' (p. O'Brian. Stoner. Appe].'l~]On that was previously provided. Interviews can be conductedindividuajly OI within focus groups. discussing participajionin qualitative studies.11 [lie participan t shares.S between eooperating reachers and prescrvice teachers to gain a more comprehensive view of the' relationship . mf the interview is done well.rtidp~nl may occur until the researcher determines that no new fnfarmatien is forthcoming. when conducted ethically and thoroughly. and Gresens (2<007) used observations of confe]'enc€. the president at the lime. the interviewerbears a heavy responsibility. from this complex and intimate interaction. Some observations are unstructured with. Completing several Interviews with one participant allows for probing of 1SSIIJeSnd offers [he' opportunity [0 a clarify any ]nfOITJ:iJ. conducted with respect and nonj udgment of whatever vie-Wp011. The interview must be.2. we. such as "You spoke of rroubleln the third grade.) when.. probing whereas focus groups aJJ·~ more efficient ]n gaming multiple views in a shorter period of time. Sociological Society) Barbara Heyl (]. of the m08TI p owerful ways to understand another person's perspective (Fontana & Frey. "The participan t has a chance to tell hi~1 her story. The researcher m1J1S[ be respectful and trustworthy because participants are allowing the researcher to essentially enter their lives and trust that the: info rmatio 111 '~hey provide will be valued.4 jUlIA R STONER issues with follow-up questions. Interviewing effectively requi res. as well as get the chance [0 help others who are experiencing or willbe experiencing the phenomenon in question. thei~'i!tet'\. l Observations am another form of data and! can takemany forms.997). Individual i. 2J[](D0). the researcher attempting to di8nliPl: the environment as little . Interviewinghas been described as one.2008). I. the ability [0 ]]st!en remember Important r€:spOFl:'il€:S. he/she can deepen legitimacy ·01' vie-ws. Thus.rticip<)iit and yield an in-depth understanding that is the basic premise of qualitative research. can you explain that 110 me?" Several interviews wi. Yet. In an addressto the American. contend that-the researcher has reached saturation of the data ~C:rreswe]]. When this OCC1!l:rs.i]ew can connect fhetese<)]'che:rwifh the pa.]]~·en(~ewsllow a more comprehensive questioning and. Dnringthis process.1]$ possible.th each.

expanding. Field nores.. Other observations may require Hie researcher 10 partieipate within [he environment or group activity to' gain the pa[t. meaning that the researcher ]:8.k.is begins. eliminate t[ansc[]p~i()r!l time and costs. 2JOt)8.I1i. deleting. per'So. Goding data) Identifying themes or categories ]S collected . Documents are considereda form of d. an observer.:fI:r. or posts on a LIS ISERV. However. the researchermay become a participant of the group after a certain period of time.e textreco]"d~oo by the ]"e8e<l]"cher~:fI:r. likeinterviews. see Table 1. or reports from consultants. distant fromthe group ersetting and. Returning to' the dara allows the researcher to reinvestigate the data that m8!Y lead. participants ANALYZING Once data DATA IN QUALITAT. Or. or documents can be coded using this procedure .es categories. do not allow the researcher to probe for any informationueeded to clarify what is presented. are completed to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon under study. whkh.~] ~ene""'.1!Ifl!alY8. observations may begin wit1~the researcher as.IVE RESEARCH Ham analysis Is a recursive process.~p'ltl!t perspective.ocumentsma y bei]lcomp lete and. Line-by-line coding is a process where or each Jineor complete thought of the participanr'sInterview transcript ]8. These are "public or private records that qualitative researchers obtain about a site or parti(.preservice teachers. Interview transeriptsctield 11. the primary purpose of observaricns is to gain information firsthand. .~pm]ts in a study" (CIleswell. for an example. mEPs. J'l1!ed[ca~ reports. Regardless of the form.UOh~l:t. d. and may be written by the tbeu(I selves.e frequently taken either dnrhlg er Immediately fonowing the cbservatien. Documents can abo bepublic such as minutes of a Sdl00J board meeting. The advantage of using documents is that they are typically readily available. newspaper articles. j and returning to thedata. coded. and its effect 0111. of Iinc-by-line coding. W merging.~ta ill qualitative research.0 res. Observations.€!I11. p" 2] 9)" Documeots can include perso]l@l!:toords S. or refining of the tJ'I.

ghtillg fol" services what you wanted to accomplish..g...lnn. [ hope ~11a~~he. progress worry I.] ~U this ~).cUill!! St. grounded theory) and ethnography) determines how the themes are presented... but numerous resources 0]1 coding data are available. . deleting.. cJ.~ff~ A[!d t~e scJwol has ~udget. relationships among the themes build the: theory. Occasionally..1Jergi.mff).y set but undergo refinement byurergin .2£~ JUlIA R STONER Line-by-Line Coding and whe!1. mayormay not be discussed. In grounded theory. . his beyond the soope of this chapter to speeifieally di~GUSS qualitative data analysis. bouom line ------' ohligation ~. reeegsiticnof budget firlllHCeS Arid FOIL just ~eel Hkefillance~ are the bottom line. expanding. case study.Er' And. these Once all dahl .~. am.yre a (H':[erri!lg too the teachers and.s.]i~d.rv~o.. These categories <'1r€'rlI.-~ . The type of qualitative research that wag used (e.s..m..~er $. or refining .ngthemes OF caregcries. worry advocacy fmstrutioll is coded) it is grouped ]Jl[Q €!rlJ. the data may be descriptive and relationships among the themes.Pen:ewas litt~e !!!.. I g. In ~'JJ ease study or ethnography..

~~I~i- e~r<i ~!J1Hof 1". .rm:tm P"mlltsSfurnraili: L_ ~~------------------------~ relationships are depicted in the fortll) of a gra phic representation or concept map to guide the reader in understanding the theory that has emerged and W1!IS grounded in the participant perspectives.i.p.~]. ex<)tifi.3ps were: Blaska (l998) and Stoner et a].a. Two studies that included ~ ~ concept m. multiple coding.This.. (2{~05). specifieally convey the process !by which... Barbour (20tH) contended that multiple coding requires the "cross checking of coding strategies 1!I!Ild interpretation OF data by independent researchers (p. W clearly and. '~.ili~~il'f. o and this process e:nCOlllfaiges thoroughness in both the analysis and the method description (Barbcur.g. or deletetnajor categoF]e.. One ofthe I110st important tasks of die ~ ~ qualitetive researcher ]:9. The value of using multiple researchers is. l ]]4).~ erthemes.ple of a COi'iCepti:lJ. transparent manner so that the reader bas confidence that the study is thorough ~nd systematic.E1:1~nfi':S w~ih E!!i!!~~r!i!!!:!! p.. expand. the study was completed . researchers meet and di scuss the em.for an .See Fi. Data analysis completed by multiple researchers is known as.l)o:ruslolllllll P~~!Wt PeJ)il~iPti~J15 F'miHII. that it offers aID." Once the codinghas been completed.~. m~i'OdiIm :~ ~ "" CHj.erghig categories and me[ge~ refine. pportunity to-filter the data through multiple viewpoints.II--'. is done in . 20(1).

consisted of their children's n~:ps.All . strong data collectiou methods.off the.IRMAB. Regar(Hess . asparent-made materials used in the classroom and preparation notes for mEP meetings.0[1 their relationships witheducation professionals [Stoner en al. Several qlmHtative researchers have suggested alternative words such as authenticity.Conflrma bility means tl:U1J r the researcher has determined the accuracy or credibility of the findings through specific strategies. which traveled between home and school. terminology used. Bogden &. corroborati ve aO:::'OlHltswere noted and compared between spouses. I . Confirmability > who was achieved when the mother and the father provided the researcher with the S.:esearch is to assure coefinnability of the r dahl . The documentation... ]998. credibslity. Bikleu.[· were interviewed separately. each caseconsisted of a s mother and f!:li. modifications of school work. dependabi ~~~y trus~W(il!'tlri ess. of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASH) regarding their perspectives .Creswel I. In the Stosrer e~ at (2:1)1)5) tudy.of tile approaches Hs'~edearlier were uti]hed to achieve eonfirmahility. Contirmability may also be gathered from different types of data. 2'008~ Leedy & Ormrod.81meinformation during individual interviews.g. andevaluarions. Huherman. RESEARCH Que of the necessiries of q_[Hl!Jitativl. andjnembee checking" For €'xumple.) conside» ~l recent :study that investigated eight parents (four married couplesor cases)... different types of data. all families provided the researcher s with documentation.tl:N~. qualirative researchers mU8TI be concerned wiTI1':I testing and confirming rheirfindings (Miles &. 20(8). Additionall y ~inc·]der1lcesnha~ occurred aCrQ5S· the fOIU cases added further confirmabllity to the findings .jUlIA R STONER OBTAINING CONF. In the Stoner et al. {2JOG 5)tudy. During data analysis. were reviewed for eonfirmingevidence. j Triangulation is the process of conohoratingeviden.. respcnden! validation.ce [1:0[11 different individuals. COi1l:1i1l . used byall participaets.A TIV1E. Differences or discrepancies between married participants or between cases were probed with follow-up interview questions.on approaches to confirmabiliry ale triangulation. Communication notebooks.00]).99:4). and different methods of data collection (Creswelj. ve:ril]!cation' and transferabi ~ity > n (e. such.. such! as speech and language evaluations.. Data was gathered from other available documents. ~:1005). vaJidatioIt.ILITY :IN QUALIT. 2.].

. is collected in informal settings. (b) the researcher saw documentation (e.e partici palnts.ttticipatl[s and explams the Tindings of the study. rEPs. (a) the data. (b) data is seen.and (e) interviews were conducted when. was collected after the participants knew the researcher froma pilot study and parent support group meetings.. into [be tape recorder. (d) interviews occurred in the home Dr a. AU of these procedures were followed in the Stoner et al. using it concept map as a visual representatioe of~l:u. The visual strategy was presented to the researcher.The researchers reviewed the documents by describmg the docmnentsinto anaudiotape.\c!"hen aU participantsare given tbe opportunity to' addauy additional information and validate [be accuracy of the findings.l~"~C:y the study in the areas of descriptions. F orexample. communication notebooks) that comprised the data.:"'JJ gathered from the interviews of tll. 2:(08). specifically. a participant spoke of her use ofa visual strategy forthe morning rourine.1"'. . Confirmation is ach~./ ethods Adhering to rigorous data collection strategiescan strengthen the ciata and thus add to the confirmation of the findings (Miles & Huberman 1994). Including layout and pictures.efi[IJd]llI. andinrerpretations (Creswell.gs.g. the researcher meets with.]t.. all considered informal settings. the study completed.eved. (c) the . setting chosen by the parent. These strategies include {a) data is collected aftee repeated contact. This document added confirmation to the participant's statement that she used visual strategies w]d] her child . Once the dana l8 analyzed and . is a processirl wnich~he researcher asks the participants to checkthe aocl!..8 then transcribed and reviewed for corroborarion with the d. (d) data. (c) behavior is observed. of themes. Respondent validatiou Strong Diala Coilee lion .. and (e) the respondent is alonewith the researcher. the respondent was alone with the researcher. resear-cher observed the beha vior between the parents and the child. (200S) study. all ~be:p<l:'. This description of the doeuments WflJ. who described the visual strategy.

Fig. 1.8. WRITING TH. Qualitative research can shed light 011 issues that noone but those experiencing the phie'g. intricate. 2000).E REPOR'f IN QUALITA 'fIVE RESEARCH Once the themes and their relationships have been.. Am participants confirmed the quotes and granted approvalfor the use of all quotes.e.RING TH:E VO'IClES IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative researchthat is thorough and systematicis labor-intensiee and requires substantial commitment and time. the researcher writes the report One of the difflcuttles with qualirarive research is U'I1!ll the ffinditl!. 20(5).e. the base of special .30 jUlIA R STONER Member eheckingi s utilized to add further confi. At times.. Concept mapping allows the researcher to clearly articulate' the major findings of a study. The researcher c is required ~o make difflculr decisions as to what to report given the limited amount of space ill peer-reviewed journals. However. HEA. numerous. Stoner. House. &: Bock.)._gsan.& Angell." Member checking is UI. in is wen worth die effort. qualitative researchers will guide the reader by using a graphic representation of their Jindings.. present the interrelationships between [he major findings. 2:007.nn2'lbHi. determined.'J!ollD.. An. and represent the linditllg$ in.enon cank now .. the foriil of a graphitntap. the final report. 2006.stUlldingothe:r perspectives and responding effectively to' individual needs is. and substantial. Unde't. (Kinchin & Hay. 20[)O. known asa concept rna p. there is more than one reportgenerated from asingle qualitative study (i. rocess of providing participants the opportunity to p review the material (Janesiek. Prequently. member In s checking was completed by providing all participants witha transcript of their personal quotes that were used in. the Stoner et at (20~)i5) tudy. be complex. Angell. example of the concept map used by Stoner et 31 (20(10::5) is presented in.the [indblg. Stoner .ty to. The concept map is intended toprov]de a means for file researcher to represent the understanding of [be study's topic.Stoner etal.

Individuals with disahiUties often do not have a voice intheir education. the: field of special education. vocational rehabilitation counselors. the articles were chosen to exemplify the range of qualitative methodology and topics . This . there are manyindividuals with disabilities who can speak for themselves and articulate what they desire.s. onindividuals with disabi~i'~]eshas encompassed a wide variety of issues from educational programming to achieving se]fdetenninaticn (KJaSgeFi.. and. stake in. and. school administrators. Far more cC)mm. Klassen and Lynch (2001) conducted foeus group interviews with 28 Grades is and 9 students with LD and '7 interviews with their teachersabout perspectives of the students' se~:f~:ffi. that base and inform education professionals and. strengthen. Tbislist is not exhaustive by any means. and choices are made for them by well-meaning adults. occupational th!erapi. issues withi. and preservioe teachers.cacy. paraprofessionals. stud ywas the third .~ 2007). Itt can be difficult to obtain the voices of some individuals with communication and significant cognitive fmpairrnents. we cam learn fromthoseindividuals with disabilitiesobecause they are the ones who areliving the experience. Qualitative research focusing on the voices of individuals wHh disabilltles islimired . related service personnel such. <1S speech. The following section highlights qualitative research studies that investigated a phenomenon by listening tothe voices of those who have lived the experience. direct poEcy makers.ste:rnjng to the voices ofindividuals with disabilities. The selection of peer-reviewed journal articles was arbitrary.sts (OTs)~ physical therapists (PTs)~ job coaches. both of whom are important and have a valid. Who are the participants in special education and why would the field benefit from healing those voices? Partici pants in special education are numerous and include individuals with disabilities. study was unusual because the authors had previously published two other articles related to the topic of self-detenninatiou. bur ]I does serve 10 exemplify the multifaceted perspectives that cam contribute to the understanding of C€. teacher educators. andlanguage pathologists (SLP. Research. this. Yet.enomenOiJ and. teachers {both general and special educators). that has focused. The following two articles are briefly summarized to provide a clear picture of the value ofU.(ln are qualitative research articles ~h~~ describe the voices (If edueetors and parents. parents of children with disabilitles. yet.rmjj] ph.il the field of special education. Qualitative research can.education..).

(b) students desired praise to boost their confldence whereas teachers indicated opportunities for successful experiences were more beneficial.t:e~heir academic performance. namely. the authors found that students wi. LD had a tendency to overeiSt:i:n(l. (a)~eachelfi~]'te1fVlen~ions. and member checking.cryand perf O1I'm anee w hereas teachers v]ewedthe students as overconfident. Klassen and Lynch provided guidelines I:Q support adolescents with jl. may not be valued by adolescents with LDb~cause they denot have the metacognitive skills to understand the value of these Jnterventions. 496).. and confirmability was achieved through triangularion. famHy support. Stoner. respondent validation. and physicalaccessibility in the environment.eFs. attitudinal b~lrri:ets of 0~h_. and Goins f2006a) conducted semi-structured itHe:tviews with 12adld~:s. and setting goals. 2007). (2007) provided severalimplications for practice flOm their results. Klassen and Lynch found disparate views among students and teachers which were (~) students viewed themselves as accura te in. To overcome identified barriers. "adolescents with LD miscalibrate [heir performance in some contexts" (Klassen &Lynch. and (c)~eachers need jo be sensitive to adolescents' sensitivity to support Importantly. The major findings of this study were depicted in <'I! concept m. House.~. The results of these two studies indicated thall. Klassenand Lynch. (b) students desired discreet assistance and. and (c) students identified academic d~ffi:cnlt~esas controllable and due to their effort whereas teachers felt the dif:fi. Angell.dis. calibrating gelf~effica. such as perseverance.32 1[1 jUlIA R STONER the series. preferred that the whol. on voices of adolescents themselves.i!c~l.€: class have [he assistance instead of being singled out. Using a. (b}identification of barriers to self-determinatioo. 496).6nm]cial factors. the interviews were coded. with phy:s. 20(2) and then completed a quantitative study that compared the self-efficacy beliefs of children with LD to their performanoe (Klassen & Lynclil.!l!bm~]es to ascerrain their perspective on self-determination.p.cuUleswere due to uncontrollable deilJ:c:its .g se]fdetetminatiou Pacilitators of self-determination were inrrinsic factors.D in mclusive settings. The first author initially conducted an extensive review of the literature (Klassen. grounded theory epproach.~l1. Cleady~ ~l1ey wanted to gain amore comprehensive understanding of why this occurred and conducted a qualitative study to gain "student and teacher perceptions about this miscalibration' (p.hll other words.ap and included (a)idel:!l~il]ca~i(m of facilitatoes of self-deterrninalion. opportuniries to experience self-determinelion. . such as shyness their physical disabjlity. and (c)~he process of developing an action p]an for overcoming barriers and f@ci]itatin.~ 2007. line-by-line. themes were developed. based. nB:artuers includedintrinsic factors.

. Blaska contended the . The researehers then developed an action plan.parnctpants described Uu~ii]'i. Robbins. (e) evaluating and idenHfying required support ao meet t[h. et al. Down synd:wrtle.confHct with educational systems (lake &]3illing.. Stoner et al's (2006a) study offeredseveral recommendations to foster self-determination UI individuals wi th physical disabilities.nding anappropriate avenue for communication. their child had a disability. the lEP and transition process. Blaska 0. 1998).lled the concept of cyclical grieving during interviews with parents of adult children with dismbiJ]Nes.e. The value off this study was thar indlviduals with significantphysical disabilities were allowed to contribute torecommendarions onineorporatin! self-determination ]111[. ]m}6b). Stoner et al."5I!ey~2000}. 2006lb).. visual representation to illustrate the conceptual model. The inner circle represented shattered d:r. 2008.ga child wifh disabilities (Blaska.]ms experienced by parents when they were hlitiaHy informed.. 2005}.. and developing action strategies.(. Furthermore. perspectives on the implerneorscion of alternative and augmentative communication systems (Bailey eral. & Po~ewgk]..goal~ and (0 setting an. Qualitative research hasinvestigated parents of children with disabilities on numerous and varied topics such as relationships and trust with education professionals (Al1gel. cerebral palsy. The concept map consisted of three concentric circles. fhe researchers reccmmended aseisting the student with a reevaluation to ascertain the difflculties and previdea plan to overcome them.e. (c) pw:viding opportnnities to practice self-determination. action plan (0 achieve the goa].99 8)in. & Stoner. Batley. These included (0:1) incorporating self-determination goals in lEP:s.Blaska detailed the cyclical grieving process and provided a.lI'Idividua. (d) assisting with goa] setting. wid} each circle ]'epre~e[]Jtinga. that includedintrinsic characteristics.~.e .0 special education programs.g. perspectives of dysphagiaintervention in die schools (Angell.tiIl.. focusing onthe goa].. such <lsfi.~~ld perspectives of p<wei'i. and intellectual disabilities) and severity.wide range of disabil.l strategies. (b) involving the individual student ]I!J. different aspect o-f emotions afparemsinrerviewed. Blaska's study is discussed below as an example of the value of understanding parent perspectives..h disabilisies ranged from. Angell. 21M 39 yearsand teprese!nted ~I.fl. based on [he data analysis.ve. lJ the goal was not met. 2009. 2006a. ASD. The ages of die children w](.ities.stig. Sronen Bailey..

getting a driver's license. Blaska (1998) concluded tbe study by discussing hnpli!CatiOlls for p:wfess]or!la]s~ Profess]·m. and acknowledg])].This isespecially significant for special educators who may interact with.g and i.<'I. the time of the injtial diagnosis and the emotions.aJt through.nd.S". four life cycles of a fanrily: "a family wi~h youngchildren.y repeatedly experience the gr. Gaining the perspectives of [hose w hoare teaching in thefield ].i!cs such asi. Parents also reported thatevents could trigger a reoccurrence of these emotions. This qualitative study enhances [fue understanding of the parental pernpective. Allpare:11l Is could recall.S vital [0 identify. special educators are immersed in. in detail.rderepresellltted the emotions parents felt and experienced intermittently since the diagnosis. ]998. and reappeared either separately or simultaneously tbroughout their Rife. Educators who ate sensitive iand recognize that parents m..e student with disabilities. walking. p..ching children.]"]ly s:igni. toilet training.liI contended [11.[IB.~rlsk:.. such.l. Qualitative research that hasinvolved educators has focused 011 numerous top.:hi. a family ]aum. rhey experienced. The emotions would reappear and then disappear for varying lengths of timees thechHd aged. there are many events that may nigger the reoccurrence of emotions involved ]):11 the grieving process...rD. and understand the issues in the field.. administration.canl events. 'I1l~ cyclical grieving model emphasizes that during the life cycle of a family. The two studies . These: emotions were mot experienced in any specific order bur may have: appeared. The second. 4). the ultimate beneficiary of strong family-professional relationships 18UI. The outer circle depicted.ief cyc~e cam offe'r support and strengthen their collaboration in. The field of special education is constantly changing and.ps with paraprofessienalsv parents.'espectitlg their emo~iOflS~~ sti'ornger famII_y-'professioi. families during times of typical.'i!al relationship eosinbe forged. The: events triggering the reoccurrence of these: emotions were unique to each participant and were mot nooess~. a family with adolescents. assess. d.I.~:iol. educating [be child] with the disability . and ['-eh"~tion. traosinons. and a famjly later in life" (Blaska. as first words. U:Mening ~o the voices of parents.34 jUlIA R STONER grief expressed during this time was functional because it allowedparen ts to move on al!ldiiefbclJ!s on the child t11ey had instead of rhe child they expected. or Ieaving for college. And most impcrtantly. need to understand als theemotions that families undergc and become sensitive to file changing needs of the family .]> co-teaching. aud students . these changes.

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