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COMPANY BACKGROUND Greenzo Technologies is a company that embraces bioremediation and biodegradation process by turning waste products into useful ones after several treatments in order to create a new housing area with nature in mind. Our approach is mainly focused on housing developers where our Greenzo system is incorporated with the planning of a new area development. We approach these developers to buy our system, implement the system in their development project and gain massive profits from the system for a longer period of time. Analysis predict that marketability of the system by our company will create a wider target.The purchasing power of developers are potential enough to increase in years ahead. Objectives Our business strategy will revolve around the need to provide quality Greenzo system to our target customers, in the process fully satisfying their needs. This shall be undertaken through the implementation of high quality control standards and biotechnological innovations, as well as the recruitment of a professional production and training underwent employees, as the steps in producing good quality end-products to cater for various kinds of customers. We shall position ourselves as a quality manufacturer that strives to provide fulfillment, satisfactory, reliability and a good image. With time we intend to establish our presence on the World Wide Web, which will increase the knowledge of our system. Web presence is a natural objective in reaching the appropriate potential customers. Well-done brochures, company profiles and business cards often have a triggering effect on clients contemplating on ordering our products. Hence this will undoubtedly generate increased sales of our system. Our objectives will revolve around the following guiding principles:
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Provision of a great work environment, treating each other with respect and dignity. Apply high-quality standards of excellence to all business processes. Develop enthusiastically-satisfied customers all of the time. Contribute positively to our communities and our environment. To continuously formalize and measure cross-functional working communication as to ensure that the various departments work harmoniously towards attainment of company objectives. To instill a culture of continuous improvement in beating standards of customer satisfaction and efficiency. Fully commit to supporting growth and development in the economy.
Ultimately we intend to create a stable business platform that will create prosperity for all those involved in the business venture at all levels, and to uplift unemployed fresh graduates who are prepared to participate in this venture. Mission and Vision Greenzo Technologies intends to create a satisfactory environment through the provision of good quality bioremediation system. We intend to provide the best possible value to our customers who care about quality and healthy environment, and we want every ringgit spent on our system are not just a waste. Hence our value proposition is to sell the benefit of healthy living and nature loving environment. Internally we intend to create and nurture a healthy, creative, respectful and enjoyable office and plant environment, in which our employees are fairly compensated and encouraged to respect the customer and the quality of the system we produce. In addition, follow-up will be mandatory so as to ensure customer satisfaction and make any improvements as recommended by the customers in future. We seek a fair and responsible profit, enough to keep the company financially healthy for the short and long term. We also intend to obtain ISO certifications so that our system is internationally recognized and approved. This will assist in our penetrating the regional and international markets, intentions of which we have in future. However this will occur after we have established ourselves on the local market. The above is well summarized in our mission statement which goes as follows: Our mission is to carefully attend to detail in the hygiene in all our system process, and to uphold superb quality at all levels of production with nature in mind. Our Values Greenzo Technologies committed towards an open governance system whereby its activities are managed and undertaken ethically, transparently, and in the interests of all concerned stakeholders. This shall be undertaken through implementation of the following company values:
We intend to conduct our business ethically and transparently, respecting all applicable laws. We intend to be a responsible corporate citizen fulfilling our obligations as an integral member of society. Hence our business decisions shall give appropriate weight and consideration to social and environmental impacts. We intend to provide products of uncompromising quality to meet the needs of our customers.
and Ms. promoting our employees and respective third parties engaged by us to do likewise. ensuring that they are straightforward and honest. Daily management will consist of Ms. The company intends to respect its community and treat all employees well. . Ruzanna Abdul Rahman in dealing with government. in particular the communities in which we will operate. Management's ongoing initiatives to drive sales. We will develop and nurture the company as community. We do not intend to be overly hierarchical. will enable the business to realize its goals and objectives. Hence our communication shall be open and accurate. its products and markets. Management Team The management team. internally and externally. Through promotion and implementation of the above stated company values we believe that we will be able to attain our corporate and stakeholders' goals and objectives for the benefit of all concerned. Luvanee Parkianathan in the role of technical and operations. mainly comprising of the shareholders. has wide expertise and broad knowledge of the system. and public relations. Management style will reflect the participation of the shareholders. corporate bodies. market share and productivity will provide additional impetus. We intend to optimize the creation of wealth to provide fair reward and recognition for the contributions of our stakeholders. which if well planned for. Ultimately we intend to uphold all the above company values.4 • • • We intend to seek mutually beneficial and enduring relationships in all the commitments that we make.
desired product. These palm oil bunches are regarded as waste product in the palm oil industry. and further purifying the products to obtain a valuable. 1. Palm oil bunches that normally discarded without use can be used to ensure the flow of the whole system is controlled. It is all about treating waste products that are collected from various source especially from a housing township with industrial microbes.foods that are crushed in the sink and flowed to the underground-built reservoir system. Waste products from homes are channeled to underground-built closed reservoir system through pipes. 2. Waste products from homes that are defined: Domestic waste product. The palm oil bunches can be obtained by paying palm oil 1 Research and Product Development Department .5 THE PRODUCT1 Greenzo is the biomass unit system which serves as a methodology towards bioremediation process. There are seven major steps involving the process on how the whole system works. These palm oil bunches actually promotes growth to various microbes that helps in the degradation process.
4. waste products. and this is the place where degradation process using industrial microbes occur. 3. The palm oil bunches are crushed using the palm oil bunches crusher before it is flowed into the underground-built reservoir system. Microbes used in the degradation process are bought only once and for the subsequent flow. The sludge sediment which stays at the bottom of the reservoir tank is flowed into the effluent pond.6 bunches sellers at a very cheap rate. This is a reservoir tank which collects. . stores the waste product in it for 28 days. 5. The sludge water that appears on the top portion of the reservoir tank is flowed into the multilevel industrial filtration unit after 28 days so the filtration process can take place. Underground-built closed reservoir system. microbes are taken from the effluent pond. Also. This sludge sediment can be further processed into solid organic fertilizers. the sludge sediment can be used in the microbe breeding process.
The end product for filtration is flowed to the effluent pond for the maintenance and growth of microbes (7).where the chemicals produced are sent to refineries to be refined before being sold. Liquid fertilizers . In order to improve productivity in plants. The sludge water will undergo multilevel filtration process where there are few major raw products that can be produced.where the raw products of phenolic compounds can be sold to refineries where variety products can be made Raw chemicals .can be further refined and flowed into pipes to houses as cooking gas. clam gut. well water. II. Phenolic compounds . Undertaking the above initiatives. there have been no reports of adverse effects to human health or the environment. quality products. Example like ethanol. It exists in the biologically inactive spore stage in soils except when vegetative growth is stimulated by anaerobiosis and other favorable growth conditions. Research & Development for the Bacterium Applied Clostridium acetobutylicum Assessment Introduction Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic. Throughout its long history of use for production of acetone and butanol. Greenzo Technologies intend to reduce cost in Greenzo system plant by streamlining administrative functions and promoting and instilling a business culture that focuses on the teamwork rather than individual productivity. lake sediments. This shall be undertaken through the engagement of modern production techniques using up-to-date assembly technology.Where these raw products can be further refined and made as fertilizer for plants. V. IV. saccharolytic and proteolytic bacterium that can be isolated from soils. and human feces. acetobutylicum is considered a benign microorganism. They are: I. canine. III. The bacterium produces endospores allowing long-term survival in the environment even in the presence of oxygen. Greenzo Technologies intend to ensure that the suppliers engaged are committed and reliable so as not to let down the final consumer in terms of the quality of the product and time of delivery.The methane gas will further be refined at the methane gas collection and refinery. It . Also. C. Butane gas . The refined methane gas can be used as electricity generator to the Greenzo system.7 6. Greenzo system shall strive to attain service excellence in addition to manufacturing safe. and from bovine. we will optimize the productivity given to available resources. Methane gas . sludge will be refined and transformed into solid fertilizers. ammonium and etc. This will also result in low production costs being attained by the company.
C. there is a possibility that high concentrations of vegetative cells or spores could accidentally be inoculated into a wound. whereby a large number of spores are inoculated into an open wound. at least intermittently. animals. The resistant endospores produced by this bacterium enable it to survive in the environment for many years. acetobutylicum strains acquired the ability to produce botulism toxin as did the other nonpathogenic species mentioned above. However. ATCC 824. biochemical. and therefore. acetobutylicum has the ability to produce mammalian toxins. There is. Hazard Assessment2 Human Health Hazards There are several reports in the literature that suggest that C. part of the normal flora of the human colon. acetobutylicum is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. this disease is caused by Clostridium botulinum. and DSM 1731. vegetative cells may survive oxygen exposure for several hours. There is apparently little DNA homology between the two proposed groups. It apparently does not produce any extracellular or intracellular materials that would be toxic to humans. The potential risks associated with the use of this bacterium in fermentation facilities are low. or plants. and fermentative characteristics. the first of which would consist of strains NCIB 8052 and P262 (a widely used industrial strain – used in Greenzo) and the other group which would contain the type strain. it is pleomorphic at later stages. motile by peritrichous flagella. acetobutylicum strains differ widely with respect to their growth and their physiological. It has been suggested that there are at least two groups within the species. even in the presence of oxygen. Typically. C. acetobutylicum is. however. C. Except for its isolation from human feces. This bacterium is rod-shaped.8 is not pathogenic or toxigenic to humans. The only concern is that new strains or environmental isolates of C. also a condition known as wound botulism following trauma. acetobutylicum may have had contact with clostridial pathogens and acquired toxin-production 2 Hazard and Safety Department . There are no reports in the literature suggesting that C. Identification and Taxonomy Although Gram positive at early stages of growth. and produces subterminal endospores. The five most commonly used strains of C. The likelihood of toxin acquisition by an industrial strain with a history of safe use in an industrial setting seems remote. acetobutylicum has not been associated with humans. and some strains produce inducible carboxymethyl cellulase and cellobiase enzymes. nor does it produce enzymes known to be associated with virulence. good worker hygiene. However. If C. will not grow in the presence of oxygen. although it does not appear to be a major component. should mitigate this concern. acetobutylicum is an obligate anaerobe. including use of protective clothing.
Under some conditions. It is reported that this bacteriocin had inhibitory effects against members of the same species and against one other clostridial species. Bacteriocins are usually thought to have bactericidal action against the same species or other clostridial species. The levels of members of the genus Bacillus are thought to range 106 . C. or Zymomonas mobilis. population levels of 106 clostridia per gram of soil have been found. As mentioned above. enzymes. E. The bacteriocin from C. the overall human health risk of C. there is still little environmental concern due to the high numbers of bacilli typically found in soils. In addition. or virulence factors typically associated with mammalian toxicity or pathogenicity. Hazards to Other Microorganisms C. acetobutylicum has not been shown to produce any toxins. 4. The production of bacteriocins in the environment by C. it will exist predominantly as spores rather than as vegetative cells since it is obligately anaerobic. In addition. Proteus mirabilis. 2. Salmonella typhimurium. butyricum and members of the family Bacillaceae including Bacillus subtilis and B. acetobutylicum strain ATCC 824 was similar to that obtained from strain P262. It may be prudent for the manufacturer to screen culture supernatants at late log phase of growth for the production of botulism toxins. also reported that a bacteriocin obtained from C. and it is not listed as such in a review of animal pathogens by Hill. acetobutylicum would not be likely to be of concern. 3. acetobutylicum is expected to survive in the environment.9 genes.107 per gram of soil. Hazards to Plants There are no reports in the literature indicating that C. acetobutylicum is widespread in the environment. acetobutylicum (P262) was not inhibitory to Achromobacter. acetobutylicum fixes atmospheric nitrogen. The bacteriocin from ATCC 824 was not inhibitory to Corynebacterium glutamicum. Even if bacteriocins are released into the environment with spent fermentation wastes. Serratia marcescens. felsineum. as it is expected to survive predominately as spores. Aerobacter aerogenes. megaterium . or Bacteroides fragilis. the amount of nitrogen fixed by this organism in the environment would probably be negligible. Hazards Posed to Other Processes Although C. acetobutylicum would acquire botulinum toxin genes. C. Escherichia coli. acetobutylicum is minimal. Although C. C. Environmental Hazards 1. Hazards to Animals There are no reports in the literature suggesting that C. acetobutylicum has any adverse effects on plants. the amount of nitrogen fixed by nonsymbiotic microorganisms . coli. acetobutylicum (P262) produces a bacteriocin near the end of the exponential growth stage. Since it is highly unlikely that C. acetobutylicum is an animal pathogen. but was inhibitory to C.
extraction. During fermentation processes. worker exposure is possible during laboratory pipetting. The uncertainty associated with this estimated exposure value is not known. the worst-case daily inhalation exposure is estimated to range up to 650 to 1200 cfu/day. Some strains of C. 1986). it was classified as safe for industry.e. NIOSH Malaysia has conducted walk-through surveys of several fermentation facilities in the enzyme industry and monitored for microbial air contamination. and separation processes (either filter press or rotary drum filter). The numbers of N2-fixing clostridia in arable soils range from 102 to 106 per gram of soil. acetobutylicum is considered a Class 1 Containment Agent under the National Institute of Health (NIH) Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (U. acetobutylicum produce cellulases which enable the fermentation of some feedstocks. Area samples were taken in locations where the potential for worker exposure was considered to be potentially greatest. However. inoculation. and decontamination procedures. of which C. The workers with the highest potential average exposures at the three facilities visited were those involved in-air sampling.. Thus. Assuming that the concentration of microorganisms in the worker's breathing zone is equivalent to the levels found in the area sampling. processing. but this does not appear to be a potential environmental hazard since this organism already exists in the environment. Area samples near the sampling port revealed average airborne concentrations ranging from 350 to 648 cfu/m3. . i. Assuming that 20 samples per day are drawn and that each sample takes up to 5 minutes to collect. nitrogen fixation rates would not be expected to be appreciable. area sampling data have been the only means of assessing exposures for previous PMN biotechnology submissions. A typical site employs less than 10 workers per shift and operates 24 hours per day throughout the year. acetobutylicum is thought to be one of three prominent species. the Chemical Engineering Branch would not use area monitoring data to estimate occupational exposure levels since the correlation between area concentrations and worker exposure is highly uncertain. as the efficiency of nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation is low and energy sources are scarce. Exposure Assessment Worker Exposure C. Typically. in the environment. Department of Health and Human Services. near the fermentor.10 is relatively small compared to symbiotic associations. the duration of exposure for a single worker will be about 1. Personal sampling data are not available at the present time.5 hours/day. harvesting. sampling.S. sampling ports. In Malaysia. the seed fermentor. These particular facilities were not using recombinant microorganisms. and survival would most likely be in the spore stage. but the processes were considered typical of fermentation process technology.
human exposure may occur via inhalation as the organisms are dispersed in the atmosphere attached to dust particles. acetobutylicum cannot survive in the presence of oxygen except for brief periods. and UV light exposure. As with naturally-occurring strains. its ability to produce endospores suggests that this organism may survive after release. Survival of vegetative cells during aerosolization is typically limited due to stresses such as shear forces. its ability to colonize anaerobic environments. It should be noted that these estimates represent hypothetical exposures under reasonable worst case conditions.5 x 106 cfu/year for the uncontrolled/untreated scenario and less than that for systems with full exemptions. In addition. acetobutylicum in the atmosphere after release are currently unavailable. Its widespread presence in nature. However. Releases The uncontrolled/untreated scenario assumes no control features for the fermentor offgases. To estimate exposures from this source. and the resistance of its endospores indicate that released microorganisms are likely to survive outside of containment. a release height of 3 meters and downward contact at a distance of 100 meters were assumed. and no inactivation of the fermentation broth for the liquid and solid waste releases.11 Environmental and General Exposure 1. .0 x 103 to 1. temperature. However. 2. the sector averaging form of the Gaussian algorithm described in Turner (1970) was used. Fate of the Organism This bacterium is an obligate anaerobe and growth is inhibited in the presence of oxygen. Air releases from fermentor offgas could potentially result in nonoccupational inhalation exposures due to point source releases. vegetative cells of C. They also assume inactivation procedures resulting in a validated 6log reduction of the number of viable microorganisms in the liquid and solid wastes relative to the maximum cell density of the fermentation broth. or lofted through mechanical or air disturbance. 3. The containment criteria required for the full exemption scenario assumes the use of features or equipment that minimize the number of viable cells in the fermentor off-gases. Assuming that there is no removal of organisms by controls/equipment for offgases. For purposes of this assessment. acetobutylicum exists as endospores which are quite resistant to adverse environmental conditions and can survive for many years. potential human inhalation dose rates are estimated to range from 3. vegetative cells can survive exposure to oxygen for several hours. C. Typically. desiccation. Air Specific data which indicate the survivability of C.
Releases from the fermentation facility of vegetative cells into anaerobic environments. and surface water flow data retrieved from the RXGAGE database. It does not produce any toxins.. Soil Since soil is a natural habitat for C. or virulence factors normally associated with mammalian toxicity. This bacterium is not thought to be a pathogen of either plants or animals. Tenth percentile values indicate flows for smaller rivers within this distribution of 154 receiving water flows and 50th percentile values indicate flows for more average rivers. Integration of Risk3 C. Human exposures via dermal and ingestion routes. 3 Research and Product Development. and pharmaceuticals). Hazard and Safety. to terrestrial. and aquatic organisms via runoff) may occur at the discharge site because of the potential establishment of C. would. particularly under anaerobic conditions. Water The concentrations of C. desiccation. range from 102 to 106 per gram of soil. or of spores into any environment. 1991. and environmental exposures (i. most likely. The stream flow values for SIC Code 283 were based on discharger location data retrieved from the Industrial Facilities Dischargers (IFD) database on December 5. enzymes. even under aerobic conditions. and aerobic conditions. of which C. Flow values were obtained for water bodies receiving wastewater discharges from 154 indirect (facilities that send their waste to a POTW) and direct dischargers facilities that have a NPDES permit to discharge to surface water). Process and Production. 5. Although it can. although the vegetative cells have been shown to survive for several hours with oxygen exposure. acetobutylicum in surface water assumes that all of the discharged organisms survive wastewater treatment and that growth is not enhanced by any component of the treatment process. The use of this methodology to estimate concentrations of C. The resistant endospores formed could promote survival for years. acetobutylicum. medicinal chemicals. The flow value expressed as 7Q10 is the lowest flow observed over seven consecutive days during a 10 year period. This bacterium is obligately anaerobic implying growth only under reducing conditions. The surface water release data (cfu/day) tabulated in Table 1 was divided by the stream flow values to yield a surface water concentration of the organism (cfu/l). It exists predominately in the environment as endospores which are quite resistant to adverse environmental conditions such as heat. Department . low nutrient status.12 4. result in survival of the bacterium.e. avian. acetobutylicum. acetobutylicum is thought to predominate. acetobutylicum in surface water were estimated using stream flow values for water bodies receiving process wastewater discharges from facilities within SIC Code 283 (drugs. acetobutylicum is a common soil proteolytic and saccharolytic bacterium which is widespread in nature. long-term survival in soil may be expected to occur. acetobutylicum within the soil. There are no reports of ecological or human health hazards caused by C. Population levels of clostridia. Quality Assurance and Control.
it is not thought to be a major component of the normal human flora. occupy the human intestines. naturally-occurring C. Wound botulism of industrial workers is also highly unlikely since large numbers of vegetative cells or spores need to be inoculated into an open wound. nontoxigenic clostridia have acquired the ability to produce botulism toxin types E and F. Industrial strains of C. acetobutylicum in fermentation facilities will not affect the population size of this species in the environment. acetobutylicum have a long history of safe use in the production of acetone and butanol with no incidents of adverse effects to human health or the environment. The only cases in which the closely related nontoxigenic clostridia acquired the toxin genes involved infant botulism. Except for its isolation from human feces. tetani. . There are no reports in the literature indicating that C. especially in an industrial setting where efforts are taken to minimize contaminants of the fermentation. and the limited exposure resulting from the use of C. Toxin acquisition has never been reported for this particular species. the risks to human health and the environment associated with the use of this microorganism are low. acetobutylicum with a history of safe use in an industrial setting is remote due to the fact that care is taken to prevent contamination of the fermentors by other microorganisms. However. If released into the environment. butyricum. baratii and two strains of C. acetobutylicum is the possibility of acquiring toxinproducing genes from pathogenic clostridia. but has never been shown. Under good industrial practices.13 intermittently. There are three cases of infant botulism which were caused by a strain of C. The likelihood of acquisition of a toxin gene by an industrial strain of C. The only concern for the acquisition of botulism toxin genes lies with the use of strains or environmental isolates that may have been in contact with the toxigenic bacteria. acetobutylicum can acquire toxin genes produced from C. The botulism toxins produced by these typically nontoxigenic clostridia were indistinguishable from the botulism toxins produced by C. All of these scenarios for botulism toxicity are dependent on the acquisition of the toxin gene by the organism which is theoretically possible. other closely related solventogenic. acetobutylicum strains are widespread in the environment. This organism is considered benign. and the likelihood is remote. predominately as resistant spores except under anaerobic conditions. the fermentation workers would be expected to be wearing protective clothing and participating in good industrial hygiene which would allay this risk of infection given an accidental spill. acetobutylicum are low. and the only associated potential hazard with it is the theoretical possibility of acquisition of botulism toxin genes from toxigenic clostridia. Therefore. botulinum. The conditions needed for development of infant botulism would not occur in fermentation facilities as exposure to large numbers of spores directly by the infant is necessary. However. botulinum and C. The only potential risk associated with C. Both the hazard and the exposure associated with the use of C. it is not otherwise associated with humans. this bacterium is expected to survive.
Process begins with a) bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials in order to breakdown insoluble organic polymers such as urban waste and palm oil bunches. Also. 4 Quality Assurance and Control Department. such as in Greenzo underground tank. and loading rates is crucial to obtaining efficient breakdown of the material.14 THE PROCESSESS4 Process Overview Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. ammonia and organic acids. and disturbances to a digest can lead to process failure. and carbon dioxide. As part of an integrated waste management system. finally able to convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide. hydrogen. hydrogen. pH. c) acetogenic bacteria the convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acids. Careful control of the digestion temperature. The technical expertise required to maintain digesters coupled with high capital costs and lower process efficiencies have so far limited the level of its industrial application as a waste treatment technology. the nutrient-rich solids left after digestion can be used as fertilizer. with the assistance from Research and Product Development Department . ensuring that the quality of input materials to the digesters performance is reliable. along with additional ammonia. It is widely used to treat wastewater sludges and organic wastes because it provides volume and mass reduction of the input material. anaerobic digestion reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere. Anaerobic digestion is a renewable energy source because the process produces a methane and carbon dioxide rich biogas suitable for energy production helping replace fossil fuels. and makes them available for other bacteria. b) acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide. d) methanogens.
H2S Oxygen . N2 Hydrogen .15 Products5 multilevel filtration unit There are three principal products of Greenzo: biogas. digestate and water.H2 Hydrogen Sulfide . O2 % 50-75 25-50 0-10 0-1 0-3 0-2 5 Process and Production Department . Biogas Biogas holder with lightning protection rods and back-up gas flare was used in Greenzo. Typical composition of biogas: Matter Methane CH4 Carbon dioxide CO2 Nitrogen .
16 Most of the biogas is produced during the middle of the digestion. Germany. The second by-product (acidogenic digestate) is a stable organic material comprised largely of lignin and cellulose. Electricity produced by anaerobic digesters is considered to be renewable energy and may attract subsidies. Biogas does not contribute to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations because the gas is not released directly into the atmosphere and the carbon dioxide comes from an organic source with a short carbon cycle. Levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) should be chemically assessed. In Greenzo the different forms of digestate come from different digestion tanks. but also of a variety of mineral components in a matrix of dead bacterial cells. Digestate can come in three forms. In countries where the driver for the utilization of anaerobic digestion are renewable electricity subsidies. The gas is normally stored on top of the digester in an inflatable gas bubble or extracted and stored next to the facility in a gas holder. Digestate Digestate is the solid remnants of the original input material to the digesters that the microbes cannot use. In the case of most clean and source-separated biodegradable waste streams the levels of PTEs will be low. liquor or a sludge-based combination of the two fractions. In the case of wastes originating from industry the levels of PTEs may be . Biogas may require treatment or 'scrubbing' to refine it for use as a fuel. at least for the time being (electricity produced from Greenzo can be sold to suppliers or put into the local grid in near future. this route of treatment is less likely as energy is required in this processing stage and reduces the over all levels available to sell. This will be dependent upon the quality of the original feedstock. The methane in biogas can be burned to produce both heat and electricity. The material resembles domestic compost and can be used as compost or to make low grade building products such as fiberboard. Greenzo does have this plan in the future. Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic product formed from sulfates in the feedstock and is released as a trace component of the biogas. It also consists of the mineralized remains of the dead bacteria from within the digesters. some plastic may be present. fibrous. In countries such as Switzerland. In single stage digestion systems the two fractions will be combined and if desired separated by further processing. and Sweden the methane in the biogas may be concentrated in order for it to be used as a vehicle transportation fuel or alternatively input directly into the gas mains. The third by-product is a liquid (methanogenic digestate) that is rich in nutrients and can be used as a fertilizer dependent on the quality of the material being digested. usually with a reciprocating engine or microturbine often in cogeneration arrangement where the electricity will be used only to operate the generator. after the bacterial population has grown and tapers off as the putrescible material is exhausted. when the regulation become easy and feasible).
Greenzo already has a selected market and potential customer to buy the economically-feasible byproduct produced from the system. This treatment will typically be an oxidation stage where air is passed through the water in a sequencing batch reactors or reverse osmosis unit. However not wanting to pollute the environment. the ammonia will be broken down into nitrates. Also the digestate may contain ammonia that is phytotoxic and will hamper the growth of plants if it is used as a soil improving material. During this maturation. This water originates both from the moisture content of the original waste that was treated but also includes water produced during the microbial reactions in the digestion systems. Some of this material is termed 'hard COD' meaning it cannot be accessed by the anaerobic bacteria for conversion into biogas. Digestate typically contains elements such as lignin that cannot be broken down by the anaerobic microorganisms. Lignin and other materials are available for degradation by aerobic microorganisms such as fungi helping reduce the overall volume of the material for transport. Underground Tank Gas Monitoring6 Underground tank gas monitoring (which is almost similar with landfill gas monitoring) is the process by which gases that are released from mashes of urban waste are electronically monitored. Greenzo Technologies intends to utilize every resource it has to the fullest possible extent. The wastewater exiting the anaerobic digestion facility will typically have elevated levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). these are measures of the reactivity of the effluent and show an ability to pollute. . Greenzo Technologies plan to utilize by-products whenever possible. Wastewater The final output from Greenzo system is water. Large composting stages are typically used by dry anaerobic digestion technologies. improving the fertility of the material and making it more suitable as a soil improver. This will ensure that our resources are fully utilized. The company realizes that there shall be a lot of by-products (effluent water and sludge) that will be produced from our production of the main product lines. This water may be released from the dewatering of the digestate or may be implicitly separate from the digestate. For these two reasons maturation or composting stage may be employed after digestion. Chemical reactions and microbes acting upon the waste as the putrescible materials begins break down in the 6 Quality Assurance and Control Department. Processed water will be used by the facility or the generator. with Hazard and Safety Department. Greenzo was equipped with “mini” water treatment facility. If this effluent was put directly into watercourses it would negatively affect them by causing eutrophication. and the community at large.17 higher and will need to be taken into consideration when determining a suitable end use for the material.
giving point readings for underground tank gas composition. There is also having two types of underground tank gas monitor: 1. continuous gas monitor. b) Subsurface monitoring . single reading monitor. Such emissions lead to important environmental. hygiene and security problems in the facilities of Greenzo. Integrated regulatory limits tend to be 50ppm or less. 2. while carrying a flame ionization detector (FID).18 tank will results in gas production. • Can be broken down into instantaneous and integrated. • Integrated consists of walking on the surface of the tank. Due to the constant production of gas. that remain in boreholes and give continuous readings over time for underground tank gas composition and production (methodology used by Greenzo). • Gas probes also used to detect gas concentrations in the local environment around the probe. while pumping a sample into a bag. (methodology used by Greenzo) • Used to check the integrity of caps on waste and check on borehole monitoring. • Instantaneous monitoring consists of walking on the surface of the tank. The sample is the read with FID or sent to a lab for full analysis. . • It may give preliminary indications of the migration of gas off-site. • Used gas probes or also known as perimeter or migration probes. There are two types of techniques for the monitoring of underground tank gas: a) Surface monitoring. pressure increases within the tank provoke its release into the atmosphere. • Sometimes it used at different depths at a single point.
Due to the adaptive nature of microorganisms.19 Typical Gas Composition Methane.g freons Hydrogen sulfide. Greenzo Technologies will continue do a research and making strategic partnership with Universiti Malaya to improve not only current microbial strain.H2S Chlorine % 54 42 0. the degree of treatment and the concentration of suspended solids to be maintained. the medium in which the novel pathways are developed differs substantially from the medium in which the final production strain is expected to perform. acetobutylicum strain P262. and nutrient-limited media. Suitable protection from the weather and elements shall be provided for electrical controls. the novel strains are either directly transferred to the industrial production environment or as occurs much more frequently a potential production strain has to undergo a new round of metabolic engineering procedures. Greenzo currently use C. Dissolved Oxygen Requirements Oxygen requirements generally will depend on the BOD loading. viscous.8 5mg/m3 88 mg 22 mg/m3 Greenzo revolutionary bioremediation system managed to obtain similar value of gas composition. CH4 Carbon dioxide CO2 Oxygen O2 Flour e. In both cases. The effluent pond should be provided with oxygen supply to breed the microbes. Effluent Pond Greenzo superior system also involves breeding microbes in the effluent pond. Aeration equipment shall be capable of maintaining a minimum dissolved oxygen level in the ponds at all times. toxic. Once desired novel traits have been established in recombinant laboratory strains. the typical industrial production strain is genetically undefined and adapted to perform in rather poor. The genetic stability of strains is an absolute requirement for utilization in industrial processes. but also the overall system. attention should also be directed towards the stability of any novel traits in recombinant or mutant strains. to become the standard in industry. . Stability of the Microbes Strain development by recombinant techniques is usually performed in genetically defined laboratory strains harbouring markers suitable for selection of transformed cells in chemically defined cultivation media.
Hence waste products may be sourced from local communal and palm oil bunch lorry drivers avoiding intermediaries so as to minimize costs. faster payments and lower risks of payment default. During the actual off loading the receiving bay personnel will mass check on at least 98% of the consignment. Greenzo Technologies intend to ensure that it is done by responsible persons who will be present during off loading to check the quantity and condition of the consignment. Receiving Recognizing that the receiving of our input waste products is an essential element in our entire business. the Company aims to maintain low input and production costs. The major advantages of doing so are being under higher margins. However as we are committed in creating a continuous flow of products. we intend to engage with lorry drivers who dumps used palm oil bunches for a little compensation. ultimately benefiting the final consumer. Through the use of economies of scale. Nonconfirming waste product in terms of safety and hazard will be checked by Safety and Hazard Officers only then to be approved with the consent of the Quality Control Manager who would have undertaken further analysis of it.20 Suppliers Greenzo Technologies obtains the waste products from the houses through underground built pipes. .
• The meaning of a safety related control system. control and monitoring devices. • Potential faults within control circuits. are defined.21 SAFETY7 In any industrial production or factories. allow the company to understand its obligations. • How components should be selected. Regulatory and legal requirements will help to form a major part of corporate safety policy. • Provide an overview of the risk assessment process. • Which standards define control reliability. This transfer of knowledge will streamline Company’s decision making process. Humanitarian. • Control circuit categories. • Fault tolerance. safety plays important part in the success of the business. • Health and safety documentation. and the use of personal protective equipment. • How input. 7 Hazard and Safety Department . Every month Greenzo Technologies will provide a seminar regarding safety to all the workers. • The meaning of a safety related control function. • Give an introduction to hazard identification techniques. and help to further develop our internal responsibility system. • Provide an introduction to risk reduction methodology. moral and the ever-present economic issues make proper safety assessments a vital element of Greenzo Technologies corporate structure. The objective safety course is to provide workers with an understanding of: • The legal obligations of Employers. • Basic and complex interlocking circuits. output. • Give an understanding of the principles of hazard analysis. • Training. instruction. Greenzo Technologies always put a strategic attention to the safety. • Machine guarding requirements. The overall objective is simple: to transfer the knowledge of the standards and regulations to our workers. Greenzo itself was build with safety and efficiency in mind. minimize the risk and maximize the role of safety. and workers. • Risk reduction methodology. Supervisors. The objective of our Control Reliability Course is to provide workers with an understanding of: • The meaning of control reliability. The objective of our Risk Assessment Course is to: • Provide workers with an understanding of the meaning of 'hazard' and 'risk'.
during the equipment design stage. • Hazards that need to be guarded. The resulting loss of machine availability can be minimized by high-reliability safety systems. outweighs the cost of injuries. Their job only focuses on the piping problems. When the nuisance faults are kept at a minimum. • How machine guarding relates to your lockout program. . Greenzo Hazard and Safety Department had form a special group of engineers. They have their own department which packed with new electronic technologies to help the maintenance. the temptation to interfere with the safety systems can be avoided. • Which standards define the characteristics of guards. This additional expense has generally been proven to be a good investment as the injury prevention benefits. Detailed consideration of all hazards and associated tasks may take a little more time. The piping system of Greenzo specially designed to avoid the risk of leakages. Any leakages will leads to environment pollution.22 The objective of our Machine Guarding course is to provide workers with an understanding of: • How to buy machines that are designed for safe use. Greenzo was equipped with machinery safety systems designed to interrupt processes in the event of a fault. by far. To avoid the risk of pollution and unwanted dangerous. The quality of pipes and the maintenance ensure the safety. • How to ensure that guards are properly manufactured.
We also intend to minimize if not totally eliminate the number of isolated incidents of intimidation in the workplace. plants and machinery. As an equal opportunity employer. The compensation will include health care. largely depending on the dictates of the market and the developer’s developing area. generous profit sharing. groups and plants for hard work and production so as to instill a sense of fun into the work and promote the maintenance of high standards. A minimum wage of 10% of overall profit will be divided in percentage form to the personnel. Greenzo Technologies recognizes that the employees contribute fundamentally to the company's long-term prosperity. The salary to the personnel is based on the percentage of profit obtained from the production. while realizing the full potential of each employee. Compliance with relevant legislation is a minimum target in Greenzo Technologies. As for the employees. and strives to achieve optimal productivity. through benefits such as housing and family education grants. This is because the health of the people is an integral element of employee well-being at work and at home. to retain their invaluable expertise and to ensure job satisfaction and enrichment through delegation of authority. Employee health shall be of extreme importance. and these terms is based on the mutual understanding between the developer and Greenzo Technologies. their salary will be paid by the developer as the developer obtains 90% of the overall profit. office equipment and so on. plus a minimum of three weeks vacation. we respects the diversity and human rights of our people. Current facilities provide offices. The Company intends to enhance the capacity to attract and retain people of quality. . Awards will be given out to outstanding individuals.23 THE MANAGEMENT Greenzo Technologies intend to compensate the personnel well. so as to ensure that production and distribution are not materially affected and sound relationships are maintained between employee and employer and between employees as a whole. At present Greenzo Technologies plants and offices are located in the growing industrial center of Shah Alam with intentions of establishing additional plants throughout Malaysia in future.
24 Personnel Plan (% profit sharing) 2009 2010 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 9 100% 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 9 100% President. Emergency such as medical. CFO CMO R&D Officer II Head of Quality Assurance and Control Head of Process and Production Department Head of Hazard and Safety Department H&S Officer II Total People Total Payroll 2011 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 9 100% Estimated budget on how Greenzo Technologies going to spend the capital8: Rental (3rd Floor) Transport (2nd hand Jeep) Furniture (Office) Communication Marketing Allowances Emergency Total • • • • • RM2000 x 18 months RM2500 x 18 months RM1000 x 18 months RM500 x 18 months RM5500 x 18 months RM13500 x 18 months RM50000 RM36000 RM45000 RM18000 RM9000 RM99000 RM243000 RM50000 RM500000 3rd floor is minimum cost for renting a location which got plenty facilities. 8 Chief Financial Officer (CFO) . insurance. Head of R&D Dept. and so on. CEO Vice President. there is some amount of allowances for the team member. Transport needed Jeep for easy access to palm oil estate and easily fit in 6 people. Before first success deal. Communication for internet and call access.
Marketing: Public Tour CSR Training Ads Agency Fees Print publication Miscellaneous Total RM2000 x 18 months RM800 x 18 months RM500 x 18 months RM1000 x 18 months RM1000 x 18 months RM200 x 18 months RM36000 RM14400 RM9000 RM18000 RM18000 RM3600 RM99000 . Will be changed according to term and condition. Head of R&D CFO CMO R&D Officer II Quality Assurance & Control Process & Production Hazard & Safety Total • • RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months x 2 RM27000 RM27000 RM27000 RM27000 RM27000 RM27000 RM27000 RM54000 RM243000 An estimated allowance for the moment until we got our 1st successful deal.25 Allowances: President. CEO Vice President.
This in turn causes a spillover effect on the market needs. and Innovation. the whole world has been wiped into frenzy over the looming environment catastrophe ahead. automatically we all are in danger as well. There are several potential target markets that can be approached: Government Government especially through its Ministry of Science. Housing area and property developers are often caught making a lot of damages in the construction process and also faulted for building a property that is not conducive for the 9 Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) . Property Developers Property developers are often faulted for being greedy and not giving enough emphasis on the environment. In the future. and further purifying the products to obtain a valuable. will surely appreciate the emergence of a green technology that will greatly improve the livelihood of Malaysian people and at the same time reduce the impact on the surrounding environment. green technologies and the concept of sustainable development are the mantras of the day. They for sure will be interested in buying something that can improve their people’s lives. Environmental friendly product. Market Segmentation Market segmentation is needed in order to ensure that our target market can be well defined. It is all about treating waste products that are collected from various source especially from a housing township with industrial microbes. Market Analysis Market Needs The environment is in grave danger and when the environment is in danger. Never has been in the history of humankind that emphasis on environmental protection and conservation had received this sort of attention and elicited continuous debate on the true story of environment.26 THE MARKETING9 Greenzo is the biomass unit system which serves as a methodology towards bioremediation process. Ever since the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – United Nation) convened and declared the world is heading towards a global warming disaster. and Public Works Department. desired product. Hence Greenzo seeks to fulfill this demand by supplying the technology for a cleaner system to deal with waste and fecal discharges from housing areas. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. The government also has the most resources to purchase Greenzo compared with any other buyers. the technology can also be marketed to other governments of other countries. Technology. The need for the green technology is there but we need to focus on who are going to be the potential buyers of this technology.
other advantages naturally follows such as setting up industry rules. sustainable development technology in their construction. Market Growth The potential for the market for this machinery is positive. the demand for a lifestyle that is guilt free of destroying the environment can be expected. Once attaining a large market share. . a practice known as market skimming. Given time the discharges will accumulate and cause a serious environmental damage if not taken care of early. Market skimming allows Greenzo to set a high price in order to gain as much profit as possible in the early stages. Since there is no competition from other industry players and being the only provider will cause interested parties to flock to Greenzo to get the technology. The demands for a better life without damage to the environment are central in many countries especially the European Union countries where environmental movement is strong. Being a new service/technology will naturally intrigue the interest of the general especially the targeted market. Hence the demands will continue to rise as environment is an important global agenda that will continue to dominate human’s live in the next few decades to come. general pricing level. Many developed countries today practice the concept of sustainable development and harmony with nature. They will be interested in this technology because of the environmental benefit and also the PR/publicity they will receive for infusing green. NGOs. and professional standards. SWOT Analysis Strength New technology The first strength of Greenzo lies in the fact that this is a relatively new product and there is no other such technology in place currently especially in this country. world bodies.27 environment in the long run. Here we focus on the domestic waste discharged from houses. More and more products and services being produced today are infused with environmental message and using a lot of green technology. and consumers themselves. Foreign Buyers/Investors Many potential buyers from more advanced countries would be interested as well if this technology is promoted well in the international market. With the advent of environmental agenda by governments. Price (market skimming) Since the technology/service is new it opens for an opportunity for the company to set a high introductory price. Pioneer in industry Any business expert will tell you that a newcomer in a new business segment tends to have the advantage when it comes to capturing the market share. There is also the chance to earn extra income through the side products produced from the filtration process.
. Corridor developments The corridor developments as announced by the Government are a catalyst for growth in property (housing) and also in construction industry with demand for house and office buildings expected to soar. the downside of new technologies is that the benefits are largely unknown and hidden unless really shown explicitly. They might bring the technology over or go for a joint venture with another local company to jointly develop and market the technology. Besides. it will help boost the demand for this technology. Since it is impossible to show a real structure. When there is no support. the company will have to rely on sketches which might not really work in attracting clients. Foreign investors especially will be interested in such a ‘green’ technology. When there is no credibility. Once the corridors achieve its initial objective and targeted investments. Opportunities New townships New townships are springing up every month and the housing market is as vibrant as ever in this country despite the downturn in United States housing industry. Being new with no possibility of comparing it with other similar technology may turn off potential clients and may cause Greenzo to lose business. developers will be interested in acquiring Greenzo in order to comply with the directive. Product benefit unknown and difficulties in gaining contracts Other than the cost. Government sustainable policy With legislation and rules being enacted for a more sustainable development. the high cost of building such facility also may be a hindrance in procuring clients. there won’t be any business. there won’t be any credibility left either.28 Weaknesses High cost/price Despite the fact that a high price will enable the company to gain profits. Foreign competitors There are no local competitors as Greenzo is the only one locally with such a technology. this can also be a setback if the target market view it as too high. Companies like SP Setia and IJM Constructions recently reported construction of several high-end townships in Kuala Lumpur which is a great opportunity for this technology to be applied there. However threat exists in the form of foreign competitors. Threat No support from government The technology will lose its luster if the government does not give its support.
So far the pricing can be assumed to be around RM2-5 million. raw chemicals and liquid fertilizers – which could be a new source of revenue to the property developer. buthane gas. Apart from the technology itself. . the technology can be implemented and utilized anywhere in the world where sustainable development is being focused on. There are some companies that recycle and reuse industrial waste and effluent. The higher the real estate price and size. As long as the buyer of the technology is an environmental advocate who wants an environmentally sustainable development. Positioning Strategy Positioning is very important when it comes to the stage where potential buyers are considering the purchase move. phenolic compounds. it can be placed anywhere. Place The place is not set and this technology can be bought and implemented anywhere in the world (we currently focused on Malaysian market). When the brand or company position is strong in the minds of the target market. estates and other areas.29 Competition Currently. It is a green technology. however BioGround™ is not in direct competition with them. the higher the cost of acquiring the filter will be. The most common location would of course be new townships. more and more sales can be concluded and the service of Greenzo will expand simultaneously. Positioning strategy Greenzo should pursue is:“A green based service technology that helps manage human common waste into something that is more environmental friendly and at the same time produces valuable by-products” Marketing Mix Product/Service The service here is a biological based technology that is aimed at helping to reduce the impact of domestic waste discharges from a housing area on the environment. there are also by-products that are produced by the filtration process and this includes methane gas. industrial areas. Price Price depends on the cost of the land where the filter is going to be located at. no other company in Malaysia that has technological approach and application similar to BioGround™.
The corporate catalogue and portfolio should be kept in a tip top condition to reflect true professionalism and also to inspire a sense of pride in the employees working there. etc. . Mid Valley Exhibition Centre (7-9 November) • MIPIM Asia 2008. They cannot suddenly pull out from the segment just like that as this will bring implications of its own. Conducting public tour • Malaysia Property Expo (MAPEX) 2008. Mid Valley Exhibition Centre (6-8 December) 2. or seminar. 3. Focus should be shifted back to its core business segment: the government-linked and private property developer. sponsoring publications by Sahabat Alam Malaysia. Lastly Greenzo should never let go of the effort to continue to enhance its image and reputation as a professional. 4. These benefits can be emphasized upon via: 1. promotion is hardly necessary as the attributes and benefit it brings is more than sufficient to promote it to everyone. trustworthy. a contingency plan is essential. Conducting CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) with special focus on environmental programme – essay writing competition. Greenzo should gradually decrease its effort to capture this target market. by strategic partnership with the property developer. Getting endorsement from the Government via Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment – strive for Anugerah Alam Sekitar and Bandar Lestari status. Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre (19-21 November) • Modern Home and Property Fair 2008. The sales force will need to be reinforced and a comprehensive direct marketing approach should be launched to bring more revenues as this is a proven method for them. conventions. However this doesn’t mean they should neglect the importance in involving actively in property expo. Conducting PR exercise. Contingency Planning In case the marketing strategies doesn’t work out and Greenzo do not significantly gain by targeting walk in customers (during property expo or similar events).30 Promotion For service like this. and reliable brand.
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