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COMPANY BACKGROUND Greenzo Technologies is a company that embraces bioremediation and biodegradation process by turning waste products into useful ones after several treatments in order to create a new housing area with nature in mind. Our approach is mainly focused on housing developers where our Greenzo system is incorporated with the planning of a new area development. We approach these developers to buy our system, implement the system in their development project and gain massive profits from the system for a longer period of time. Analysis predict that marketability of the system by our company will create a wider target.The purchasing power of developers are potential enough to increase in years ahead. Objectives Our business strategy will revolve around the need to provide quality Greenzo system to our target customers, in the process fully satisfying their needs. This shall be undertaken through the implementation of high quality control standards and biotechnological innovations, as well as the recruitment of a professional production and training underwent employees, as the steps in producing good quality end-products to cater for various kinds of customers. We shall position ourselves as a quality manufacturer that strives to provide fulfillment, satisfactory, reliability and a good image. With time we intend to establish our presence on the World Wide Web, which will increase the knowledge of our system. Web presence is a natural objective in reaching the appropriate potential customers. Well-done brochures, company profiles and business cards often have a triggering effect on clients contemplating on ordering our products. Hence this will undoubtedly generate increased sales of our system. Our objectives will revolve around the following guiding principles:
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Provision of a great work environment, treating each other with respect and dignity. Apply high-quality standards of excellence to all business processes. Develop enthusiastically-satisfied customers all of the time. Contribute positively to our communities and our environment. To continuously formalize and measure cross-functional working communication as to ensure that the various departments work harmoniously towards attainment of company objectives. To instill a culture of continuous improvement in beating standards of customer satisfaction and efficiency. Fully commit to supporting growth and development in the economy.
Ultimately we intend to create a stable business platform that will create prosperity for all those involved in the business venture at all levels, and to uplift unemployed fresh graduates who are prepared to participate in this venture. Mission and Vision Greenzo Technologies intends to create a satisfactory environment through the provision of good quality bioremediation system. We intend to provide the best possible value to our customers who care about quality and healthy environment, and we want every ringgit spent on our system are not just a waste. Hence our value proposition is to sell the benefit of healthy living and nature loving environment. Internally we intend to create and nurture a healthy, creative, respectful and enjoyable office and plant environment, in which our employees are fairly compensated and encouraged to respect the customer and the quality of the system we produce. In addition, follow-up will be mandatory so as to ensure customer satisfaction and make any improvements as recommended by the customers in future. We seek a fair and responsible profit, enough to keep the company financially healthy for the short and long term. We also intend to obtain ISO certifications so that our system is internationally recognized and approved. This will assist in our penetrating the regional and international markets, intentions of which we have in future. However this will occur after we have established ourselves on the local market. The above is well summarized in our mission statement which goes as follows: Our mission is to carefully attend to detail in the hygiene in all our system process, and to uphold superb quality at all levels of production with nature in mind. Our Values Greenzo Technologies committed towards an open governance system whereby its activities are managed and undertaken ethically, transparently, and in the interests of all concerned stakeholders. This shall be undertaken through implementation of the following company values:
We intend to conduct our business ethically and transparently, respecting all applicable laws. We intend to be a responsible corporate citizen fulfilling our obligations as an integral member of society. Hence our business decisions shall give appropriate weight and consideration to social and environmental impacts. We intend to provide products of uncompromising quality to meet the needs of our customers.
Management Team The management team. which if well planned for. Through promotion and implementation of the above stated company values we believe that we will be able to attain our corporate and stakeholders' goals and objectives for the benefit of all concerned. . in particular the communities in which we will operate. and public relations. Ultimately we intend to uphold all the above company values. Daily management will consist of Ms. Hence our communication shall be open and accurate.4 • • • We intend to seek mutually beneficial and enduring relationships in all the commitments that we make. Luvanee Parkianathan in the role of technical and operations. Management's ongoing initiatives to drive sales. Ruzanna Abdul Rahman in dealing with government. The company intends to respect its community and treat all employees well. promoting our employees and respective third parties engaged by us to do likewise. We do not intend to be overly hierarchical. We will develop and nurture the company as community. corporate bodies. has wide expertise and broad knowledge of the system. internally and externally. market share and productivity will provide additional impetus. and Ms. We intend to optimize the creation of wealth to provide fair reward and recognition for the contributions of our stakeholders. will enable the business to realize its goals and objectives. its products and markets. ensuring that they are straightforward and honest. mainly comprising of the shareholders. Management style will reflect the participation of the shareholders.
and further purifying the products to obtain a valuable. The palm oil bunches can be obtained by paying palm oil 1 Research and Product Development Department . 2. Waste products from homes that are defined: Domestic waste product. It is all about treating waste products that are collected from various source especially from a housing township with industrial microbes. These palm oil bunches actually promotes growth to various microbes that helps in the degradation process. There are seven major steps involving the process on how the whole system works. These palm oil bunches are regarded as waste product in the palm oil industry.foods that are crushed in the sink and flowed to the underground-built reservoir system. Waste products from homes are channeled to underground-built closed reservoir system through pipes. 1. Palm oil bunches that normally discarded without use can be used to ensure the flow of the whole system is controlled.5 THE PRODUCT1 Greenzo is the biomass unit system which serves as a methodology towards bioremediation process. desired product.
This sludge sediment can be further processed into solid organic fertilizers. microbes are taken from the effluent pond. and this is the place where degradation process using industrial microbes occur. Microbes used in the degradation process are bought only once and for the subsequent flow. . The sludge sediment which stays at the bottom of the reservoir tank is flowed into the effluent pond. waste products. This is a reservoir tank which collects. Also. stores the waste product in it for 28 days. Underground-built closed reservoir system. The sludge water that appears on the top portion of the reservoir tank is flowed into the multilevel industrial filtration unit after 28 days so the filtration process can take place. 3.6 bunches sellers at a very cheap rate. 5. The palm oil bunches are crushed using the palm oil bunches crusher before it is flowed into the underground-built reservoir system. the sludge sediment can be used in the microbe breeding process. 4.
ammonium and etc. The sludge water will undergo multilevel filtration process where there are few major raw products that can be produced. C. and human feces. well water. clam gut. Methane gas . Research & Development for the Bacterium Applied Clostridium acetobutylicum Assessment Introduction Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic. Undertaking the above initiatives.The methane gas will further be refined at the methane gas collection and refinery. They are: I. The bacterium produces endospores allowing long-term survival in the environment even in the presence of oxygen. This shall be undertaken through the engagement of modern production techniques using up-to-date assembly technology. In order to improve productivity in plants. quality products. there have been no reports of adverse effects to human health or the environment.7 6. This will also result in low production costs being attained by the company. III. Greenzo Technologies intend to reduce cost in Greenzo system plant by streamlining administrative functions and promoting and instilling a business culture that focuses on the teamwork rather than individual productivity.where the raw products of phenolic compounds can be sold to refineries where variety products can be made Raw chemicals . Phenolic compounds . lake sediments. Butane gas . acetobutylicum is considered a benign microorganism. Greenzo system shall strive to attain service excellence in addition to manufacturing safe. II. sludge will be refined and transformed into solid fertilizers. It exists in the biologically inactive spore stage in soils except when vegetative growth is stimulated by anaerobiosis and other favorable growth conditions. The refined methane gas can be used as electricity generator to the Greenzo system. Liquid fertilizers . V.Where these raw products can be further refined and made as fertilizer for plants. we will optimize the productivity given to available resources. canine. Greenzo Technologies intend to ensure that the suppliers engaged are committed and reliable so as not to let down the final consumer in terms of the quality of the product and time of delivery. IV.can be further refined and flowed into pipes to houses as cooking gas. and from bovine. Throughout its long history of use for production of acetone and butanol. Example like ethanol.where the chemicals produced are sent to refineries to be refined before being sold. The end product for filtration is flowed to the effluent pond for the maintenance and growth of microbes (7). It . Also. saccharolytic and proteolytic bacterium that can be isolated from soils.
This bacterium is rod-shaped. however. and some strains produce inducible carboxymethyl cellulase and cellobiase enzymes. However. There are no reports in the literature suggesting that C. and produces subterminal endospores. vegetative cells may survive oxygen exposure for several hours. It has been suggested that there are at least two groups within the species. also a condition known as wound botulism following trauma. acetobutylicum is an obligate anaerobe. there is a possibility that high concentrations of vegetative cells or spores could accidentally be inoculated into a wound. and fermentative characteristics. should mitigate this concern. The only concern is that new strains or environmental isolates of C. acetobutylicum is. ATCC 824. although it does not appear to be a major component. whereby a large number of spores are inoculated into an open wound. good worker hygiene. acetobutylicum is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. part of the normal flora of the human colon. motile by peritrichous flagella. The likelihood of toxin acquisition by an industrial strain with a history of safe use in an industrial setting seems remote. C.8 is not pathogenic or toxigenic to humans. and therefore. will not grow in the presence of oxygen. or plants. the first of which would consist of strains NCIB 8052 and P262 (a widely used industrial strain – used in Greenzo) and the other group which would contain the type strain. it is pleomorphic at later stages. However. There is. Except for its isolation from human feces. It apparently does not produce any extracellular or intracellular materials that would be toxic to humans. The resistant endospores produced by this bacterium enable it to survive in the environment for many years. If C. acetobutylicum has not been associated with humans. Typically. animals. at least intermittently. and DSM 1731. There is apparently little DNA homology between the two proposed groups. this disease is caused by Clostridium botulinum. Hazard Assessment2 Human Health Hazards There are several reports in the literature that suggest that C. acetobutylicum strains acquired the ability to produce botulism toxin as did the other nonpathogenic species mentioned above. acetobutylicum may have had contact with clostridial pathogens and acquired toxin-production 2 Hazard and Safety Department . biochemical. The potential risks associated with the use of this bacterium in fermentation facilities are low. acetobutylicum has the ability to produce mammalian toxins. C. even in the presence of oxygen. nor does it produce enzymes known to be associated with virulence. C. including use of protective clothing. The five most commonly used strains of C. acetobutylicum strains differ widely with respect to their growth and their physiological. Identification and Taxonomy Although Gram positive at early stages of growth.
butyricum and members of the family Bacillaceae including Bacillus subtilis and B. and it is not listed as such in a review of animal pathogens by Hill. acetobutylicum is an animal pathogen. coli. acetobutylicum would acquire botulinum toxin genes. Escherichia coli. acetobutylicum fixes atmospheric nitrogen. acetobutylicum is widespread in the environment. or virulence factors typically associated with mammalian toxicity or pathogenicity. Hazards to Plants There are no reports in the literature indicating that C. acetobutylicum strain ATCC 824 was similar to that obtained from strain P262. It may be prudent for the manufacturer to screen culture supernatants at late log phase of growth for the production of botulism toxins. The bacteriocin from C. acetobutylicum is expected to survive in the environment. population levels of 106 clostridia per gram of soil have been found. or Bacteroides fragilis. acetobutylicum has any adverse effects on plants. 2. Serratia marcescens. enzymes. Although C. Aerobacter aerogenes. The levels of members of the genus Bacillus are thought to range 106 .9 genes. acetobutylicum (P262) produces a bacteriocin near the end of the exponential growth stage. Hazards Posed to Other Processes Although C. acetobutylicum (P262) was not inhibitory to Achromobacter. Since it is highly unlikely that C. Under some conditions. there is still little environmental concern due to the high numbers of bacilli typically found in soils. Hazards to Animals There are no reports in the literature suggesting that C. acetobutylicum is minimal. felsineum. as it is expected to survive predominately as spores. Environmental Hazards 1.107 per gram of soil. The production of bacteriocins in the environment by C. Hazards to Other Microorganisms C. megaterium . acetobutylicum would not be likely to be of concern. In addition. the overall human health risk of C. acetobutylicum has not been shown to produce any toxins. it will exist predominantly as spores rather than as vegetative cells since it is obligately anaerobic. The bacteriocin from ATCC 824 was not inhibitory to Corynebacterium glutamicum. 3. In addition. the amount of nitrogen fixed by nonsymbiotic microorganisms . E. It is reported that this bacteriocin had inhibitory effects against members of the same species and against one other clostridial species. C. C. Salmonella typhimurium. Bacteriocins are usually thought to have bactericidal action against the same species or other clostridial species. but was inhibitory to C. also reported that a bacteriocin obtained from C. As mentioned above. the amount of nitrogen fixed by this organism in the environment would probably be negligible. or Zymomonas mobilis. 4. Even if bacteriocins are released into the environment with spent fermentation wastes. C. Proteus mirabilis.
extraction. near the fermentor. However.. as the efficiency of nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation is low and energy sources are scarce. Exposure Assessment Worker Exposure C. During fermentation processes. 1986). the duration of exposure for a single worker will be about 1.S. acetobutylicum produce cellulases which enable the fermentation of some feedstocks. i. sampling. processing. Area samples near the sampling port revealed average airborne concentrations ranging from 350 to 648 cfu/m3. but this does not appear to be a potential environmental hazard since this organism already exists in the environment. harvesting. acetobutylicum is thought to be one of three prominent species. In Malaysia. A typical site employs less than 10 workers per shift and operates 24 hours per day throughout the year. sampling ports. in the environment. . inoculation. The numbers of N2-fixing clostridia in arable soils range from 102 to 106 per gram of soil. and survival would most likely be in the spore stage. These particular facilities were not using recombinant microorganisms. The uncertainty associated with this estimated exposure value is not known. and decontamination procedures. Some strains of C. Assuming that 20 samples per day are drawn and that each sample takes up to 5 minutes to collect.5 hours/day. Area samples were taken in locations where the potential for worker exposure was considered to be potentially greatest. Assuming that the concentration of microorganisms in the worker's breathing zone is equivalent to the levels found in the area sampling. nitrogen fixation rates would not be expected to be appreciable. Department of Health and Human Services. the Chemical Engineering Branch would not use area monitoring data to estimate occupational exposure levels since the correlation between area concentrations and worker exposure is highly uncertain. the worst-case daily inhalation exposure is estimated to range up to 650 to 1200 cfu/day. but the processes were considered typical of fermentation process technology. Personal sampling data are not available at the present time.10 is relatively small compared to symbiotic associations. NIOSH Malaysia has conducted walk-through surveys of several fermentation facilities in the enzyme industry and monitored for microbial air contamination. of which C. The workers with the highest potential average exposures at the three facilities visited were those involved in-air sampling. the seed fermentor. acetobutylicum is considered a Class 1 Containment Agent under the National Institute of Health (NIH) Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (U. Typically. worker exposure is possible during laboratory pipetting. it was classified as safe for industry. area sampling data have been the only means of assessing exposures for previous PMN biotechnology submissions. and separation processes (either filter press or rotary drum filter).e. Thus.
vegetative cells of C. 3. and UV light exposure. Fate of the Organism This bacterium is an obligate anaerobe and growth is inhibited in the presence of oxygen. acetobutylicum cannot survive in the presence of oxygen except for brief periods. It should be noted that these estimates represent hypothetical exposures under reasonable worst case conditions. and no inactivation of the fermentation broth for the liquid and solid waste releases. 2. They also assume inactivation procedures resulting in a validated 6log reduction of the number of viable microorganisms in the liquid and solid wastes relative to the maximum cell density of the fermentation broth. To estimate exposures from this source. In addition. and the resistance of its endospores indicate that released microorganisms are likely to survive outside of containment. a release height of 3 meters and downward contact at a distance of 100 meters were assumed. Survival of vegetative cells during aerosolization is typically limited due to stresses such as shear forces. Assuming that there is no removal of organisms by controls/equipment for offgases. or lofted through mechanical or air disturbance. acetobutylicum in the atmosphere after release are currently unavailable.5 x 106 cfu/year for the uncontrolled/untreated scenario and less than that for systems with full exemptions. the sector averaging form of the Gaussian algorithm described in Turner (1970) was used.11 Environmental and General Exposure 1. Releases The uncontrolled/untreated scenario assumes no control features for the fermentor offgases. acetobutylicum exists as endospores which are quite resistant to adverse environmental conditions and can survive for many years.0 x 103 to 1. C. desiccation. As with naturally-occurring strains. However. . However. its ability to produce endospores suggests that this organism may survive after release. Air releases from fermentor offgas could potentially result in nonoccupational inhalation exposures due to point source releases. Air Specific data which indicate the survivability of C. vegetative cells can survive exposure to oxygen for several hours. human exposure may occur via inhalation as the organisms are dispersed in the atmosphere attached to dust particles. its ability to colonize anaerobic environments. potential human inhalation dose rates are estimated to range from 3. For purposes of this assessment. temperature. Typically. The containment criteria required for the full exemption scenario assumes the use of features or equipment that minimize the number of viable cells in the fermentor off-gases. Its widespread presence in nature.
Water The concentrations of C. long-term survival in soil may be expected to occur. The use of this methodology to estimate concentrations of C. desiccation. Integration of Risk3 C. acetobutylicum in surface water were estimated using stream flow values for water bodies receiving process wastewater discharges from facilities within SIC Code 283 (drugs. although the vegetative cells have been shown to survive for several hours with oxygen exposure. Department . range from 102 to 106 per gram of soil. The flow value expressed as 7Q10 is the lowest flow observed over seven consecutive days during a 10 year period. It exists predominately in the environment as endospores which are quite resistant to adverse environmental conditions such as heat. acetobutylicum within the soil. and surface water flow data retrieved from the RXGAGE database. acetobutylicum in surface water assumes that all of the discharged organisms survive wastewater treatment and that growth is not enhanced by any component of the treatment process.e. acetobutylicum is thought to predominate. 5. Human exposures via dermal and ingestion routes. enzymes. The surface water release data (cfu/day) tabulated in Table 1 was divided by the stream flow values to yield a surface water concentration of the organism (cfu/l).12 4. acetobutylicum. This bacterium is not thought to be a pathogen of either plants or animals. 3 Research and Product Development. particularly under anaerobic conditions. Releases from the fermentation facility of vegetative cells into anaerobic environments. 1991. of which C. and environmental exposures (i. or virulence factors normally associated with mammalian toxicity. This bacterium is obligately anaerobic implying growth only under reducing conditions. The stream flow values for SIC Code 283 were based on discharger location data retrieved from the Industrial Facilities Dischargers (IFD) database on December 5. The resistant endospores formed could promote survival for years. even under aerobic conditions. and aquatic organisms via runoff) may occur at the discharge site because of the potential establishment of C. medicinal chemicals. acetobutylicum is a common soil proteolytic and saccharolytic bacterium which is widespread in nature. Quality Assurance and Control. low nutrient status. would. acetobutylicum. avian. and pharmaceuticals). result in survival of the bacterium. most likely. Tenth percentile values indicate flows for smaller rivers within this distribution of 154 receiving water flows and 50th percentile values indicate flows for more average rivers.. and aerobic conditions. to terrestrial. Population levels of clostridia. Although it can. There are no reports of ecological or human health hazards caused by C. It does not produce any toxins. or of spores into any environment. Process and Production. Hazard and Safety. Flow values were obtained for water bodies receiving wastewater discharges from 154 indirect (facilities that send their waste to a POTW) and direct dischargers facilities that have a NPDES permit to discharge to surface water). Soil Since soil is a natural habitat for C.
acetobutylicum in fermentation facilities will not affect the population size of this species in the environment. it is not otherwise associated with humans. botulinum and C. nontoxigenic clostridia have acquired the ability to produce botulism toxin types E and F. the fermentation workers would be expected to be wearing protective clothing and participating in good industrial hygiene which would allay this risk of infection given an accidental spill. predominately as resistant spores except under anaerobic conditions. acetobutylicum is the possibility of acquiring toxinproducing genes from pathogenic clostridia. The botulism toxins produced by these typically nontoxigenic clostridia were indistinguishable from the botulism toxins produced by C. The only cases in which the closely related nontoxigenic clostridia acquired the toxin genes involved infant botulism. Industrial strains of C. baratii and two strains of C. However. occupy the human intestines. other closely related solventogenic. butyricum. Therefore. Toxin acquisition has never been reported for this particular species. and the likelihood is remote. The likelihood of acquisition of a toxin gene by an industrial strain of C. acetobutylicum strains are widespread in the environment. it is not thought to be a major component of the normal human flora. Except for its isolation from human feces. . There are no reports in the literature indicating that C. naturally-occurring C. The only concern for the acquisition of botulism toxin genes lies with the use of strains or environmental isolates that may have been in contact with the toxigenic bacteria. this bacterium is expected to survive. but has never been shown. There are three cases of infant botulism which were caused by a strain of C. All of these scenarios for botulism toxicity are dependent on the acquisition of the toxin gene by the organism which is theoretically possible. Under good industrial practices. botulinum. and the only associated potential hazard with it is the theoretical possibility of acquisition of botulism toxin genes from toxigenic clostridia. This organism is considered benign. especially in an industrial setting where efforts are taken to minimize contaminants of the fermentation. acetobutylicum have a long history of safe use in the production of acetone and butanol with no incidents of adverse effects to human health or the environment. The only potential risk associated with C. If released into the environment. the risks to human health and the environment associated with the use of this microorganism are low. The conditions needed for development of infant botulism would not occur in fermentation facilities as exposure to large numbers of spores directly by the infant is necessary. acetobutylicum with a history of safe use in an industrial setting is remote due to the fact that care is taken to prevent contamination of the fermentors by other microorganisms.13 intermittently. acetobutylicum are low. However. and the limited exposure resulting from the use of C. tetani. acetobutylicum can acquire toxin genes produced from C. Both the hazard and the exposure associated with the use of C. Wound botulism of industrial workers is also highly unlikely since large numbers of vegetative cells or spores need to be inoculated into an open wound.
and loading rates is crucial to obtaining efficient breakdown of the material. 4 Quality Assurance and Control Department. hydrogen. and disturbances to a digest can lead to process failure. ensuring that the quality of input materials to the digesters performance is reliable. hydrogen.14 THE PROCESSESS4 Process Overview Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. b) acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide. with the assistance from Research and Product Development Department . The technical expertise required to maintain digesters coupled with high capital costs and lower process efficiencies have so far limited the level of its industrial application as a waste treatment technology. As part of an integrated waste management system. Anaerobic digestion is a renewable energy source because the process produces a methane and carbon dioxide rich biogas suitable for energy production helping replace fossil fuels. the nutrient-rich solids left after digestion can be used as fertilizer. finally able to convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide. Careful control of the digestion temperature. anaerobic digestion reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere. pH. such as in Greenzo underground tank. ammonia and organic acids. and carbon dioxide. along with additional ammonia. and makes them available for other bacteria. Process begins with a) bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials in order to breakdown insoluble organic polymers such as urban waste and palm oil bunches. c) acetogenic bacteria the convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acids. It is widely used to treat wastewater sludges and organic wastes because it provides volume and mass reduction of the input material. Also. d) methanogens.
H2S Oxygen . Typical composition of biogas: Matter Methane CH4 Carbon dioxide CO2 Nitrogen . Biogas Biogas holder with lightning protection rods and back-up gas flare was used in Greenzo.15 Products5 multilevel filtration unit There are three principal products of Greenzo: biogas.H2 Hydrogen Sulfide . N2 Hydrogen . digestate and water. O2 % 50-75 25-50 0-10 0-1 0-3 0-2 5 Process and Production Department .
Greenzo does have this plan in the future. when the regulation become easy and feasible). some plastic may be present. liquor or a sludge-based combination of the two fractions. It also consists of the mineralized remains of the dead bacteria from within the digesters. and Sweden the methane in the biogas may be concentrated in order for it to be used as a vehicle transportation fuel or alternatively input directly into the gas mains. after the bacterial population has grown and tapers off as the putrescible material is exhausted. In countries where the driver for the utilization of anaerobic digestion are renewable electricity subsidies. at least for the time being (electricity produced from Greenzo can be sold to suppliers or put into the local grid in near future. This will be dependent upon the quality of the original feedstock. but also of a variety of mineral components in a matrix of dead bacterial cells. Biogas may require treatment or 'scrubbing' to refine it for use as a fuel. Electricity produced by anaerobic digesters is considered to be renewable energy and may attract subsidies. In the case of most clean and source-separated biodegradable waste streams the levels of PTEs will be low. Levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) should be chemically assessed. In the case of wastes originating from industry the levels of PTEs may be . In single stage digestion systems the two fractions will be combined and if desired separated by further processing. Digestate Digestate is the solid remnants of the original input material to the digesters that the microbes cannot use.16 Most of the biogas is produced during the middle of the digestion. Germany. Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic product formed from sulfates in the feedstock and is released as a trace component of the biogas. this route of treatment is less likely as energy is required in this processing stage and reduces the over all levels available to sell. Digestate can come in three forms. fibrous. Biogas does not contribute to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations because the gas is not released directly into the atmosphere and the carbon dioxide comes from an organic source with a short carbon cycle. In Greenzo the different forms of digestate come from different digestion tanks. The second by-product (acidogenic digestate) is a stable organic material comprised largely of lignin and cellulose. In countries such as Switzerland. The third by-product is a liquid (methanogenic digestate) that is rich in nutrients and can be used as a fertilizer dependent on the quality of the material being digested. The gas is normally stored on top of the digester in an inflatable gas bubble or extracted and stored next to the facility in a gas holder. The methane in biogas can be burned to produce both heat and electricity. usually with a reciprocating engine or microturbine often in cogeneration arrangement where the electricity will be used only to operate the generator. The material resembles domestic compost and can be used as compost or to make low grade building products such as fiberboard.
During this maturation. and the community at large. Underground Tank Gas Monitoring6 Underground tank gas monitoring (which is almost similar with landfill gas monitoring) is the process by which gases that are released from mashes of urban waste are electronically monitored.17 higher and will need to be taken into consideration when determining a suitable end use for the material. Processed water will be used by the facility or the generator. Wastewater The final output from Greenzo system is water. The company realizes that there shall be a lot of by-products (effluent water and sludge) that will be produced from our production of the main product lines. . the ammonia will be broken down into nitrates. If this effluent was put directly into watercourses it would negatively affect them by causing eutrophication. Greenzo already has a selected market and potential customer to buy the economically-feasible byproduct produced from the system. Greenzo was equipped with “mini” water treatment facility. Greenzo Technologies plan to utilize by-products whenever possible. This water may be released from the dewatering of the digestate or may be implicitly separate from the digestate. Digestate typically contains elements such as lignin that cannot be broken down by the anaerobic microorganisms. these are measures of the reactivity of the effluent and show an ability to pollute. Greenzo Technologies intends to utilize every resource it has to the fullest possible extent. This water originates both from the moisture content of the original waste that was treated but also includes water produced during the microbial reactions in the digestion systems. Also the digestate may contain ammonia that is phytotoxic and will hamper the growth of plants if it is used as a soil improving material. improving the fertility of the material and making it more suitable as a soil improver. The wastewater exiting the anaerobic digestion facility will typically have elevated levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Large composting stages are typically used by dry anaerobic digestion technologies. Chemical reactions and microbes acting upon the waste as the putrescible materials begins break down in the 6 Quality Assurance and Control Department. For these two reasons maturation or composting stage may be employed after digestion. However not wanting to pollute the environment. This will ensure that our resources are fully utilized. Lignin and other materials are available for degradation by aerobic microorganisms such as fungi helping reduce the overall volume of the material for transport. with Hazard and Safety Department. Some of this material is termed 'hard COD' meaning it cannot be accessed by the anaerobic bacteria for conversion into biogas. This treatment will typically be an oxidation stage where air is passed through the water in a sequencing batch reactors or reverse osmosis unit.
Such emissions lead to important environmental. while pumping a sample into a bag. • Integrated consists of walking on the surface of the tank. Due to the constant production of gas. There is also having two types of underground tank gas monitor: 1. pressure increases within the tank provoke its release into the atmosphere. b) Subsurface monitoring . single reading monitor. . • Used gas probes or also known as perimeter or migration probes. giving point readings for underground tank gas composition. • Instantaneous monitoring consists of walking on the surface of the tank. continuous gas monitor. There are two types of techniques for the monitoring of underground tank gas: a) Surface monitoring. • Gas probes also used to detect gas concentrations in the local environment around the probe. • It may give preliminary indications of the migration of gas off-site. Integrated regulatory limits tend to be 50ppm or less. The sample is the read with FID or sent to a lab for full analysis. • Sometimes it used at different depths at a single point. that remain in boreholes and give continuous readings over time for underground tank gas composition and production (methodology used by Greenzo).18 tank will results in gas production. (methodology used by Greenzo) • Used to check the integrity of caps on waste and check on borehole monitoring. hygiene and security problems in the facilities of Greenzo. while carrying a flame ionization detector (FID). • Can be broken down into instantaneous and integrated. 2.
Stability of the Microbes Strain development by recombinant techniques is usually performed in genetically defined laboratory strains harbouring markers suitable for selection of transformed cells in chemically defined cultivation media. Greenzo currently use C.19 Typical Gas Composition Methane.8 5mg/m3 88 mg 22 mg/m3 Greenzo revolutionary bioremediation system managed to obtain similar value of gas composition. . CH4 Carbon dioxide CO2 Oxygen O2 Flour e. attention should also be directed towards the stability of any novel traits in recombinant or mutant strains. but also the overall system. and nutrient-limited media. the degree of treatment and the concentration of suspended solids to be maintained. The effluent pond should be provided with oxygen supply to breed the microbes. viscous. to become the standard in industry. Suitable protection from the weather and elements shall be provided for electrical controls. the novel strains are either directly transferred to the industrial production environment or as occurs much more frequently a potential production strain has to undergo a new round of metabolic engineering procedures. Greenzo Technologies will continue do a research and making strategic partnership with Universiti Malaya to improve not only current microbial strain. Dissolved Oxygen Requirements Oxygen requirements generally will depend on the BOD loading. Effluent Pond Greenzo superior system also involves breeding microbes in the effluent pond. Due to the adaptive nature of microorganisms. toxic.H2S Chlorine % 54 42 0. acetobutylicum strain P262. Once desired novel traits have been established in recombinant laboratory strains. The genetic stability of strains is an absolute requirement for utilization in industrial processes. Aeration equipment shall be capable of maintaining a minimum dissolved oxygen level in the ponds at all times. In both cases. the typical industrial production strain is genetically undefined and adapted to perform in rather poor. the medium in which the novel pathways are developed differs substantially from the medium in which the final production strain is expected to perform.g freons Hydrogen sulfide.
The major advantages of doing so are being under higher margins. Through the use of economies of scale. Nonconfirming waste product in terms of safety and hazard will be checked by Safety and Hazard Officers only then to be approved with the consent of the Quality Control Manager who would have undertaken further analysis of it. However as we are committed in creating a continuous flow of products. Greenzo Technologies intend to ensure that it is done by responsible persons who will be present during off loading to check the quantity and condition of the consignment. During the actual off loading the receiving bay personnel will mass check on at least 98% of the consignment. the Company aims to maintain low input and production costs. Receiving Recognizing that the receiving of our input waste products is an essential element in our entire business. Hence waste products may be sourced from local communal and palm oil bunch lorry drivers avoiding intermediaries so as to minimize costs. .20 Suppliers Greenzo Technologies obtains the waste products from the houses through underground built pipes. ultimately benefiting the final consumer. we intend to engage with lorry drivers who dumps used palm oil bunches for a little compensation. faster payments and lower risks of payment default.
output. • Basic and complex interlocking circuits. 7 Hazard and Safety Department . The objective safety course is to provide workers with an understanding of: • The legal obligations of Employers. Regulatory and legal requirements will help to form a major part of corporate safety policy. Humanitarian. and the use of personal protective equipment. and workers. moral and the ever-present economic issues make proper safety assessments a vital element of Greenzo Technologies corporate structure. • Risk reduction methodology.21 SAFETY7 In any industrial production or factories. safety plays important part in the success of the business. The overall objective is simple: to transfer the knowledge of the standards and regulations to our workers. • Give an introduction to hazard identification techniques. • The meaning of a safety related control function. • Give an understanding of the principles of hazard analysis. • Provide an overview of the risk assessment process. • Training. are defined. instruction. • How components should be selected. and help to further develop our internal responsibility system. The objective of our Control Reliability Course is to provide workers with an understanding of: • The meaning of control reliability. allow the company to understand its obligations. Greenzo itself was build with safety and efficiency in mind. • How input. Greenzo Technologies always put a strategic attention to the safety. • Machine guarding requirements. • Fault tolerance. • The meaning of a safety related control system. The objective of our Risk Assessment Course is to: • Provide workers with an understanding of the meaning of 'hazard' and 'risk'. Supervisors. minimize the risk and maximize the role of safety. • Provide an introduction to risk reduction methodology. • Health and safety documentation. • Potential faults within control circuits. This transfer of knowledge will streamline Company’s decision making process. control and monitoring devices. • Which standards define control reliability. Every month Greenzo Technologies will provide a seminar regarding safety to all the workers. • Control circuit categories.
Detailed consideration of all hazards and associated tasks may take a little more time. outweighs the cost of injuries. Greenzo Hazard and Safety Department had form a special group of engineers. The quality of pipes and the maintenance ensure the safety. The resulting loss of machine availability can be minimized by high-reliability safety systems. • How machine guarding relates to your lockout program. The piping system of Greenzo specially designed to avoid the risk of leakages.22 The objective of our Machine Guarding course is to provide workers with an understanding of: • How to buy machines that are designed for safe use. Their job only focuses on the piping problems. To avoid the risk of pollution and unwanted dangerous. When the nuisance faults are kept at a minimum. Any leakages will leads to environment pollution. by far. during the equipment design stage. • How to ensure that guards are properly manufactured. • Hazards that need to be guarded. They have their own department which packed with new electronic technologies to help the maintenance. . the temptation to interfere with the safety systems can be avoided. This additional expense has generally been proven to be a good investment as the injury prevention benefits. • Which standards define the characteristics of guards. Greenzo was equipped with machinery safety systems designed to interrupt processes in the event of a fault.
We also intend to minimize if not totally eliminate the number of isolated incidents of intimidation in the workplace. groups and plants for hard work and production so as to instill a sense of fun into the work and promote the maintenance of high standards. The salary to the personnel is based on the percentage of profit obtained from the production. . and strives to achieve optimal productivity. plants and machinery. generous profit sharing. A minimum wage of 10% of overall profit will be divided in percentage form to the personnel. Awards will be given out to outstanding individuals. Greenzo Technologies recognizes that the employees contribute fundamentally to the company's long-term prosperity. The compensation will include health care. their salary will be paid by the developer as the developer obtains 90% of the overall profit. we respects the diversity and human rights of our people. This is because the health of the people is an integral element of employee well-being at work and at home. largely depending on the dictates of the market and the developer’s developing area. through benefits such as housing and family education grants. while realizing the full potential of each employee.23 THE MANAGEMENT Greenzo Technologies intend to compensate the personnel well. At present Greenzo Technologies plants and offices are located in the growing industrial center of Shah Alam with intentions of establishing additional plants throughout Malaysia in future. Current facilities provide offices. plus a minimum of three weeks vacation. to retain their invaluable expertise and to ensure job satisfaction and enrichment through delegation of authority. Employee health shall be of extreme importance. As an equal opportunity employer. The Company intends to enhance the capacity to attract and retain people of quality. As for the employees. so as to ensure that production and distribution are not materially affected and sound relationships are maintained between employee and employer and between employees as a whole. and these terms is based on the mutual understanding between the developer and Greenzo Technologies. Compliance with relevant legislation is a minimum target in Greenzo Technologies. office equipment and so on.
Transport needed Jeep for easy access to palm oil estate and easily fit in 6 people. 8 Chief Financial Officer (CFO) . and so on. there is some amount of allowances for the team member. insurance. CFO CMO R&D Officer II Head of Quality Assurance and Control Head of Process and Production Department Head of Hazard and Safety Department H&S Officer II Total People Total Payroll 2011 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 9 100% Estimated budget on how Greenzo Technologies going to spend the capital8: Rental (3rd Floor) Transport (2nd hand Jeep) Furniture (Office) Communication Marketing Allowances Emergency Total • • • • • RM2000 x 18 months RM2500 x 18 months RM1000 x 18 months RM500 x 18 months RM5500 x 18 months RM13500 x 18 months RM50000 RM36000 RM45000 RM18000 RM9000 RM99000 RM243000 RM50000 RM500000 3rd floor is minimum cost for renting a location which got plenty facilities. CEO Vice President. Communication for internet and call access. Before first success deal.24 Personnel Plan (% profit sharing) 2009 2010 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 9 100% 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 9 100% President. Emergency such as medical. Head of R&D Dept.
CEO Vice President. Marketing: Public Tour CSR Training Ads Agency Fees Print publication Miscellaneous Total RM2000 x 18 months RM800 x 18 months RM500 x 18 months RM1000 x 18 months RM1000 x 18 months RM200 x 18 months RM36000 RM14400 RM9000 RM18000 RM18000 RM3600 RM99000 . Head of R&D CFO CMO R&D Officer II Quality Assurance & Control Process & Production Hazard & Safety Total • • RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months RM1500 x 18 months x 2 RM27000 RM27000 RM27000 RM27000 RM27000 RM27000 RM27000 RM54000 RM243000 An estimated allowance for the moment until we got our 1st successful deal. Will be changed according to term and condition.25 Allowances: President.
the technology can also be marketed to other governments of other countries. desired product. Market Segmentation Market segmentation is needed in order to ensure that our target market can be well defined. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. will surely appreciate the emergence of a green technology that will greatly improve the livelihood of Malaysian people and at the same time reduce the impact on the surrounding environment. Hence Greenzo seeks to fulfill this demand by supplying the technology for a cleaner system to deal with waste and fecal discharges from housing areas. Never has been in the history of humankind that emphasis on environmental protection and conservation had received this sort of attention and elicited continuous debate on the true story of environment. There are several potential target markets that can be approached: Government Government especially through its Ministry of Science. Property Developers Property developers are often faulted for being greedy and not giving enough emphasis on the environment. and further purifying the products to obtain a valuable. In the future. This in turn causes a spillover effect on the market needs. Housing area and property developers are often caught making a lot of damages in the construction process and also faulted for building a property that is not conducive for the 9 Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) . The government also has the most resources to purchase Greenzo compared with any other buyers. automatically we all are in danger as well. green technologies and the concept of sustainable development are the mantras of the day. Technology. They for sure will be interested in buying something that can improve their people’s lives.26 THE MARKETING9 Greenzo is the biomass unit system which serves as a methodology towards bioremediation process. The need for the green technology is there but we need to focus on who are going to be the potential buyers of this technology. and Innovation. Ever since the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – United Nation) convened and declared the world is heading towards a global warming disaster. Environmental friendly product. It is all about treating waste products that are collected from various source especially from a housing township with industrial microbes. the whole world has been wiped into frenzy over the looming environment catastrophe ahead. Market Analysis Market Needs The environment is in grave danger and when the environment is in danger. and Public Works Department.
Many developed countries today practice the concept of sustainable development and harmony with nature. and consumers themselves. Since there is no competition from other industry players and being the only provider will cause interested parties to flock to Greenzo to get the technology. sustainable development technology in their construction. and professional standards. Given time the discharges will accumulate and cause a serious environmental damage if not taken care of early. Pioneer in industry Any business expert will tell you that a newcomer in a new business segment tends to have the advantage when it comes to capturing the market share. SWOT Analysis Strength New technology The first strength of Greenzo lies in the fact that this is a relatively new product and there is no other such technology in place currently especially in this country. Foreign Buyers/Investors Many potential buyers from more advanced countries would be interested as well if this technology is promoted well in the international market. The demands for a better life without damage to the environment are central in many countries especially the European Union countries where environmental movement is strong. world bodies. Here we focus on the domestic waste discharged from houses. There is also the chance to earn extra income through the side products produced from the filtration process. other advantages naturally follows such as setting up industry rules. general pricing level.27 environment in the long run. Once attaining a large market share. Price (market skimming) Since the technology/service is new it opens for an opportunity for the company to set a high introductory price. NGOs. More and more products and services being produced today are infused with environmental message and using a lot of green technology. Market Growth The potential for the market for this machinery is positive. Being a new service/technology will naturally intrigue the interest of the general especially the targeted market. Market skimming allows Greenzo to set a high price in order to gain as much profit as possible in the early stages. a practice known as market skimming. With the advent of environmental agenda by governments. . They will be interested in this technology because of the environmental benefit and also the PR/publicity they will receive for infusing green. the demand for a lifestyle that is guilt free of destroying the environment can be expected. Hence the demands will continue to rise as environment is an important global agenda that will continue to dominate human’s live in the next few decades to come.
However threat exists in the form of foreign competitors. Opportunities New townships New townships are springing up every month and the housing market is as vibrant as ever in this country despite the downturn in United States housing industry. Foreign investors especially will be interested in such a ‘green’ technology. Foreign competitors There are no local competitors as Greenzo is the only one locally with such a technology. Government sustainable policy With legislation and rules being enacted for a more sustainable development. When there is no credibility. there won’t be any business. Besides.28 Weaknesses High cost/price Despite the fact that a high price will enable the company to gain profits. Corridor developments The corridor developments as announced by the Government are a catalyst for growth in property (housing) and also in construction industry with demand for house and office buildings expected to soar. it will help boost the demand for this technology. Once the corridors achieve its initial objective and targeted investments. . the company will have to rely on sketches which might not really work in attracting clients. the downside of new technologies is that the benefits are largely unknown and hidden unless really shown explicitly. developers will be interested in acquiring Greenzo in order to comply with the directive. Since it is impossible to show a real structure. They might bring the technology over or go for a joint venture with another local company to jointly develop and market the technology. there won’t be any credibility left either. this can also be a setback if the target market view it as too high. Product benefit unknown and difficulties in gaining contracts Other than the cost. Companies like SP Setia and IJM Constructions recently reported construction of several high-end townships in Kuala Lumpur which is a great opportunity for this technology to be applied there. Threat No support from government The technology will lose its luster if the government does not give its support. When there is no support. Being new with no possibility of comparing it with other similar technology may turn off potential clients and may cause Greenzo to lose business. the high cost of building such facility also may be a hindrance in procuring clients.
It is a green technology. phenolic compounds. however BioGround™ is not in direct competition with them. . The most common location would of course be new townships. industrial areas. Apart from the technology itself. So far the pricing can be assumed to be around RM2-5 million. buthane gas. there are also by-products that are produced by the filtration process and this includes methane gas. the higher the cost of acquiring the filter will be. There are some companies that recycle and reuse industrial waste and effluent.29 Competition Currently. Price Price depends on the cost of the land where the filter is going to be located at. it can be placed anywhere. more and more sales can be concluded and the service of Greenzo will expand simultaneously. estates and other areas. The higher the real estate price and size. raw chemicals and liquid fertilizers – which could be a new source of revenue to the property developer. As long as the buyer of the technology is an environmental advocate who wants an environmentally sustainable development. Positioning strategy Greenzo should pursue is:“A green based service technology that helps manage human common waste into something that is more environmental friendly and at the same time produces valuable by-products” Marketing Mix Product/Service The service here is a biological based technology that is aimed at helping to reduce the impact of domestic waste discharges from a housing area on the environment. no other company in Malaysia that has technological approach and application similar to BioGround™. When the brand or company position is strong in the minds of the target market. Positioning Strategy Positioning is very important when it comes to the stage where potential buyers are considering the purchase move. the technology can be implemented and utilized anywhere in the world where sustainable development is being focused on. Place The place is not set and this technology can be bought and implemented anywhere in the world (we currently focused on Malaysian market).
Conducting PR exercise. Mid Valley Exhibition Centre (7-9 November) • MIPIM Asia 2008. promotion is hardly necessary as the attributes and benefit it brings is more than sufficient to promote it to everyone. Greenzo should gradually decrease its effort to capture this target market. Getting endorsement from the Government via Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment – strive for Anugerah Alam Sekitar and Bandar Lestari status. The sales force will need to be reinforced and a comprehensive direct marketing approach should be launched to bring more revenues as this is a proven method for them. However this doesn’t mean they should neglect the importance in involving actively in property expo. Contingency Planning In case the marketing strategies doesn’t work out and Greenzo do not significantly gain by targeting walk in customers (during property expo or similar events). conventions. Conducting CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) with special focus on environmental programme – essay writing competition. trustworthy. The corporate catalogue and portfolio should be kept in a tip top condition to reflect true professionalism and also to inspire a sense of pride in the employees working there. Lastly Greenzo should never let go of the effort to continue to enhance its image and reputation as a professional. by strategic partnership with the property developer. or seminar. sponsoring publications by Sahabat Alam Malaysia. 4. etc. They cannot suddenly pull out from the segment just like that as this will bring implications of its own. and reliable brand. These benefits can be emphasized upon via: 1. a contingency plan is essential. . Focus should be shifted back to its core business segment: the government-linked and private property developer. Conducting public tour • Malaysia Property Expo (MAPEX) 2008. Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre (19-21 November) • Modern Home and Property Fair 2008. Mid Valley Exhibition Centre (6-8 December) 2.30 Promotion For service like this. 3.