PARIS M.

HEROUNI
ARMENIANS
AND OLD ARMENIA
ARCHAEOASTRONOMY
LINGUISTICS
OLDEST HISTORY
YEREVAN, 2004
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TO THE BRIGHT MEMORY OF
MY FATHER MISSAK HEROUNI (SACHIAN)
AND
MY MOTHER SEDDA HEROUNI (AZATTIAN)
THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED
I am very grateful to Mrs. Zarouhi & Mr. Hrach
Davidyan and Mrs. Elvina Makarian (USA) for their
financial support in this book publication.
Paris Herouni
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"If I were asked where one can see the most
miracles on our planet, I would name Armenia•
.•. I loved your country, her gifted people.
And leaving from, I have left here my heart."
ROCKWELL KENT
1962 [107]
INTRODUCTION
This book is about the Armennian" nation, its real prehistoric and an-
cient history recovery, about its language, knowledge, national state, civiliza-
tion and development from the very beginning until 301 AD when in Ar-
mennia the Christianity was adopted as a State religion.
The recovery of Armennian old history is very important also for all the
World old history because the history of old civilizations on the Earth has now
too many ununderstandable and unexplained facts and enigmas. The answers to
many of themare in the Annennian old history.
It seems this book is the first scientific attempt to demonstrate that Annen-
nian civilization, arisen in the Annennian homeland, is the first in the World and
the eradle of all other civilizations.
I understand that this new concept seems very unusual (though it is not in
contradiction with Bible) and it is too difficult to accept it, because the old history
of the World is now very distorted and Annennian old history is made out by p0-
litical reasons mainly. Ambitions "to forget" the words Old Annennia, Annen-
nians, Annennian language also continue now. For example, now instead of "Ar-
mennoid race" is often in use "Anterior Asia race", instead of "Annennian Cul-
ture" - "Cour-Aracsian Culture", instead of "Annennian Mesopotamia" - ''North
Mesopotamia", instead of "Annennian ffighland" - ''Eastern Turkey", etc. Even
there was an attempt to rename Mount Ararat
But I believe that one day the truth will win. Someone must begin the
fight for the truth and I am doing it, in spite of too much potential opposi-
tion from many sides.
I understand also that the problem I want to solve is scientifically very
complex. It is related to different specific directions such as history, archae-
ology, anthropology, linguistics, ethnography, astronomy, mathematics, geo-
• Today the form "Armenia" is in use, phonetic pronunciation of which is
[armi:nia]. But it is wrong. The accurate pronunciation should be [armenia]. So in
this book everywhere I have written double ''no'', Le. "Armennia", to show every-
body the right pronunciation.
5
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logy, mineralogy etc. It was necessary to collect data from them to one unit. I
have read many special books and made many notes and calculations during
the last 15 years. I hope this book can demonstrate the truth. Of course, the
problem is too big and this book is just the first step on the way to its solu-
tion. I think, the final will be achieved by scientists of new generation. This
process has begun now in Armennia. .
Writing this book I don't aspire to fame, to make revolution in the his-
tory. In my main scientific directions, which are radiophysics, radiotechnics,
radioastronomy, I have enough serious achievements in the area of large an-
tennas, telescopes, radioholography, radar, antenna metrology, solar power
units, etc., which are known in the World and in use in developed countries.
But being an Armennian scientist, member of the Armennian National
Academy of Sciences, I can not be apathetic to the present big distortions of
truth about my country, my nation.
There are very many facts in honour of my concept. The main and im-
portant of them are presented in this book, in three main parts: PART 1,
"Carahunge - the Prehistoric Wonder in Armennia", about the big and de-
veloped Observatory, the oldest one in the World, which was in active ope-
ration more than 7500 years ago; PART 2, "Armennian Language Analy-
sis", about large, important and interesting information which is kept in the
language and comes from the oldest times; PART 3, "Armennian Old His-
tory", about the beginning of Armennian civilization in Armennia more
than 40 thousand years ago and its development until the Christianity adop-
tion in 301 AD.
Fortunately I am not alone in my opinion about big distortions in the
World old history. U.K. scientist Graham Hancock in the beginning of his
book ''Fingerprints of the Gods" (Heineman, London, 1995) expresses grati-
tude to five researchers (giving their names) ''who saw that there was some-
thing very distorted in the World history, who have courage to stand against
that their brain did not agree with, and initiated by this the evolution of ba-
sic knowledge which become already irreversible".
This book is scientific one, but I aspired to make it at the same time as
popular as possible. I hope the book will be interesting for many readers in
many countries.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am very thankful to Dr. J.G.Gallagher (DERA, U.K.) for discussing
and editing my preliminary original English text of PART 1, to Dr. Sci,
S.M.Martirosyan, Ph.D. K. Martirosyan for computer processing of the final
text, tables, figures, and also to my wife Angela Herouni for edition and
grammatical correction of my English.
6
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PART 1
CARAHUNGE - THE PREIDSTORIC WONDER IN
ARMENNIA
"Per Apera ad Astra"
("Through Difficulties to Stars")
In Armennia, near town Sisian (200 km from Yerevan, capital of Ar-
mennia) there is the prehistoric Monument, consisting of hundreds large
standing Stones (Fig. 1). Many of these Stones contain holes running
through their upper part (Fig. 2).
Archaeological excavation had been carried out only near (around) the
Monument, where ancient sepulchres and a settlement dated Ill-ll millen-
nium BC were discovered [1 - 4]. But the Stone Monument itself was not in-
vestigated. There have only been just assumptions about these Stones con-
taining likely religious [1], spiritual [2] or other significances. Local resl-
dents of Sisian call the Monument "Standing Stones" or ''Protruding
Stones" and tell that it was built presumably for religious or fortification
purposes and also that old people were looking at stars through the holes.
The flrst supposition about eventual astronomical function of the
Monument (along with other surmises) was published by archaeologist
O.Khnkikian in 1984 [4].
7
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1.1. FIRST RESEARCH
Believing to my supposition that the Monument was a very old and big
Observatory, I decided to do my own investigation using astronomical meth-
ods. I have undertaken (at my own expense) scientific expeditions (8 persons
and 4-day-long each time) on the equinox and solstice days in 1994, 1995,
1996, 1997, 1999 and 2001. The detailed topographic map of the Monument,
as well as the latitude, longitude, magnetic deviation of place, angular heights
of ridges on the horizon, azimuth and elevation angles of the holes in Stones
and other features were measured. The catalogue of 223 stones with their
sizes and condition was completed and all these Stones were numbered. Many
observations of sky sources, photo and video films of the moments of Sun and
Moon rising, setting and culmination were done. A comparison of measured
and calculated values was completed. Many prehistoric Stone Astronomical
Instruments were discovered and accuracy of them was determined. Further-
more, I have established the date of the Observatory, using the Earth axis
precision and other laws.
The results of Carahunge research are printed in Armennia [5, 7, 8, 9,
11,12,14], Russia [10, 16], Italy [6, 17], Canada [13], France [15], Argentina
[17a].
This book contains results of all 6 expeditions and of many computer
calculations, especially for stars rising, setting and culmination moments in
the past, to demonstrate the age of Carahunge.
I consider now that the Carahunge Monument had three main func-
tions: a) Temple of AR (Sun in Armennian) - Main God of old Armennia,
and of His "Secretary", Tir God - patron of science, written language and
art, b) Large and developed Observatory and c) University.
It will be demonstrated in this book that Carahunge Observatory was
very developed and in active operation more than 7500 years ago (VI mil-
lennium BC) during more than 5500 years (I millennium AD), so it is the
oldest Observatory in the World.
It is also obvious for me that the Carahunge should be researched
much more thoroughly, and also by archaeologists and different specialists
during many years.
1.2. THE SITE AND NAME OF MONUMENT
The Carahunge site is on latitude of 39° 34' and longitude of 46° 01' on
the mountain plateau having altitude 1770m and occupies a territory of about
7 hectare on the left side of the Dar river canyon, the tributary of the river
8
Vorotan (at 2 km). The underground river comes to the surface 5 km from
the Monument and at 4 km, near village Shakki, it drops down a fall of
30m.
In the distance of 29 km (linear) to the East from the Carahunge
Monument is the village Carahunge, near new town Goris. In the distance of
80-90 km to N-E, in Lernayin (Nagorni) Karabakh or Artsakh there are two
another villages having the same name Carahunge. Near one of them there
are holes in rocks (not investigated yet).
In Armennia in total (including the Historical Armennia) there are
many old megaliths, menhirs, stone observatories, old universities, etc. Es-
pecially in region of Carahunge Monument there are many old megaliths,
tombs and universities, as some famous traditional early medieval universi-
ties and Christian old abbeys in Tatev, Gladzor, Shoushi.
Armennian historian Stepanos Orbelian in his book "History of
Syunic" (I-XII centuries) mentioned that in Tsluk (Yevalakh) region of Ar-
mennia, near town Syunic or Sisakan (now Sisian) was a village Carunge
[18]. This name in Armennian means "Stone Treasure" or ''Foundational
Stones".
The word "car" in Armennian is "stone", the word "hunge" or
''hunch'' - is ''voice'', "echo", "sound". So the name "Carahunge" means
"Speaking Stones".
Having above-mentioned data I called the Monument "Carahunge", Le.
Speaking Stones. Indeed, these Stones told old astronomers much interesting
information about Space, and now also tell us (and will tell) much new and
unexpected information about old times.

The Carahunge Monument consists. of the following parts: the
Central Circle, the North Arm, the South Arm, N-E Alley, the Chord (cross-
ing the Circle) and Separate Standing Stones (see map, Fig. 3). General view
of Carahunge central part from helicopter is shown in Fig. 4.
The heights of the stones range from 0.5 to 3 m (above ground) and
weight up to 10 tons. They are basalt (andesit) stones, eroded by time and
covered with moss and lichen of many colours. The inside surface of holes
preserved much better. There are also many broken and unnumbered
stones.
Stones were picked up from neighbouring canyon and lifted (hauled)
by animals (bull, horse). Then in the Observatory the holes in stones and as-
tronomical instruments were made.
9
10
CARAHUNGE
(CARENISll)
VI millenniumBC


213
fJ
N
W"---'---E
s
4--4---+-.....+i1---+-I1------1-- SO m ---f'--1'"
75
85
1: SOO
Fig. 3. The Map of Carahunge Monument
The Monument was designed, built and used by Armennians, native inhabi-
tants, who created here civilization more than 40 thousand years ago (see
below, PARTS 2,3).
The information about quantity and condition of numbered 223 stones
is in Table 1.
Table 1
CARAHUNGE STONES
Total
Total
Stan- Standing
Lying
Dam-
Numbers
quantity
with
ding with holes
Lying with Declining
aged
holes holes
Central 1-39
40 15 9 1 10 2
Circle +29a
- -
Chord 40-59 20 6 8 3 1
-
3 6
South
60-125,
Arm
+9Oa,+62a, 70 27 2S 16 32 10 2 17
64a,65a
North 126-196
80 49 28 18 35 30 3 21
Arm 214-222
NE AUey
197-199
8 2 2 4 2 2 3
208-212
-
Separate 200-202
5 1 1 2 1
Stones 207,213
- - -
Total 223 85 79 37 83 44 20 49
1.4. THE CENTRAL CIRCLE
It consists of 40 stones and is egg-shaped to the West, with sizes of
45 x 35 m. Approximately in the middle of Circle there are ruins of perhaps
some religious temple having proportions about 7 x 5. It is interesting that
the same proportions has the famous ancient Garni Temple (20 km from
Yerevan) of Sun God AR (see PART 3, Fig. 62).
Apparently the Central Circle and NE short Alley (directed to the sun-
rise point in Summer solstice day) served for solemn ceremony in honour of
AR.
There were no sacrificial altars (Stones) and sacrifice in Armennia. The
AR God was kind to nature, to people, to Armennians - His children. He
gifted life generously and unselfishly.
11
1.5. THE NORTH ARM
It goes to North from the Central Circle and consists of 80 stones (num-
bered), 49 of which have holes. The length of the Arm is 136 m and it has at
the northerly end of the Arm western and eastern alleys of about 50 m length
each one.
1.6. THE SOUTH ARM
It goes to South from the Central Circle for 75 m, then turns approxi-
mately to WW-S and continues for 40 m more. It consists of 70 stones (num-
bered), 26 of which have holes. After the end of South Arm there are circu-
lar tombs 3 m to 8 m in diameter.
1.7. NORTH-EAST ALLEY
It has a length of 36 m and width of 8 m and is directed approximately
to the Sunrise side at the Summer solstice day. The Alley includes 8 stones
(numbered, including lying ones), 2 of which (lain) have holes. All NE Alley
is on bank of about 0.5 m in height.
1.8. THE CHORD
Chord crosses the Central Circle and is as the continuation of North
Arm pending to connect it with South Arm. The Chord includes 20 (num-
bered) relatively small stones, 6 of which have holes.
1.9. SEPARATE STANDING STONES
They stay at the East as well as at the West sides of the Arms at a dis-
tance of up to 90 m and more. There are minimum 5 of such stones. One of
them (lying) has a hole. Possibly Separate Stones have been used as Heel
stone in Stonehenge (as bead on gun).
12
1.10. ABOUT SOME STONES
Stones KeN! 50, 71, 85 have two holes each. The lying stones KeN! 90,
92, 125 have holes pierced partially (are not finished) and these stones are
not too mossy. This suggests that both sky observing and new instrument
making work in Observatory were carried on simultaneously over a long pe-
riod of time and were suddenly interrupted.
Many stones are declined or lying extracted from ground. Many stones
are broken (especially their hole parts).
1.11. SOME PARTICULARITIES
The North and South Arms have the slit paths of about 1-1.5 m in
width, paved (covered) by stone plates (Fig. 5). Along paths in opposite side
of Stones there are small stones, which perhaps served as "seats" for observ-
ers. The seats probably had also a wooden superstructure to fix the head of
observer.
Many Stones look like men and animals (Fig. 6).
1.12. MEMBERS OF EXPEDITIONS
In Fig. 7 some regular members of our expeditions are shown: (from
left) camera-man M.Nersesian, consultant V.Azoyan, historian P.Safian,
P.Herouni, tourist manager O.Bakhshian, film director R.Hovanesian,
driver S.Manoukian, mechanic V.Karapetian. A lot of work was done also
by topographers S.Hakopian and M.Hovsepian, photographer
G.Bagdasarian, astronomer R.Mnatsakanian, programmer L.Tatevosian
and many others.
In Fig. 8 a working moment of our expedition in Carahunge in 1994 is
shown.
It was Dr. of History P.G.Safian, who first paid attention to the stones
KeN! 207-222 at the North part of the Monument (Fig. 9).
13
1.13. OUR GUESTS' FINDINGS
Dr. H.P.Kleiner, the specialist (studied also archaeology) from Switzer-
land, who took part in our expedition in 1995 (Fig. 10), paid attention to the
stone N! 68 having a bowl with water, the reflected ray from the surface of
which composes a definite angle with top of the neighbouring stone NI 69.
He noted separately standing stone N! 200 that could be an analogue of the
Heel stone of Stonehenge. He also found a little cutter made from obsidian
(Fig. 11).
Professor N.G.Bochkarev (astronomer), President of Euro-Asian Astro-
nomical Society (Moscow), who took part in our expedition in 2001 with his
two students (Fig. 12), discovered another Periscope-Stone (NI 90a), which
was lying between other lying stones near South Arm Stone NI 90 (Fig. 13).
"Carahunge is a very serious Observatory" - was the first main opinion of
Professor Bochkarev, who further using other methods also came in 2003 to
the same estimation of the Carahunge Observatory age equal to 7500 years
and agreed that Carahunge is the World oldest Observatory [96].
With the 7500 years of Carahunge age agreed also Armennian historian
Professor G.A.Galoyan [75, p.12].
1.14. THE HOLES INSTONES
The Holes all the way through Stones in Carahunge is a unique phe-
nomenon in ancient monuments (observatories). The Holes made in these
massive Stones ensure the highly stable and accurate pointing directions.
Some Holes in Stones are shown in Fig. 14. The weight and hardness of the
Stone make it a very reliable instrument for observing celestial objects over
many centuries. The long time stability of these stone astronomical instru-
ments is even much more than of modern telescopes.
Most of holes are directed to different points of the real horizon. Some
holes point above horizon and look up to the sky.
In Table 2 the Azimuth and Elevation angles of unbroken (or almost
unbroken) Holes measured by our expeditions in 47 normal standing
Stones are presented.
The Holes are 4-5 cm in diameter and are located 15-20cm belowthe top of
the Stones. From the both sides Holes are broadened conical to diameter about
12 cm. The surface of the inside of the Holes is clean and smooth as if they had
been polished (Fig. 14). Holes had been made by instruments having obsidian en-
ters put in fired clay.
The Holes in Stones are the clearest indication that Carahunge had the
astronomical function. They even allow to calculate the age of Carahunge Ob-
servatory (and of each Stone with Hole) with high accuracy, as it is shown be-
low.
14
Table 2. Azimuth and Elevation of unbroken Holes
in normal standing Stones
. Table 2
SOUTH ARM
N! Stone Azimuth (degree) Elevation
N! Number
compass corrected
(degree)
1. 60 168 170 7.3
2. 62 180 181 50
3. 63 100 102 3
4. 64 265 267 5.5
5. 66 70 76 7.5
6. 67 90 94 4
7. 71 285 287 33
8. 76 125 125 18.5
9. 78 265 267 24
10. 79 90 94 2.5
11. 81 255 257 20
12. 84 325 327 15
13. 85 70 76 10
14. 89 80 85 3.5
15. 97 135 134 25
16. 98 135 134 10
17. 99 305 316 6
18. 108 230 232 2
19. 109 0 5 18
20. 110 135 134 5.5
21. 122 325 327 16
NORTH ARM
N! Stone Azimuth (degree) Elevation
N! Number Compass corrected
(degree)
1. 126 40 43 6
2. 128 0 5 9
3. 129 110 111 7
4. 137 0 0 90
5. 138 290 291 23
6. 139 245 248 10
7. 143 25 28 8
8. 146 215 216 17.5
9. 147 135 146 10
10. 151 215 216 5.5
11. 152 0 5 5
12. 160 255 257 7
13. 161 60 65 4.5
14. 162 220 222 10
15. 163 230 232 5
16. 164 215 216 7
17. 165 250 252 10
18. 177 229 227 13
19. 181 335 338 7
20. 183 115 116 21.5
21. 187 60 64 7.5
In the Table 2:
CHORD
N! Stone Azimuth (degree) Elevation
N! Number
Compass corrected
(degree)
1 40 90 94 1.5
2 44 310 322 15
3 51 310 311 2.5
4 53 180 181 22.5
5 55 260 262 20
Az = 0° - is the North,
Az = 90° - is the East, etc.
15
Fig. 15. Scheme of the Hole in Stone
"------1000
(Dimensions in mm)
Fig. 16. Scheme of the Hole with pipe
H the eye of observer at a distance of 1m from the external edge of cy6ndricaI
part of the Hole, then the horizon seen in angularlimit 286° =172' (Fig.l5).
Considering that position of the Sun or Moon may be fixed by the eye in
the centre of the Hole with accuracy equal to its angular size (32'), we achieve
the accuracy of observation (or flxing) of their position equal to about (172-32)
: 2 : 20 = 3.5' (or 14 sec. of time).
I presumed that this accuracy could be increased if to observe through a
pipe (made, for example, from bamboo or rush having inside diameter about
10 mm) interposed and fixed in a Hole by means of clay (Fig. 16).
For a particular moment, such as Stmrise, it isnecessary to correct theposition
of pipe. This can bedone at the moment while day ls still wet. The next day, when the
day hardens, it can be removed (with pipe) from the Hole for using againfor the
same event next days or year (years). Using the pipe, the horizon angular limit will
be34' and the accuracy ofthe Sun and Moon observations, from the same distance of
1 m, will beequalthen to about (34-32) : 2: 2 =0.5' =30" (or 2 secof time!). For the
star and planet observation it was possibleto use a thin yam cross in pipe and then
the accuracy will beequal to 34' : 2 : 20 =0.85' =51" (or 3A sec. oftime).
To work with said high resolution it was also to fix the head of ob-
server (his chin and brow, Le. eyes) using some simple wooden construction.
In the autumn equinox of 1997and days close to it we made experi-
mentswith the pipes (havingan inside diameter of 1cm) for the Sun and Moon rNng
and settingmoments observation usingthe stones X!NI 66, 67, 79 and others. InFig. 17
the stoneXI 66 with the pipe in the hole is shown, Fig. 18 presents threeof our pipes in
the day, removed from the holes. Someof the results of our observatiom are given in
Fig. 19- Sunrise moment through the pipe in StoneXI 67on 22 September 1997, and in
Fig. 20 - Moonrise through the pipe in Stone XI 79 on 21 September 1997. This experi-
ment shows the ofusing pipes in Carahunge many tbomand years ago.
In favour of the pipes using in Carahunge times testifies also the impor-
tant fact that the edges of all Holes are conical broadened. Using a sketch as
16
Fig. 1. Carahunge (fragment). A line of standing stones.
Fig. 2. Carahunge (fragment). Stones with holes.
17
Fig. 4. Carahunge, central part. A view from helicopter.
18
Fig. 5. The path along stones of South arm
Fig. 6. Stones like king and animals (bear, dog, lion)
Fig. 7. Regular members of our expeditions in Carahunge
19
Fig. 8. Working moment at first expedition in 1994
Fig. 9. Member of expeditions PhD P.G.Safian near lying stone
20
FigJ!h Our guest H.P.Kleiner from Switzerland in Carahunge, 1995
FigJL Small cutter from obsidian
21
Fi2.12. Our guest Prof. N.G. Bochkarev from Moscow in Carahunge
Fi2.13. The new found Periscope-Stone No 90a
22
Fig. 14. Holes in stones
Fi2. 17. Stone No 66 (Eagle) with pipe in Hole
23
Fig. 18. Pipes in clay, removed from Holes
Fig. 19. The Sunrise moment through
pipe in Hole of Stone No 67 on
22.09.1997
1
2
3
4
5
Fig. 20. The Moonrise moment through pipe in
Hole of Stone No 79 on 21.09.1997
(l-sky, 2-Stone, 3-clay, 4-the Moon, 5-pipe)
24
in Fig. 16 we can calculate that the pipe with inside diameter of 10 mm and
outside diameter of 24 mm (so wall thickness is 7 mm, which becomes bam-
boo) can be declined in Hole to the angle ±25° to any side from hole axis.
Thus, such a pipe, having the high angular (and time) resolution for obser-
vations, gives the possibility to be fixed in Hole for a wide angular directions
and to use each Hole for different celestial sources observation or the same
source for different moments of time. This is the reason why Holes have
been made with conic broadening in Stones.
The presence of Holes with narrow diameter (4-5 cm and 10 mm) directed to
definite fixed points on the Sky gives the unique possibility to make exact calcula-
tions of the age of Carahunge Observatory using astronomical methods, even with
more accuracy than it ispossible to achieveby well-known Carbon method.
1.15. STONE ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS
All Stones with Holes, single ones or groups of 2 or 3 Stones (including also
some stones without holes) are the unique Astronomicallnstroments for different
observations of celestial sources: the Sun, the Moon, stars, planets and others.
To project, build and use such stable and accurate instruments for dif-
ferent scientific purposes it was necessary to have the preliminary accumu-
lated knowledge in astronomy, mathematics and technology, to have written
language, to have high experience in methods of observations and calcula-
tions, for a long time of thousands years before building of Carahunge.
At that time there was no one to learn from, so it was necessary to ac-
cumulate knowledge from zero, which was very slow process and needed too
much time. This was the main reason why the development of Armennian
civilization required about 40 -10 =30 thousand years. The development of
other civilizations (Sumer, Egypt, Greece or other) required less than one
thousand years only, because they had teachers, who were Armennians.
So there are grounds to presume that astronomy in Armennia started
about 25000 years ago, and the first and simple work with simple instru-
ments in Carahunge began more than 20000 years ago. Then 15000 years
ago more complicated instruments were built.
In Carahunge at present there are more than 80 Astronomical Instru-
ments, which have been built and were in use from about 8000 up to 2000
years ago (see below).
Every astronomer who makes observations using astronomical instru-
ments knows very well the frequent misfortunes with clouds coming to
shield the object of observation at the very important moment. Especially
when the moment you need will take place only after just one year (or
more). At Carahunge we met also these obstacles during our observations of
the rising, setting and culmination moments of the Sun, Moon and stars.
25
And at each that time I remembered the Armennian old, nice and simple
song, which, I am sure, was a song of old astronomers. Here is this song.
Melodically Armennian Old Song ofAstronomers
~
:
~ ~
~
~
:m
The Sun, the Sun come, come to my sto - ne top come
l1fI - 11, l1fI - 11
b ~ , b ~ , uf1-pnlli
RW - Pl1u
lIbp b ~ :
Clo - uds, do - uds go a - way
UI1 - ~ b p , wl1- ~ b p hb - DW gbe,
to make for Sun de - ar way.
l1fI - 11 - I1Ii Iiwl1 - aI1w pw - gbe
In Carahunge, indeed, there is three-stone astronomical instrument,
where the Sun comes every equinox midday to the top of the main stone
(see Item 1.28).
This song indeed is nice and simple (i.e, old) and at the same time is
marvellous address to the Nature, to the God.
I shall present below a few unique Stone Astronomical Instruments of
Carahunge with the results of our observations and calculations for their
age dating.
1.16. SINGLE STONES WITH HOLES
Many Single Stone Astronomical Instruments were investigated during
our expeditions. They were appropriated for the Sun, Moon, planets and
stars observations.
For the Sun observations there are 17 "Sun-Stones", including Sunrise
Stones NIX! 65, 161, 187 for Summer solstice; N!N! 97, 98, 100 for Winter
solstice; Sunset Stones NIX! 52, 99 for Summer solstice; N!N! 108, 169, 177
for Winter solstice; and N!N! 40, 55, 63, 64, 67, 79 for Spring and Autumn
equinoxes days Sunrise and Sunset moments. About the Instrument for Sun
culmination moment in equinoxes see Item 1.28.
For the Moon observations there are 14 "Moon-Stones",2 including
Moonrise Stones N!N! 161, 187, for culmination declination () =+18.7°; N!76
for () = - 18.7°; N!l47 for () = +29°; Moonset Stones N! 138 for () = +18.7°;
26
NIX! 108, 163 for ~ =-18.7°; NIX! 44, 51, 99 for ~ =+29°; NIX! 146, 151, 162,
164 for ~ = -29°.
About planets observation see Item 1.29.
Stars observation results see in Items 1.23, 1.24, 1.25.
We made preliminary calculations and a line of observations using
"Sun-Stone" Instruments, and received very interesting and unique results.
Here some of them are shown. Fig. 21 presents the Sunrise moment when
looking through Hole in Stone N! 67 at equinox of 22.09.1997. In Fig. 22 the
Sunrise through Hole in Stone N! 63 at equinox of 22.09.1997 is shown. In
Fig. 23 the Sunrise through Hole in Stone N! 66 at Solstice of 23.06.2001 is
shown.
Single Stone Instruments in Carahunge Observatory were widely used
during many millennia.
1.17. THE OLDEST CALENDAR (AOC AND AFC)
In Armennia the Solar Calendar was in use for all times. And this is
understandable because the Sun was the Main God. There is no data that
the Moon calendar was ever used, although it was known and the Moon pe-
riod of rotation around Earth was not difficult to measure.
Prehistoric astronomers looking through any Single "Sun-Stone" Hole
(or using other older simple instruments) could fix the azimuth (position on
horizon) of Sunrise (or Sunset) point at any day and define (even without
pipe) that this point moves along the horizon from day to day for value up to
30 arc min, at days close to the equinox days, which is almost equal to the
angular diameter of Sun (32'), and comes back to the same first position
(from the same side) after 365 days, which made one year.
It is obvious that such a simple observation could be done much earlier
than the time of developed Carahunge, when for agricultural and other
work the calendar becomes necessary. That time was, perhaps, about 23
thousand years ago when the Armennian Oldest Calendar (AOC) was estab-
lished having the beginning of year on the Spring equinox day Areg 1 (now
March 21)*.
It was also defined that once per year, in Summer Solstice the star Sir-
ius rises just before Sunrise, i.e, the year by Sirius also includes 365 days as
• Perhaps at that time, in 22946 BC, the Armennian favourite old God Vahagn
(fighter of dragons and evil) ''was born". The value 22946 years comes from the
supposition that these events took place 14 "Armennian periods" before Armen-
nian King Hayk's victory in 2492 BC (14 x 1461+2492=22946). So later Armennian
period was called also the "Haykian period".
27
Solar year has. This takes place because of accidental combination of pre-
cession and self movements of Sirius.
This Solar AOC was so-called "movable". The festal days slowly moved
along all year round (with period of 1461 years) because real Solar year in-
cludes about a quarter day more than 365 days (365.25 : 0.25=1461).
The developed Carahunge Observatory (7500 years ago) gave much bet-
ter possibilities to make observations during many years and with much higher
accuracy (30" or 2 sec. of time with pipes). So at that time it was found out that
Solar year consists of about 365.25 days. So to "stop" the ''movable'' calendar,
i.e. to "fIX" the festal days with the Sun real movement during the year, it was
necessary to add in Calendar one more day once per four years. Thus the
''fixed'' (immovable) Calendar was invented and developed in Carahunge with
the moment of year beginning at 6 o'clock in the morning (or in midday) of
Spring equinox day, at Areg 1 (March 21). Thus Armennian Fixed Calendar
(AFC) was established in Carahunge, and the period of 1461 years was called
''the Armennian period".
Armennians used both ''movable'' and ''fixed'' calendars in parallel
more than five thousand years (up to the end of XIX century AD), and
taught people of other countries these calendars, especially Sumers and
Egyptians whose civilizations began in DI millennium BC.
Using both AOC and AFC during very long time Armennian astronomers
found out that the additional quarter day in year (365.25) being accumulated in
''movable'' calendar gives one whole year after each 1461 years (0.25 x 1461 =
365.25). This period of 1461 years (or 1460 for "fixed calendar") was called the
"Armennian period" (or "Armenian cycle"). The same duration has "Sirius
cycle", or so-called "Sotis" •.
It was corrected later that Armennian cycle and Sirius cycle have a lit-
tle difference of 12 days, Le, 12 min. per year (0.002%) because the Solar
year has a little less duration (365.242 days), than Sirius year (365.25 days).
AFC as well as Armennian Cycle and Sotis were known and were in
use also in Old Egypt [19].
The ''fixed'' calendar, of course, is more convenient in using. It entered
Europe by July Caesar (with the help of Egyptian astronomers, as Sosigen
from Alexandria) on January 1, 45 BC (so-called "Old Style") and later it
was corrected by Pope Gregory DI (with the help of Polish astronomer Co-
pernicus) in 1582 AD ("New Style", which is in use now)'", Armennia admit-
ted the Julian calendar in 122 AD (by King Artashes D).
* Let me note that "Sirius" or "Sotis" means in Armennian "The lovedone in the
house of Holyperson", where Holy person is perhaps Armennian King Hayk. In
Old Egypt there was a festal day "Siruhis" whichin Armennian is "My beloved
woman" (seealso Fig. 44).
**To turn to Old Styleit is necessary nowto add to the date 12days.
28
1.18. KING HAYK'S CALENDAR (HBT)
Much more information is known about Armennian next old fixed cal-
endar, called "Hayots Boun Tomar" (HBT) - Armennian Basic Calendar
(ABC) started in 2492 BC by order of Armennian King Hayk (about 2493-
2444 BC, P.H.), who had the title "Kesar", Le. "Half AR", "Half Sun", "Half
God", because Armennian King was in the same time the Main Patriarch, or
"Son of Sun" and representative of the Main God - Father AR on the Earth.
The word ''kes'' in Armennian means "half', so Kesar was "Half God". The
word "Kesar" later overpassed to Europe via Greece and was used as "Cae-
sar" (in Rome and Byzantium), "Caeser" (in Germany), "Czar" or "Tsar"
(in Russia), etc., but already in the meaning of "emperor".
As it was told by Movses Khorenatsi, Armennian famous historian of V
century AD, the Nakharar (King) Hayk worsted the Babylon army which
came to occupy Armennia, killed the Babylonian king Bel (Nemrod) in bat-
tle and ordered to celebrate this day every year and to rename the months of
year after the names of His sons and daughters [20]. About Kesar Hayk see
also Item 3.30.
The date 2492 BC was recovered by Armennian historian of XIX cen-
tury AD Ghevond Alishan [21]. It was known, that New Year (Navasard 1)
in 428 AD by "movable" ASC coincided with August 23 by Julian (Hulian)
Calendar (or with August 11 of present calendar). Using this fact and "Ar-
mennian Cycle" of 1460 years he calculated that 1460 - 428 AD =
=1032BC+1460 = 2492 BC. As G.Alishan wrote, the same figure of 2492 BC
is shown by old authors Aphriakanos and Yevsebios as the date of Bel's
death [21].
Armennian Basic Calendar (HBT, ABC) consists of 12 months 30 days
each, so 360 days plus 5 (or 6 once per every four years in fixed HBT) Addi-
tional days (the New Year celebrations). Each month and each day of
month, as well as each of 24 hours of day have their own names - Armen-
nian words. Armenian scientist of VII century AD Annannia Shirakatsi tells
these names [22]. I have presented here the names of months of HBT and
corresponding dates of present calendar:
HBT(ABC) New Style
1. Navasard (lmnImumJlll., daughter of Hayk), 1-30 ------August 11- Sept. 9
2. Horri ( ~ p , daughter), 1-30 -----------------------------September 10 - Oct. 9
3. Sahmi (UmhU}1, daughter), 1-30----------------------------0ctober 10 - Nov. 8
4. Tre (Spli, son of Hayk), 1-30 -------------------------------November 9 - Dec. 8
5. Caghots (RmIlng, son), 1-30 -------------------------------- December 9 - Jan. 7
29
6. Arats (Upmb", son), 1-30 --------------------------------------January 8 - Febr, 6
7. Mehekan (UlihliI{mu, daughter), 1-30 ----------------- February 7 - March 8
8. Areg (Upliq, daughter), 1-30 -----------------------------------March 9 - Apr. 7
9. Ahekan (UhliI{mfl, old name) ·,1-30 ---------------------------April8 - May 7
10. Mareri (Umplipp, daughter), 1-30 ------------------------------May 8 - June 6
11. Margats (Umpqmb", old name), 1-30 ---------------------------June 7 - July 6
12. Hrotits son), 1-30 --------------------------------------July 7 - Aug. 5
13. Avelyats (UtPiumg), 1-5 ------------------------------------ August 6 - Aug. 10
Additional (Avelyats) 5 days were named by names of 5 known at that
time planets [19].
In ''fixed'' BBT one more day (once per 4 years) ofleap year was added
to month Mehekan.
The names of days of month were the Armennian names connected
with the names of sacramental mountains, heathen temples and Gods:
1. Areg (Upliq)
2. Brand
3. Aram (Upunf)
4. Margar (Umpqmp)
5. Ahranc (Uhpmup)
6. Mazdegh (Umqq.lil})
7. Astghik (UuuulPq)
8. Mihr (uphp)
9. Dzopaber (Qmqwplip)
10. Mourts (Unlpg)
11. Yerezkan (bpliqqwu)
12. Ani (Uup)
13. Parkhar (IJl.mp}ump)
14. Vanatour ("t{muwUllup)
15. Aramazd (Upmumqq.)
16. Manni (Umup)
17. Assak (Uumq)
18. Massis (Umupu)
19. Annahit (Uumhpm)
20. Aragats (Upmqmb")
21. Grgourr (q.pqnm)
22.Kordouic {lJnp1pll}lp)
23. Tsmak (lnfmq)
24. Lousnak (lnlUumq)
25 Tsron (5pnu)
26. Npat (lnqwm)
27. Vahagn ("t{mhmqu)
28. Sis (Ullu)
29. Varag ("t{mpmq)
30. Gisheravar (Cijlzlipunfmp)
The beginning of day was 6 o'clock of morning (Solar time, of course).
The names of hours of day were also Armennian words:
• It were renamed 10 names of months, so 2 names retained their old names.
Probably King Hayk had only 10 children.
30
Day time
1. (U).Ayg(Ujq), 6-7h.
2 (.P).Tsayg (5m.Jq),7-8
3. (q.).Zoratsial (Qnpmglimt), 8 -9
4.
5. (b).sharaveghial (CwnunUiqlimt), 10-11
6. (Q).Yerkrates (bpInmnn1iu), 11-12
7. (1:). 12-13
8. (C). Hrakath 13-14
9. (1U"). HourthapeaI 14-15
10. (do). Thaghanteal (lO"wqmfJIaliml), 15-16
11. (doU). Aragot 16-17
12 (d-.P). Arphogh {(.Iptl:mrV, 17-18
Night time
13. (aq.). Khavarak (II.unlwpmIV, 18-19
14. (c¥l-).Agbjamoughj{lll]2un1'nu12), 19-20
15. (db). Mthatsial (If}CKUglimt), 20-21
16. (dQ). Shabavot (nrdnmImn),21-22
17. (do!:). Kamavot (qtmfunImn), 22-23
18. (d"'C). Bavakan (.PunImIImf1), 23-24
19. (do1U"). Khothapheal (IlqamIl1liaJ}),0-1
20.0'). Gizak 1-2
21. 0'U). Loosakn (lmumIPt),2-3
22 O'.P). Aravot (UnanImn), 3-4
23. O'q.). Loosaphayl (lmmmInn.Jt), 4-5
24. O'f}.). Phaylatsu (C1Jw.Jlmbm), 5-6
The seven-day week Belt-Calendar of IT millennium BC was found near
town Sanahin in Armennia. The days on this Belt-Calendar are called by
names of Sun, Moon and Armennian old names of five planets [19, 23].
1. Uph
2. lnmpu
3.
4. CfJwJlmbn
5. lnmuramq
6. UpnluJml:(
7. bphml:(
Sun - Sunday
Moon - Monday
Mars - Tuesday
Mercury-VVednesday
Jupiter - Thursday
Venus - Friday
Saturn - Saturday
(l:(}1pml:fP)
(lipl:(n1zmprap)
(lipupzmprap)
<!npupzmprap)
(hpuqzmprap)
(mppUlJCl)
(zmpUlJCl)
It is interesting that first two present English names of week-days are
directly connected with Armennian names of the Sun and Moon, and Satur-
day is connected with Saturn.
HBT is sometimes used in Armennia until now. Many people also cele-
brate the old New Year (August 11). Nobody annulled the king Hayk's order
of 2492 BC.
Old Egyptian Calendar (taken from HBT in ITI millennium BC) was
like HBT [19], but had not names for days of month [19, 24].
Besides HBT in Armennia other calendars were also in use after Chris-
tianity adopting, as Hayots Mets Thvakan (HMT, Armennian Great Date)
began from July 11 of 552 AD, Ecclesiastical Calendar, "fixed" calendar of
Armennian scientist Hovanes Imastaser, began from 1085 AD, with the New
Year (Navasard 1) at August 11 of Julian calendar.
HBT is the oldest, regular and exact Calendar in the VVorld. In August
11, 2008 it will be completed 4500 years of HBT. Let us hope this fact will be
marked in many countries by the help of International Organisations.
31
1.19. SUNDIALS AND SUN-CALENDARS
It is obvious that in Carahunge Observatory the Sundials and Sun-
calendars were in operation from old time. But they are not saved. May be
they will be found in future. It is possible to suppose that the Carahunge
Stone Xl! 63 with Hole on its back was used as the Sundial (see also Item
1.28, page 48 and Fig. 38, page 69).
At the same time it is obvious that in Old Armennia Sundials and Sun-
calendars were widely used. There are many Sundials on walls and near the
Medieval Christian churches till now [23]. Many of them were also found
during excavations. All scales of them are calibrated from 6 o'clock morning
to 18 in the afternoon.
Sundial shows on its scale the time of day by the shadow of the rod
(called "gnomon"). Armennian old Sundials were called "gitsoh" (qlllngnq)
which in Armennian means "knowing (one)". In Fig. 24 Sundial from the
wall of Armennian church "Zvartnots" (VII cent. AD) near Etchmiadzin is
shown.
Sun-calendar shows on its scale the month of a year by the length of
shadow of its rod. Old Armennian Sun-calendars were called "stverachaph"
(umtIlipwl.wtP) which means "shadow-meter".
We designed and made two new type Sundial-Calendars (SDC, "Git-
soh-Stverachaph") built from red colour tufT(volcano-stone), one in Aragats
Scientific Centre (on Mount Aragats) of our Radiophysics Research Institute
(RRI) in 1987 (4480 HBT) and another one - in front of the main building of
RRI in Yerevan, in 1989 (4482 HBT) [5]. Each of them has three main scales
(horizontal, vertical and spherical ones) and one common rod (gnomon)
declined to the angle 40° (equal to the latitude of place) and having three
small crosses (for each scale), shadows of which show the months and
(approximately) days of months. Horizontal scale is divided (by titanium
curve lines) to months by present calendar, vertical scale - by Hayots Boun
Tomar (HBT) and the spherical scale - by real solar months (Zodiac
constellations).
Fig. 24. Sundial from the wall of
church Zvartnots, VII cent. AD
(15 km from Yerevan).
32
The project of SDC was done by me, calculations of hour lines and month
curve lines on scales were made by Dr. V.Oskanian and ornaments on stone
were chiselled by sculptor S.Panosian. All work was done in workshops of RRI.
In Fig. 25 the New Type of Sundial-Calendar (SDC) built in front of the
main building of RRI, 49/4 Komitas Avenue, Yerevan, Armennia, is shown.
1.20. EARTH AXIS INCLINE
Did Carahunge astronomers know the angle of Earth Axis Incline (angle
e or Ecliptic Inclination)? Yes, because (see Fig. 26) they could measure the
height (elevation angle hI) of Sun in its summer culmination (in midday at
Summer solstice, the longest day, June 22) and its height (angle h
2
) in Winter
culmination (in midday at Winter solstice, the shortest day, December 22)*.
Then they could find the Sun declination (a) in culmination days (angle a
c
) as
(1)
(2)
Of course, they had seen that during the year the Sun elevation (h)
changes in limits hI> h > h
2
and declination - in limits - a
c
< a< + a
c

Reiterating these measurements many years and becoming sure that &: is al-
most not changed (and even did not depend on latitude (cp) of place, see below) they
had to understand that the Sun direction in Solstices is inclined to the Earth's Equa-
tor Plane (or Sky Equator, a=0) for the angle e =§c Le. Earth Axis is inclined to
---
the normal to Ecliptic Plane for the angle e=&:. And this is the reason why we have
on Earth Summer and Winter (Solstices), Spring and Autumn (Equinoxes).
Using Fig. 27 it is easy to find relation between e, cp and Azimuth of
Sunrise (Sunset) point As on horizon. It is the following:
Sin5
As =arcCos .
Coscp
In case of solstice days, when e =a
c
we have for the Sunrise point:
Sine
A = arcCos ; e = arcSin(CosA
s
. Coscp)
s Coscp
(3,4)
* Below (Fig. 35-37, Item 1.28) the Carahunge Three-Stone Instrument used for
measurements of Sun elevation at equinox days ( ~ = 0, h =90 - cp) and also for
measurements of latitude (angle cp) of place is shown.
33
Horizon
Zenith
S - . ; I ; ~ . _ & . _ _.; K.__-""' ...... N
Summer Solstice
lie = +23.44°
Sky Equator
li=O
Winter Solstice
lie = -23.44°
Fig. 26. The Sun culminations
Zenith
S
lie = +23.44°
li = 0 \ . ~ ~ ......----
be =-23.44
\
~ \
\
\
E
Fig. 27. Sun movement trajectories on Sky at:
1 - Equinox days; 2,3 - Solstice days
A
s
- Azimuth of Sunrise point at Solstice
34
Did Carahunge astronomers know about Earth rotation around its own
Axis? Yes, because they knew that Earth has the Axis of rotation and even
knew the angle (e) of its Incline and its Precession (see Item 1.22).
According to G. Hancock the Earth Axis Incline changes in limits from
22.1° to 24.5° with period of 41 thousand years [24]. According to Astro-
nomical Yearbooks [25] the Ecliptic Inclination now is equal e =23.44° and
slowly decreases with speed 0.00013° (0.47") per year". We can use also the
value for speed A£ =0.013° (0.78') per 100 year, because we are now in lin-
ear part of the sine-kind law of Inclination changing (Fig. 28). Thus the
Azimuth of Sunrise point at Solstice (As) also decreases and angle (90 - As)
as well as Azimuth Shift (Ms) increases (see Fig. 26). Using equation (3) we
can calculate, that when e = 23.44° and latitude q> = 39.5° (Carahunge), As =
58.97° and if Ae = 0.013° then Ms = 0.018° or 1.1' during 100 year.
Having accuracy of observations (with pipes) 30" =0.5' old astrono-
mers theoretically could mark the shift Ms = 1.1' after 50 years, but practi-
cally it was impossible, because the pipes had not so high time-stability. But
using Holes even without pipe (and having the accuracy of 3.5') they had to
mark Ms after about 300 years (the stone instruments have very high sta-
bility). After 1000 year the shift could be Ms = 0.18° or 11' which is 3 times
more than the accuracy without pipes. Finding this, they would make other
new stone instruments for Sunrise (Sunset) in Solstice days directed to the
new point, Le, with some azimuthal shift, to have Sunrise point again in cen-
tre of holes.
In fact in Carahunge there are indeed a number of stones approxi-
mately directed to the present Sunrise (Sunset) point at Solstices having
some shifts between holes directions (which we measured). So we know the
shifts between present Sunrise point and old points. These give a possibility
to calculate the age of stones and of Observatory as a whole.
Let us return to Fig. 28 and explain it a little. The variation of Earth
Axis Incline is in limits ± 1.2° (e =23.3° ± 1.2°). It practically does not
change a heat value coming from Sun to the tropic, subtropical and moder-
ate zones of the Earth. But this small change of e is very sensible for regions,
which are close to arctic zones. So Axis Incline change law (sine-kind) acts
an important role near arctic, because the Sun rays are coming with too
sharp angles and this conduces to forming a large glacial covering in subarc-
tic zones, with period of 41000 years.
The last glacial period started about 32000 years ago and finished
12000 years ago (see Fig. 28). In the last 2000 years of this period ice melted
very intensively and 12000 years ago the Great Deluge took place. In the re-
sult the level of ocean rose up to 100 m.Tt was too dangerous for Mesopota-
• It is interesting to notify here that Armennian author of XVll century gives for
this angle the value 23.5° [19]. This was a very good result because the actual value
has been about 23.445°.
35
mia and other low altitude places but not for Armennian Highland with av-
erage altitude 1700 m (Mount Ararat 5160 m). There were clouds, lightning,
rains, rough rivers, etc, but nothing dangerous for life of people, animals,
and flora. Armennian Highland was the real Noah's Ark and the civilization
here continued to develop. Our Present time is on linear part of Axis decline
changing law, so the beginning of the next Glacial period will be after 8500
years and next Great Deluge after 29000 years (Fig. 28).
36
Armennian fi res
Armennian civilization
and written language
Glaciers
(0,1,2•••9)
Freeze beginning
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
Armennian Sun Calendar
towns, Kingdom beginning
Armennian language beginning
Intensive freeze
-32500
-40000
-25000
-34500
--45000
-20000
- N
- 4
Glaciers melt
0
-12000
GreatDelu e
bO
tU P IOX
rI)
-11000 Armennian Alphabet
~ -9150
Cl)
-7500 Carahunge
>-
-6000 Metsamor
-4000
ramid Stonehen e
-2000 (BC/AD)
J. Christ born
Present 0 (2000) -200
Technol ical Era
Present
time time
+1100
0.14°
+6500
Freeze beginning
+8500
Intensive freeze
Glaciers
Fig. 28. The change of Earth Axis Incline and Eras evolution
(CP - The Carahunge Period)
37
1.21. THE AGE OF CARAHUNGE. METHOD N! 1
The method of Age determination of Old Monuments (Observatories)
using the "Azimuth Shift" (explained in Item 1.20) was used first by famous
British astronomer N.Lockyer to calculate the age of Stonehenge in 1901
[27]. His result was: between 1880 and 1480 BC, which is very good (it had
to be approximately 1850 BC for Stonehenge DI)[24, 28, 29].
In Table 3 the calculated present Azimuths (Az°) for Sun and Moon rise
and set points are shown in line 2 taking into account corrections on real ho-
rizon heights, refraction and Lunar parallax. The correction required for
magnetic deviation is put to hole Azimuth values (line 4b). After this the re-
sulting possible error is equal to about ±O.1° or
0.1° x 1000 : 0.18° =550 year.
In column 4c the Azimuth shifts (AAzO) are put between Azimuth (cor-
rected, calculated for present time) and measured directions of holes for 17
"Sun Stones" and 12 ''Moon Stones". For stones with holes Azimuth shifts are
in limits from 0.5° to 3°.
Table 3
SUN
Sunrise Sunset
~ u m r n e r Winter Spr.,Aut. Summer Winter Spr.,Aut.
Solstice Solstice Equinox Solstice Solstice Equinox
1
Decl.
+23.44 -23.44 0 +23.44 -23.44 0
Now
~ o
-
2 Az°
59+4=63 122+9=131 90+3=93 302-1=301 239-5=234 270-2.5=267.5
3
Ancient
<63 >131 =93 >301 <234 =267.5
Az
o
was
a b c a b c a b c a b c a b C a b c
a) StoneN 65 62.5 0.5 97 133 1 40 90 -3 99 303 2 108 232 2 64 264 3.5
4 b) HoleAz° 161 62 1 98 133 1 63 99 +6 52 302 1.5 169 233 1 55 260 7.5
r)
AAz°
187 61.5 1.5 100 130.5 0.5 67 90 -3 177 231 3
(shift) 79 90 -3
MOON
Moonrlse Moonset
1 +18.7 -18,7 +29 -29 +18.7 -18,7 +29 -29
2 63+0.5=63.5 116.5+6.5= 129+6=135 51+6=57
i'MlA /C AI /C. _'MV'l
235.4-5.4=230 309-2=307 1223-8=215
=123
3 <63.5 >123 >135 <57 >290 <230 >307 <215
a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c
4
161 62 1.5 76 124 1 147 137 2
- - -
138 289 1 108 229 1 44 309 2 14li 214 1
187 62 1.5 163 229 1 51 309 2 151214 1
164 214 1
38
There are two main possible reasons for the presence of existing differ-
ent Azimuth shifts. One is, that the Observatory (the Instruments) was built
continuously over different times. The second reason is, that some shift
could take place following the natural conditions (earthquake, landslide,
ete.) during millennia. For the second reason, it is dangerous for our prob-
lem not the parallel shifts (along or across of hole axis), but just the hole ro-
tation around any vertical axis (the probability of which is low). Neverthe-
less, to minimize this second reason we average the shift values.
There are no Az shifts for Sunrise (Sunset) points at equinox days, so
we have 17-6=11 "Sun Stones".
Taking all these into account we have (in Table 3) for 11 "Sun Stones"
(except 6 equinoxes) the average AAz = 15° : 11 = 1.36°. Then the Age is 1.36
x 1000 : 0.18 = 7575 ± 550 years. Except 2 stones with AAz = 0.5° each, and
one stone with AAz =3° as extreme values we have for 8 "Sun Stones" the
average AAz = 11° : 8 = 1.37° and the Age is 1.37° x 1000 : 0.18° = 7640 ±550
years. The Age of two ''youngest'' stones (X!Xt 65, 100) having AAz = 0.5°, is
0.5° x 1000 : 0.18° = 2200 ±500 years.
For 12 "Moon Stones" presented in Table 3 we have the average AA
z
=
17° : 12 = 1.42° and the Age is 1.42° x 1000 : 0.18° = 7870 ±550 years.
Thus, the Age of Carahunge Observatory active operation is more than
7500 years (the middle of VI millennium BC).
How long Carahunge was operating? The ''youngest'' stones were in
operation about 2000 years ago. So work was continued before that time,
but was suddenly interrupted. This is also told by three lying stones with
holes pierced partially, (mentioned above, see Item 1.10).
So Carahunge Observatory was in operation during more than 5500
years, from more than 7500 years ago until less than 2000 years ago.
1.22. EARTH AXIS PRECESSION
The Earth Axis (inclined now 23.44°) makes a slow conic movement
with period 25920 years. This phenomenon is called Precession (Fig. 29).
As a result of Precession the stars positions (co-ordinates) on the Sky
are slowly changing. In Fig. 30 the way of North Pole point on Sky during
about one Precession period is shown.
The Sun slowly moves on the Sky along Zodiacal constellations in the
opposite direction to its annual motion along them. As the result the Spring
equinox moment comes each year a little earlier (5.5 min per 100 year, so-
called Equinox Anticipation) and the Sun moves among stars on the Sky
with speed 360°: 25920 year = 83.3' per 100 year, being in each Zodiacal
constellation 25920: 12 = 2160 years.
39
Ecliptic Pole
direction '.
,.
,(
ont ttun // ...... ~ _
per 26000 )"l'BI'
Equator
'-(OIlP turn prr Dill" yrar)
:'lorrnlll to
.>:/Ecliptic Pole
--.....
,
./
---


Fig. 29. Earth Axis Precession


40
Fig. 30. The travel of North Pole point on the Sky
Could the Carahunge prehistoric astronomers espy Precession? Yes,
because they could measure the shift of the Sun position regarding stars (for
example in Sunrise, Sunset, and Midday moments at Equinox or in other
fixed moment). This shift has the value 50" per year (83.3' : 100 x 60 = 50"),
which they could measure in Carahunge during about 7 months.
The generations of astronomers searching the Sky during hundreds
and thousands of years could know Precession even many thousand years
before Carahunge. I think it was done in Armennia even 11-13 thousand
years ago. So the Precession, called also the "Space Great Clock", was
known to civilized people on Earth of yore.
Knowing the Precession laws, also the present position (co-ordinates) of
stars and their proper motion it is possible to calculate the position of each
star for any past time (as well as for future), Le, to say, where was each given
star, where (at what point of horizon) it rose (sat), where culminated, etc.
thousands years ago. These calculations we can do using the following equa-
tions [30]:
where:
B
2
=arcSin[CosB
l
• Sine· Cos(a
l
+",)+SinB
l
·cose]
S
. CosB
l
· Sin(a
l
+'")
a
2
= z +arc ID ,
CosB
2
B
l
= B
o
+100J.15 . T; a
l
= a
o
+l00J.1a . T
'" = 2305.7"'· T +0.302'". T
2
+0.018'" . T
3
z = 2305.7"'· T +1.095'". T
2
+ 0.018'" . T
3
e = 2003.87'" . T - 0.427'". T
2
- 0.042'" . T
3
(5)
(6)
where: (10, Bo - is the present position of given star (rectangular equa-
torial co-ordinates) [25];
Jla, J.15 - is the proper motion of star [25],
ab B
l
- is the present position of star with proper motion
addition,
<X2, ~ - is the position of given star in past (future) time,
±T - is the time in Julian centuries.
Using equations (2) and (5) it is possible to calculate the azimuths of
'given star rising A
r
and setting As moments in the past:
SinB 0
A
0
= arcCos 2 and A0 = 360 _ A
0

r C s r
oso
(7)
41
The star swell angle (h), or its height over horizon (elevation) in culmina-
tion is:
h; = 90-cp+ 3
2
when 3 < cp,
h; =90+<p-3
2
when So e and
h; =cp+3
2
-90 when 3>90-cp
When star-crossed zenith point, h
2
= 90° ( ~ : : : : : <p).
1.23. STAR OBSERVATION. PERISCOPE-STONE.
METHODNt2
(8)
In the North Arm of Carahunge there is another unique Instrument,
the Stone Nt 137. Its hole does not go through the stone rightly but at half
way turns up and comes out from the top of stone. If to put a piece of mirror
(of black obsidian) in place of turn it will be a periscope, very comfortable to
observe Zenith point while sitting, because the height of the Stone is 1.2 m
(see Fig. 31). On the opposite side of stone (of observer side) there is a hand-
made bowl about 20 cm in diameter. This bowl with water was a level to
check and to control the vertical axis of Periscope during millennia
(Fig. 32).
What were they observing in zenith when the Sun and Moon never
crossed zenith point in this latitude (at least during last 10000 years)? Of
course, it were stars. And bright stars, because the mirror was not very
good. Using given above Earth Axis Precession laws we can find, whether
this occasion took place in some day in past or not (the probability of which
is very low).
I researched the potentiality of 21 brightest stars of our Sky to cross the
Zenith point of Carahunge at some time in past. This was our Method Nt 2
to calculate the Age of the Observatory. It proved that four of them had
crossed the Zenith point (seeTable 4).
42
Table 4
STARS. Periscope - Stone No 137
Prehistoric period
Star name Constellation
Years ago Declination Altitude
Deneb aCyg 7630 39' 34' 90' 00'
Arcturus
a Boo
3480 39° 35' 90° 00'
Vega
aLyr
3000 39° 35' 90° 01'
Capella
aAur
2330 39° 35' 90° 00'
The first of them was Deneb (a Cygnus), which crossed Zenith point
7630 +10 years ago. Then Arcturus (a Boo) 3480 years ago, Vega (a Lyre) -
- 3000 years ago and CappeUa (a Aur) 2330 years ago. They were in region
of Zenith point at a distance ±0.5° during a period of about ±100 (up to ±
300) years, Le, it was enough time to make instruments and observe them.
The Altitude shift of Deneb position from zenith point in function of
time in Table 4a is shown.
Table4a
DENEB. Periscope-Stone N! 137
J2000, &t =45°28', ao =310°36', cp =39°34'
Years ago Declination Rising Azim. Setting Azim. Altitude
7400 39° 03' 35° 10' 324° 49' 89° 29'
7500 39 16 34 47 325 12 89 42
7600 39 30 34 23 325 36 89 56
7630 3934 3415 32544 9000
7700 39 44 33 58 326 01 90 10
7800 39 58 33 32 326 27 90 24
7900 40 13 33 05 326 34 90 39
We can see toot Deneb position shift in the iimits ± 0.5° near Zenith
point took place during about ± 200 years. It is calculated also, that the next
43
star, which will cross the Zenith point in Carahunge, will be Vega, after 640
years.
Carahunge astronomers could see the slow shift of star position from
Zenith point and understand Precession. Having accuracy of observation
30" they could espy the star position shift after 1.7 year.
The time of Zenith point crossing by Arcturus, Vega and Cappella is
not so important for us in this context of Carahunge dating because there
are many other stones with age more than 7500 years and it is also known
that in Armennia 4492 years ago there was started the new accurate solar
Calendar (HBT, see above, Item 1.18). So more important is the time of
Deneb -7630 years ago. It allows to date Carahunge more than 7600 years,
when Observatory was in active operation.
1.24. STAR IN RISING AND SETTING POINTS. METHOD Kt 3
In Carahunge Observatory the star systematic observations at their ris-
ing and setting points on horizon using Single-Stone Instruments were un-
dertaken. This gave another possibility of maintaining the Calendar and cal-
culating Precession. At the same time it gives us another possibility (Method
Kt 3) to determine the Age of Carahunge using Precession equations (5-8,
Item 1.22).
The rising and setting Azimuths of nine bright stars in Carahunge sky
(4500,6000 and 7500 years ago) were calculated and Stones directed to these
Azimuth points at those times were found. Their Numbers are shown in Ta-
ble 5.
Here are 31 Stones, some of which were used 2-3 times (for different
stars) and they were in use for more than 50 purposes. Nine Stones were in
use 4500 years ago, 12 Stones - 6000 years ago and 15 Stones were in use
7500 years ago, because their Holes are directed to the given (calculated)
corresponding Azimuths in angular limit ±2°.
These calculations are not completed and here we can just say that
Carahunge was in active use during the period 7500-4500 years ago. It will
be shown below that the real period of activity is 7500 - 2000 years ago (see
Item 1.25).
Table 5 shows also that Carahunge astronomers had special high inter-
est in the Orion constellation stars (14 Stones for 5 stars), star Deneb (6
Stones), Canis Major stars (12 Stones for two stars) including star Sirius (5
Stones).
44
TableS
STARS
Star name, Prehistoric period Stone N
Constellation Years ago Rising Azo SettingAz°
Rising Setting
4500 117.5 242.5 183
-
Sirius
6000 125.2 234.8 108
-
aCMa
7500 135.7 224.3 98,110 162
Cappella
4500 51.5 308.5
-
51
6000 63.2 296.8 161,187
-
a Aur
7500 73.7 286.3 66,85 71
4500 120.7 239.3
-
-
Rigel
6000 132.3 227.7 98
-
J3 Ori
7500 146.2 213.8 147 151
Betelgeuse
4500 96.6 263.4 40 78
6000 107.0 253.0
-
160
a Ori
7500 118.4 241.6 183
-
4500 39.9 320.1 126
-
Deneb
6000 38.9 321.1 126 44,99
a Cyg
7500 34.8 325.2
-
84,122
4500 101.1 258.9
-
55,160
Bellatrix
6000 112.0 248.0
-
139
'1
0 ri
7500 123.6 236.4 76 163
Alnilam
4500 109.3 250.7 129
-
6000 120.1 239.9
- -
e Ori
7500 132.3 227.7 98,110 177
Alnitak
4500 109.7 250.3
- -
~ Ori
6000 120.4 239.6
- -
7500 132.6 227.4 98,110 177
Mirzam
4500 124.5 235.5 76
-
J3 CMa
6000 134.1 225.9 98,110 177
7500 147.0 213.0 147 151,164
1.25. STARS CULMINATION. METHOD.N'! 4
Using Precession laws we can answer the question, did Carahunge as-
tronomers make Instruments and use them to observe stars in their upper
and lower culmination moments? At the same time we can calculate the time
(in past) of these observations, i.e, the Age of Carahunge (Method .N'! 4). The
research shows that these types of work in Carahunge were also undertaken.
The Table 6 shows another group of eleven stars that crossed the local
meridian of Carahunge in prehistoric times at the definite elevations. We
can see that using six Stones shown in Table 6 the observation was done
45
during the period from 7500 years ago down to 2000 years ago (four Stones
of them are 7500 years old). The accuracy of Stone Hole axis directions to
the calculated star Elevations in their culmination moments is ±1
0

Table 6
STARS
Prehistoric period
Stone
Star name Years Culmination Azo
Altitudeo
N
a20
Arcturus, a Boo
7500 Lower 0 8.6 128
Rigel,
POri
7500 Upper 180 10.6 60
Alioth, eUMa
7500 Lower 0 18.2 109
Dubhe, aUMa
7500 Lower 0 5.6 152
Alkaid, l1UMa
2000 Lower 0 9.6 128
Alnilam, eOri
7000 Upper
Alnitak,
~ O r i
7000 Upper
180 53
Sirius, aCMa
6500 Upper
-22
Mirsam, ~ C M a
5000 Upper
Procyon, aCMi
6000 Upper
180 -50 62
Betelgeuse, a Ori
3500 Upper
In the result we can say that Carahunge was in active use during the
period of 7500-2000 years ago.
The high attention was paid again to Orion (4 Stones) and also to Ursa
Major (5 Stones) constellations.
1.26. CARAHUNGE DATE CONCLUSION
We considered four independent astronomical Methods of Carahunge
age determination: the Sun and Moon rising and setting Azimuth shifts (Ta-
ble 3), Zenith point star crossing (Table 4), Star rising and setting Azimuths
(Table 5) and Star culmination Elevations (Table 6).
It is very interesting that all four Methods of dating have given the
same result: Carahunge Observatory was built and operated more than
7500 years ago (middle of VI millennium BC).
Obviously the building and operation of Carahunge started much ear-
lier (having more simple instruments), more than 15000 years ago.
Carahunge was in continuous operation more than 5500 years, up to
2000 years ago till perhaps 301 AD when Christianity was accepted as the
46
State religion in all Great Armennian Kingdom, by King Trdat m the
Great",
Carahunge certified that in Armennia was high civilization much more
than 7500 years ago. Let us recall that it is considered that any civilization
did not exist yet neither in Mesopotamia, Egypt nor anywhere else before
5500 - 5000 years ago.
1.27. PROFESSOR G. S. HAWKINS
In February 1999 I sent all my Carahunge materials including the Age
calculations to Professor G. S. Hawkins (Washington D.C.) who is the top
specialist on old monuments dating by astronomical methods and asked his
opinion. I am very thankful to him that he kindly agreed and has done a lot
of work to check my results and gave a high estimation. In Fig. 33 is shown a
photo of Professor G. S. Hawkins.
In his letter of May 18, 1999 he answered me the following [31]:
"The Carahunge site is very interesting, and I have some thought to
share with you." and then,
..."1 am most impressed with the careful work you have done, and
hope that the result will ultimately get recorded in the literature".
In his letter of June 28,1999 he wrote that I can publish his comments
in my next publication, which I am doing now with pleasure:
"The menhir-lined Avenue leading from the stone circle (of Carahunge,
P.H.) is similar to the Avenue at Stonehenge, and the Avenue at Callanish.
The former points to the midsummer sunrise, and the latter to the extreme
point of the setting of the moon.
Both date to the third millennium BC. At Carahunge the arrangement
is similar. The Avenue from the stone circle points to the extreme northerly
rising of the moon in the third millennium BC. As the Stonehenge and Cal-
lanish, the Avenue is the most distinctive architectural feature of the monu-
ment." [31].
It is very interesting that Professor G. S. Hawkins sees the parallel be-
tween Stonehenge, Callanish and Carahunge.
Professor G. S. Hawkins is also painter. In Fig. 34 his painting "Stone-
henge" is shown.
• At first, in 33 AD Christianity was accepted in Armennian Pharam Aram (in
Armennian: ''The country of Aram's junior brother", now - Mesopotamia) with
capital Arpha (later - Edessa, Urfa) by King Abgar V (12-50 AD) who in 33 AD
delegated his secretary and artist Hannan to Jesus Christ with letter (inviting Him
to Arpha) and received His reply letter and His portrait (the famous so-called
"Mandilion") painted by Hannan (SeePART 3).
47
1.28. THE LATITUDE AND EARTH SIZE.
THREE STONES INSTRUMENT
Another unique Astronomical Instrument in Carahunge attracted my
attention since first expedition. It is the ensemble of Stones N!N! 60, 62, 63
standing along NS direction and located at the beginning of the South Arm.
The Stones N! 60 and 62 have Holes directed to different elevation angles
and through which the top of the Stone N! 63 is visible (Fig. 35, 36, 37).
It was in equinox day, 1994, during the f-st expedition, when we made
observations through Hole in Stone N! 62, how the Sun came to the top of
Stone N! 63 exactly in midday. The Stone N! 63 (which is apropos alike the
Aries) at the said moment acquired the head!
The direction of Hole in Stone N! 62 to the top of Stone N! 63 makes the
angle about 39.5
0
apropos of vertical, Le. equal to the latitude of place.
Thus, using this Instrument, the Carahunge astronomers measured the
geographical latitude of place (with accuracy 30"). They also measured the
beginning (on March 21) of the year (with accuracy 2 sec.) either in the mid-
day or at the moment of Sunrise using the Hole on the back of Stone N! 63
directed to Sunrise point in equinox.
So they could find out that year consists of about 365.25 days and made
corrections of calendar (for the day, month and year duration) and came to
the ''fixed'' one. Besides these they could even during one year measure the
Equinox Anticipation (0.83' per year) and find out Precession of Earth Axis
(see Item 1.22).
The Stone N! 60 was used to help to fix and maintain the position of the
top of Stone N! 63, the prolonged stability of which was very important.
Stone N! 63 perhaps was used also as Sundial and Sun-Calendar. Dur-
ing our IV expedition at equinox September 21, 1997, a piece of mirror was
fixed (by clay) in the Hole on the back of Stone N! 63 (Fig. 38) and reflected
Sun spot which moved more than 4 cm per min. on a screen at a distance of
10m from the Stone.
So it was possible for old astronomers to measure the Sun movement
with good accuracy by Right Ascension (angle a) and Declination (0). Sure
enough, in Carahunge there were special Sundials and Calendars with gno-
mons, which we have not found yet (or they were destroyed)"
A fragment of Carahunge stones painted by Spartak G. Safian is shown
in Fig. 25a.
Carahunge astronomers knew that Earth has a ball-form. To be sure
for 100% they had to measure the latitude also in other latitudes, better on
distance of ±equal angles Aq> from the Carahunge latitude q> =39.5
0

48
63
62
s .. N
60
I
Fig. 35. Three-Stone Instrument. Scheme of operation
There are facts that they did it, for A<p equal up to ± 10°, ± 16° (see be-
low, Item 1.33). So, Armennians knew the ball-form of the Earth more than
7500 years ago.
The famous Armennian astronomer, mathematician and philosopher of
VII century AD Annannia Shirakatsi (Fig. 39) in his book "Cosmology and
Chronology" writes that heathen Armennian philosophers affirmed that
Earth is ball-formed, and people and animals live on all its sides [22].
A very interesting illustration of this old knowledge is one prehistoric
engraving in Armennia, carved on mountain rocks near Lake Sevan, about
V millennium BC, see Fig. 40 [32].
The information about Earth's ball-form came to Europe first in
Medieval period from Pythagoras (VI century BC) who till his age of 50 years
lived and learned knowledge in Armennia and only after that came back to
Greece [33].
49
Fig. 40. The Earth is ball-
formed and people live on all
its sides.
Engraving on rocks near
Lake Sevan (about V millen-
nium BC).
Being able to measure latitude and knowing the ball-form of Earth, old
Armennian scientists could measure also the size of the Earth. For this it
was enough for them to measure the length of meridian part, say in limit
Acp = 1
0
(or about 110 km)" with error ± l' (or about 2 km) which is about
20/0. The value of 7t = 3.14 they could find experimentally with error about
1%**. Then they could calculate the Earth radius as:
360 x 110 : 27t ~ 6300 km ±3% ~ 6300 ± 190 km,
which is very good result (the real value is about 6370 km).
1.29. PLANETS. HELIOCENTRIC SYSTEM
In our research of Carahunge Observatory we did not study the prob-
lem of Planets observation or calculation. It is necessary to do that in future,
because I am sure the Carahunge old astronomers were interested in the
Planets. Five planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) were known
and had Armennian old names which were presented in Item 1.19.
• The old length measure in Armennia was "armung" (elbow) about 0.5 ID•
•• Armennian mathematician V. Mirzoian confirmed that value of 1t was measured
in Old Armennia with accuracy 0.01% (and better) using clay disks with diameter
about 1m, which were excavated in Karmir Blour near Yerevan [69].
50
Old astronomers, of course, saw the unusual (related to stars) move-
ment of planets. The Armennian word for "planet" is ''molorak'' (I1ntnl1wll)
which means "errant" or "spinning one". And indeed, they move sometimes
to the back direction. So to understand their real way it was not so easy.
Old astronomers knew about planets the following (even without using
any instruments):
1. Planets have different movement than stars, travel crossing constel-
lations, and sometimes stay on one line (''parade'' of planets).
2. They are visible from different sides of the Sun, sometimes in the
morning before Sunrise and sometimes in the evening, after Sunset, so they
perhaps rotate around the Sun.
3. Their velocities on sky are much more than stars velocities, so they
sometimes outstrip stars, sometimes move to opposite direction, and they do
not blink as stars, so they are much closer to us than stars.
4. Their brightness changes much so they are sometimes at more and
sometimes at less distance from us, and their orbit planes are almost parallel
to the Ecliptic plane of the Earth.
5. At dark nights in mountains, perhaps, it was possible to see the phases
of Venus, Jupiter and understand that planets have not their own light, but
are illuminated by the Sun, as the Earth and Moon (the angular size of Ve-
nus and Jupiter sometimes comes up to 40"-50", the normal average resolv-
ing power of eye is l' = 60", but many people can see twice better).
6. Mercury and Venus are nearer to the Sun than the Earth, because pe-
riod of their rotation around Sun is less than Earth period, equal to one year
or 365.25 days. Period of Mercury is about 2.9 months, of Venus - 7.5
months. Period of Mars is equal to about 1.9 years, of Jupiter is equal to
about 11.8 years, of Saturn - 29.5 years, so they are further from the Sun,
than the Earth.
7. Periods of planets rotation old astronomers could measure in Cara-
hunge using Stones with Holes directed to their rising (or setting) points on
horizon. They could also associate 11-year period of Jupiter rotation with
11-year period of the Sun activity. I think, they knew about the Sun influ-
ence on nature, flora, fauna and people on the Earth much more than we
know now.
8. The Sun is the Main God, so it is natural that everything around is in
His ascendancy and influence, and has to rotate around Him.
Carahunge astronomers knowing all these (and supporting it by obser-
vations with instruments) could suppose that all planets rotate around the
Sun. Thus the Heliocentric Solar System becomes at first known (as hy-
pothesis) in VI-V millennium BC. It was proved by N.Copernicus in XVI
century AD, and then supported by observations of G.Galilei (XVll cent.
AD), theories of I.Keppler (XVll century AD) and I.Newton (XVll-XVIII
cent. AD).
51
1.30. UNIVERSITY
Such a large Observatory as Carahunge, of course, needed many high
quality specialists, particularly hundreds observers, mathematicians and
service personnel. So Carahunge had to be also a teaching centre, even if
knowledge was passed just to limited circle of people (from father to son).
One confirmation that Carahunge had also been a University centre is
the Stones N! 160 (having height of 1.9 m) and N! 161 (height 1 m) standing
close together, for teacher and pupil. Both Holes look almost to the same
point on the top of nearby hill where there would have been a stone used as
an object of observation.
In Carahunge they had to teach observation methods for the Sun, Moon,
stars, including pipe (with crossing lines), the recording of observation results
and their fixation, the determination of their accuracy (metrology), astronomy,
mathematics etc. The cosmology, chronology and Armennian language was
also taught.
The presence of such an Observatory tells us about the existence of
written language with Alphabet, figures, mathematics*, philosophy etc, and
also about the existence of a stable state and order during many millennia.
Because under condition when all around there was not any civilization to
learn from them, it was only possible to accumulate (beginning from zero)
such a high knowledge over many millennia, and by systematic work of
many scientists.
Thus the Carahunge (and Armenian language, see PART 2) confirms that
close to nature Armennian civilization came from very very old times, more
than 30000 years ago, Armennian astronomy - more than 25000 years ago, be-
cause the development from zero level up to high one (7500 years ago) needs
much more time than learning the knowledge given by ready teachers.
1.31. THE OTHER RESEARCH OF CARAHUNGE
Having my approval Professor H.G.Babayan from Stone and Silicates
Institute in Yerevan with his colleagues went in 1999 to Carahunge, took
samples of some Stones and about half year researched them in physical and
chemistry laboratories. They could not, of course, define the absolute age of
Stones, but making physical and chemical experiments with samples they
found the relative ages (or difference between ages) of Stones. The results
* "Mat-a-mat-ika" means in Armennian: "Finger follows finger", i.e, "counting".
In old Armennia the decimal counting system was in use with "zero". This word
means in old Armennian: "It makes the beginning, but is not material" (deep phi-
losophy!).
52
were interesting: these relative ages are concurred with age differences
found by our astronomical methods [14].
Another group of researches using sensitive magnetometer, found out
that the distribution of natural magnetic lines inside Central Circle has spi-
ral form.
1.32. THE CARAHUNGE NAME
I am sure the Monument in old time was called Carahunge (also
Carenish). This name is saved in the names of three villages Carahunge
which are not far from the Monument. One of them 30 km to East, near pre-
sent town Goris, and two others (60 and 90 km to East), in Artsakh (Nagorni
Carabakh).
Armennian historian of Xll century Stepanos Orbelian in his book ''His-
tory of Syunic" (I-Xll centuries AD) notes that there was a village Carunge
near the town Sisian (together with names of other existing now villages) [18].
Evidently it is the same village (settlement) just near Carahunge Monument
which was excavated (by O.Khnkikian and dated IT-ill millennium BC [4]).
And perhaps the population of Carunge migrated after 301 AD to the East and
founded above-said three villages saving the name Carahunge.
"Car" in Armennian is "stone"; "Hunge" (hunch) means a "sound",
"echo", ''voice'', because the analysis of the Armennian word "hntU2 =
h • m • U• 2 = h • u • n • g" gives: hwOh1lt t wJUm pwpdp = It is nice and high
(see Table 10 in PART 2).
Thus, Carahunge means "Resonant Stones" or "Speaking Stones". In-
deed, they had much to tell to old astronomers and have much to tell us.
There is an interesting analogy between words Carahunge and Stonehenge.
The "car" and "stone" are a stone, but what is ''henge'' is unknown, there is not
the word ''henge'' in English language", So the name Stonehenge is the same
"Speaking Stones", and at old times, perhaps, it was called Carahunge, The
name crossed all over Europe and was saved during millennia! But could this
coincidence be by chance? No, because there are too many coincidences:
1. In Ireland a similar Monument dated 2500 BC is called New-Grange,
Le, the same ''henge'' (hunge). There are many ''henges'' in Europe [29].
2. In NW Scotland, on the Outher Hebrides there is Monument like
Carahunge (but smaller and without holes in stones) called Callanish (about
2000 BC). "Cal or Car" is almost the same word and in Armennian is "stone".
The word ''Dish'' (which is also absent in English language) in Armennian is
"sign", Le, Callanish means "Stone Sign" (Stone Mark, Stone Marker). The is-
• I don't agree with some authors (as [29]) trying to explain "henge" as "hang".
Stonehenge doesn't have any relation with "hang".
53
land (where Callanish is) is called "Lewis" ("light" in Armennian), and near it
there is a peninsula called ''Harris''. In Armennian "Arris" is "Aries", which is
not only the first Zodiac constellation, but this big, nice and proud rock goat
was also one of three (with "Aryuts" - Leo and "Artsiv" - Eagle beginning
from letters AR) symbols of the old Armennian main and very kind God "AR"
(the Sun), whose children were Armennians.
3. In the NE of France, in Brittany is a large stone Monument dated
about 2000 BC which (together with the nearest town) is called Carnac. This
word in Britton language was written and spoken as "Cagrneagh - Carnikh",
i.e, Carnak or Carnish - also "Stone Sign" in Armennian.
4. In Egypt also there is Carnac, where is a temple of Amon - Ra (the
Sun God) which is also called Carenish.
There are many other examples. And these Monuments have not only lin-
guistic analogy, but also many other connections (see below, Item 1.34).
1.33. OTHER OLD OBSERVATORIES IN ARMENNIA
Now the Republic of Armennia is a small country in South Caucasian moun-
tains at the North part of the large historical Armennian Highland. Nevertheless
in this small Armennia there are very many petroglyphs on rocks (see for example
[49]) and old observatories near lake Sevan, in Vardeniss mounts (Fig. 41) [32], in
Metsamor (Ararat valley), in Syunic, in Agarak (at the foot of mount Aragats), etc.
Fig. 41. An Observatory with figures carved
on rock in Vardeniss mounts near Lake Sevan [32,48].
54
It is very interesting that another old Observatory like Carahunge (but
smaller) is in 30 km from town Goris near village Khndzoresk [106].
I am sure that many old observatories are in Armennian Highland (now
in Turkey). In town Van (near Lake Van) there are Standing Stones of differ-
ent height. Two of them, so called "Fiancee and Fiance", are shown in Fig. 42
[34]. The Carahunge type standing stones with holes are near village Kazan .
or Kaghzvan (now in Turkey), to the West from the Big Ararat. My friend
from Holland G.Aalten sent me photos (made by B.Corbin in 1998) of these
standing stones (Fig. 43a), some of them with holes (Fig. 43b) and with carved
old crosses (before Christianity) and pyramids (Fig. 43c) [35].
Fig. 42. "Fiancee and Fiance".
Standing Stones near town Van [34].
1.34. THE ORIGINAL BRAIN CENTRE
Many scientists write that the Great Pyramid, Stonehenge, Sphinxes
and other big old Monuments in Europe, Egypt, America and other places
were not the culture of local population (at that time they had not such high
level of knowledge) but were introduced from outside, perhaps from East,
from the Mediterranean sea basin. But where from exactly and who really
designed and built them is unknown yet.
There are also many other enigmas and questions in human old history
having no answers. For example, why the big Monuments were built in their
present places (for what it was necessary to carry many stones 50 tons each
and more from distances of hundreds km), for what purposes they were
built, who could build them with so high accuracy, who could make the map
of Antarctica without glisters, more than 6000 years ago? In connection with
this extraordinary map of 1513 AD G.Hancock (and other scientists) thinks
that in very old times, more than 6000 years ago on the Earth was a high de-
veloped civilization, the place of which is unknown yet and which researched
almost all Planet and gave the knowledge to other nations [24].
/
55
We can answer to these questions because Carahunge proves that in
very old times the necessary knowledge (to design and build so big and accu-
rate Monuments) had only Armennians. There are the facts that many of old
Monuments have real relation to Carahunge, and were conceived and
planned here. Let me tell about some of these facts.
Inside of Great Pyramid in Egypt (2450 BC, cp = 30°) nobody was in-
terred. Nevertheless, inside of it from the funeral chamber of king a narrow
(20 x 25 cm) shaft is made (in process of building) directed to the Orion belt .
bright star (to its culmination point at that time). And from the chamber of
queen there is another shaft directed to the Sirius star culmination altitude
39.5° (at that time), see Fig. 44 [36].
But at that time the Orion constellation was called the Hayk constella-
tion [19] and Great Pyramid was built at the time of Armennian King Hayk
(2493 - 2444 BC). The Hayk constellation always was (and is) accompanied
by Sirius (Alpha of Canis Major or "Big Dog" - "The loved one in house of
Holy person").
The next important fact: the altitude 39.5° of queen - Sirius shaft is !:!:
actly equal to Carahunge latitude 39.5°! It is possible to be only on latitude
30°, where is the Great Pyramid.
Orion (HaJk'5)
constellation
S--.... N
s
!
N
Great
Pyramid
Fig. 44. The Great Pyramid [36] Fig. 45. Three Big Pyramids [36]
The Great Pyramid and Stonehenge are on latitudes, which are almost
at equal distances from Carahunge latitude (39.5 ± 10°).
As it is shown by R.Bauvel, the disposition of three Big Pyramids in
Giza iterates the positions of three stars in Orion Belt, see Fig. 45 [36].
56
Carahunge astronomers had much interest in Hayk (Orion) and Canis
Major (with Sirius) constellations during 7500 - 4500 years ago, i.e. long be-
fore the Pyramids were built (see Tables 5 and 6 in Items 1.24 and 1.25), and
Great Pyramid was connected with that interest.
The Stonehenge (2000 BC) is on the latitude cp = 51°, where (and only
here) the four points on the horizon of the Sun and Moon rising and setting
in their extreme positions form a rectangle [28]. Besides, the altitude of the
Sun in Stonehenge at noon of equinox days is almost equal to Carahunge
latitude: 90° - 51° = 39° (difference about 0.5°).
There are underground rivers near Stonehenge and Carahunge. There
are deep (30 m) wells close to Stonehenge and to ruins of VII century Armen-
nian round temple Zvartnots (near Etchmiadzin) which, perhaps, earlier was
another Carahunge.
Callanish is on latitude which is Arctic Circle for Moon [28], and its
latitude is about «p = 55.5° (55.5° - 16° = 39.5° = the latitude of Carahunge).
The oldest Egyptian Observatory near present Asuan" is on latitude
about «p = 23.5° (23.5° + 16° = 39.5° = the latitude of Carahunge).
It is obvious, that these four old Monuments (Stonehenge and Great
Pyramid, Callanish and Asuan) were built on specially chosen (by some-
body) latitudes and are closely connected with Carahunge (39.5° ± 10° and
39.5° ± 16°).
Of course, there were taken into account for Monument place choice
also other important conditions: climate, presence of many workers, of wa-
ter, etc.
All these tell us that it was in old Armennia the Original Brain Cen-
tre (OBC), where the building of different Monuments was planned. They
knew astronomy, mathematics, Earth ball-form, its sizes, technology of
stone treatment, etc. and had necessary enough accurate instruments in-
cluding compass", sextant, protractor and others. Of course, they meas-
ured preliminary the latitudes of many places. They were the first who
divided the Sky into 12 parts (Zodiacal Constellations) and 360 degrees
(12x30=3600), divided day into 24 hours (12x2=24), the hour to 60 min-
utes (12x5=60min=lh.), the minute to 60 seconds (12x5= 60sec = 1min),
thereat 1 sec. is almost equal to 1 period of human heart rhythm. In the
result the Sky (i.e. Earth) rotates with velocity 15 degree per hour, or 15
arc. minute per minute, or 15 arc. sec. per second, easy to remember.
It was decided in OBC to build at first the Great Pyramid at latitude
«p = 30°, in order the elevation of Sirius extreme to be equal 39.5°, as Cara-
hunge latitude. The difference was 39.5° - 30° = 9.5°. To build Stonehenge on
the same latitude shift, Le, on latitude 39.5° + 9.5° = 49° was impossible be-
cause unfortunately, there was English Channel (La Mansh). So they de-
• "Asu ean" in Armennian means "speaker", "speaking one".
• "corn" (kohm) in Armennian is "side" (qIlIlU).
57
cided to go to cp = 51° where were good conditions and another connection
with Carahunge: the equality (approximate) of Sun elevation at equinox
noon to the Carahunge latitude.
It is interesting also that Carnak (latitude about 48°) in Britain
(France) was built almost at the same time (2000 BC) with Stonehenge and
the middle latitude between them is equal to 39.5 ±10= 49.5°. Indeed, 48+51
= = 99: 2= 49.5 -10 = 39.5°, Le, the latitude of Carahunge.
Then the place latitudes for Callanish and Asuan Observatory, as 39.5°
± 16° were chosen. Of course, at these places at first simple observatories
were built by them, as for example, the circles near Goseck, Germany (4900
BC, latitude about 50°) [104].
I think, the places were chosen by this way, although to build Monu-
ments in these places it was necessary to do the titanic work to carry very
big stones for Stonehenge and Great Pyramid from the distances of hun-
dreds kilometres.
Why did they decide to build so big Monuments, for what main pur-
pose?
I think, the main purpose of Great Pyramid and Stonehenge building
was to tell, to lead, to bring, to inform the far future generations about the
great scientific discovery they knew, the Ball-form of the Earth!
They were clever enough to understand that many scientific knowledge
could be forgotten, because population on Earth at that time generally was
not yet civilized, had no written language, Le, had no long time memory.
And they were right. R.Bauvel and A.Gilbert write that about 1000 years
after Pyramids building it was unfortunately forgotten who built them and
for what purpose [36]. Also, by G.Hawkins the real history of Stonehenge
was forgotten [28].
1.35. THE GREAT SPIDNX
At the first time Armennians were in Egypt much earlier, perhaps,
about 12000 years ago, and built the Great Sphinx.
My opinion is the Sphinx was built to perpetuate the another great scien-
tific discovery, the phenomenon of Earth Axis Precession, the Great Space Clock
of Equinoxes.
The Great Sphinx is Lion, the symbol of Armennian main God AR (the
Sun), and it looks exactly to the East, to the point on horizon, where the Sun
rises each equinox day. Why was needed this orientation? G.Hancock thinks
that Sphinx was built in Precession epoch of Lion constellation, Le. between
10970 BC and 8810 BC (about 13000 -10800 years ago). He says: ''The Lion
was looking to the Lion!" [24]. I can add: "And to the Sun, twice per year!".
58
According to modem data the Great Sphinx was built much earlier
than Pyramids (more than 6000 years earlier) and may be even before the
Great Deluge, because the stone material of Sphinx is much more erosioned
than stones of Pyramids or temples near them [24].
Let me add that next Lion epoch will be between 14950 AD and 17110
AD. So the Great Sphinx is looking indeed to the very far future!
To the question ''Who built the Sphinx?" many modern scientists an-
swer that it was done by some very old and great civilization on the Earth,
the place of which is unknown yet.
G.Hancock tells that French mathematician R.A.Shwaller de Lubich in
his books "Temple de I'Home", "Roi de la theocratic Pharaonique" (XX
century AD) noted that the science and culture in Egypt were much more
developed and complicated than the modern scientists think [24]. He tells
also that well known geologist John A.West in his book ''The Serpent in the
Sky" said that Egyptian civilization possibly is not the result of development
in limits of the Nile Valley but is the heritage of much earlier, more great
but still unknown civilization which "outstripped dynastic Egypt and all
other famed civilizations for thousands years" [24]. And he said also that the
Great Civilization, perhaps, preceded Great Deluge, which allow to suppose
that Sphinx already existed at that time [24]. And G.Hancock said also the
opinion of the famous American geologist R. Schoch: "I am going by the
way of the science, which leads me to the dedication that Sphinx was made
much earlier than it was deemed" [24].
I am glad that there are such opinions. I think that the said ''unknown
yet the Oldest and Great Civilization" might be only Armennian Old Civili-
zation in Armennia, because there is the developed Carahunge of 7500 years
old and there are no other variants.
1.36. COSMOLOGY, PHILOSOPHY, THEOLOGY
In Old Armennia the Cosmology, Philosophy and Theology together
were developed. This is possible to explain using Armennian Language (see
PART 2), especially some words, for example:
• The word Universe ( S ~ b q b I 1 R - Tiezzerc) means in Armennian
"Edges of people home (place)" (see Table 10). There is also another old
Armennian word for Universe, which is perhaps, older one. It is UULn (Ast)
which means "The home (place) for beautiful life". So the Universe was in
close connection with life, was for people life, so people are the part of Na-
ture and live in all the Universe. This very old opinion shocks, doesn't it?
• The word Star (UULnI1 - Astgh) means "The clot in the Uni-
verse", "The clot (quintessence) of the Universe (matter substance)", be-
59
cause "Ast" is Universe and "11. - gh" is clot of different substances, as for
example "SnLI1. - Yough" is ''butter'' which is clot of milk. Deep philosophy!
• The word God (Uuuutwa - Astvats) means "Omnipresent", be-
cause "Ast" is Universe and ''vats'' or "ats" in Armennian words show the
position state of the object, as in words "1'J.lutwa - put", "u..... nL[wa - wide-
spread", " ~ w ( j q . ( j w a - standing", etc. So the God is the Substance spread all
over Universe or Omnipresent, which is (one of) His main quality.
Thus the Main Deity, Main God of Old Armennians was the All Uni-
verse, All Nature. The Sun (AR, AREV) was the Main God of Earth or, per-
haps, for the all Solar System.
1.37. ABOUT ASTRONOMY IN OLD ARMENNIA
I am not sole in opinion about the presence of developed level of sci-
ence, language and culture in Old Armennia.
At the beginning of XX century well known German historian
E.Maunder and archaeologist Swarts [37], famous British astronomer and
historian of astronomy W.Alcott [38] wrote that the first people who divided
the sky to the constellations and named them, lived not in Egypt, not in
Babylon, but in Armennian Highland (in Valley of river Euphrates) and
around Mount Ararat, at latitudes from 36° to 41°, and that process was
completed in DI millennium BC. According to W.A1cott these conclusions
are agreed also with historical and archaeological data.
E.Mounder also writes: ''Egyptians, on whose ancient monuments
twelve Zodiac signs were found out, told the truth that they had taken their
knowledge about stars from the Chaldeans (= Urartians = Armennians, see
below, P.H.), and they in their turn were teachers of Greeks at the times of
Phales and Pythagoras" [37].
Zodiac signs, used till now, are ancient Armennian hieroglyphs for Zo-
diacs which are saved in Armennia till now, for example, in Metsamor
Monument (big metallurgical plant and observatory in the Ararat Valley, V
millennium BC), [39], in rock petroglyphs [32, 32a], on pages of Matenada-
ran" manuscripts.
The planet Earth (with human population) is denoted in present as-
tronomy (from old times) by ring with cross on the top. This was an Armen-
nian old sign of Earth: the ring with man on the top '6, which was simpler
and earlier than petroglyph shown in Fig. 40. The same structure have the
• Matenadaran is Repository, Scientific Institute and Museum of Ancient Manu-
scripts in Yerevan, the capital of Republic of Armennia (see Fig. 67a on page 142).
60
carved ornaments on thousands Armennian famous Cross-Stones made be-
fore (Fig. 43c) and especially after the Christianity adopting (Fig. 94).
French famous astronomer and philosopher K.Flomarion [40], British
scientist A.Berry [41] and others noted the high level of astronomical knowl-
edge in prehistoric Armennian Highland.
American scientist, the well-known researcher of Stonehenge and CaI -
lanish, G.S.Hawkins in 1970-s wrote to V.H. Hambartsumian, President of
the Armennian National Academy of Sciences, that Stonehenge is not alone
and it should be expected the presence of such astronomical culture in Ar-
mennia [3,31]. Carahunge and this PART 1 are bright confirmation of his
rightness.
Carahunge is also confirmation of other above mentioned statements
and opinions about developed astronomy and culture of Old Armennia.
---
1.38. ABOUT ASTRONOMY IN MODERN ARMENNIA
In the present Republic of Armennia Astronomy is also developed.
In famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) led by director
V.H.Hambartsumian the high level scientific results were achieved by him
as well as by Professors B.Marcarian, G.Gurzadian, M.Arakelyan,
L.Mirzoyan, E.Khachikian, PhD H. Baddalian and others•.The interesting
results were achieved thanks to cooperation with Foreign Member of the
Armennian National Academy of Sciences Ye.Terzian (Director of Astron-
omy Department of Comell University, NY, USA).
In BA0 the Star Associations were discovered where stars are born
also in present time; the new type of galaxies with ultraviolet superfluity
(Marcarian galaxies); the activity of galaxy nuclears; the first space tele-
scope "Orion" was made, etc.
The first in Armennia radioastronomical observations were done in
BAO in 1950-es led by PhD-es V.Sanamian and PhD E. Mirzabekyan.
In Yerevan State University Professors G.Sahakkian and D.Sedrakkian
received important theoretical results about neutron stars, Prof.
B.Toumanian made interesting works on old calendars, etc.
In Yerevan Physics Institute (Yerevan and Mount Aragats) led by di-
rector A.Alikhanian the new types of telescopes for space high energy parti-
cles were made and many interesting results were achieved.
61
In Radiophysics Research Institute (RRI), founded in 1968-71 and
heading by the author of this book, with RRI Experimental Plant "Wave"
(Yerevan) led by director M.Khorasanjian, and RRI Aragats Scientific Cen-
tre (ASC, 100 hectare, Mount Aragats) led by director Dr. V.Oskanian (pre-
sent director T.Tonoyan) there has been worked out the theory and pro-
jected the large radiotelescope with the Large Antenna of the new type hav-
ing fixed (in ground) spherical main mirror and movable correcting secon-
dary small mirror [42-44]. In 1960-62 was projected and built the working
model of Large Antenna 5 m in diameter (0.64 m secondary mirror) for mm
radio waves [43]. It was, at that time, the biggest Antenna in the World for
short mm wave range.
In 1960's and 70's the entire project of large Radio-Optical Telescope
with the Large Antenna and all systems was completed in RRI. The building
of the first in World Radio-Optical Telescope ROT-54/2.6 had begun in 1976
in ASC of RRI on altitude 1700 m.
The main building and construction work were done during 1976 -1986
by big staff of RRI (with more than 850 persons). The huge work was done
by specialists of RRI: A.Antonian (building), R.Adamian, E.Kazarian,
A.Pogosian (design), M.Khorasanjian, O.Dolbakian, Dr. H.Bagdasarian
(technology, manufacturing), Dr. M.Arakelian, Z.Astvatsatrian, G.Aslanian
(montage, adjusting), Dr. S.Sarkisian, A.Nersesian (28 control systems mak-
ing and adjusting), Dr. N.Khachatrian, N.Yeolchian, (radiometric receivers
for 2, 3, 8 mm, 3, 10, 20 cm ranges), Dr. V.Oskanian (optical telescope de-
sign), G.Utunjian (300 tons antenna aluminum surface melding),
V.Hovannesian (turner and welding master) and many-many others.
The main building, preparation and montage works, as well as all in-
frastructure: electrical grid, telephones, water and heating supply, laborato-
ries and control buildings, hotel etc, were finished in 1985. Also the first ob-
servation of radio sources was done in 1985 [46].
During 1986 - 1987 all systems adjustment work was finished in ASC
and ROT - 54/2.6 with Large Antenna 54m in diameter and Optical Tele-
scope with 2.6m in diameter were ready (Fig. 46a,b,c). In 1988 parameters of
ROT - 54/2.6 were measured and observations started.
The measured parameters of the Large Antenna are presented
in Table 7 and its comparison with parameters of other large antennas in the
World is presented in Table 8.
ROT - 54/2.6 Large Antenna parameters are better than parameters of
any large antenna in the World, especially in mm wave range (until now).
This is the most accurate, short wave, narrow beam, high gain, low noise,
high sensitive and high speed large antenna in the World.
Using this unique modern Astronomical Instrument we (with
Dr. A. Sarkisian, Dr. V. Oskanian. Dr. Panchenko, Dr. N.Khachatrian,
A.Oskanian and others) made first observations and discovered the bright
flare on Etta Gemini red giant star. Such a powerful flare was observed for
62
the flrst time for red giant type stars. The new radiosources in mm radio
wave range were discovered.
It was also demonstrated (thanks to very low level of the Antenna Self
Noises, 2.8K) that the ''relict'' background emission (of 2.7K) in Universe is
absent, so the present cosmological theory of the Birth of the Universe by
Big Bang is wrong [45-47].
In RRI other radio telescopes were also built: RT-18 with parabolic an-
tenna 18 m in diameter for 3 cm - 1 m wave range; RT-3.2 with spherical
doublemirror antenna 3.2 m in diameter (accuracy 7 micron) for sub-
millimetre (0.1 mm :- 3 cm) wave range, which is put on Mount Aragats on
altitude of 3200 m, and others.
ROT· 54/2.6
The Results of Measurements of ROT Main Parameters
Table 7
~
1
N 200 30 8 3 2
(expected)
Parameter
1. Beamwidth 25' 3.7' l' 22" 14" 7"
2. Effective Area, m ~ 560 560 540 520 482 350
3. Gain 2xlff 8xl0
6
lOll
7xl0
11
1.5xl0' 4.4xlo'
4. Area using factor 0.7 0.7 0.67 0.65 0.6 0.4
5. Self Noises, K 5 4 2.8 3 not measured
6.
Sensitivity
112 140 193 173 not measured
(Eff. Area I selfnoises)
7.
Field of view,
2.8
(±1 0 x 10 beam-
not measured
square degree widths)
63
The ROT Comparison with the World Other Largest Antennas
Table 8

as
...
E
as
::

as
:c'
Antenna
=

"'" t:
·C
Z

Cl
Cl
NI
-e
"'"
l:S
,.Q
as .Si
-e .Si
Parameter • t: ;> t:
-....
E-4
E
...


Cl ....

"'0 "'"

l:S

If:

NI ::s


<;;;;)
Cll:ll::: \Cl:lI:::
1. The full diameter, m 54 45 30 100 305 70 64 7.4x580
2. Using diameter, m 32 45 30 100 260x213 70 64 74 x 320
3. Using Aperture, geo-
804
15
707 7854 43514 3848 3217 2368
metrical Area, m
2
90
4. RMS of mirrors, mm 0.08 0.2 0.13 1.2 7.5 1 1 1
5. Shortest wavelength,

3.3 3 30 37 30 30 30
mm Max. frequency,
150 9.4 10 1 0.81 1 1 1
GHz
6. Effective Area factor
0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4
(at shortest wave)
7. Effective Area, m2 (at
482
63
283 3142 21760 1539 1287 947
shortest wave) 6
8. Electrical diamll03, I..
16 14 10 3.3 6.4 2.3 2.1 0.25x11
(at shortest wave)
9. Self-Noise Temper., K 3 35 35 40 35 35 35 50
10. Sensitivity, mZJK (Eft.
161 18 8 79 622 44 37 19
Area / Self-noise)
11. Beamwidth, arcsec. (at
14 17 24 72 41x34 103 112 22x900
shortest wave)
12. Beam cross (cut) sec-
196
28
576 5184 1095
1060
12544 19800
tion, arcsec' 9 9
13. Gain /106 (at shortest
1514
78
395 44 200 21 18 13
wave) 0
14. Sky coverage, degree 120
12
120 120 22 0150 150 150
0
15. Latitude, degree 40 36 37 50 18 45 56 44
16. Declination of visible -35
-24
-24 -10 +24 -30 -19 -30
+7
sources, degree +85
5
+75 +75 +46 +90 +90 +90
17. Sky coverage along
120 99 99 85 22 120 109 120
source declin., degree
18. Duration of source ob-
8 6.6 6.6 5.7 1.5 8 7.3 8
servation, hour
19. Tracking accuracy,
2 2 2 10 10 ? ? ?
arcsec,
20. Parallel Optical-
2.6
-
- - - -
- -
Telescope diameter, m
64
Fi2.21. The Sunrise moment through Hole in Stone No 67 on 22.09.1997
Fi2. 22. The Sunrise moment through Hole in Stone No 63 on 22.09.1997
65
Fig. 23. The Sunrise moment
through Hole in Stone
No 66 on 23.06.2001
Fig. 25. The New Type of
Sundial-Calendar in
front of RRI main building
66
Fig. 25a.Fragment of Carahunge stones. Painted by S.G.Safian
Fi2.31. Periscope-Stone No 137
Fi2.32. Bowl with water in down part of Stone No 137
67
Fig. 33. Professor G.S.Hawkins
Fig. 34. Stonehenge. Painted by G.S.Hawkins
68
Fig. 36. Three-Stone Instrument (TSI)
Fig. 37. Two main Stones ofTSI Fig. 38. Sun reflection from a mirror
Put in Hole of Stone No 63.
Photo by H. Bagdasarian
69
F i ~ . 39. Statue of Annannia Shirakatsi, Armennian old astronomer and
mathematician of VII cent. AD, with the model of ball-formed Earth
70
a - General view
b - Stone with hole c - Stones with engraved old
crosses and pyramids
Fig. 43. Standing stones near Mount Ararat [35]
71
a - General view from helicopter b - Secondary Mirror
c - View at night
Fig. 46. Radio-Optical Telescope ROT-54/2.6
72
1.39. CONCLUSION OF PART 1
CARAHUNGE - mE PREHISTORIC WONDER IN ARMENNIA
Carahunge is the prehistoric stone Monument in Armennia, near town
Sisian. It consists of hundreds Standing Stones (also lying and damaged
ones) from which 223 are numbered by us. 84 of them have accurately made
holes, 4-5 cm in diameter, going through stones and looking to different di-
rections, mainly to the real horizon.
~ In the middle part of the Monument Stones form the Central Circle
with sizes 35 m x 45 m, from which to the North and South directions the
Stones Arms are going as far as 110 -150 m as well as the short NE Alley.
The territory occupied by Monument is about 7 hectares.
Beginning from 1994 we are researching Carahunge using astronomi-
cal methods. Our conclusion is the following:
1. Carahunge was very old Temple (Central Circle) of the oldest Ar-
mennian Main God AR (the Sun), very large and developed Observatory
(Arms) and big University;
2. Carahunge consists of about 80 Stone Astronomical Instruments the
accuracy of which is up to 30" or 2 sec for the Sun and Moon, and 51" or 3.4
sec for stars and planets observations;
3. The name "Carahunge" means in Armenian "Speaking Stones";
4. Using the Earth Axis Incline changing and its Precession phenomena
laws and our observations results of the Sun, Moon and stars rising, setting
and culmination moments using old Astronomical Instruments, as well as our
calculations results of the used four independent astronomical methods we
believe that:
- Carahunge Observatory had developed scientific level and was in ac-
tive operation more than 7500 years ago,
- It was in continuous operation during more than 5500 years, perhaps,
until Christianity adopting in Armennia as the State religion in 301 AD;
5. Carahunge is the oldest and biggest Observatory among all known old
ones in the World. It is older than Stonehenge for 3500 years, than Great
Pyramid for 3000 years and than the beginning of the oldest civilizations in
Sumer and Egypt for 2500 years. Armennian civilization is the oldest in the
World;
6. In Carahunge time prehistoric Armennian scientists knew the follow-
ing:
- the Earth is ball-formed and its radius is about 6300 km;
- the .Earth rotates around its own Axis with period of one day, and
around the Sun with period of about 365.25 days; the old "movable" calen-
dar (coming from about 23000 years ago) was corrected to the first "fixed"
one; the Armennian Circle of 1460 years was corrected to 1461 years;
- the Earth Axis is inclined for the angle about 24° from the vertical to
the ecliptic plane and this angle very slowly changes in small limits;
73
- the Earth Axis makes also a slow conic movement (called now Preces-
sion) with period about 25920 years, in the result of which the Spring equi-
nox moment comes each year earlier for about 50" (or 3.3 sec.), so-called
Equinox Anticipation; the Sun slowly moves (in relation to stars on sky)
with velocity 83' (or 5.5 min.) per 100 years, Le, lies in each Zodiac constella-
tion for 2160 years. The Precession was, perhaps, found out in Carahunge
much earlier, about 12000 years ago (so-called "the Space Great Clock");
- Carahunge astronomers have had special interest and made long time
observations of stars in Orion (with its Belt) and Canis Major (with Sirius)
constellations, using many specially made Stone Instruments, holes of which
were directed to the rising, setting and culmination points of said stars at
period of 7500 - 4500 years ago; they found out also the Sirius Cycle (Sotis)
which is very close to the Armennian Cycle (difference is 12 min. per year);
- five planets were known with their periods of rotation around the Sun:
Mercury - about 3 months, Venus - about 7.5 months, Mars - about 2 years,
Jupiter - about 11 years, Saturn - about 30 years. So the Heliocentric Solar
System was known in Armennia more than 8000 years before N.Copernicus,
G.Galilei, I.Keppler and I.Newton;
- Carahunge demonstrates that 7500 years ago in Armennia were devel-
oped mathematics, technologies, written language (alphabet) as well as the
state (kingdom) with law and order during millenia;
7. We understand that such a high knowledge, which had Armennian
Carahunge Scientists, was achieved by systematic work during many thou-
sand years. In Carahunge we have found developed Astronomical Instru-
ments built 7500 years ago and designed using already high special knowl-
edge. This means that before these Astronomical Instruments, there had
been simpler ones. When was the beginning?
To answer this question it is necessary to take into account that being
the first civilization Armennians could not learn knowledge from anybody
else because there was not any other civilization. It was just one source - Na-
ture. They were children of the Sun, of the Nature and accumulated the
knowledge little by little, starting from zero. Of course, this is a very slow
process, requiring many thousand years.
Probably, Armennian language, settled life, agriculture, state, i.e. civili-
zation began about 40 thousand years ago (which will be proved also in
PARTS 2 and 3); the first sky observations and calendar began 23 thousand
years ago; the first Observatories, Precession discovery and preliminary Al-
phabet - about 15-10 thousand years ago.
8. There are a lot of indisputable facts of analogy between Carahunge and
other old monuments:
- Stonehenge and Callanish have Central Circles, NE Alleys and Arms
(Callanish), as it is in Carahunge;
- Stonehenge and Great Pyramid are built in latitudes which are about
± 10° from Carahunge latitude (39.5°);
74
- Callanish and oldest Egyptian God RA (AR) temple and Observatory
(near present Asuan) are built in latitudes about ± 16° from Carahunge lati-
tude;
- The narrow shaft inside the Great Pyramid (made during Pyramid
building), going through Pyramid from king's chamber to its South side, is
directed to bright star of Orion Belt in its culmination at that time, about
4500 years ago, when Orion was called Hayk constellation (by name of fa-
mous Armennian King Hayk, about 2493-2444 BC);
- Another the same type shaft going from queen's chamber is directed to
Sirius (which is near Orion) culmination point (at that time) and its inclina-
tion angle is 39.5° which is exactly equal to Carahunge latitude. This can be
so only at latitude 30° where the Great Pyramid was built;
- In Stonehenge the inclination angle of the Sun at equinox days noon is
also equal to about 39.5° which is latitude of Carahunge. This can be so only
at latitude 51° where Stonehenge was built;
- Callanish was built on latitude about 56° which is approximately North
Polar Circle for Moon; Old Observatory in Egypt (near Asuan) was built on
latitude about 23.5° which is close to North Tropic Circle for the Sun;
- The word "Stonehenge" is the same as "Carahunge" because "car" in
Armennian is "stone" and "henge" (the word which is absent in English) is
very close to "hunge". So Stonehenge means the same "Speaking (singing)
Stones";
- The word "Callanish" is very close to Armennian word "Carenish",
where "car" is "stone", ''Dish'' is "sign". So Callanish means "Stone Sign",
"Stone Symbol". The island where Callanish was built is called "Lewis",
which in Armennian is "light";
- Camac in Brittany (France), the name of which in old Briton language
was written as "Carnikh" or "Carnish", is the same "Stone Sign". The same
means Carnac in Egvpt;
9. These above mentioned facts (there are also others) tell that analo-
gies between Carahunge and other old monuments are not accidental, which
means that almost all old monuments were planned in one "Original Brain
Centre", in Armennia. For what purpose?
There were two main purposes:
- the first one was to perpetuate the Great Scientific Discoveries. The
Great Sphinx was built (about 12000 years ago) in honour of Precession
phenomenon discovery, and Great Pyramid and Stonehenge, as well as Cal-
lanish and Asuan, were built in honour of Earth ball-form discovery;
- the second purpose was the great and noble mission of Armennian civi-
lization - to civilize other tribes and nations. Armennians were never ag-
gressive. They were kind and gifted knowledge bountly and unselfishly as
their Main God AR gives life.
10. There is a line of almost the same old legends of many nations (as
Sumerians, Egyptians, Greeks, all nations of Central America) telling that in
75
very old time came white and bearded kind Gods and taught them to be
kind, do not make human sacrifice; they knew everything and taught them
knowledge. The name of leader of Gods who came to Sumer was Ovannes,
which is Armennian male name. Armennia gave knowledge to Sumer,
Egypt, Babylon, Crete, Mycena, Delphi, Greece, Iran, India etc. (see PART
3);
11. My present research of Carahunge is the first and, of course, it is
necessary to continue it. I am sure Carahunge is very interesting and com-
plicated object and many new results will be achieved by many other spe-
cialists: astronomers, geologists, historians and archaeologists.
12. Carahunge belongs to all mankind as a certification of its high
knowledge coming from very old times.
P.S. According to the Government decision No 1095-n of Republic of
Armenia, dated 29 July, 2004, the old stone Monument near town Sisian in
Armenia is named "Carahunge Observatory".
This Decision is affirmed by the President of Republic of Armenia
Robert Kocharian at 11 August, 2004.
76
PART 2
ARMENNIAN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS
"Steed - he is powerful and beautiful"
'rudnlJq - iuuDldlirJt b qlirJligftll'
It is not well known that inside language much information about old
times is saved. This is right especially for the Armennian language which is
very old and is the first language, "The God's" language. So, the careful
analysis of Armennian language can give many marvellous and unexpected
results, which I shall show you here, in PART 2.
2.1. VERY OLD TIME
The early Paleolithic culture (500/300-50 millennia ago), many camps
and inhabited caves with firesides, stone tools and crockery were found dur-
ing excavations in Armennia (present and Historical lands) [34,68,93]. The
people, such as Azokhians and Cromagnonians living in Paleolithic time in
Armennia were the ancestors of Armennians (see PART 3).
Armennian nation began to form with emersion of Homo Sapiens in
Armennia about 50-45 millennia ago. The beginning of Armennian language
has the same age.
If you think that Homo Sapiens had no language, could not speak, you
are mistaken. He was clever and emotional as we are. And I am sure, after
just a few generations they had enough good language, in contrast to ani-
mals which can utter just some separate sounds.
Let us imagine the first man, when his conscious was just awaken. He
saw and felt all Nature around: the Sun, the Moon, stars, rainbow, mounts,
woods, water, air etc. He wanted to exercise his ability, to tell about his feel-
ings to others. He was a particle of Nature, felt all positive and negative
forces. The main source of creational forces was the Sun, giving light,
warmth and life. He loved the Sun (AR in Armennian), respected and
adored Him. The Sun was his kind God, his Father, and he was His child, he
was Aryan ("Ar·yan" in Armennian means: "From the Sun land", "Sun
people").
77
armtorrent.com
First Armennians determined four main Elements of Nature. They
named them by simple first words. And these words came to the present
Armennian almost without changes (Table E). Later the concept of these
four Elements were transferred to all other countries and nations.
Table E
Four Main Elements of Nature
SWl1bl19 Four Elements
4emblpe cmuxuu
Armennian
English Russian
Old Present
1. (h) 0'1 hnq {bl1ldlp} (g)round (Earth) 3eMAJI (wap)
2. (h) oil oil
air (sky) B03.ayx (He60)
3. (h) oLl
2
nLP water (sea) eoaa (Mope)
(hnLl,bnLl)
4. (h) run hmn
(h) um,
(wplL) fire (Sun) oroas (CoAHue)
Up
Armennian language intensively developed and, of course, from the
very beginning there were many very important words beginning with "ar":
Up (Sun), uqnlunn (root), urpjmfi (blood), wJP (man), uiprpnp (righteous),
wpm (pasture), wpnp (plough), umuiqunnn (sail), WPWPP! (creator),
wpwhbm (way), wpqwfitl (womb), uipqtnnn (art), wpwqpt (stork), wpf'l {no-
ble}, wpf'lwgf'l (aryan, ''born in Sun land"), etc.
Even in old times Armennian language was rich and included words
having deep scientific, philosophical and spiritual meanings. Just two exam-
ples: "Star" - "concentration of space (substance)", "God" - "spreaded in
all Universe", "Omnipresent".
The first Armennian written language (pictures, symbols, hieroglyphs)
arose in Armennia about 25000 years ago, was in use during many millen-
nia. Even now they are present on old monuments [32, 39, 48, 49, 50].
There are many very old petroglyphs on hundred kilometers of rocks
in Armennia. One of them is a vertical stick with the point on the top (I). It
was ''man'', ''me'', "I", "one". This sign with a point a little upper of the
stick (i) is saved in European languages. English pronunciation is "ai". If to
add the half-sound "h", it will be "hai" which in Armennian is "Armen-
nian". English "I am" in Armennian is the same bu bl1 ="Yes (I) am". Also
English ''who come" in Armennian Artsakh dialect is the same 9Jwl1b =
who come.
78
Later the symbol for ''man, I, one" was developed to these:
, , + , ~ , * , ~ , W
which are the praying men. And three symbols of AR (Sun God) arose:
Lion, Eagle and Aris (Aries), all three begin in Armennian with letters "ar".
From that time "three" came to us as a sacred figure and sign "w" became
the first letter of Armennian Alphabet (letter "a"). It seems to me, that at
first there were two symbols: Lion and Eagle, but during (after) Great Del-
uge the Aris was added, because this beautiful big animal stood immovable
on the top of rocks and was not afraid of lightning. Aris became also the
name (and sign) of the first Zodiacal constellation and the form of its horns
became in Armennia the spiral ornament and the sign of Life, Sun and
Eternity (Fig. 47 a, b, c).
a) Spiral ornament b) Life, Sun, Eternity
c) Aries Zodiac constellation
Fig. 47. Old Armennian Signs
Armennian language confirms that Armennians in Armennia lived and
live during all times. This comes also from the fact that very many geo-
graphical names, names of men and women begin with letters "ar". For ex-
ample:
geographical names: Armennia (Ar • men. ia - "Sun people (Aryan)
country"), Ararat (Ar • ar • at - "extra created" or "God's life
place"), Aragats, Areguni (mounts), Aracs, Aratsani, Arpha
(rivers), Artsakh, Aragatsotn, Armorika (lands), Arabkir, Ar-
mavir, Artashat (towns), etc,
malenames: Annan (Ar.man- ''Sunman", "AIyan''), Annen, Annenak, Arsbak,
Ara (Arayik), Arsen,Artashes,Artavazd, Areg, Artin, Am, Artak, Arsham, ete,
female names: Arev (Arevik), Aros (AnNak), Aracs, ArshaIuys, Arpi (Arpiar),
Arminne",Armenouhi, Aregnaz, etc.
According to anthropological data Armennian names (and family
names) were not changed at least during last 9 thousand years [51].
The first (preliminary) Armennian Alphabet including 19 letters arose
about 15-12 thousand years ago (see below).
79
The Developed Alphabet with 34 letters existed in VI millennium BC. It
was all-Armennian Alphabet, used also in Kilikian, Phoenician and other
Armennian Kingdoms (see below). This Alphabet served as the base for all
world Alphabets (see below, Tables 5, 9, 18).
Thus the basis of Indo-European family of languages began about
7000 years ago. It was Armennian language and Armennian Alphabet.
The Moscow linguists T.Gamkrelidze and V.Ivanov write that the sup-
posed cradle of Indo-Europeans and Indo-European languages was located
in Historical Armennia, from where they propagated to different directions
(Fig. 48) [52].
The same opinion (particularly about consanguinity of Armennians
and Celts) is given also by European scientists, for example, by D.Lang in
his book "Armennia, Cradle of Civilization" [53].
.,
\.
HPAU
~ ~ ~ r:
, .
9· ( MOXEHl l>+<o- ./lA PQ
OXAPI1A

Fig. 48. The Cradle of Indo-Europeans and
their Languages was in Armennian Highland [52].
2.2. ARMENNIAN ALPHABET "DISAPPEARANCE"
Straightaway after the Christianity adopting as State religion in Ar-
mennia (301 AD) the big disaster took place: all Heathen temples (except
one - Garni, the summer residence of the King) and Statues were destroyed,
all books were burned and abolished [20, 54, 57]. Armennian Alphabet was
80
disallowed as a heathen one. During about one century only the Greek and
Syrian Alphabets and books were used in Armennia although Greece (and
Syria) adopted Christianity after Armennia and their Alphabets were taken
from Armennian Alphabet (in IX cent. BC and later).
Armennian Alphabet was reestablished in 406 AD by Mesrop Mashtots
according to the order of King Vramshapuh and Catholicos Sahak, But it was
said to everybody, that this was a new Alphabet presented to Armennians by
Jesus Christ, although Armennian letters were chiselled on rocks from the old
time and it was (and is) known that Armennian Alphabet existed before
Mashtots (as for example, so called Danielian Alphabet) [20, 55]. Unfortu-
nately all these distortions of reality continue until the present time and even
such a known Soviet linguist as H.Acharian writes that before Christianity
Armennians had no written language [56].
All these (especially destruction of temples, all books and monuments in 301
AD and later) were (and are) the dreadful shock to the Armennian Old History,
science, culture. And all these gave possibility to many not honest foreign ''scien-
tists" to speculate and distort Armennian history (see below). In all these there is,
of course, a big fault of Armennians, especially of the first Christian King of the
Great Armennia Trdat ill and the first Catholicos Grigor, who were Parthians
(not Armennians) and who coming to the top lordship in Armennia divested Ar-
mennian nation of their own Great Old History. But this didn't remain unpun-
ished: later Trdat ill was poisoned (in 338 AD) and Grigor ended his life in moun-
tain caves (in 332 AD). These facts were mentioned almost by all Armennian ancient
historians.
Christianity is the Great religion of civilizednations and Armennians never
were against Christianity, which was a continuation of kind AR God (the Sun) re-
ligion indeed. They until now are proud that Armennia is the first Christian coun-
try. But the problemis that the Old History of Armennia hasto be reestablished.
2.3. MESROP MASHTOTS.
ARMENNIAN ALPHABET AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE
REESTABLISHMENT*
H you ask now somebody in present Armennia (from children up to Pro-
fessors) ''who was Mesrop Mashtots?" everybody will answer: "The creator,
the inventor of Armennian Alphabet", because in all books, textbooks, ency-
clopedias is said the same. But it is wrong. In reality Mesrop Mashtots per-
formed titanic work to restore and reestablish Armennian written language.
The statue of Mesrop Mashtots in Yerevan is shown on Fig. 49.
• The material concerning t:Jm Item was written in 1987 (30 pages in Russian), but was not pub-
lished. 1be work was based on old sources only [20, 54, 55, 57 and othersl. Here the shortened and
edited version is presented.
81
Fig. 49 The statue of St. Mesrop Mashtots (with pupil)
near Matenadaran in Yerevan.
82
The Christianity adopting in Armennia is a very big historical fact (event)
and had, of course, deep political, economical and social roots and reasons.
In the beginning of DI century AD Roman Emperor Caracalla decided to
vanquish Armennia. In 215 AD he invited Armennian King Khosrov I Ar-
shakouni, disloyally put him to jail (where he died) and sent to Armennia le-
gions headed by Folhokrit, But legions were defeated. Trdat 11 (215- 252AD),
son of Khosrov I became Armennian king.
Another threat came from the East, From Iran, where in 226 AD change
of dynasty took place. Iranian Arshakid dynasty consanguineous to Armen-
nian kings Arshakouni was overthrown by Sassanids. Iranian state religion
was also changed to Zoroastrianism. In 230 AD King Artashir Sassanid in-
vaded Armennia but was defeated. In 252 AD Shapouh I worsted and put
his son Ormouzd as king of Armennia. But in 279 AD Armennia worsted,
and Khosrov n the Great, son of Trdat 11, became the King of Armennia.
He was killed in 298 by Partevs (Parthians) and Trdat III the Great (298-
330·AD), his son, became the King.
There was a constant threat to Armennia from all sides so it was neces-
sary to think about safety. Besides, Armennia was a feudal country and the
central lordship was weaker, not so powerful as in other slave-holding coun-
tries. So the decision of Trdat ID to adopt Christianity at 301 AD was one of
the big events which had to border Armennia from threat and ensure safety.
Moreover, Armennian nation was ready to adopt Christianity as continuation
of their kind Sun-God religion (see PART 3). Trdat ID gave the Church large
rights and lands (more than lords had) to be powerful and able to support the
central lordship, the King.
But as a result of Christianity adopting in Armennia another big disas-
ter for Armennian old history, culture and written language took place.
The famous. Armennian historian of Ill-IV century AD Agatangel, the
secretary of the King Trdat ID and a witness of Christianity adopting
events, wrote [54, indents 777, 778, 786, etc.]:
"Then [Grigor] with king, lords and army, received for general pacifi-
cation the advice of approval (means from the God, P.H.) to destroy, rout,
fully annul and obliterate blandishment that nobody would interrupt and
interfere the achievement of celestial freedom.
And then king immediately ordered (with general approval) to give to bliss-
ful Grigor the duty to bury in oblivion, subvert non-gods called Gods by old an-
cestors and by him. Then the king himself with all his army moved from
Vagharshapat (now Etchmiatzin, P.H.) to Artashat to destroy there the temple of
Goddess Anahit", destroyed and shattered all around, trophied gold and silver.
.. .First they came to heathen temple of Tir God and the heathen school of
art and interpretation of dreams... and began to destroy, then calcined, shat-
tered unless demolished it...", etc.
• The head of this statue is kept in the British Museum.
83
The same was written by Armennian historians of V century AD: Khore-
natsi [20], Koryun [55], Byousand [57] and others. Armennian old culture was
destroyed. On the foundations of destroyed famous Pre-Christian Temples the
Christian Churches were built, including the Central. Cathedral in Etchmiatzin.
Armennian Alphabet and written language were abolished, after that the Greek
and Syrian ones were put in use, including for prayers in churches*.
But after one hundred years the King of Armennia Vramshapouh (389-417
AD) became sure that the State can not function normally without its own writ-
ten language. And Catholicos Sahak became sure that people did not understand
Christianity well because services in churches were conducted in Greek and Syr-
ian languages. So they decided to restore Armennian written language (but to
say to everybody that it has been gifted to Armennians by Jesus Christ). They
entrusted Mesrop Mashtots, who was the personal translator of the King, to re-
store Armennian written language. They of course knew that Alphabet existed
from very old time, and I am sure, they had it (plus one more copy, which was
brought from Syria, from Bishop Daniel [20, 55, 57]). But they could not use it
because didn't remember phonetical sounds of' many letters. Koryun** wrote
[55] that Mashtots at first even tried to write, translate and teach Armennian
language, but could not. .
It is obvious for me that to recover phonetical pronunciations of the letters
it was necessary to find just one Armennian book. But unfortunately all of them
were burnt 100 years ago. But as exception one book could be secretly kept by
somebody. Mashtots sought for it in different regions of Armennia with big diffi-
culties, for more than two years, but could not find What? Koryun didn't say "a
book", because might not, he was not allowed, the possible existence of Armen-
nian books was a big secret. Koryun says: ''Mashtots looked for, looked for, had
many difficulties but did not find", And nobody from present historians thinks
and understands what Mashtots sought and could not find in Armennia.
I asked historian Professors in Yerevan:
- Why did Mashtots, to ''invent'' Alphabet, go abroad? And why did he
travel with the group of his pupils? Let him sit at home and invent!
The answer is:
- I shall explain you. He went to big foreign towns with big libraries as
Eddessia, etc., studied Greek, Syrian and other Alphabets and, taking from
those the best, created Armennian Alphabet.
I said:
- That is nonsense.
- Why?
- Because Mashtots, Sahak and many others in Armennia knew very well
these languages and Alphabets. In Armennia there were Greek schools and
• After Christianity adopting Grigor invited to Armennia four hundred Greek ana Syrian
monks, gave them titles of bishops and put them over all armennian churches.
Koryun was the pupil of Mashtots.
• • Koryun was the pupil of Mashtots.
84
Mashtots graduated from one of them. Read Koryun! One hundred year four
hundred Greek and Syrian bishops read in Armennia their books in their lan-
guages. So it was not necessary to go abroad (and with a group of pupils) to
study these alphabets.
- ? (silence)
. - I know why he went abroad (and with pupils).
-Why?
- Because he needed to understand the phonetical pronunciations of all
Armennian letters and for this he needed to find just one book in Armennian. He
could not flnd any Armennian book in Armennia, so having the decision of the
king and the Catholicos, he went abroad with pupils to find a book in big librar-
ies, because Armennian books were not burned there as it was done here. And h e ~ .
found the book in town Sammosat", I even know which book he found. ' .
- Which book?
- It was, perhaps, Agatangel, "History of Armennia", because it is an im-
portant and famous book telling about Christianity adopting in Armennia. This
is also the reason why Armennian Church kept it during 1700 years rewriting it
almost once per century and why this book now is translated into many Euro-
pean languages.
- But there is even an opinion that Agatangellived in V century AD.
- That is wrong opinion. Agatangellived in ID-IV centuries and was, as he
wrote, eyewitness of Christianity adopting in 301 AD. That is the false opinion of
the false "scientists" who tell that Armennian Alphabet and written language
were absent before Mashtots. Because the book by Agatangel is an excellent con-
firmation that Alphabet and written language were present in Armennia for
about one hundred years before Mashtots.
Koryun tells that in Sammosat Mashtots saw in his dream Armennian let-
**
ters carved on rocks (Mashtots and Koryun knew that the letters are carved on
rocks in Armennia from the old time). Then he gave letters to one calligrapher in
Sammosat to amend a little their configurations.
When Mashtots came back to Armennia he was triumphally met by the
King, the Catholicos and people. It was in 406 AD. The Armennian written lan-
guage schools were opened, translation of many books, including Bible, was
done. Then in IV and V centuries in ''unlettered'' Armennia (with "not" any sci-
entists before Mashtots) many famous scientists (historians, philosophers,
mathematicians, etc) suddenly appeared.
"Edessa and Sammosat were old Armennian towns in Armennian Mesopotamia Kingdom
and Komagena (see PART 3).
•• I think Mashtots had with him Armennian Alphabet taken from Armennia (with
Daniel's letters copy) and also a copy of Armennian letters carved on rocks in Armennia
at about III millenium BC and presented here in next Item 2.4. (Table 9).
85
Everything in the result was all right, besides the ''nuisance'' that from that
time until now people think that written language and Alphabet in Annennia
were absent before Mashtots, who "created" letters.
There are many other historical facts which confirm that Annennian Al-
phabet and written language existed before Mashtots and before Christianity
adopting. Here are some of them;
1. Agatangel [54, §189] tells that at the time of King Trdat (means Trdat m
the Great, 298-330AD or Trdat Il, 215-252 AD, P.R.) the art of written language
was propagated in Annennia.
2. Koryun [55], Khorenatsi [20] and others confinned that before Mashtots
there was Armennian Alphabet, even in Syria, at Bishop Daniel. This Alphabet is
not kept, so different authors givedifferent figures of quantity of letters in Daniel's
Alphabet: 17,19,22,24, and 29.
3. Historian Vartan (page 50) wrote that Armennians had Alphabet consist-
ing of 22 letters at the very old time [56].
4. Philostrat (175-249 AD), historian of emperor Carracalla, in his book
''Dianna of Apollo", tells that in Armennian Tauros mountains was caught a big
panther with golden collar, on which it was written in Armennian: ''From the
Annennian King Arshak (127-114 BC, P.H.) to the God Dionysus" [57a, 66].
5. Armennian historian Engikkian [66, pp. 239-240] wrote that in 1788ADhe
saw the collection of Inzle, English ambassador in Istanbul (at sultan Hamid I),
including about 100 thousand old coins collected in Asia Minor, and found there
12 types of coins of Roubennians (Annennian Kilikia dynasty) with legible Ar-
mennian letters lI, ti, 1.11, Ul, etc.
Engikkian also wrote [66, p.7S] that in the same famous collectionofInzle he
had seen hundreds of coins of Annennian King Partev Arshakouni (113-114 AD,
P.H.). On the one side of coins there was an altar with fire, on the other side - the
portrait of king, and over edges there were Armennian words with letters h, Ul,
1.11, lI, IS and others.
6. Annennian linguist, historian and musicologist Minnas Bjshkian (1777-
1851) found in one of Armennian churches placed in South part of Odessa town
(founded on seaboard of Black Sea by Armennians came from Edessa Annennian
Kingdom) the book with Annennian letters ofVll century BC [600].
7. It is known that Hyksoses (who were Annennians) had the Alphabet
(with letters almost similar to Armennian ones) in xvn century BC.
8. The king of Annennian Mesopotamia Abgar V Yervanndouni (12-50
AD) sent a letter to Jesus Christ, Palestine (Israel), inviting him to go and live in
his capital Edessa, and received His answer (see PART 3). There is the opinion
that these letters were in so-called Aramean language. But it is wrong. The let-
ters were in Annennian, using Annennian Alphabet, because (see next position): .
9. I show in Item 2.15, that so called Aramean (or Aramaean) language and
Alphabet in reality were Annennian ones, and Armennian King Artashes I the
Kind (189-160 BC) on his boundary stones in Armennia wrote inscriptions in
86
Armennian language with Armennian letters about 600 years before Mashtots
(but not in so-called Aramean, as the wrong opinion dictates). Thus, so-called
Aramean (semitic) language and Alphabet never existed and all "Aramean" in-
scriptions (there are many of them) are in Armennian with Armennian letters.
Parthian-Armennian Arshakids-Arshakouni Dynasty in Armennia (62-428
AD) brought Armennia not only to loss of her Old History but also to loss of her
independence in 428 AD when the Great Armennia was divided between Iran
and Byzantium (just 22 years after "Alphabet creation" by Mashtots).
The independence of the Great Armennia was reestablished in 885 AD by
the King Ashot I Bagratouni (885-890 AD).
2.4. PRESENT ALPHABET AND LANGUAGE.
Present Armennian Alphabet is the same Mashtots Alphabet of 406 AD
and has 36 letters plus three additional letters (LL, 0, which were put later at
the end, so 39 letters total.
Analysis shows (see below) that letter "0" was in Armennian old Alphabet,
but Mashtots excluded it, perhaps, as having meaning of "(heathen) soul" and
superseded by letter "n", he replaced also the letter ''(1'' from the second POSition
in old Alphabet as important part of the word "UI' (the Sun)" to the fifth POSi-
tion from the end in his Alphabet.
In Table 9 the present Armennian Alphabet (with transcriptions [58,59]),
and thousands years old Armennian letters carved on rocks [48, 49], also Phoe-
nician of 13-9th century BC [60] and so-called "Aramean" of 10
th
century BC
[56] Alphabets are shown. We can see that all letters are the same or have almost
the same structure",
Armennian Alphabet is rich (39 letters) and represents many phonetic
sounds (so it could be used also as international transcription).
• Dr. of Sci. S. M. Martirosian in printing this book found out that in ''Word'' program of
computer memory under the title of ''Font name: Aramean, File name: ARAMIAN. TTF'
there is the same present Armennian Alphabet (see Tables 9 and 9a).
Table9a
Font name: Aramian,
Filename: ARAMIAN.TTF
w P Cl Il b q t np et }1 tlu it qh d Il
li
11 J fi l
n1 11I2DU qmpg nllPIl 1..0


87
Table 9
ARMENNIAN ALPHABET
petro
Phoeni-

Phoeni-
gIiphs
clan
"Ara- gliphs
clan
"Ara-
pre-
trans-
on
letters
mean"
pro-
on
letters
mean"
sent
pro-
rocks letters
pre- trans-
nune.
rocks letters
crip-
nunc,
sent crip-
let-
tion
as in
(from
(13-9e.
(10
letters tion
as in
(from
(13-9e.
(10
ters
word
III
BC)
cent.
word
ID
BC}
cent.
millen. BC)
millen. BC}
BC) BC)
li,w A,a
Arm
Uw
w
If
B,j
Y
le5
3
J
P,p b
had p
r 4
11, fi D
!!i!!e
11 'l
Q., q g
lot
et <1 it
C,l
sh ship
'0 ?
'\
l}.,1l d
!li!l .(\
- 1
ll,n vo !!!id
n -
n
b, b ye
n
t
lJ
y
Y
0,1.
ch cheep
-
-
-
Q,q z
li
OO
-
l(
tI},Ul
P - If}
'AJ
t,t
e


h
.2, dl; iam
-
- -
,
red
e,]!
a About
- -
-
.o.,n
r
0-
n.
curreDt
-
@",p
th !en
p
- -
u, u S IOD
tJ A
>
u, d zOh)
-
ab
<g
9

v yaD
r '1
f
P, }1
i

p
r
"
S,m
t
-
5
S
'r
sit
L, I
I
leg
L L
P,p r green
fl
1
Jl
Iu,lu
kh
loulh
Iv
.
:#
8,9
tS tsetse
8

[(Irish)
-
U, b ts
-

-
-
fit, D1 U,W pyll
,...
- -
4,4 k boo)s
It 4 4
cI>,$ ph Ren
(l)ep 4(
-
h hat
2.h h Hh
J!,v
e

t f
Q,4 dz
-
Z
-
-
blI, It yev
-
-
-
-

gh
-
1.
-
't
0,0 0 !!ver
0 0 0
n, (1
tch
-
- -

f ran
it

-
IT, It m men
lJ S
S
39
- -
36 26 28
88
Present Armennian language has been developed during many thou-
sand years (it began more than 40000 years ago) and is rich. It has many
thousand roots, 150000 words and about 60 dialects. The words, beginning
with "ar", make a big part, about 3% of all words [72], so "ar" is the main
root of Armennian words.
Armennian grammar is also rich. For example, nouns have seven cases,
verbs have 14 tenses, etc.
Some dialects now are almost forgotten. Even some of dialects of Ar-
mennian population of Anatolia (Asia Minor) are almost forgotten because
of the genocide of Armennians taken place in Turkey at the end of XIX and
beginning of XX centuries AD. There is an interesting book by
M.M.Zourikian about almost forgotten Arabkir (the big town, now in Tur-
key) dialect, printed in Russia in 1993 [64]. This book consists of many ex-
amples of words identical in Armennian, Russian and English.
2.5. ARMENNIAN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS. METHOD .NU
Armennian language at first stage of development, Le, during many thou-
sand years, was the only one. There were not other languages around to adopt
from them foreign words. So new words were formed on the basis of available
words with more simple phonetic sounds, being already in use and signifying
simpler notions. So the development of language was going on according to
definite laws ''from simple to the complex". The process of consecutive devel-
opment was going on.
lf all these are right, we can (going back in time) find out the etymo-
logical sense of parts of many present words and even of each letter, l.e. the
sense of the first simple sounds come from old time. I attempted to do this
and the results were excellent.
The main Method of determination of Armennian letters' sense (mean-
ing) is to choose some quantity of mainly short (i.e. old) words with given let-
ter and find out the main similarity between these words, i.e. the meaning of
the given letter.
Let me show here an example of this Method for the letter d (dz). We
can take a group of words with this letter:
1. dp (horse) 6. dbnp (arm) 11. dwqwp (funnel)
2. dnl (egg) 7. dop (gorge) 12. lDwfid (pear)
3. dWJfi (sound) 8. od (snake) 13. ]!fidoUllD (giraffe, long
camel)
4. dllIl (stick) 9. dqbl (pull) 14. uwfid (bridle)
5. dOlq (fish) 10. dofi (ode) 15. pwpdp (high)
89
What common, general quality or' meaning have these words, these
subjects? What is their main similarity?
You can see that the main meaning is "bpqwp, bpqWpnlq", i.e. long, ob-
long, long-kind, long-shaped. Indeed, the horse, for example, is long-kind
animal, it has long face, long neck, long body, long tail, long legs, etc. So the
meaning of letter cl (dz) is ''long, long kind". Then we can understand that
giraffe in Armennian means "long camel" because "nLI\Ul" in Armennian is
camel.
We can do so and find out the meaning of each letter. The fact that all
letters have meanings, tells us that Armennian language is very old and de-
veloped consecutively from the simple elements (sounds) to more and more
rich words.
Combination of some two or three letters also gives a new meaning,
which is possible to find out using the same Method. For example, the mean-
ing of ''wy'' (ak) is "source, eye, circle, ring, hole"; the meaning of "WUl"
(at) is "cut", the meaning of "wll" (am) is "eat" or "baby", so the word
"wUlwll" (attam, tooth) means "to cut to eat"; the meaning of "UN" (liz) is
"pure water, source".
2.6. ELEMENTS (LETIERS) DICTIONARY (ELD)
The found meanings of all Armennian letters and combinations of some
two and three of them are presented in Table 10: Elements (Letters) Dictionary
(ELD). This is the first edition of ELD and it could be, of course, corrected and
expanded in future.
The words "element" and ''letter'' in Armennian are almost the same
. word: "imnpp" (tarr) and ''mwn'' (tar), so the name of Table 10 in Armen-
nian is "Suipphp]; Pwnwpwfi (SP)".
ELD includes all 39 letters of Armennian Alphabet, plus 86 combina-
tions of two letters and 37 combinations of three letters; total 162 positions.
ELD is wonderful, unique and marvelous. It allows to understand, to
explain, to find out etymological sense of many-many words, names. For ex-
ample: WUlWU (tooth) = wm (at) . wu (am) = "cut to eat", Upwll (Aram) =
Up(Ar). wll (am) =Sun child (son of Sun). .
ELD and its use confirm that Armennian Language is very old, was de-
veloped independently and many Armennian words were adopted by other
languages. Of course, ELD is favorable first of all for Armennian old words
(which make majority in present Armennian) and not good for modern-made
long words and for some words adopted later (beginning from I millennium
BC) from foreign languages.
90
Table 10
ELEMENTS DICTIONARY
Let-
ter
w
p
q
q
b
q
t
1!
P
d
t
h
Meaning
tuwlip (life), hmqhpd (eternal), mwp (warm),
4bq (one), wnm2lill (first),lIW}lIl(man)
pbpp (harvest), pwp}Jp (good), pbPbt (bring),
pwpdll (high), pwpp (kind), bpqnl (two)
qbIJ.bgpq (lovely), qbpwqwlig (excellent),
qtmlu (head), wl1.bt(more), lIwu (part),
lubtwgp (brainy), lizwli E9 (sign E9)
J1buIl1 (to the•••), Ipl1 (you), IlUl1nl (straight), $-
lIwg (opposite), dqmbt (aim), lizwli e (signa)
bu (I), lIMp (we), wpp (come), 1Itlibt (to be),
btp (exit), qbm (river), hW2nJlll (next),
tmpJDlli (entity)
ulJ.l1qp (beginning), wnw2 (fore),llblIp (per-
son, face), l1.bp (up), qblipp (zenith)
twq (entity), qw (there is), t (is)
l!liqbp (friend), 1I}1wupli (together), hlnn
(with), pwpbqwlI (relative)
mliwq, qwJ1DIl. (be able), hwlIwp (for), \JIOO
(as),pnlJl(weak); lizwli(D (sign(D)
nut (force), mdbIJ. (powerful), pnmligp (fist),
U\JIwnliwt (threaten)
lIwJlll, puwli (man), lIwp1I}1li (body), plid
(me), plI (my), pliPl! (he, she, it), pp (his),
pwli (thing)
twll (good), tWJli (wide), 1Ibb' (big), wpwq (quic-
k1Y),61J2m (right),1PInl (total), tJD.JU (tight),
lizwli G) (signG)
1fl16wq(condition), qbIJ.bg}1lJ. (beautiful),
pwpAp wmnp6wli (high degree)
b"Pt(sprout), b"wJP(point, nib), uiqunn
(free), b"wqbt (rise), w6bt l1.bp (grow up)
lIwu (part), qump (piece), qbu (half), llmIlP (tit-
tie), qmJCll11IbJm, plUJ1! (one from pair), qbp
(food), ltwJD1li, ltwliqliwb"(stable, standing)
hwpbt,:qbUIlt (trend, to the.••), \JIWZmbt
(adore), pwpdp (high), lilIwli (like)
bpqwp (long), bpqwpmq (oblong, long-
kind), lizwli
qblimpnli (centre), lumwgl1.wbp (compact,
concentrate), qnppq (nucleus, pit)
wl1.b1It (more), wnwl1.bt (moreover), wlizwpd
(fixed), 1PPl! (full)
lIWJlll(man), 1Ibb" (big, great), lImmp (input),
1Ib2 (inside), plI (my), plid (me), 1Ibq (one)
Let-
ter
J
G
z
n
2
n
u
ID
p
9
L.
o
Meaning
hu (I), lIWJlll(man, person), JmJ1,pn (your)
liw (he, she), wJli (it, that), pwli (thing),
libIWL. (down)
zwm (many, much)
hnqIJ.(soul), nqIJ. (spirit), unlpp (holy,
saint), op (day), npqll (son)
1lmJlp(little), pmJl (weak), l1.wm(bad), It.
nl (no, not)
qtnp (round), lP2W\JIWmDllI(encircled
from all sides), \JImIDJm(turn over), pntnp
(all), \JIwpmJP (spiral), mwpwbp (region),
tqunnpuium (ready), l!limpl1.wb" (chosen)
hw6b1P (nice, enjoyable, pleasant)
hwliqIJ.um (quiet),:qw6.IpmI (slow), 1Ibb"
(big)
lInmpq (close), ubp, uPPbt (love, like),
qwl1.wq (child), plIu (my), uppmli (beauti-
ful), uiju, uw (this), uppm (heart)
IlbUIlt (to the...), 1Ib2 (into), qpw (on
the••.), np\JIbu (how, as)
hplIp (base), mint, l1.wJP (place), mDlli
(home, house), pmli (nest), 1jJ.wq (closed),
wl1.wpml1.wb" (completed)
wlibt (do, make), mwt (give), mbp (lord,
owner), lJ.pbt(bear, carry), qmjq (pair)
1I}1lilL. (until), hW2DJlll (next)
nllibliwt (have), mlip (has), m1lJwt (given),
m, mj (and)
hwlIwpJW (almost), 1I}1PN(a bit), 1J1n1l
(empty), l1.wm,1jJ.pu (bad), hwl1.wuwp
(equal)
wlImp (hard), hbpnu (hero), pW2 (brave,
hardy), mwp (warm), unquihm] (safe),
hmuw1It (hopeful), qWJ1DIl.mpJmli (ability),
qWJnlli (stable), lizwli
(mbu IDl. see IDD
qtnp (round), 4bm (point), nHilil (nothing),
qpn (zero) (liwL.mOO!h see also ID
bmL. (back), (background), PP4mlip
(rear), b"wb"ql1.wb" (covered), pnl1.wli:qw4m-
pJmli (contents)
91
Table 10
(continuation)
Letters
Meaning Letters
Meaning
wq wnw2lJ.li (first), wqwm (free), wqq (nation)
ht! qmlIwp (sum, $), bIJ.wq(become)
WU gwbp(low)
hm lDDtliqWl (come home), hbmp (trace)
Wl
qwp1I}J:p (red), lqUljbum (bright), 1llWJl(sparkle),
t2
lUtli (woman), qbIJ.bg}lq (beautiful)
DIJ2 (all), ~ (whole), mwp (hot)
t!fi
tl}1wgmlI (union)
w}u
1llJ2m(grief), JPllPIl (worry)
dui
pwp6p (high)
wb"
wpqwb (made), tl}l6wq (condition)
pW [nn, JWli (from... side), bplUtp (country)
wq uJWqp, wlpnfip (beginning), lllIIP.JDlP (source),
pq (mbu!:.Q. see];g)
ww (eye), tnnp (round), wligp (hole), wli}nl
pq
hbmp (trace), J11.11}J. (way), upnpq (clear)
(wheel), hnubt (flow), qnpbbJ.. (to act)
wh qwlu (fear), qmwliq (peril), hpbl (monster), pfi lIwIUl (man, person), }lliPl! (he, she)
lIwh (death), qwm (bad)
Wll.
tumW91lwb' (clotted), qmwb (purified),
PU
bu (I), lIWJlll, }luwli (man),}llI (my)
ubqlIqwb (compact), 1pIp.}lq(nucleus), lIwpmp
pt!
PWJlbt (walk), qliwl (go)
(pure, clean)
WU ntmbl (eat), bpbluw (child), qmpp (little),
pm tl}1mp, lImwbnrJ. (thought, thinker)
mwp}l (year), wlIwlI (eat), m m ~ (food)
pp
}lpwqwmbp (rights owner)
wJ
bum
lW
lllnpp (little)
wfi npW: WDWpqW (any object), Jwli, qllIJ.lI
lh
gwbp (low), mw1llwq (flat), }l2libt (de-
(side), nUlqmpJDtli (direction), pwli (thing), scend)
wJli, liw (that, he, she, it)
1P
2mp (qwliqliwb) (water (still», 19libl (pour
in)
WU!
pnlibt (jump), qliwl (go), hwulibl (reach)
lU
lubt(hear)
W2
lwq (good)
It!
lqwl (wash), 2Pbl (to water)
wn w6lit (grow), bpqwPbt (prolong)
qw qwPllIJ. (able), qWPUJ.bm (master)
WU
wJD, uw (this), bu (I), }unubl (speak),
qt!
Imli (qmpp l!liqbp), dog (little friend)
wnw2liwJ}lli(ace,firsQ
qp qbu (half), bpqmlilIwlilibp}lg dbql! (one of
Wt!
lwq (good), dbb (big), mbp (lord)
two equals)
unn
lpnPbt (cut), qmnp, lIwu (piece, part), hwm,
qn
wJumbq, hpbu (here)
hwm}lq (pip, granule), wmmI (atom)
hw wJD (yes), llPwqwli (positive)
Wp
Up, wpU(Sun), lqUljbwn (bright), 11lUJl1bt(live),
ho
wqnmp (prayer)
wz1m.uph(world),pwlum(luck), UJIUllI1N(creator)
UW qbpwqpbt (suckle), lIwJP, lIwlIw (mother)
wg
hwg (bread), Jwg (their)
Ut
}lli6wli}lg (from me)
pW
pwp}l (kind), pwp6p (high)
Unl
lImq (dark), lImp (murky), llntmp (input,
entrance)
pp bpqm (two), qpqliwlUt (twice), lwm (many)
JW
bu (I), Jwli, qllIJ.lI (side), JW, bplUtp (coun-
try)
pfi pmli (nest), plintpJDtli (nature)
In
hnqu (care)
qp. q}1p (written language), q}1pp (book),
jm
qntp (you), jmp, pn (your)
q}1mbtlw(knowledge)
nl(OV
qmliIl (sphere), UImDtJm (rotation), hnl
qfi
qliwl wnw2 (go forward) (whirligig)
qp
qbp (fat), qpbl (write), qp}l! (pen)
nq [on)
oqwq (ring), qntliIl (ball), qlnp (round),
llU
ctlumbt (disavow), pwgwuwqwli (negative) I}1wpctbp (valuable)
I
I)ll llPwqwli (positive)
nu(OU) pwp6p (high), hnq}1u(my soul)
92
rpn hplpn, qpqliwqp (two, double), :1101 (you)
wum
liwlu (before), llluI (against)
hl
b1libt (rise), pwpdpwliw1 (get up)
WUll.l
pwupwb' L. q}1liqwb' d}1 (saddled and
armed steed, horse)
bIt
(mbu Mm. see Ym>
wum
U1}1bqbIw (space), bulL. (back),:tnfi (back-
ground).
bn bpbp (three), wzluntJu (spicy, active)
WpW
hwqbpu wlib1 (always do, create)
UW (mbu wu. see !MW
hpq
q01Jq (pair), wli2wm (separate)
um
gwbp (Iow), gwq (ache, pain)
qunn 2nqwb' (chosen)
qw
qWJP (place), qWJP}1 (wild)
qllu qblip nlllIlqwb' WOUl2 (weapon directed
mp wli!w$ (infinite), wlibqp. (boundless)
forward)
pW wow2linPll (leader)
qnp
pWliUlq(army)
nq qpuwUJ.UlDtJm (semicircle), [unj, wJb' (goat)
MW
WIJ.2}1q (girl)
nlq
(mbu wb'. ywb'. see wb'. ywb')
pqw
qW1(come), qmlibt (find out), qmUUlP
(sum), 2nqb1 (select)
nut 101Ju (light), 101uwqnp (bright)
1llq
UUlP01P 201P(pure water)
nlU h}1uliwqwli (basic)
1llq
llbUp (face), UJ.wmqbp (pattern)
nuq l!liqlib1 (fall)
1llq
1qw9tlb1(bath), 1qwliw1 (wash)
nm born (curve), qnp (arch)
bwu bpqwp (long)
nlU
pwpdp (high), hunimfi (ripe)
qwp UJ.1t1iq (solid), w1Imp (tough), qwpbp (hard)
mp wJl, ntp}1z (other), hhnm (far), rpnpu
qwu 1ntuUlpwg (early morning)
(outs'Ide), gntpm (cold)
hunn
hwm}1q(particle)
op tp}1q (all, full, complete), WUPDI1.2 (whole),
hlnn hWJp (father), q101lu (head), uwqbp (hair)
9}1q1 (cycle), op (day)
jwu
qDIJ.U (side, land, country)
m] (011) 2ntp (zwpctqDIJ.> (water (moving», boq (sea)
ll.lwm
!opu qDIJ.U}1g UJ.wmwb'mwpwbp
hbIJ.ntqqwp (liquid (milk»
(place surrounded with wall)
nu Ubbwhnq}1(generous, big hearted) upnp
UJ.wp}1uUJ. (round castle wall)
nm nmp}1pWPl! (foot)
ll.lhl
hUlqWPbt (collect)
ll.lW
UJ.Wp (dance) UWU
nIUJl1 (son), qlipwoIUlP (godson)
ll.lnl
libIJ. (narrow), qbm (spot)
uhl mwlibt (carry)
001
nlJllul (direct, straight)
qwb"
wowpqUlJ}1 $6'wql!' llPqwb', pbpqwb',
u1}1nqwb' (condition ofobject: placed,
brought, stretched)
-.
qIlIl
qliqUldL. (ball-formed)
uiqh blinIJ. (parent), UUlJP (mother) inhp
wUbli}1 h}1uPl! (base of everything)
WW
wtlw (wave), bwW (fold)
WIlh
wub1(say,speak),tunub1(tell,speak)
mpp wUbli}1 mbpl! (lord of everybody)
wlm
mwp (warm)
mju PUlpdp (high)
WJW
uWJP (mother)
D1JP UUlPll (man), 1:wq (essence)
WJP
hu wlibu (I do), UlIJ.WUWPll (man, male)
pwp WU01P (tough, hard)
I am sure that ELD was known in old Armennia. Later as the secret of
heathen priests, especially after adopting Christianity in Armennia as State re-
ligion (301 AD), it was buried in oblivion.
93
ELD and its use confirm that Indo-European languages adopted many
words and roots from Armennian, but opposite process in old time almost did
not take place.
At the same time many words and names of Indo-European and other
languages may be decoded by ELD. It means that these words were taken
from Armennian language or were constructed using ELD.
Unfortunately Armennians don't know that many foreign words (and
names) in modern Armennian, adopted from European languages, are really
old Armennian words. For example, atom, antenna, litre, zenith, mathemat-
ics, zero, etc. Armennian meanings of these words are presented in Table 11.
Table 11
English Armennian
meaning
In Armennian English translation
atom wumd, WU1 - nd, hWU1

cut, p,iece, particle
nL(iW\w ("om' is the endinL
l[lifl2wl[nflnLPJnL(i )
added later by Gree )
antenna w(iU1Ii(iW, wJ(i -
hlinl[l1g liflLLwgnq «(iwl[11 seenfrom far away
U11i(iW
(mast of ship)
liter
LI1U1f1, LI1 - U1 - fI
pWfld (w(iwLI1) 2f111 wdw(i
container for fresh wa-
ter
zenith qli(il1p, q - Ii - (i -11 -
dU1wl[nl"! l[lilP LI1(inq
it is the supposed upper
U1
point
mathe-
dWU1B. dWU1f1(i qw
finger comes to finger
matics
dWU1 - t - dWU1
wzl[I:iU (count)
zero qjm, q - fI - n U1l[nq(pwJg)
giving the beginning
w (iJnLpwLjw(l
(but) not corporeal
Liza Ll1qw (tiquwUlliU1) l[lifll1(i 2f111 (dwenLfI upper water life (clean,
(Elizabet)
LI1-q-w dWflll)
honest woman)
Marcaret UWflewfll1U1 (Uwflqn) iJnl[11 eWflli U1w(i wUlflnql! (she) lives in seastone
(Manw) dWfl-ewfl-I1-U1
home
These (and other) old Armennian words and names shown in Table 11
were adopted first by Greek then by Latin languages. Then the medieval
and last centuries scientists (physicists, astronomers, technologists and oth-
ers), looking for names for their new findings or inventions, often took
(used) these Greek or Latin words. So, old Greek and Latin languages
played the role of ''termin suppliers". The above said means that this role in
more old time played Armennian language. Thus the situation (which
seemed too strange at first) when ELD gives the Armennian meanings of
''not Armennian" words becomes understandable. These words were formed
from Armennian using ELD. For example:
''Paris'' (Pharis, town) = 1}1wnp (ll) • [iq = "The way of glory";
"Zevs" = q. L.. u = "(He) becomes the first person (God)";
94
"Jupiter" (God) = B - m - UJ. - P-inhp = "I (am) lord of big region peo-
ple" (imperial ambitions of Roman Empire);
"America" = U-u-h-p-pqw = "I - first man (who) made (this) coming"
(perhaps, the words of Columbus; it is known that on his ship there was one
Armennian monk and a few merchants).
2.7. ELD USING
1 shall show here a line of examples of ELD using. Some old words or
part of them is necessary to read (interpret) from right to left, or possibly
from the middle, because now we use another disposition of letters. H inter-
pretation of some word gives rambling (incoherent) result, it means that this
word is not old Armennian.
a. Human Beings
• uwpq (man, person) = u - wp -11 = wPLPfi dqUlllIl Uhqt! = one aspiring to
the Sun
• wJP (male, female) =uij -P =hu wfihu = 1 shall do
• uipji, wppwgp (man, aryan) = wp - p = UP-p uwpq (wqfiqwgbq) = the
Sun man (noble) = w -p -p = tuwfip mqnq uwpq = life giving man
• huijp (father) =h - wJP = pwpdp uwpq = high (top) man,male
• uWJP (mother) = u-wJP = Uhb(pu) uwpq = (my) top female
(the same structure of words h-M!Jl! and U-M!Jl! tells about equality of man
and woman in old Armennia; the same in English: fa - ther, mo - ther;
"ther" (mhp) in Armennian is "lord")
• qwqwq (child) = q -ui -q-w -q = wWpu tUtW tuwfipp uqqppg = (they are)
my love (from) life beginning
• nJllll1 (son) = n - P -11-P= n@ mqnq (nqlmpnq) Ilh\lll1 pfid = (he) giving me
encouragement
• mqur (son, boy) = m -IJ. - w = tuwfipp qhfimpnfiwqwfi hpup = central base
of life
• lpltump (daughter) = 11-nt - u - m - p = mtlJwl mwfi mppn2 upphlllfi = fa-
vorite of lord of given house
• WIJ.2pq (girl) = WIJ. - 2 - P-q = uwpntp, hwlihlll qmpppq = pure, pleasant
child
• hqpuijp (brother) = hIJ. -p -wJP = uwpntp, pwpp wJP = pure, kind male
• pmjp (sister) = pm -JP = hnunuj]i uwpq = reliable female'
• mWIJ.wfiq (talent) =mWIJ. -wfi -11 =hpqnq (UJ.wpmU uWpIl; (pfi!UJ.hu L.ljznp hpfi
!w$= 30qq= 60 U}1fi) = singer (dancer); also old measure of weight = 30 kg =
60min
9S
• up, upU (one, first, alone) = u • p, u • pU = Ubq UWpIl, wnw2pU, upwq,
upwJUwq (pU!\llhu L.1I2np hpU !wt!J. = 0.5 qq = one, first, single, alone; also
old measure of weight = 0.5 kg)
• JWP (beloved) = J •wp = pu wpL.I! = my sun
• uhpm (heart) = u- p.p.m = mhq (np) qpmu t UUlPl}IU uhpg = place carry-
ing human love
• uPphl (to love) = u • p. p • hl = uiju UWplpUU qhp hwUhl = to elevate this
man (woman)
• uipjmfi (blood) = w • p •J • mfi = pu lJ.jwUpp hpup mqllIl.l! = (it) gives basis
for my life
• unnqlnn (knight) = wU\ll • iqlnn = pwupwb, q}1Uqwb d}1nt tnhp = lord of
saddled and armed horse
• wpUntUq (elbow) = wp.u.ntU.q = wllfllllIll1 (UWPl}IU) up hpuUwqwU uWut!
(GntJU\llhu hpqwpmpJwU hpU !wt!J. = 0.5 u) = one of main parts of man
(also old measure of length = 0.5 m)
. b. Animals, Birds
• dp (horse) = d • P = hpqwpmq uwpuUnq (\Ih(iqwUp) = oblong body (ani-
mal). There are ten words for horse because it was first tamed in Ar-
mennia.
• UdntJq (steed) = U. et • mj • q = Uw ntethq t m qhqhgpq = he is powerful
and beautiful
• unnq (horse) = wu • \ll = uw tqunnpunnn (pwupwb, q}1Uqwb) = it is
ready (saddled, armed)
• hppqwp (horse) = hp •p. qwp = pUdgwb qgIlll. = (horse) me down-maker
• hmlunnuiq (horse) = h. nq. wm • wq = (dp) qwpp wllPJntppg qmpwb =
(horse) cut (from) milk source
• uwmwq (horse) = u • unn • wq = Ubb (wqUpq) uwup (ghr}}1) uqpqp
(hpuUUllJ11p) = source (founder) of big (pedigree) part (sort)
• qwuppq (horse) = q • uni • p • pq = WDw2pU mum phPIlll. tq (hl}}1 dp) = fe-
male with first foal (pregnant)
• pnmpq, pmmuq (stallion) = pm • nuiq = uqqppg wupwgIlll. = becoming
stronger
• umpmq (young female horse) =.u -mp -m » q = unnfi Ub2 hqwb qmpppqI! =
little horse which is at home
• 2npP (mule) = 2 -np •P =.opqw hwOhIlt qh(iqwUp = pleasant daily animal
• WDJntb (lion) = w • n • jm • b = IpUlJ.jwUpq uifinul (qwpmu) hu uiqunn =
you lead your life freely
• Ulp2 (bear) = wp •2 = w\1UUUl hwOhIlt = living pleasantly
• qwqp (tiger) = q • ui « q. p= qhqhgpqlJ.jwUp qWPIlll. = leading beautiful
life
• qnq (cow) = q • m] = hhqntq ntmhIltp (\Iwp mqmU = liquid food (milk
giver)
96
• uippu (oven) =wp -[m = (llfi!Ulhu) pu upphl1t wpLt! =(as) my loved sun
• Ollwfi (qhm) (whale) = oi] -wfi = bnqwjpfi qhfiIlwfip = sea animal
• wpb"pq (eagle) = wp - b"pq = wpL.}1 pn!nlfi = sun bird
• wpwq1l1 (stork) =wp -ui -q -P-1 = 6}1zm pu qtIupfi up. wpL. =(as) sun over
my head
• b"pm (bird) = b" - P-m = pp qhppfi pfinlu wtUut = growing (in) its upper
nest
• znlfi (dog) = Z-mfl = zwm hpufiwqwfi (qhfiIlwfip) = very basic (animal)
• hun] (hen) = h -un] = hWJUlIlmppn2t!= close to master
c. Astronomy
• Up (Sun) = w -p = tuwfip mqnq = life giver
• Up.hqwq (qhm.) (Sun, sci.) = wp - h - q - wq = UlWjb"wn (l1tfiDI}) qluthgpq
q1np =bright beautiful disk
• lnlupfi (Moon) =jmu -pfi = fiw pu 1nljufi (t) =it (is) my light
• un1npwq (planet) = Un1np - wq = un1np (-wdL.) ZWPdllnq (plljUp) WllPjnlp =
source (of light) moving by curve (by loop)
• <l>wj1wbn (Mercury) = $Wj1-W - b" -n = $wj1nlfi 11. mwp b"mquwfi opt! =
bright and warm in rising day
• Ilpmujuil; (Venus) = wp -mu -j -wq =hu wpL.}1pwpdpwWt! = I am high
eye of the Sun
• UUUlIlPq (Venus) = wUUlIlP -q = wUUlIlP qhut! = half star
• Lmuuiphp (Venus) = 1nlu -ui -php = jmju (ghphq) phJUlIlt! = (who) brings
light (day)
• ~ p w m (Mars) = hp (hmp) -unn = qpwqp qmnp = piece of fire
• Lnunlpuiq (Jupiter) =1nlufi -puiq = light corona
• bpL.wq (Saturn) = hplun - wq = hpL.w q1npnq (wfipqnq) = (is) seen (with)
ring (or wheel)
• wum (space) = w - u -m = uw tuwfipp (hunlhpd) mlutt! (Sphqhpp) = this
(is) place of (eternal) life (Universe)
• unnnq (star) = unnn -Il = mphqhppp (fijmpp) lumwgqwbp = concentration of
Space (material)
• qhfipp (zenith) = q - h - Ii - P- p= umwqnp fiw qhPt! l1tfinqfi t = it is sup-
posed to be upper (point)
• fiWllPP (nadir) = fiw -Il- P-p = fiw pp IJ:l1uwgp (fip) qmjqt! = pair of its op-
posite (point of Zenith)
• qhp (acme, above, overhead) =q -hp = IlhUJl1 hpqpfip =up to the sky
• qwp (bottom) = q - wp = IlhUJl1 wpL. (hurpunl) = to the Sun (South)
• hnppqnfi (horizon) = h -np - pq -n - fi = IlhUJl1 ghphqqw lPpq fihppL.}1 m.I1Pfi
= to the bottom line (of the) full day
• puiq (corona, crown) =p -ui -q = (fipw) qtIup hunhnp hwqhpa =for (his)
head forever
97
• J!wpwhntfi2 (Carahunge Observatory) = purp -h -m -fi -2
qwu Ionunq J!wphp = resonant stones or Speaking Stones. It is probable
that Armennian word (sound) in old time was written with letter
"2" (hnt fi2), because "2" has a meaning ''nice'', but has a meaning of
negation.
d. Nature
• bpqpp (Unlnpwq) (planet Earth) =h -p -qpp = lihq tnunu! =(who) carries
us
• uwp (mountain) = u -ui -p = uppntfi tuwfip mqllIl = (it) gives beautiful life
• pwp (stone) = p - w - p = unlmp (bpqwp) tuwfip ntfibgllIl =(it) has hard
(long) life
• 2ntp (water) = 2 -m -p = hWQntJP ntfip inuq (hwQntJP Ulwm6UlJ1ll1l) = giv-
ing joy
• 1116 (lake) = 1ll-6 = qwfiqfiwb"2pDqlllPl! =full of stagnant water
• qlnn (river) = q-bm(p) = qhqhgpq hlnnp (hnup) = beautiful mark (motion,
flux)
• dWJfi (sound) = d -wJfi = hpqwp t wJfi = it (is) long (prolonged)
• bnq (sea) = b" -m] = uiqunn 2ntp = free water
• oqqhwfi (ocean) =(b")ntlP -t -wJfi = bntlP (bnqhp) t wJfi =it is (many) seas
• b"pwbwfi (rainbow) =b" -p- w - b" -wfi = pu uimug bwqwb" (UP) wqwm pwfi
=something free rose in front (01) me
• puiqurpn (basalt) =p - wq - uq v tn = ghI}l1 pwpdp mwp lDDtfi (pwpwJP
puiquqjnh OwJnbpntu) = high and warm home of tribe (grotto in basalt
rocks, very many in Armennia)
• qp.wfipm (granite) = q - p - wfi - p-m = uWPJlDt lDDtfil! uppntfiwgfillIl = it
makes man's home lovely
• wUluIulPwfi (obsidian) = wUl - uw -Ilw - wfi = uwmwfiwJpg IpltpU pnwb"
(uwmwfiwJp hqntfiq) = jumped out of satan (nail of satan)
• (touf) = m -m = bwb"qqwb" mhqntu t = (is) in covered place
• uiqunn (agate) = w -q -unn = hwqhpd qmjflhp qmpqwbpntu = eternal col-
ors in cutting (pare)
• qupnt}um (emerald) = q - u - pmhnn = qhqhgqwgfintU t UWPJlDt
wpmwppfil! = makes beautiful man's appearance
• uwppwppm (pearl) =uwp - pwp - p - m = bnlllt pwph mwfi (unqpnq)
uwpU}1fi =body (living) in sea stone home
• wq.wuwfill (diamond) =w -11 - wu - wfi -11 = fiw dqlDllIlllhUJlt hwqhpd
mwppfihp = it aims to eternal years
• qnhwp <lllIlwqfi, PPPlllwfim) (brilliant) =q - n - h - wp = qhqhgpq hnq}1
fiuwfi wpL}1fi =beautiful soul looking like Sun
e. Armennian male names
• Upwu (Aram) = Up -wu = UP-p qwqwq =child of Sun (Aryan)
98
• Upuwfi (Arman) =Up -U- wfi = UP-ll uwpql! =man of Sun (Aryan)
• Uplibfi (Armen) =Up - libfi (P) = UP-ll uwpqp.q =people of Sun (Aryans)
• Upw (Ara) = Up - w = UP-ll (mqwb) tuwfip = life (given) by Sun
• Upbq (Areg) =Up - b - q =UP (-11 fiuwfi) 1ltfibl q1lllb91lq = to be beautiful
(as) Sun
• UpwuwCJ)llu (Aramayis) = Up -unl -ui -llu = llu tuwfipl!' UP-ll qwqwlWg
=my life (comes) from child of Sun
• Upmwqwqq (Artavazd) =Up - mun] - w - qq =qm UP-ll mqwb wnw21lfil!
=you (are) first given by Sun
• Upzwq (Arshak) =Up -Z- wq = wpLnq1lt ww =the eye full of Sun
• Sllqpwfi (Tigran) = m - 11 -q - p - wfi = fiw uwpqqwfig mmfil! (tuwfipill
q1lllbgqwgfiml uwpq = (he is) man (who) makes beautiful home (life) of
people
• (Davith) =q -w -q-ll-p =mfiwq uwpqIlUl1nl tuwfipll Uh2=able man
in straight life
• 'iwhwfi (Vahan) = q - wh - wfi = fiw qbUJ11 qmwfiql! (lllWZmlllWfi) = he (is
opposite) to the peril (soldier, protector)
• 'iwhb (Vahe) =q- wh - b = qbUJ11 qmwfiql! blfiml (unnqlnn) =(he) rises
against peril (knight)
• 'iwhwqfi (Vahagn) = q- wh - w - qfi = qbUJ11 qmwfiql! (fipw pmfiill qfiw9llIl
(hhpnu, !WPll n!fi!wgfimlill = (he is) going against peril of life (hero,
fighter of evil)
• U}1fiwu (Minas) =U}1fi -uiu =uipumtljuq jununq (fiwtuwqwh) =speaker
• Uqwm (Azat) = uiq - unn = 11 uqqpwfib wfi2wm (wfiqwtu) = free (inde-
pendent) from the beginning
• (Hovannes) =h - nq- wfi - hu = fiuwfi 2pWjllfi (bnqwjllfi) (libb)
qbfiqwfinl = like water (sea) (big) animal
• (Habeth) =hw - P - h - P = Ullzm pWPll1ltfibl qwpnq =able to be al-
ways kind
• "Uwp (Nar) = fi -uip = fiw wpL., wnw2finJ1lPlll =he (is) Sun, leader
f. Armennian female names
• UpL., UpL.llq (Arev, Arevik) =Up - bq = bwqwb UpL.=the rose Sun
• Upmu, UpmUjwq (Arus, Arusyak) =Up - mu =Up\41 mullfi (wn2\419) = on
Sun's shoulder (Venus, over the Sun)
• Upllfiw (Arina) = Up -11- fiw = fiw UP-ll uwpq = she (is) the Sun human
being
• UptIt1l, UptItllfib (Arphi, Arphine) =Up - tIt -11 = fiw hunhupjui wpL. =she al-
most Sun
• Ilpurpu, Ilptupujui (Aracs, Aracsia) =Up - w - p - U= wpLnm tuwfip, unnp
L. ullpb1lt = Sunny life, warm and lovely
• UpUllfib, UpUllq (Armine, Armik) = Up - Ull- fib = fiw llu wpL.l! = she (is)
my Sun
99
• Ut1{WIUl (Alvard) = wt •1{wIUl = Wt 1{wIUl = red rose
• Uqfip1{ (Azzniv) = wqfip1{ = honest, noble
• Ubqw (Sedda) =u- h .ll.w=uppm] htw1{llhUIlt 'uwfip =(she) came to life
with love
• lpqw, bnuunqtnn (Liza, Elisabet) =l1t.q.w = 1{hppfi (uwpntp) 2PP (Ulhu)
'uwfip = upper water life (life as clean water)
• lTwppwppm, lTwpqn (Marcaret, Margo) =uwp •pwp •p. m = bn1{11 pwph
mwfi wUJIlllI1.1! =(she) lives in sea stone home
• Ufid'htw (Angela) =uifl • d' • ht. w = fiw ntd'brJ. (1{hp) htfimJ. Uh1m =she is
one (who) powerfully rises up
• Ufintl (Anush) =wfi • m •1 = fiw ntfiplwm (pwqgp), fiw lwm pwqgp t =
she has many (sweet), she (is) very sweet
• Ljnu, lpl1tw (Lia, Lilia) =l1t • w = 2PwJPfi 'uwfip (bwrl1J.1U =water life
(flower)
• awpw, awpnthp (Zara, Zaruhi) =q • wp • w = uqqpp (bwqnI1) wPLP
'uwfip =initial sun's life
• Ufiwhpm (Anahit) =wfi •w • h •p. m = fiw 'uwfip t pwpdp uWp1p1t mwfil!
=she (is) life at home of high man (top person)
• Iliup (Mar) =u • wp = UpLP uWJPl! (bnl{, o1{qhwfi) =mother of Sun (sea,
ocean)
• lTwph (Mare) = uwp •h = bn1{11 twq =entity of sea
• lTwpp (Mari) =uwp • p = bn1{11 rpmnnp, (bn1{11fiwp) =daughter of sea
(Tsovinar)
• lTwppwu (Mariam) =uwp •p • unl = bn1{1111umhp qw1{wq, qmpppqp uWJP
=child of sea daughter, mother of child
• lTwppfih (Marina) =uwp • p. fiw = fhu bn1{11 (bn1{wJpfi) qpfi =she (is) sea
woman
• "Uwpw, (bwppfih) (Nara, Narine) = fi • wp • w = fiw wPLP bUntfiq = she
(is) the Sun born
• "Uwppw (Naira) =(iw • p • p • ui = Ihu 'uwfip wfimJ. uWIUl = she life-doer
woman
• fc)-wuwp (Thamar) = p •unl • wp = qmpppq wPLP tqhu = as a little sun
g. Geographical names in (old and present) Armennia
• UpUhfipw (Armennia) =Up • Uhfi •[nu = UpLPuwpqwfig Jwfi (WUJIlhtw1{wjp)
= The Sun men country
• ~ w J w u m w f i (Hayastan) = ~ w J • unnmnfi = hWJhpp hpqpp = Armennians'
country
• Upwpwm (Ararat) =wp • wp • unn = umbrJ.ffilwb" hunnmq = created exclu-
sively
• Upwqwb" (Aragats) = wp • w • q • wb" = Iiui qbrJ.hgqwgwnu t UP-p
(uwpqqwfig) luwfiPl!=it makes beautiful the Sun (people's) life
100
• Upwqwbnmfi (Aragatsotn) =wpwqwb" • mnfi = Upwqwb'}11}1hZhp (ZP2wfiJ!) =
foots of Aragats (its region)
• 'bufi (Van) =q • w • fi =fiw tuwfipp Uh2(1:) = it (is) in life
• Uhqwfi (Sevan) = u • h • qwfi = fiw tuwfipp hw2llPll u}1pm]! = it (is) next heart
of life
• lnnupnmwfi, ntpupw (Kaputan, Urmia) = qwupn(1)m. wfi; mp « up. w = fiw
qwupnJm up tuwfip mfihgllll.= it has one blue life
• U}11}1wfi (Sipan)= u • p • UJ. • wfi = pfip]! uppmfi In.np uwp = it (is) nice round
mountain
• tnppwm (Euphrates) = h .1}1p • unn = uwuhPl! (b.pqpp) hwqwuwphgfiJlll.
(qWUJ.llIb upwgfimI) hw, (luwfipp qlnn) = it links parts (of country), (the river
of life)
• Spqppu (Tigris, river) = m • p • q • p • p • u = u}1phtP pu qrn.Jq (qwqUmt),
qbqhgpqpu mbq = my lovely (one of) pair, my beautiful place
• Upwq, Upwpu (Araz, Aracs) = wp • uiq = (hnU1lI1. l}hull1) WDW2lJ.fi wpla.
(wp1.a.hW) = (flux to) first Sun (to East)
• bpwulu, Upwpu (Eraskh, Aracs) = hp • wu •[u = uwhpqwp m qbqhgpq (qhm)
= this long and beautiful (river)
• Upgw]:u (Artsakh) = wp. gw]:u= urphmn wfimwn = sunny wood
• Upmwzwm (Artashat) = wp • m • w • zwm = zwmuiphmn tuwfipp mbq = very
sunny place of life
• Upuwtfilp (Armavir) =wp •U• w • tfilp =wptap uwIUl4wfig tuwfipp qwjp = the
life place of Sun people
• SwtlP (nu) (Tavr (os)) = m • w • q. p = (llp) qpw t tnunu luwG.pp mbqhp]!
(tbnfiwZIlPw) = it carries the places of life (montain ridge)
• qlt1Pljllw (Kilikia) = ljll • 1P • ljll • w = (llU) qhU]! 2DlP (bnlJ), qhU]! tuwfip
(gwuwp) = (my) half (is) water (sea), half (is) life (land)
• <l>JlD.fipljllw (Phoenicia) = 1}1. J • m • fi • P .ljll. w = hunlunnnp hu mfihu' wJfi
(bnqwJPfi) qhU]! la. (uJmu) qhU]! tuwfip (gwuwpn) = I have equally: the (sea)
half and (other) half (is) life (land)
2. 8. ''TREES'' OF LETTERS. METHOD NI 2
Method NI 2 of Armennian Language Analysis shows that the main part of
Armennian words were developed beginning from simple voices (separate let-
ters) to more complex words. We already know the meanings of each letter and
some of two and three letters together (Table 10).
Now we can see the development of words from the very simple to the
other more complicated ones by adding other letters. The specific ''trees''
(just one "arm" of them) are presented in Table 12 for the letter "q" (z) and
in the Table 13 for the letter "q" (k).
101
Table 12
6
qwGqwq qwGqwqwmnlG
q
qwG,qwGbt qwGq (bell) (steeple)
(z)
wq,qw
(bit) (tang,bell)
qwGqqwb qwGqqwbwJ}1G
(begin-
(first)
qwGwqwG (mass)-noun (mass)-pronoun
(multifarious)
qwqwG(beast) qwqwqwG qwqwqwGwlptp
ning)
qwqwGwGng (zoo) (cane) (canehandle)
Table 13

5
qwp qwpbp qwpbPD
(seam, joint) (hard) (opinion)
qwp qwpltt qWPht
(milk) (drop) (dribble)
q
qwn

qwnnnq{l1)
(k)
qw
«(I) am,or) (will, volition) (forceful)
(part, half)
qwtllID
qwq6mn
(thereis,
(chalk) (marred by
have)
qwq
chalk)
(clay)
uwqwq
uwqwqwPInl
(little quantity) (lownumber)
This procedure is possible to do with each Armennian letter. And Ar-
mennian language will be acquired. Tables 10, 11, 12 and 13 confirm the logi-
cal, consecutive and alone evolution of Armennian language and its very old
age. At that time (many thousand years ago) it was not possible to adopt any
words from other languages, because they were absent. So the Armennian is
the oldest language on the Earth, beginning more than 40000 years ago, when
Homo Sapiens emerged in Armennia.
2.9. ARMENNIAN LANGUAGE DECODING
When I was working out ELD and its use, I had constantly an unusual
feeling that I am very old manuscripts or petroglyphs, which are
very important and magic. I even called (just for myself) ELD a ''Magic Dic-
tionary".
102
Indeed, ELD and its use makes understandable very many things: all
words, names, the mind and feelings of people from Paleolithic and Neolithic
time (the stone age) until now, their relation to Nature and to each other,
their love for the beauty and kindness.
Tables 10, 11, 12, 13 confirm that Annennian language and Alphabet are the
first, developedalone (there was nobody to adopt words from) and arisen from the
very old time.
Armennians from the very old time spoke and speak until now to each
other, spoke with their main God AR (Sun) and with their other Gods in
Armennian language, which is the oldest language on the Earth, is God's
language, which gave the beginning to all Indo-European languages and al-
phabets.
2.10. ARMENNIAN AND OTHER LANGUAGES. METHOD N! 3
Armennian was the basic language for all Indo-European family of
languages. So there are many hundreds of words which are the same (or al-
most the same) in these languages. These words were adopted from Armen-
nian,
IC some words are the same in several languages, it means all these lan-
guages adopted these words from one of these languages. From which one?
From the language where these words have meaning.
In Table 14 some words are presented which are the same in Armen-
nian, English and Russian* and were adopted from Armennian. Some of
words of Table 14 were decoded above, in Items 2.6. and 2.7.
Table 14 is not strange, because many Armennian words were adopted
by Indo-European languages. For example, English language adopted 55%
of words from French language, which comes from Celts (who were Amen-
nians, see PART 3) and 10% from Latin, which comes from Etruscans (who
were Armennians) and from old Greek language, which was formed by
many words adopted from Armennian. In Table 14a some European names
with their Armennian interpretation (etymology) are shown.
Many Armennian words were adopted also by not Indo-European na-
tions, for example, old Egyptian, Arabian, Turkish and other nations. In
Table 14b some Jewish names adopted from Armennian ones are shown.
Ethiopian letters are almost the same as Armennian ones till now.
* It is pity but I knowonly the said three languages. But I know that many words
(as ocean, mother, hero, czar, Aryan, carpet, soap, car, mathematics, antenna, li-
ter, atom, cat, zero, etc.) of Table 14are the same alsoin many other languages.
103
Table 14
.N'!! Amennian English Russian .N'!! Amennian English Russian
1. Ollqbwfi ocean OKeaH 30. finp new HOBwH
(nu)
31.
qwmm
cat KOT
2.
fiwqwqfiw- naviga- naaara-
32. cotton BaTa
gntpJntfi tion

3.
l1wJP
mother Man 33. qnqnJllll1t nu crocodile KpOKOAJIA
4. hbp(hwJp) father [orenl 34. qwqp tiger
THrp
5. hbpnu hero repoii 35. UIlllmqbp
pattern, nopTpeT
6. qbuwp caesar qaph
portrait
7. 1}1wpwqnfi pharaoh epapaoH
36. pbpI} fort (berth) epOPT
8.
lJIWUlpll1llN!
patriarch naTpuapx
37.
Ur1PImfi
Albion !AAL6UOH
9. wq(fi) eye OKO (OKRo)
38. wN! ... arch••• apxu •••
10. uwfi}1q son ChIll 39. wlibfi amen aMUHh
11. rpnuinp daughter AoqJ»
40. npp (wfi) orphan [capora]
12. wp}1wg}1 aryan apueq
41. qbpn zero sepo
13. qpfi queen JKeHIqUHa
42. pntl1p tomb ryM6a
14.
qWPUlbm
carpet KOBep 43. uwmwfiw satan carana
15. qwpl1}1p carmine KapMHH 44. hnj to hole IOAa
16. l1}1u meat MRCO 45. qt!qnt cocoo Kyt<ymKa
17. qnq cow KopOBa 46.
UlWPq
park napK
18. :qnm door ABeph 47.
bubl1(wJ
eom,Iam
eChM, R
19. mntfi
town
AOM
blI, hWJli1I) eCTh
(home) 48.
qnp}1q
core
KOCTOllKa
20. umwlInpu stomach (JKeAYAoK) 49. wlibfi amen aMHHh
21.

carat KapaT
50.
UIDpm
port nopT
stone,
(Chrrac-
(xapaKTep)
51. qp.li}1
wine (gin)
BUHO
hard) ter
22. Ilwpmbq chart KapTa
52.
lWllWP
sugar caxap
23.
qUlJlll
car KapeTa
53. l1wpl1wp marble MpaMop
24. l1wpWw- mathema- MaTeMaTHKa
54. I}hq devil A'hRBOA
m}1qw tics 55. fiwli}1 nanny HRHR
25. wfimbfiw antenna aHTeHHa 56. bpbp ether 3epUP
26. unnml atom aTOM 57. qb1}1Jnm zephyr 3eepup
27. llt (2ntp)
liquid, AUBeHh,
58.
Ulntm
spot nSITHo
lympli AUMepa
28.
lltmp
litre AUTp
59.

compass xosmac
29.
lltqbt
lick AU3aTh
60. bom curve KpUBaR
104
Table 14a
N! Armennian names Etymology (see Table 10) European
names
1. Utbl!uwfi (Alecsan)
wp -b -I! - u - wfi = he beautiful
Alexander
and hard (as) rising Sun
Ilpmmp (Artour) (he) has sunny house Arthur
2.
3. Upubfi (Arsen)
wp - u - b - fi = he comes (as) beau-
Arsen
tiful Sun
4. Ulbylbwu (Andreas)
wfi - q - ph - w - u = beautiful life
Andrew
comes to him
5. .l.pwfiq (Hrand)
q - p -wfi -m = you make him (to
Grant
be) high
6. .t}..wtUtp (Davith)
q -ur -ll-P-P = able man in
David
straight life
7. .l.wqnp (Hakob)
h -wq -n -p = (he) adore source
Jacob,Jack
of kind soul
8. Uwullbl (Samvel)
u -ui -u -ll-bl = (he) beautiful life
Samuel
arose for us
9. Umbl}1wfi (Stephan)
u -m - b -l}1 - wfi = he almost soul
Stephen
of our home
10. Q.WU11lWp (Gaspar)
q - wu - 111 - wp = he (is) beautiful
Casper
as Sun
11. Q.ppqnp (Grigor)
q -p -p -ll-q -n -p = (the) man
Gregory
making love with excellent soul
Ufiwhpm (Anahit) w - fiw -h - P-tn = her life trends
Anna
12. to my home
Ann
Ufifiw (Anna)
wfi - fiw= it is she
13.
bnuunqlnn (Yegh- bIt. -uw - 11Ibm= she (is) chief of
Elisabeth
sapet) nucleus (purity)
14. btbfiw (Yelena)
bl - t - fiw = go to her (she was
Helen
good)
15.
l T w ~ w p p m (Mar- uwp -I!WP- P-tn = (she) life in sea
Margaret
carit) stone home
105
Table 14b
I
N!
A.rmennian
Their interpretation
b
meanings
Jewish names
names
(see Tablel )
1. II
uni
(Abrarnraluun
U - p - p - wd =son of kind life leader
Abrarn, Abraham
whuitt(Ab )
2.
Uwhwq (Sahak)
u - w - h - wq = m
S
life adores the
Isahak
source =I adore the un
3. (Hakob)
h -t; =
Iakov
of km sou =a onng the un
4. lTnqubu (Movses)
d-n -q-u - bu =I with love to the holy
Moisey
man
5.
pupwJbt (Israel)
}We-
P
-ui - bt=(the) man making rising
Israel
6.
(Davith)
I} - w -u-p -p =ableman in straight life David
7.
Unqndnfi (Solomon)
u -1lIl - nd - nfi =he (has) holy, gener-
Solomon ous, wide heart
8. lbqnfi (Levon) t -bq-n - fi =he become as (right) holy Levon,Levan
9.
Uhwpnfi (Aharron)
w -hur -R -n - fi =he (as) holy, making
Aaron positive fe
10.
mppbd (Ephrem)
b -1}1- P. - b -d = (the) man coming to
Ephim, Efim
do equal entity
11.
awpnthp q -wp -w = life as rising Sun
Sara ( ra)
12. lpw, lpww (Lia) W-ui =water life (water flower) Lia
13. Ppw, pppfiw (Ira)
p -p -w =woman leading life
Ira
2.11. ARMENNIAN OLD PRELIMINARY AND DEVELOPED
ALPHABETS AND FIGURES. METHOD K! 4
Carahunge confirms (see PART I) that more than 7500 years ago there
was written language and alphabet in Armennia. Without them such a big
and developed Observatory as Carahunge could not operate for a long pe-
riod of time, getting high results which require centuries of observation. It
was impossible without written language to fix results, to accumulate knowl-
edge and to reach high level of knowledge.
106
Of course, the first Alphabet was much earlier of Carahunge time and
was simple, with minimal quantity of letters, giving possibility to signify just
main concepts. This Preliminary Alphabet was born perhaps about 17 thou-
sand years ago (XV millennium BC) and had less than 20 letters. Then, de-
veloping step-by-step, this Alphabet after about 7000 years grew to Devel-
oped Alphabet with 34 letters (VID millennium BC) and was in use at Cara-
hunge time (VI millennium BC). These letters are shown in Item 2.4 (Table
9) and are on rocks in Armennia (dated III millennium BC).
Can we restore that Preliminary Alphabet? Let us try. We could keep
the following main principles (Method N! 4):
1. Old letters had to be almost similar to letters of Developed Alphabet
presented in Table 9;
2. The letters ''p'' (r), ''t'' (I) and ''n'' (rr) have close pronunciation, so
it could be one old letter;
3. In Armennian Alphabet there are few groups of letters by three
ones in each, which are phonetically close one to another. These are: "q, g,
L (g, k, ck), "n, ID, p" (d, 1, th), "p, UJ, ~ (b, p, ph), "d, It, g" (dz, ts, ts'),
'1!h..U" (u, v, 0, "d, Z, 1" (z, sh, eh), We can take middle ones;
4. Each next letter in Preliminary Alphabet can be chosen depending
on maximal quantity of words which could be formed by adding the given
letter. I think, this was the necessary reason of new letters arising;
5. The first letter should be ''01'' (a), because it means "first, one" (see
Table 10), it is a vowel and wide spread in Armennian.
Position 4 was the most difficult. I formed many words using different next
letters to find out the necessary order of letters. The second letter was ''p'' (r),
because with ''01'' (a) it gives UP =AR = Sun =wp (ar) and this pair is the most
spread in Armennian language (about 3% of all words).
Then it was proved that these two letters (sounds) with another two letters
(half-sounds) ''h'' (h) and "]" (y) give about 30 words (and "important" ones).
For example: hWJ (Armennian), WJP (man), huijp (father), uij (I), hw (yes), wh
(fear),jwp (lover), wpw (do it),jwpw (wound), etc.
The next productive letters were "t (h)" (e, ye) and "fi" (n), which give ad-
ditional more than 35 words and names, then letter ''ID'' (t) with close sounds ''.I},
p" (d, th) giving additional more than 40 words, then letter ''tt'' (m) adding more
than 50 words, then letter "If' (k) with sounds "q, p" (g, ck) adding more than
120 words, etc.
Doing this, I took 19 letters which form thousands of words (a whole lan-
guage!). These letters are the following: ui, p, J, h, b, fi, ID, U, q, 0, tq, It, It, U, 4, ]!,
tu, 2, 2· I put them in two lines of 10 and 9 letters (see Table 15).
107
Table 15
ARMENNIAN PRELIMUNARY ALPHABET (and FIGURES),
10 millennium BC
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(10)
ID
P J
h h fi ID U q 0
(i)
t
B t
II P
q n
p
tuwG» mllmJPfi
bu
lJlUlZ- bnpJOLGl!
6pw h}nJpfit }nt(h)
qrn..JQ1!
hnqLnp
the life giver I mbli entity his is base my (and) pair(es- ofsoul
adore sence)
UI P-
et u
q
n tu 2 2
-
p
1lt
d
9
q nt
~
d"
1-
6
pntnp dWIUl- ~ } 1 t h p t !
u}1pn
IlbuHt
It}1wg-
fizwfit! zwm hw6btlt
-
all qwfig springs of love to the dwfi sign very nice
people union
After doing this I was very surprised by two flndlngs;
<D These two lines of letters mean two whole phrases in Armennian
(see Tables 10 and 15) which in English will be the following:
• I adore the life giver (the Sun), his entity is my base and pair (essence)
of my soul,
• The love springs of all people - to (are) the sign of very nice union.
This is indeed a marvellous appeal to kind God, to love, to unity, com-
ing to us from the distance of 12 thousand years!
@ The configuration (structure) of these letters is almost similar to the
configuration of present ten figures (0, 1, 2...•9), see Table 15.
This means that these letters were used also as figures, evolution of
which gives the present configuration of the figures.
All these confirm the following:
1. Method X! 1 and the interpretation of Armennian letters meanings
(see ELD, Table 10) is right;
2. Method X! 2 (''trees'' of letters, see Table 12) is right;
3. Method Xl! 4 and restoration of Armennian Preliminary Alphabet is
right;
4. Present figures and decimal counting system (with zero) were born
in Armennia about 10 thousand years ago. Perhaps, this was kept in secret
and was not adopted (say, by Greeks in I millennium BC) and then decimal
108
system with zero was forgotten in Christianity time, and was again invented
later in Medieval Europe.
5. Table 15 demonstrates that in Preliminary (12 thousands years ago)
and in Developed (VI millennium BC) Alphabets the same letters as in pre-
sent Armennian Alphabet were used.
The decimal counting system was forgotten for a long time. Meanwhile
it was (and is) very simple and convenient system, which is easy to under-
stand, learn, remember and use. Let us remind that children learn to count
using ten fingers and the word ''mathematics'' in Armennian is ''tiwm • h •
dwm • pqw", which is ''finger comes after finger". It is good that this word
was not forgotten.
Table 15 also tells, that at the very beginning the letters as figures were
used. So perhaps they were used as a table like it is shown here in Table 15a,
which consists of 19 letters, and figures from 0 to 90000. Arithmetical opera-
tions with this Table 15a are easier than with Table 17 shown below. For op-
eration signs, perhaps, the following letters were used: "q" or "ln]" for Ea,
"I}" fore, "d" for 0, "p" for c and "1.." for@(see Table 10), thereat these let-
ters are absent in Tables 15 and 15a.
Table 15a
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
upwllnplibp
0 w p
J
h h 6 m d q
units
lDwuliwllnplibp
0 wo po
JO
ho ho 60 mo do qo
tens
hWP6n1pWllnplibP
0
111 P
b u q
1! 10 2 2
undreds
hWiliwpwlln£libP
0
111
0 ho bo uo qo
1!0 loo
2
0
2
0
t ousan s
~ . 0
111
0 0 hoo boo uoo qoo
1!00 1000
2
0 0
2
0 0
ten thoUsands
109
2.12. FIGURES NAMES MEANINGS
At first, about 10000 years ago, the line of Preliminary Alphabet of the
first ten letters was used as a decimal figures system (see Table 15a). The simi-
larity between letters and figures is present not only for the first line of letters
but also for the second line (see Tables 15 and 15a).
Later the configuration of figures changed a little (to be the difference be-
tween figures and letters) and figures have gotten the present form. At the same
time initial figures received the names, which are in use until now.
These Armennian old names of figures are possible to decode using
ELD, Table 10. And the result is very interesting: the names indeed have
their own meaning, sense which is shown in Table 16, ''Figures names mean-
ings". This circumstance again confirms that the present figures have Ar-
mennian derivation.
110
Table 16
FIGURES NAMES MEANINGS
basic meaning of letter figure,
meaning of figure name
letter (see Table 10) its name
1J.bm,
0
uqpqp hnqLnp
0
(w li)m,wtli)
(n)
point, not ing qebpen--+ giving the begmmng ut) spiritual
(non-material)
(I)
llliq, wnw2Pli 1
pu Wlip \biP (hu
ID
(w)
one, first uebeq bemy a (myse
P(b)
qntJq
2
{mJq mlibgwlip oompq (4:d.wb)
pair bpq emeu we) have close pair (toget er)
a

3
hW2npqli wupwgliml
J
(4)
I 0 long bpebep next ma es harder
h
hwpbtIlblij}l
4
uw (:qbn) nl (hr.li\uwm)
(u)
trend to the.•. leopeu
this not complet yet to e five fin-
gers)
h
bubu 5
UWm
t
qlluh liuwli (wllwpmllwb)
t
(11)
lam h epli e q li e human's head (completed)
u
wJli
6 pu hW2npq(dbnpp) j\Pw
(n)
it
ll
eb eg
on my next (liand
ID
hpup 7
hnqmhwuwp
Qu)
base Jenep or human soul
U
uwpq 8
(uui)
b'
man m e p
(it) as a ility
q
uwu 9
thn (1:)
(q)
part peliet! it (is) nen 0 man
n
lllib 10
pu mntfit!(w
llw£mwb)
(0)
big meweu house 0 my life (comp eted)
Notes 20
liw luwlipp (t)
1. 1be first thing we can see peueweli it (is) stable chi d of ife
in this Table 16 is that the
meanings of all figures were
30
bpbp bu mlibgw
chosen with main purpose to
hn ebu e mfi t ree (tens I have
make the learning and re-
membering of them as easy as
40
lnpu bu mfibgw
possible.
pwn ewu e
our (tens) I have
2. Mesrop Mashtots per-
mli
haps knew something about
50 (fiw) hpliq (mwuliJwq) mfip
old meanings of letters, be-
hp e u e mfi (he) has five c ildren (tens)
cause using letters as figures
he put for 10, letter "d" 100 hwpnq dbp wpupli
(m.cJbr), powerful), for 100, h ewp e jmp trend to your Sun (life)
letter ''6'' (wnwqlq, more-
1000
hwpnq
over), for 1000, letter ''ri'
(UhCt, big, great).
h ewq ewp trend to nation s un (life)
111
2.13. MEDIEVAL FIGURES - LETTERS.
From early Middle Ages up to now (sometimes) Armennian letters in-
stead of figures were used. The same was in Europe. In Table 17, 36 of
Mashtots' Armennian letters and their use as figures from 1 to 9000 are
shown. In VII century AD the first tables of addition, subtraction, multipli-
cation and division were constituted by Armennian mathematician and as-
tronomer Annania Shirakatsi [22].
Table 17
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
upwqnpfibp
U
p q.
LI- b £1 l: e lU
units
unuuflunlnp
eT
p
L
Iu n 1I
~ :J -'l..
tens
hWPJnfuw-
qnpfi p
ti IT a "U c n 0 III
Q
hundreds
hwqwpw-
qnpfibp
n U
'-l S P B n ~ Cl> .R
thousands
It is evident that this system of figure -letters had no zero and is ''nine-
mal" (not decimal) which is more difficult in use. This shows that old Ar-
mennian decimal system with zero was forgotten indeed because Table 17 is
more complicated in use than above Table 15a.
2.14. ARMENNIAN AND OTHER ALPHABETS
Everybody learns at school and university that all alphabets were taken
(adopted) from Phoenician and some of them also partly from so-called
Aramean. And everybody learns that old Greek high culture comes from
Crete-Mikenian culture. And almost all countries quickly adopted Phoeni-
cian alphabet during I millennium BC.
High culture and alphabet are not able to arise in small countries or is-
lands, more over during a short period of time. For high culture and alphabet
development and accumulation from zero, many thousand years, great experi-
112
ence of great nation with high knowledge, technology, dialects, etc. are neces-
sary.
Carahunge, Armennian Language Analysis and many other factors
(see PART 3) confirm that necessary conditions and evolution of knowledge,
technology, alphabet took place only in Old Armennia with its many king-
doms, including Araratian, Kilikian, Phoenician and many other kingdoms.
German historian M.Rimshneider tells that all Greek culture was taken
from Kilikians, Phoenicians, Hittites and Halides (Urartians) who were in-
habitants of Araratian kingdom [61]. All these four countries were Armen-
nian kingdoms (see PART 3). M.Rimshneider also tells, that Greek Alphabet
was adopted from Kilikia [61]. I think it is right because Kilikia is closer to
Greek than Phoenicia, and Kilikian Alphabet was the same Phoenician-
Armennain Alphabet.
Armennian Alphabet arose in the Great Armennia about 15-12 thou-
sand years ago. The fact that Phoenician Alphabet is the same Armennian
Alphabet is shown in Table 9. From 26 Phoenician letters 12 are the same
Armennian ones (46%), 12 letters are similar (46%) and only 2 letters are
different (8%) from Armennian letters "q" (z) and ''u'' (s).
In Table 18 the evolution ''tree'' of Armennian and Other Alphabets is
shown.
113
Table 18. Evolution of Armennian and Other Alphabets
Armennian language
began 45000 years ago
Armennian written language
25000 years ago
(pictures, symbols, hieroglyphs)
!
Armennian Preliminary Alphabet
19 letters and 10 figures
X millennium BC
Armennian Developed Alphabet
34 letters
VI millennium BC
Armennian Present Alphabet
39 letters
(recovered in 406 AD by M.Mashtots)
-
The same Armennian Alphabet of
Armennian Kilikia and Armennian Phoenicia
(beforexvm (beforexmcent.
-
The same
The same
Annennian
(Hiksosean)

Indian
Greek
Jewish Annennian
Alphabet Brahma
-
Alphabet
Alphabet
XVII cent. BC
Alphabet
24 letters
X cent. BC
Alphabet
V cent. BC
IX cent. BC
I--
XVI cent. BC

Jewish
Sanskrit square

IV cent. BC letters
Old Egyptian
Etrusks

IDcent. BC
Alphabet
Alphabet
Arabian
XVII cent. BC
VIII cent. BC

All
All
28 etters
European
Asian and
-
before IV
Alphabets
f- Old Latin African
cent. AD
Alphabet Alphabets
VII cent. BC

Latin
--

ID· cent.BC
114
2.15. ARMENNIAN AND SO-CALLED "ARAMAEAN" ALPHABET.
METHOD X! 5
Table 18 shows that all Alphabets come from Armennian Alphabet. In
literature it is said that all Alphabets come from Phoenician, including so-
called "Aramaean" Alphabet [60].
Phoenicia as well as Kilikian, Hittites kingdoms and many other coun-
tries in West Asia and Anatolia were Armennian Kingdoms and from very
old time spoke Armennian language and used Armennian Alphabet. Never-
theless in XIX and the beginning of XX centuries the opinion was that Hit-
tites language was semitic. But the results of excavations of Hittites capital
town in Anatolia in 20-es of last century confirmed that their language was
Indo-European.
Who were Arameans (Aramaeans)? It is said [60] that they were se-
mitic tribes coming from Arabia and in XIV-XI centuries BC lived in Ante-
rior Asia. But "Aram" is typical (very old and present) Armennian name
("Son of Sun") and Armennians lived (and spoke Armennian) in Armennian
kingdoms of Anterior Asia much earlier than so-called "Aramaeans". The
impression is that "Aramaeans" are prepensely concoct tribes with their
semitic background and language. Why was it done?
There are two textbooks for universities "History of Armennian Na-
tion", in Armennian [63, p. 43] and in Russian [62, p. 38], where there are
photos of two different boundary (lands dividing) stones with chiselled in-
scriptions. Below those photos it is written: "The boundary stone of Ar-
tashes I. In Aramaean language".
Artashes I the Kind was Armennian king of Great Armennia in
189-160 BC. He built capital town Artashat (188 BC) near river Aracs in
Ararat valley and a citadel with the help of famous marshal Hannibal, who
returned to his old fatherland after Carthage downfall (146 BC) by Romans..
It was strange to me why did Armennian king inscribe on stones for
Armennian people of Armennia in foreign (so-called "Aramaean") lan-
guage? It was impossible. Why did historians believe that some "Aramaean"
tribes (existed only 3 centuries and even did not have a country) had Alpha-
bet, but Great and old Armennian kingdom had not? I think, that
"Aramaeans" never existed. They were Armennians living in Armennian
kingdoms of Anterior Asia and used, naturally, Armennian language and
Alphabet. To confirm all these I decided to try to read those inscriptions on
stones in Armennian. And the result was excellent.
I rewrote the stone letters (as they were) and saw that many of them
are alike Armennian present letters. The letter which is repeated more than
others could be "a" because it is specific for Armennian language.
I found "Aramaean" Alphabet in some books, including "Armennian
written language" of H.Acharian [56, p. 514] and was very surprised. In ta-
ble of letters "Aramaean" letters which are identical with Armennian ones
115
were put not in line with the corresponding Armennian letters but in lines of
other letters (not similar). For example, "Aramaean" letter "tq" similar to
Armennian "u;" is put against Armennian ''11'', ''t'' is put against ''It'', ''It'' -
against "h", ''1}:1'' and ''ID'' - against "q", "p" - against "a", etc.
I understood why this confusion was done. It was said from the begin-
ning of Christianity adopting that Armennians had no written language (be-
fore Mashtots) and Armennian books were burned, but chiselled inscrip-
tions on stones were impossible to damage everywhere. So the "Aramaean"
(semitic) language was devised and letters in Alphabet were purposely con-
fused to make impossible to read Armennian old inscriptions in Armennian.
I put "Aramaean" (and also Phoenician) letters in a table accurately
against similar Armennian letters (see Table 9 in Item 2.4) and espied that
from 28 "Aramaean" letters 17 are the same Armennian letters (61%),7 are
similar (25%) and 4 are different (14%). Here are these Armennian letters
to which correspond "Aramaean" ones:
- The same letters: w, q, q, p, Lq, h, 11, U, n, UJ., n, ID, p, g, p, 0 (four vow-
els),
- Similar: 11h, t, et, J, Z, tl (two vowels).
- Different: p, tu, G, u (no vowels).
After this I easily read these inscriptions (of 11 century BC) in Armen-
nian!
In Fig. 50 the photo of stone in that book [62] is shown, and in Table 19
the text of inscription is presented in old Armennian (inscriptions are 2200
years old), present Armennian and English translation. In Fig. 51 the photo
of another stone from the book [63] is shown and in Table 20 the text of in-
scription is presented.
116
Fig. 50. Inscription on
stone from the book [62].
Fig. 51. Inscription on
stone from the book [63].
Inscriptions decoded:
Table 19 (see Fig. 50)
Old Armen- Present Armennian English translation
nian
Uq Il* Ilnn}1bG
lJquwb" (uiju) qwGqGwb" Beginning from (this) standing
Ilpunulnn' un] Ilwp}1g stone
tbmllt WJU
Ilpunupm' mbpG untilArtait, (the) lord
quihunqtufl tbmllt uiju ofthis land is
hunq pwqwqnpl! (the) king
hunu bap
Inscriptions decoded:
Table 20 (see Fig. 51)
Old Armennian Present Armennian English translation
.,a**ll
n}1bG
(UJu)qwGqGwb"llwp}1g From (this) standing stone
m}1 wqbW U}1G1.L. qbp2 (wpL.bW) until the end" (East)
q
.
hn[IlJbp
hnIlbpG (hG) are lands
qwhwlllwGllw
pwqwqnp}1
of the king
All these mean that Armennian written language (Alphabet) existed
about 600 years before Mashtots (about 2200 years before us), and all so-
called "Aramaean" inscriptions are Armennian ones in Armennian lan-
guage.
Comparison of present Armennian letters with old Armennian (Phoe-
nician and "Aramaean") letters (Table 9) shows that most of them are the
same. Thereat, it is necessary to remember that present letters configuration
has been corrected few times, and old letters on rocks and stones were out-
side for a long time and are very suffered.
Boundary stones of Armennian King Artashes I the Kind (189 - 160
BC) with inscriptions are in Armennian language with Armennian letters.
• The meaning of letter ''p'' is "standing" according to Table 10.
•• I think, ''the end" means Lake Sevan, because this stone is put in the basin of Lake Sevan.
117
2.16. CONCLUSION OF PART 2
Armennian language arose in Armennia beginning from the time of
Homo Sapiens, 40- 45 thousand years ago.
It developed step by step from simple sounds to words, main of which be-
gan (and begin) from "ar" (the Sun, the name of old Main God of Armen-
nians).
All these are confirmed by Armennian language analysis.
The first written language (symbols, pictures, hieroglyphs) arose about 25
thousand years ago. Many of these signs came to us and are in use in Armennia
and in other countries (for example, signs of Zodiacal constellations), which
confirms the priority of Armennian written language.
The fact that Armennians have lived in Armennia for all times is con-
firmed also by many geographical names in Armennia, as well as many Ar-
mennian male and female names beginning with "ar". All Armennian main
names came without any change from Paleolithic time (more than 10 thousand
years).
The fact that the cradle of Indo-Europeans and Indo-European languages
was Armennia (Armennian Highland, Mount Ararat), and that from the very
old time (more than 7 thousand years) there was a developed astronomy are
confirmed by many European authors [52,53,37,38, etc.] and also by Cara-
hunge (pART 1). This is also confirmed by the presence in Armennian lan-
guage of many words which have meaning, sense in Armennian and which are
in use (adopted) by many other languages (see Table 14).
The first, Preliminary Alphabet (19 letters) arose in Armennia more than
12 thousand years ago (in X millennium BC). It was the first Alphabet in the
World. Together with the first Alphabet arose and were in use ten figures (with
zero), decimal reckoning and mathematics (this word means in Armennian
''finger comes after finger", Le, reckoning). Later the decimal system and zero
were forgotten and were invented again in Medieval Europe.
The Developed Armennian Alphabet (34 letters) arose in VI millennium
BC and these letters are in use until now (with some correction). All other Al-
phabets in the World came from this Alphabet (Table 18).
118
In the life of this Alphabet there was an intermption for one century after
Christianity adopting in Armennia as state religion in 301 AD. Then, in 406 AD
Mesrop Mashtots reestablished the written Armennian language with the ex-
isted Armennian Alphabet of 36 letters. Later three more letters were added, so
present Armennian Alphabet includes 39 letters.
The analysis of Alphabet and Armennian language shows that each Ar-
mennian letter has also a definite sense, meaning (coming from old time), which
is shown in Table 10 ''Elements (letters) Dictionary" (ELD). The Method of
ELD composition is shown in Item 2.5. Using of ELD shows that almost each
Armennian word becomes understandable (even many foreign words and
names). The meanings of letters were used in Armennia and other countries,
perhaps, until I millennium AD, and later were forgotten.
Consistent and logical development of Armennian language, Le, forma-
tion of new words by adding a new part (parts) to the existed word, is con-
firmed by ELD and presence of ''trees'' of letters, two examples of which are
given in Tables 12 and 13.
All these conflrm also that Armennian language and Alphabet are the
first which were developed alone (from nobody it was possible to adopt words)
and came to us from very old time.
I think, I was able to restore the Armennian Preliminary Alphabet with
19 letters (see Item 2.11) coming from X millennium BC (Table 15). First 10 let-
ters decoded by ELD gave the sentence: ''I adore the life giver (the Sun), his en-
tity is my base and pair of my soul". The next 9 letters gave another sentence:
''The love springs of all people - to the sign of a very nice union". These were
very big surprise for me. And this means that independent Tables 10 and 15
are right.
The second big surprise was the analogy between letters (of the first and
second lines in Table 15) and figures 1,2,3, ...0 (10) which we are using now.
All these confirm that Table 10 (ELD) and 15 are right, and that present
figures and decimal system of counting with zero come from 12 thousand years
old Armennian Preliminary Alphabet. This is confirmed also by Table 16, be-
cause the names of present figures have definite meanings (explanation) in Ar-
mennian. All these demonstrate also that the letters used in Preliminary and
Developed Alphabets were the same as the present Armennian letters.
I was also able to read in Armennian the inscriptions on land boundary
stones of Armennian King Artashes I the Kind (189 -160 BC). It is said in dif-
ferent books that these inscriptions are in semitic Aramaean language.
The reading of inscriptions in Armennian language confirms that:
- Armennian Alphabet existed before Mashtots (for about 600 years as
minimum) and
- So-called "Aramaeans", "Aramaean" language and Alphabet were in
reality Armennians, Armennian language and Alphabet (Tables 15,
19,20).
119
Armennian Language was the first language in the World, the God's lan-
guage, the basis of all Indo-European languages and the International Lan-
guage until IT-I millennium BC.
Armennian Alphabet was the first alphabet from which all other alpha-
bets were adopted.
120
PART 3
HISTORY OF OLD ARMENNIA
"Ex Oriente Lux!"
(Light From East!)
3.1. INTRODUCTION-
History of Christian Armennia with names of kings, patriarchs and
scientists is illuminated and widely represented in many manuscripts, books,
documents and monuments. But History of Old Armennia is illuminated very
weakly and with very big distortions.
This book may be the flrst attempt of short scientific recital of real History
of Old Armennia from the very beginning until the Christianity adopting as state
religion in 301 AD.
The main basics of this PART 3 are PART 1 (Carahunge), PART 2
(Armennian Language Analysis), many results of excavations, results of other
scientific directions and opinion of many other specialists.
3.11. ANTHROPOLOGICAL DATA
Russian anthropologist V.V.Bounyak in his book ''Grania Annenica"·
(Annennian Granium, P.H.) 1927, [65, p. 263] wrote: "Armennoid type (race) is
known from the most early time and has wide dispersal in all regions of
Mesopotamia, beginning from its South part up to source of Tigris and Euphrates,
and further until West end of Anatolian peninsula, from the one side, and until
inside regions of Iran- from the other side. There were not any other race elements
in the oldest population of Anterior Asia. Formation of this type was finished in
Anterior Asia before emersion of European and Asian tribes (Thracians, Ellines,
Turks) who apparently had not made an influence on anthropological type of
population and were dissolvedin stable formed Armennoid race".
Other anthropologists Ya.Ya. Roginnskiy and M.G. Levvin in the book
"Antropology", 1978, [67 p.528] (see also [51, p. 28,29]), wrote: "As it is known,
Armennian Highland is one of the places on Earth where the process of formation
of present man took place. Apparently in Neolithic time the Armennoid race of
121
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man was fonned in Anterior Asia and Caucasus. This is proved by results of
excavations in Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and other regions. At IV millennium
BC and, perhaps earlier they had abruptly expressed features of Europeoid race".
N.H. Cochar in the book "Anthropology of Annennians", 1989, [51, p.92],
wrote: ''Time restoration for •.• Annennian population showed that Annennoid
race was already fonned at the minimum 9000 years ago ••. in Annennian
Highland and then propagated to the territories of Anterior Asia and Caucasus".
Mentioned in PART 2 M. M. Zourikkian [64, pp. 25-28] tells about the
opinion of J. Mallbert who, based on archaeological data, wrote in his book
"The Oldest Civilizations of Old East" [81, pp. 79-109] that prehistoric
culture arose in Turkish Mesopotamia (must be Armennian Highland, P.H.)
and in South part of Anatolia (i.e, in Kilikia, P.H.). The Neolithic civilization
discovered in Chattal Hyouk he calls ''the supernova in pale galaxy".
In Soviet Encyclopedic Vocabulary (Moscow, 1987) it is said:
"Armenoid race - Anterior Asia race, which accentuated by some
anthropologists inside the big Europeoid race for the population of
Armennia, adjoined part of Small Asia and also Syria.
Peculiarities: abundant growth of beard of males, cambered back of
nose, almost flat nape" [87, p. 76].
3.12. TERRITORY OF OLD ARMENNIA
The native territory of Old Armennia included:
1. Caucasus, with South Caucasus (Trans Caucasus) and lands around
mounts Ararat, Aragats, Syunic, Artsakh, Vardenis etc., mount ridges Small
Caucasus, Armennian Par (dance), Geghamma, Aregouni, etc., lake Sevan,
rivers Aracs, Cour, Hrazdan, etc, and seaboards of Black and Caspian seas.
2. Annennian Highland, with mounts Sipan, Nemrout, Marouta, Npat
etc., mount ridges Carouta, Tayk, Cardouka, Annennian Tauros, High
Annennia etc., lakes Kapoutan (Urmia) and Van, rivers Euphrates, Aratsani,
Tigris, Aracs, Chorokh, etc.
3. Mesopotamia, with rivers Euphrates, Tigris, lands of Babylon, Sumer,
Phoenicia, seaboards of Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea.
4. Asia Minor (Anatolia), with High Annennia, Annennia Minor, Kilikia,
Kilikian Tauros mounts, seaboards of Black, Mediterranean and Aegean seas.
5. East side of Mediterranian Sea: with Pynikia, Palestine, Lebanan, Syria.
Armennians (Armennoid race) arose in Armennia first around Mount
Ararat, lake Sevan and in Armennian Highland with lake Van, then
propagated in all Caucasus, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor and were the
single population of all these territories from the very beginning (50-40
thousand years ago) until IV-DI millennium BC.
122
In all these territories Armennians live until now. The territory of
present Republic of Armennia is too small- about 30000 sq.km (about 5%
of historical Armennia).
In present time there are many terminological distortions in use. For
example, Armennian Mesopotamia with capital town Arhan (Urpha, Orran,
Eddessia), known as Armennian Kingdom from the old time until the
historical period of 312 BC • 216 AD, now is called North Mesopotamia;
Armennian Highland is called East Turkey (they wanted to change even the
name of Mount Ararat); instead of Armennoid race now is in use Europeoid,
Caucasian and even Anterior Asian race.
3. 13. NATURAL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
The development of human population, especially in early period,
depended on surrounding environment (conditions).
The geographical latitudes of Old Armennia were in limits from about
41°N down to 30
0N.
In early (the first) period Armennians lived in South Caucasus and
Armennian Highland in latitude limits from 36° to 41° and in longitude
limits of about of 37°· 49° with total territory of about 400 000 sq. km, which
is now called Historical Armennia and where Armennian kingdoms were
developed (see also [93, p. 117] ).
Historical Armennia is the upland with average altitude about 1700 m
and with many extinct volcanic mountain ridges.
Armennian Highland is the geographical name (term) of separate
mountainous territory between Black, Caspian and Mediterranean seas,
which is towering above surrounding territories.
The NW part of Armennian Highland includes the mountain ridges of
High Armennia and is going until the seaboard of Black Sea; the North and
NE parts include Ararat Valley and Armennian Par (dance) ridge and are
going until Rion and Cour rivers and Caspian sea; the SE part (with lake
Urmia) is going until Iranian Plateau; the SW part is going until North
(Armennian) Mesopotamia; and the West part is going until Asia Minor
Plateau.
The highest Mount is Ararat (Big Ararat or Masis with altitude 5165m
and Small Ararat • 3925m) which is beautifully towering above Ararat
Valley (about 900m) with river Aracs, and which is at almost equal
distances from lakes Sevan, Van and Urmia, and also from Black, Caspian
and Mediterranean seas. Mount Ararat with Ararat Valley is shown in Fig.
52, 53 and 54.
The sky in Armennia is usually blue, with the Sun. There are often the
beautiful Sunsets, as shown in Fig. 55.
123
There are also many other high extinct volcanoes such as Mount
Aragats (4095m, with four tops and a huge crater in the middle of them),
Sipan 4434m, Khachkar 3937m, Kapoutjough 3917m, Gemagan 3609m,
Ishkhanasar 3552m, Tondrak 3542m, Artos 3475m, Rmbasar 3373m,
Mravasar 3343m, Samsar 3285m, Khustup 3216m, Sarmants (Byourakn)
3189m, Mndzour 3188m, Maimekh 3109m, Nemrut 3050m, Maroutasar
2967m, and many others [68].
Armennian Mountains consist of huge quantity of useful stones
(granite, basalt, tuff, obsidian, agate, etc.), metals (iron, copper, gold, tin,
molybdenum, etc.). There are also many big and small rivers, many springs
of cold and pure water. There are large forests in valleys, slopes of
mountains, and many flowers. Let us remember that here was the Biblical
paradise.
The climate is temperate with not very hot Summer (20°- 30°C), and
snowy but not very frosty Winter (_5°, -15°C). The air is clear, there are
many sunny days (about 360 days per year) and clear sky (starry) nights.
There is the reach animal kingdom: lions, tigers and jaguars (in past),
deers, bears, foxes, goats, harts, wolves, etc., also eagles,. storks, cranes,
swallows, pigeons etc. Many fishes are in lakes and rivers.
Historian Kh.Samouelyan tells that at Stone Age (Paleolithic) in
Armennia there lived even mammoths, bones of which were excavated in
Lorri, near rivers Debbed and Phammbak confluence, in Gyumri (see
Fig. 56 and 57), which are kept in Yerevan Geological Museum, another
skeleton was excavated near village Khnus, which are kept in British
Museum with name "Elephas Armenniacus" [34, pp. 108,109].
Nature of Armennia with mountain relief, variable climate (Summer-
Winter), rich natural resources and other conditions were favorable for life
and development of Stone Age Man and forwarded the fast evolution of his
culture.
Fig. 56. Skeleton of a Mammoth
excavated in Armennia [34].
124
Fig. 57. Picture of a Mammoth
painted by Stone Age Man [34].
3. 2. ARMENNIA IN VERY OLD TIME (300 - 50 THOUSAND
YEARS AGO)
The territory of Old Armennia and particularly of Armennian
Highland was one of the places where the Stone Age Man arose and
developed with his culture. Archaeological excavations, done in this
territory, particularly in present Armennia, found many camps and
settlements of Stone Age Man with his thousand stone (obsidian, basalt)
instruments, clay dishes, fire-places, bones etc. In Fig. 58 stone hammers
found in Old Nakhichevan salt mine are shown and in Fig. 59 obsidian tools
(instruments) excavated near villages Cham-Megri and Khphchag are
shown [34]. These instruments were in use in Stone Age time of Armennia.
Fig. 58. Excavated in Armennia stone
hammers of Stone Age time [34].
Fig. 59. Excavated in Armennia obsidian
tools of Stone Age time [34].
125
Many of such settlements with Stone Age Man Paleolithic culture were
excavated in present Armennia in Ararat Valley, on mount Artin (SW slope
of mount Aragats), in cavern Azokh, in Hrazdan gorge near towns Yerevan
and Arzni, villages Lousakert, Shannidar etc. In Historical Armennia such
settlements were excavated in basin of lake Van, in valleys of rivers
Euphrates and Aratsani, on slopes of Armennian Tauros ridge, in valley of
Carbert, etc. [68, p. 5].
According to Armennian Encyclopedia the camps of Ashellian culture
(500-100 thousand years ago) in present Armennia were excavated in places
Satani Dar, Aregouni Blour, Harravvayin Blour, Lousakkert, Karmir,
Jrabber, also near village Azokh in Nagorni Carabakh (more than 300
thousand years ago) [70, v.I, pp. 122, 123,465; 1974].
Armennian historian She Mkrtchian tells about excavations in Azokh.
The huge cavern of more than 3000 sq. m near village Azokh with the big
camp of Stone Age Man was excavated (7m depth). The main finding was
the lower jaw of Stone Age Man who lived 100-50 thousand years ago. In
1979 by the group of international archaeologists he was called "Azokhian"
and it was said that Azokh is "The famous finding of the place of human
oldest civilization" [71].
Before this the remains of Neanderthal man were found out in four
places: Morocco, Germany, UK and Italy. Azokhian is very interesting
because he is the transitive man from Sinantrop (400 thousand years ago) to
Neanderthal man (200-35 thousand years ago), and from Neanderthal man
to the Cro-Magnon man (50-40 thousand years ago) who is the man of
present type (Homo Sapience) [71].
Besides that in Azokh cavern there were found more than 20 thousand
bones of 43 types of different animals, about 6 thousand stone instruments
(tools), many clay dishes and decorations, many fire-places, pictures on
walls, trimmed stones, etc. [71].
Thus, in Armennia, beginning from very old time (more than 300
thousand years ago) and down to 50-40 thousand years ago the Stone Age
Men lived: Sinantrop, Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon men (Homo Sapience)
who was the ancestor of Armennians.
3.21. AR-FATHER MAIN GOD AND
HAYA-MOTHER GODDESS
From the very beginning (50-40 thousand years ago) Armennians felt
very well that they are living among Nature, are a particle of Nature. Being
in close contact with Nature they felt its kind and cruel forces all the time.
The kindest and joyous phenomenon in their life (as well as in life of all
animals and plants) was the Sun, giving the light and warmth on which
126
depended their life. So it is naturally that they respected and loved the Sun
as their father, as the kind, freehanded and unselfish Creator. Their respect
and love to the Sun grew into a belief and worship of the Sun as the God-
Father.
They talked with the Sun (AR in Armennian), asked Him to help,
when there were difficulties and were thankful to Him. They spoke with the
Sun in Armennian which was the first language, the God's language.
The Sun-God was the Father of Armennians, the Sun-Father Main
God (lW-=lwJP q.LtuwLlnp UumLlwb) and Armennians were His children,
Aryans, which in Armennian means: "Areyan"= (the people) from the Sun
country. They also knew that the Sun gives light, warmth and life to all
people, animals and plants, so the Sun is the Creator of all Earth, is the
Main God. The full name of the Sun God was "THE GREAT AND ARYAN
AR-FATHER GOD" (UbtTh ru- upp ur-euer- uus-utm,
In fact, Armennians always believed in one God, the AR. Other
Armennian Gods arose much later and were the children of AR or His
Assistants.
Armennian historian L. Shahinian writes that AR was the Creator of
Sky and Earth, the Main God and Father of other Gods, as Armennians
believed [77, p. 4].
It is necessary to note here that later, after the accumulation of
knowledge about the stars and constellations (perhaps before the time of
Carahunge, say 15 - 10 millennia ago), when Armennians understood that
there existed the whole Universe, they extended the concept of God over all
the Universe. This is illustrated by the old Armennian word "Astvats" =
God, where "Ast" means ''the Universe" and ''vats'' means "spread", so
Astvats is the essence "spread in (all) Universe", the part of which is the
Sun, the closest and powerful representative (object) of the Universe.
According to old legends, Armennians believed that they were created
(born) by Universe-AR-Father GOD with (and) Earth-Water-Mother
GODDESS. Her name was "=lUaU=HAYA [haja]". In Armennian this name
means: Hay-ya [haj-ya] (hWJeJw)=I am Armennian",
From the old time Armennians called their own country of Armennia (and
its inhabitants-Armannians) by two equivalent names: Armennia (Armennian)
and Hayastan (Hay=Hi). These names mean: "Ar s mencia (Up.. Uhfi· [nu)
= the country of Sun (AR) men" and "Haya-stan ( ~ w J w • umwfi)= the Earth
(Mother) country", or "Hay-ya-stan = my Armennian country". So these
names came from AR-Father (Fatherland) and from Earth- Mother
(Motherland). This is one more demonstration of the equality of man and
woman in Armennia from the old time until now. Unfortunately, many
authors have a wrong opinion, that Hayastan is the proper-name used by
• The pronunciation of the word "huij = Annennian" is as in English pronunciation of the
word ''high'' (or ''hi'').
127
Armennians only, and Armennia is the name used by peoples of other
countries. It is a mistake, because: a) both names came from Armennian old
Gods names in Armennian language, as it was shown above; b) all other
countries could not use the same name, but could use different, their own
names, so if everywhere is the same name, it means that the name was taken
from one place (country); c) so these names came from the country in
language of which the words (names) have the meanings, can be explained;
d) as it was shown above, both names have convincing explanation in the
Armennian language. Thus, Armennia and Hayastan are Armennian words.
Later the name Haya was transformed to Armennian name Gayane
and in other languages as "Geya", (the Greek Goddess of Earth), ''Yeva''
(Eve) in Bible, etc.
For Armennians the concept of Mother was so high that even the Sun
after each day in Sunset went to rest to His Mother Le. beyond Armennian
mountains or into sea, ocean. From there came also the word "Armorika",
the old Armennian name of the Brittany Peninsula in NW of France, where
lived Bretons = Celts = Armennians (see below). "Ar-mor-ika" in
Armennian means "The Sun goes to Mother", because all people saw every
day that the Sun sets into the Atlantic Ocean.
The high respect and love to father and mother Armennians keep until
now and it is one of the main Armennian traditions. Armennians, may be,
are the sole nation in the World, who until now swear by the Sun with words
~ p u wpL. (to my father's Sun), Unpu wpL. (to my mother's Sun), UpL.u tlqw
(my Sun is witness), where the Sun means also their life.
The kind Sun-God religion Armennians propagated later to many
other tribes and nations during many thousand years. Armennians kept the
Sun-God religion until Christianity adopting as the state religion in 301 AD.
In reality the Sun cult lives also now, because in Christianity the
Father-God is the same Armennian old the Sun-Father-God, whose Son was
Jesus Christ with His kind homily. So, Jesus Christ was (and is) Armennian.
Christianity, this great and civilized religion, could not arise in one day.
It had a big, long time and deep roots and sources and Christianity was born
from the Armennian Sun-Father-God old and kind religion.
Thus to call the Sun religion ''heathen'' or ''pagan'' (hbpwGnuwqwfi) is
not correct. In old Sun religion there were not idols, fetishes, fire, God-
animals, etc., were not any sacrifices or wild dances. It was human and kind
religion of old and civilized nation - Armennians. And until now in
Christianity the God-Father is the Sun (AR).
All these do not mean that I want to return the Sun religion. I want to
explain and to tell the historical truth, as it was.
The adoration of Great and Aryan Sun-Father Main God AR was in
Armennia during about 50 thousand years. AR was the main God in all
Armennian kingdoms and then was adopted by many other countries.
English historian Archibald Says writes: "The adoration of Ara (AR) was
128
formed in Armennian Highland then propagated to many tribes and nations
of the Old World" [73, p.13].
Indeed, the main Gods in other countries were: RA in Egypt, AARA in
Assyria, ARIA in Babylon, ARAMAZD (ORMOUZD) in Iran, ARES,
APPOLLO in Greece, YAR (YARILLO) in Slav countries, ARALLI in
Georgia, ALLAH in Islam, etc.
The results of research show that Indo-Europeans had one, the same
source of their culture. This is supported by the similarity between the old
Armennian Epos "Sasna Tsrer", Indian Vedas, Iranian "Avesta". This
similarity in its turn confirms that Aryans from the Armennian Highland
propagated to Sumer (at IV millennium BC) and to India, Greece, Iran (at
m-nmillennia BC) [73, p. 11].
American researchers Lytle Robinson and Edgar Cayce think that old
culture (sphinxes, pyramids) of different countries (Egypt, Assyria, Persia,
Greece, Yucatan, Mexico, Maya, ete.) is "strikingly similar" and has "a
common source". In the book of L. Robinson it is said: "The name Re or Ra
was attached to the Sun God, the chief of all Gods. He may have come from
Caucasus"[74, p.73].
Now in different parts of Old Armennia the name of Main God AR is
also distorted. For example, the self name of Armennians living around lake
Van (Armennian Highland) was HARD which means: H·AR·D = ~ . U p . q =
admirers of the Sun =Armennians. But now this name is used with some
distortion, as Hald or Chald and many authors use it also as the name of
Main God of Chaldeans.
In present Armennia there is a huge quantity of Rock-carvings in the
regions of Vardenis mountains ridge, Syunic (Zangezour), Aragats, in
sources of rivers Yeghegis, Arpa, Vorotan etc. Particularly more than 2000
decorated rocks were discovered at mount Oughtassar near Sissian at
altitude 3300m. Another rock-carving art center is also near Sissian, on
mount Djermadjour, etc.
Armennian historians G.H.Karakhanian and P.G.Satian presented 342
Tables with groups of rock-carvings in the book "Rock-Carvings of Syunic"
[49]. Here we can see the carvings of V - ID mill. BC with the most animals
of old time, as goats, mouftlons, gazelles, deer, aurochs, horses, dogs, wolves,
jackals, panthers, bears, lions, scenes of hunting, etc. There are also many
carved pictures and scenes with the rising Sun, see Fig. 60, 61. The
comparison of these two Fig. 60 and 61 tells the supposition that the wheel
was invented in Armennia (much earlier than V mill. BC) as a model of the
Sun picture.
129
U 2,5
Fig.60. Rock-carving with the Sun-rising
process (two moments) (V mill. BC) [49].
Fig. 61. Rock-carving (IV mill. BC). The cart
with four wheels pulled by bulls [49].
130
In Armennia there were also many Sun God Temples in Etchmiadzin,
Zvartnots, Carahunge, Garni etc. The main Temple was in Darrannaghiats
region in Ani fortress, where the center of the main Priest was.
Unfortunately, all Temples were destroyed after Christianity adopting
(except Garni), and on their foundations the Christian Churches were built.
In Fig. 62 the AR-Father God Temple (1-11 cent. AD) in Garni (present
Armennia) is shown.
In Fig. 63 the picture of the AR God standing on the Lion is shown.
This painting was found during excavations and restoration works on one of
inside walls of Errebouni (Yerevan) old castle (VIII cent. BC) [73].
To the West of lake Van, near river Euphrates, on the slope of Mount
Nemrut in Kappadokia (now in Turkey) there is a unique old Monument
with big, 9 m height sculptures (sitting on the thrones) of the Armenian
Main God AR, similar to Him KESAR (title of Armenian Kings), of the
Goddess ANNAHIT, of the God VAHAGN, of the God TIR and also of the
AR God symbols: the Lion and the Eagle.
Unfortunately this unique Monument was destroyed. In Fig. 64 the
Heads of these sculptures are shown [68, p.21]. More details about this
Monument see in Item 3.23.
Christianity as a kind, human religion of the civilized nations was
adopted by Armennians earlier than by other nations because it was the
continuation of their Sun-Father kind and human religion, and also because
the God-Father in Christianity (still now) is the same Armennian Sun-
Father main God AR.
Fig. 64. The destroyed unique Armennian Monument in kappadokia (now
in Turkey) with Heads from right to left of the God AR, the Goddess
ANNAHIT, Eagle, the God VAHAGN, the KESAR, Eagle, Lion [68].
131
3.22. ARMENNIAN OTHER OLD GODS
The adoration of the Great and Aryan Sun-Father Main God AR arose
in Armennia about 50 thousand years ago.
Besides AR and Haya Armennians had alsoother old Gods.
ANNAHIT Goddess, the Daughter of AR. She was very respected and
loved in Armennia, "The Goddess of Maternity", she was named also the
"Golden Mother" and "Golden Birth".
Her main Temples were in Yekkeghiats region of High Armennia, in
Yerizavvan (now Yerznka), in Ashtishat of Tarron (to the West of lake
Van)· where was "Ilfhnhjnn]; Ilpnn = the Throne of Annahit", also in
Artashat, Baggarran, Armavvir and other places.
Her Head, the part of Her smashed sculpture, kept in British Museum,
is shown in Fig. 65.
NAR or NANNE Goddess, the daughter of AR, the Goddess of wisdom.
"Nar" in Armennian means "Leading, Leader". "Nanne (Nanni)" means:
"Mother, Grand Mother", also "Feeding, Feeder".
Her Temple was in town Thil of Darrannaghiats region.
VAHAGN *, the Young and Hardy Vahagn (J!w2fi ~ w h w q O ) , the
Fighter of dragons and evil. He was very lovely Armennian God of Courage,
Power, Heroism, Lightning and Battle (later).
The supposing date of His "birth" is 22 946 BC Areg 1 (March 21),
when the first Armennian Calendar (Solar) was begun (see PART 1, Item
'J1.17). The painting of the moment of His birth in Fig. 66 is shown (see also
page 15,1).
He lived with His wife ASTHGIK in castle on the bank of Lake Van.
His main Temples were in Ashtishat (in Taron region), near Lake Van, in
Vaspurakan and in High Armennia. The sculpture of VAHAGN in Yerevan
is presented in Fig. 67. The old sculpture of His Head (made, perhaps, before
the Great Deluge, see Item 3.19) is shown in Fig. 64 (the younger God).
ASTGHIK Goddess (UulJ1l1l1q) (wumtlwbnthp), the Daughter of AR
and Wife of VAHAGN. She was very lovely Goddess of skylight, water, love
and beauty. Her name in old Armennia was given to the planet Venus, the
brightest object on the Sky after the Sun and the Moon. To Her in
"Vardevvar" festal day roses were presented.
"Ast" in Armennian means "Universe", "Astgh, wuUUJ." (the clot of
space matter) means "star", "Astghik" - "little star".
Her Temples were in Ashtishat in Taron region and on bank of Lake
Van.
• This word is necessary to read as Vahhaggn.
132
Her name was adopted by other nations, also proceeded to the names of
their Goddesses as Astart, Ishtar, Issida, and also to the international words
as "astronomy", "star". In Armennian the word "star" (unnnrp-astgh) came
from ASTGHIK (or vice versa).
TIR God, the Writer God, the Secretary of the AR, Protector of written
language, science, and art. He had ''white'' and "black" big books where He
fixed the good and bad actions of people. He also understood dreams.
His Temples were in Yerazzamouyn (Zvartnots) of Artashat region, in
Carahunge, Kaghzvan, Aragats, Van, etc.
The presence of old God TIR also tells about the existence of the
written language in old Armennia.
MIHR (Mardouk) God, the Son of the AR, the God of light, flre,
Protector of equity and truth. His cult arose perhaps in the beginning of ill
millennium BC.
His Temples were in Baggaritch of Derdjan region in Armennia Minor
and in other places.
VANATOUR God with AMMANNOR festal day (the New Year), the
God of fecundity, hospitality, harvest, grape, vine, gladness (joy). This festal
day was celebrated in each home, at each New Year.
His Temple was in Baggavvan of Bagrevvand region.
Armennians were also deifying some of their loved and heroic Kings-
Priests (Kesars). At least three Kesars: Aram, Hayk and Ara the Beautiful
were deified:
- ARAM (Are am = the Son of the Sun), or afterwards ARAMMAZD
(=Areameazd=the first Son of the Sun), the first King (Kesar) of Armennia
in about 40 millennium BC. He was ''the first man", created by God-Father
on Earth (Adam by Bible).
- HAYK [ha:jk], the victor of Bel (Nemrod) who with Babylon army
came to occupy Armennia (2492 BC); Babylon Tower and the Great
Pyramid builder.
By His name was called the Hayk constellation on Sky (now Orion).
The photo of the Hayk Kesar sculpture in Yerevan, victor and powerful
archer is presented in Fig. 68.
- ARA GEGHETSIK (Ara the Beautiful), Kesar, Protector of
Fatherland and Family, who fell in action against Assyrian army with their
cruel and dissolute queen Shamiram (Semiramide), who came to occupy
Armennia (11 millennium BC).
The names of all Armennian old Gods are kept until now also as the
first and family names of Armennian men and women.
133
Armennian Old Gods with their names (or distorted ones) and their
functions proceeded afterwards to the God pantheons of other nations. For
example, in Egypt AR (RA), Haya (Isida), Aram (Gor), Hayk (Osiris,
Orion); in Palestine Vahagn (Vahhal) and Asghtik (Astart); in Iran Aram,
Aramazd (Ormuzd); in Greece AR (Zeus), Annahit (Artemida), Astghik
(Aphrodita), Tir (Apollo), Vahagn (Herald), etc.
3. 23. THE SANCTUARY IN KAPPADOKIA
In Kappadokia, on the slope of Mount Nemrut (height 2150m) which
is on the right bank of river Euphrates, near old town Sammosat (near
present Adiyaman, now in Turkey) there is the stone big old Monument, the
Sanctuary of old Armennian Gods with big, 9m Sculptures (sitting on
thrones). They were the Sculptures of Gods:
AR (SUN) - the Main God of Armennians,
KESAR - the Image of Armennian Kings (Kesars), similar to the AR,
ANNAIDT - the Daughter of the AR,
VAHAGN - the young God, Fighter of evil,
TIR- the young God, "Secretary" of the AR,
and also (sitting on smaller thrones) the Symbols of the AR: the Lion and
the Eagle. There are also the stone bar-relieves.
Unfortunately this unique Monument now is terribly destroyed: all
Heads of Sculptures are picked up, their faces damaged, etc. Some Heads
are put separately and were shown in Fig. 64.
More information about the present condition of the Monument we
have taken from the Internet [lOO]. The scheme of the Monument is shown
in Fig. 69. There are three parts of the Monument placed on three big
artificial terraces on slope of Mount Nemrut: the East, the West and the
North ones. The East and West parts (terraces) of the Monument are almost
similar. They consist of 5 big and 4 smaller thrones each for the sitting big
Sculptures. Five thrones for the Gods and four thrones for the Symbols of
AR, Lions and Eagles.
Unfortunately the process of the Sculptures damaging continues also
at present time. For example, in Fig. 70 it is presented the photo (made in
1883) of the East terrace where the Sculptures of the Gods are damaged, but
the Sculpture of the Annahit Goddess still had the Head. In Fig. 71 another
photo is presented (made in 1995) of the same East terrace where the
Sculpture of the Annahit Goddess with Her Head is already absent.
In Fig. 72 the West terrace with empty thrones and damaged Heads of
the AR, Vahagn and Tir are shown. In Fig. 73 the bar-relief of the Lion on
the West terrace (photo 1883) is shown and in Fig. 74 the same Lion bar-
relief with damaged face and body (photo 1996) is shown.
134
fthe The scheme 0 •
Fig. 69. . Kappadokia
Monument m
135
All historical material about the Monument on Mount Nemrut (Fig. 64-69)
is also distorted. The names of Armennian old Gods are changed into the
Greek old Gods names. It is said about the Kesar Sculpture, that it is
Antioch I (king of Kappadokia), and that all the Monument was built as if
by Antioch in I century BC.
AU these are wrong, because:
1. Kappadokia was the part of the Great Armennia from the very old
time (see Item 3.10). As a region of Roman Empire Kappadokia was for a
short time, in n century BC, but in I century BC it was taken back into the
Great Armennia by the Armennian King Tigran 11 the Great.
2. Antioch I would never dare to make his statue and face almost
identical with AR (or Zeus, as it is in above said information from Turkey).
To be similar with AR could be only Armennian Kesars of the Great
Armennia who were the Kings and in the same time the Main Priests. The
word "kes· ar" -s in Armennian means "Half-God", or "Half-Sun", or
"equal to the Sun".
3. The Lion and the Eagle were the Symbols of the AR in old
Armennia only. Later, supposedly, during the Great Deluge, one more
Symbol was added - the Aries (at the same time the name of the first
Zodiacal constellation). So we can suppose that the Monument on Mt.
Nemrut was built before the Great Deluge and, of course, by Armennians.
4. To make this unique and huge labour-consuming Monument it was
necessary to do very big earthwork which at that time could be done only by
powerful King of a big country, as Armennia.
136
Fig. 52. Mount Ararat (still in Turkey) and Ararat Valley.
View from Armennia
Fig. 53. Ararat. View from Armennian Capital of Armennia
137
Fig. 54. Ararat and Ararat Valley from Mount Aragats. Winter. Morning.
Painted by P. Herouni
Fig. 55. Sunset on Mount Aragats. Painted by P. Herouni
138
Fig. 62. AR-Father God Temple in Garni (15 km from Yerevan)
Fig. 6 3. AR..;Father God on Lion. Painting on wall of Erebouni
(Yerevan) old castle (VIII cent. BC)
139
Fig. 6 5. Armennian old Goddess ANNAHIT.
The head of the golden sculpture.
(Bronze copy - in British Museum)
140
F i 2. 66. The birth of the God VAHAGN,
the Fighter of dragons and evil.
Painted by P. Herouni
Fig. 67. The sculpture of VAHAGN in Yerevan
141
Fig. 67 a. AR-Father God on Lion. Painting on wall of Erebouni
(Yerevan) old castle (VIII cent. BC)
142
Fig. 68. Armennian Kesar HAYK.
Sculpture in Yerevan
143
Fig. 68a. Armennian King Tigran 11 the Great,
the King of Kings.
Painted by V. Gharibian
144
Fig. 70. Armennian old Monument in Kappadokia (now in Turkey).
The East terrace, photo 1882. The Sculptures of Gods
are damaged, but the ANNAHIT Goddess Sculpture still
on throne and had the.Head
145
146
Fig. 71. The East terrace, photo 1995.
The Head of ANNAHIT Goddess Sculpture
already absent
Fig. 72. The West terrace with empty thrones and damaged
Heads of the Gods AR, VAHAGN and TIR
147
Fi2.73. The bar-relief of the Lion in the West terrace, photo 1883
Fi2.74. The same Lion bar-relief with damaged face and body,
photo 1996
148
3.3. ARMENNIA IN OLD TIME (50 - 20 MILLENNIA BC)
The favorable natural and climatic conditions in Armennia contributed
the fast development of people with their knowledge, technology, experience,
and cultural, social and human relations. In Summer people knew that
further again will come Winter, so it was necessary to make preparations: to
make warm clothes from skins of animals, to dry fruits, preserve meat,
firewood, to build warm and more convenient habitable houses, etc. It was
too much work which was necessary to do for many people. Soon many of
them learned to do definite work better and quicker. During this process the
experience, knowledge, technology, tools and instruments, also language and
human relations were developed. Also live-stock and agriculture were
developed. About 45-40 thousand years ago the Armennian (Armennold)
race was formed. At that time there were not any other races all around.
Armennians began to live in settlements and villages, coming to settled
life. They were already not tribes, but communities joined into little states
having top leaders: lords, then King, who was also the main Priest.
In about 40 millennium BC Armennian nation with its language,
culture and country was formed and the formation of the Armennian State
(the first on Earth) was completed.
The State ARMENNIA-HAYASTAN arose on territories of South
Caucasus, around Mount Ararat and Lake Van (Armennian Highland). It
was the first civilization in the World.
The double name Armennia-Hayastan (and Armennian-Hay) comes
from the very old time from the names: AR-Father Main God and Earth
(Water) - Mother Goddess (see Item 3.5). The word "Armennia?" in
Armennian means: "Ar-men-ia=Sun people country". The word
"Hayastan"?" means: "Haya-stane Earth (people) country", "Armennians
country".
The last part of word "Armennia": ''ia (ian)" became the last part of
almost all Armennian family names?" (put after the Armennian first
names), which shows from whose land, side is the given person. For
example, Aram-Aramian, Arshak-Arshakian, Gregor-Gregorian, Movses-
Movsesian, Tigran-Tigranian, etc.
Later, after many thousand years, the last parts of the words
"Armennia" and ''Hayastan'', i.e, ''ia'' (side) and "stan" (country) were
• The word "Armenia" is necessary to pronounce as "Armennia" [arrmenis].
•• The word ''Hayastan'' is necessary to pronounce as [hajasta:n].
••• There are some Armennian family names the last part of which is "ouni". It means "he
has" and comes from lords and kings family names, as Bagratouni, Rshtouni, Amatouni,
Marzpetouni, etc.
149
adopted by many other languages to designate the name of their countries,
for example: Britannl!!, Brasill!!, Australia, Bulgaria, Italjg, Pakistan,
Afghanistan, India (or Hndkastan in Armenian), etc.
The first King (and main Priest, i.e, Kesar) of the Great Armennia
was, perhaps, ARAM I (Ar s amethe Son of the Sun) and Arramian Dynasty
existed from 40 up to 10 millennium BC.
Aram (Arram), the Armennian old name and the name of Armennian
first Kesar, came to us, and is lovely present Armennian name (and family
name - Arramian). This name is in Bible as Adam, the name of the first man
created by the God (-Father) in Paradise, which by Bible was also in
Armennia, near lake Van, where are the sources of four main rivers: Arraks
(arvak-s = beautiful source of the Sun = going to beautiful East), Arratsani
(the tributary of Euphrates), Euphrates (called also Armennian river),
Chorokh (or Gallis=coming) and maybe also Tigris.
Let me add, that inSumerian legends the name of the first man is III or HAY
which in Armennian language is the word "Armennian". Also in Zoroastrian
religion (Iran) the name of the first man is HAYOMARD, which in Armennian is
"Hay-o-mard = Armennian holy man". All these coincidencesare not accidental.
Armennians in their State lived in atmosphere of kindness, equality,
freedom and development. It was a long period of peace from 40 millennium
BC until the middle of ill millennium BC when the army of the new forming
Babylon, led by Bel, came to occupy Armennia. It was the first big war in
the World, which took place near Lake Van. This army (of giants) was
shattered by Armennian first organized army led by Kesar Hayk (in 2 492
BC) and Bel was killed by Hayk.
Thus, during the long period of 40-3 millennia BC Armennians were
busy just with creative work: villages and towns building, live-stock and
agriculture, development of knowledge, culture and the first written
language (pictorial, symbolic, hieroglyphic). About 10 thousand years ago
Armennians had the first Alphabet (see PART 2). Also the astronomical
observations of the Sun, Moon and stars were begun from about 25
thousand years ago. The process of the Sky (stars) division to the
Constellations was begun. The Zodiacal constellations were espied, the first
Sun-dials were built. These works were completed in Armennia during 8-3
millennia BC (see PART 1).
The Armennian First Calendar (AFC) was established, perhaps, at the
end of 23 millennium BC. It began approximately at Areg 1 (March 21) of
22946 BC, i.e. 2492+14 Armennian periods (2492+14xI461=22946 years). It
was the first Calendar in the World. It was the Sun (Solar) calendar with
365 days in a year, so it was so-called ''movable'' calendar. More exact
"fixed" Calendar with 365.25 days in a year arose in Armennia about 8
thousand years ago (see Item "Calendar" in PART 1).
At the old period (50-20 mill. BC) also the songs, odes, poems and
dances (ritual and folk) arose and developed. According to the legends at the
150
same time with the first Calendar the God Vahagn was born, perhaps, at
Areg 1 22946 BC. He was the lovely young God, the fighter of evil and
dragons.
The famous Armennian historian Movses Khorennatsi (V century AD)
in his book "History of Armennia" [20] kept for us eleven lines from the
very old ode or epos, the lines about the Birth of the God Vahagn. These
lines are in "grabbar" (Le, in old Armennian), but are understandable also
in present Armennian. These very beautiful old lines I tried to translate (for
this book) in English:
In labour was Sky, in labour was Earth,
In labour was the apricot Sea.
In Sea a soft red reed
In labour was also.
The stem ofreed ejected smoke,
The stem ofreed ejectedflame,
And the red kid
Inflame was running!
A fire head he had,
Aflame beard had.
The eyes his were the Suns!
Movses Khorennatsi wrote also that he heard as the folk singers
(ashoughs in Armennian) sang this verse as the song.
Armennian poet and publicist Levon Mirriiannian compared these
lines with the old Armennian sharrakkan (ecclesiastical song) "The Great
Sacrament", written also by Movses Khorenatsi and performed traditionally
until now in favor of Jesus Christ Birth, and he found out that the words of
"Birth of Vahagn" comported with the words and melody of the sharrakkan
"The Great Sacrament"! So the Great Movses Khorennatsi could keep for
us also the melody [78].
The sculpture portrait of Movses Khorennatsi (standing near
Mattennaddarran in Yerevan) is shown in Fig. 75.
151
Fig. 75. The statue of Movses Khorennatsi in Yerevan.
Beginning from the period of 23-20 millennia BC Armennians began
to propagate from the Great Armennia (around Mount Ararat, Armennian
Highland, South Caucasus) to the Black, Mediterranean, Caspian seas, lake
Urmia, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Everywhere they were the only
population, at that time.
In parallel with the Main or Mother Great Armennian Kingdom
there were formed the new Armennian kingdoms in Armennian (or North)
Mesopotamia, Komagena, Tsopc, Kappadokia, Armennia Minor, Kilikia,
Phoenicia, Old Sumer and other ones. The new kingdoms were formed,
because it was impossible at that time to lead, direct all big regions from one
place, one capital town. All population of these new kingdoms were, of
course, only Armennians, who spoke Armennian language, then wrote, using
Armennian Alphabet.
152
3. 4. THE GREAT ARMENNIA IN 40 - 23 MILLENNIA BC
The Great (Mother) Armennia, the cradle of Armennians was on the
territories around Mount Ararat, South Caucasus and Armennian
Highland, i.e. in latitude limits about 35° - 4r, to the South from river Cour
(Kura), between the Black and Caspian seas and by the longitude to the East
from river Euphrates, including lakes Sevan, Van and Urmia. Including also
Kilikia.
The Great Armennia included the countries: Tayc, Gougarc
with Javvakhc, Utic and Artsakh (in NE part); High Armennia,
Kilikia and Tsopc with Sasoun (in West part); Syunic and
Paitakkaran (in East part); Ayrarrat with Aragatsotn and
Turuberran (in the middle, between Lakes Sevan and Van); Tarron
(at the West from Van), Mokk (at South of Van); Vaspourakkan and
Shirrakkan (between Van and Urmia); Aghdznik, Arustan and
Korchayk-Korduk (in South part)". In Fig. 76 and Fig. 77 the views of
Lake Sevan is presented, and in Fig. 78 - Lake Van.
The main towns were: Artashat (in Ayrarrat), Yervandashat,
Armavvir, Vagarshappat, ErrebouniIYerrevvan, Baggarran, Nakhichevan,
Karrin (Erzeroum), Babbert and Trabzon (in High Armennia ), Vannadzor
(in Gougark), Shoushi (in Artsakh), Gandzak, Tigrannakert (in Utik);
Ashtishat, Bitlis and Moush (in Taron), Van (in Vaspourakkan)
Arshammashat (in Tsopc), Tigrannakkert (in Aghdznic), Ardahan and Kars
(in Tayc), Sis (in Kilikia) and others.
From the old time all over the Great Armennia poetry, songs and
dances arose and developed based also on the rituals in honor to the AR-
Father Main God as well as on the folk traditions.
In Great Armennia from the very old time Armennoid race, i.e.
Armennians - Aryans lived and arose their nation with developed culture,
knowledge, towns, their State (Kingdom with dynasties) from 40 millennium
BC.
Unfortunately in human old history all these were terribly distorted
and said that Armennian nation arose after so-called Urartu in V cent. BC
(only!) from the tribes of Haisa, Armens, Horrites, Chalds, etc. and their
first Kingdom arose in 11 cent. BC (only!). All this is big lie devised just not
to use the words Armennians and Armennia. All these are necessary to
correct.
• All these names of countries are given here, of course, in the form as they came to us.
153
3.41. ARMENNIAN MESOPOTAMIA KINGDOM
The old Armennian name of Mesopotamia is Paddam Aram
(tIllWlwu Upwu). Paddam = ''pa-d-am = the step to junior" (in
Armennian), so Padam Aram means "Junior Aram or Junior arm of Aram
(Adam)" - the name of the first, very old Armennian King and Dynasty.
Armennian Kingdom of Armennian (or North) Mesopotamia was
called also Mittannia (22-13 cent. BC), what in Armennian means:
''mi - tan- ia = the country of the same Kingdom". Here Armennians-
Horrites lived.
Paddam Aram Armennian Kingdom, having also other names:
Harrannian, then Edessian Kingdom, existed from about 23 millennium BC
until VHf century AD.
The capital town was Arhan (arvh-anetown of the Sun worshippers),
which had also posterior names: Arha (Urha, Urfa), Orran ("cradle" in
Armennian) and Edessia (ed-es-Iaethls is my land). The present name is
Urfa (in Turkey). Afterwards, according to the name Orran the country was
called also Osroen.
Other big towns were Harran (h - ar - an = town of the Sun
worshippers), Mtsbin (m-ta-b-In = they are our next kind people) and
Ninnve (n-In-v-e = they are people as me), later the capital of Assyria.
Harran was very old and big town on the crossing of the EW and NS
ways (tracks). According to Bible the forefather of semits Abraham with his
father Farra came from Chaldean Ur· to Harran. It was in about 1680 BC·
[33]. After the funeral of his father in Harran, Abraham (75 years old) went
to Hannahan with his wife Sarra.
Arha (Urfa, Edessia) was also founded in old time (with Harran) by
Armennians much before the Great Deluge. But its old history is almost
unknown yet. At about 3 AD Edessia was rebuilt into the big castle and the
second capital town of Great Armennia by the King Abgar IV Yervandouni to
hinder Roman armies to strike across Euphrates. In the same time Edessia is
famous town (and country) where, at first in the World, Christianity was
adopted (by Armennians). English historian Adrian Gilbert agrees with this.
He repeats the expression ''Edessia is the eye of Mesopotamia" [33, p. 213] and
writes: " •.• So Edessia became the first veritable Christian town in the World"
[33, p. 227]. But he does not say that Edessia was Armennian capital town and
country with Armennian population and Abgar Kings were Armennians of
Yervandouni, the Dynasty of the Great Armennia.
• A. Gilbert wrote that Abraham came in 1680 BC to Harran perhaps not from Ur
Chaldean (Ar Armennian, P.H.) but from Edessia and he was Horritean [33, pp. 392,394],
(i.e. Arrnennian, P.H.). A. Gilbert thinks also that the true Ur Chaldean is Urha (i.e.
Arhan, Edessia) [p, 252].
154
According to Syrian chronicles "••• before 130 BC (when Armennian army
routed army of Antioch Soudet after what Seleucids never tried to come to the
East-side of Euphrates) the dynasty of Aryans came again to the Edessian
throne". Indeed, it was in 163 BC when after a short interruption to the Edessian
throne returned the Dynasty of Yervandouni - Abgarian which was the junior
armof the Dynasty of Yervandouni (the Kings of the Great Armennia).
Edessian King Abgar n in 63 BC was admitted also by Rome as the
King of Edessia (Osroen Armennian country). He played the important role
when Roman triumvir Mark Krass with big army came to Roman province
Syria in 54 BC with purpose to occupy Parthia and Armennia. Abgar n
allured them to Armennian town Harran and then the joint army of Parthia
and Great Armennia defeated Roman army (in 53 BC) and Krass was killed.
The Great Armennian King Abgar V (12-50 AD), while staying in Edessia
and knowing that Jesus Christ is in Jerusalem, wrote to Him the famed letter
and received His answer in 32-33AD. The texts of these letters are in the book
''History of Armennia" by Movses Khorennatsi [20, pp. 85-86; 12, pp. 177-178]*.
The letter of Abgar V to Jesus Christ
"Abgar, son of Arsham, the King of the country, to You, the Benefactor
and Our Saviour Jesus appeared at Jerusalem country, regards.
I have heard about You and about Your doctoring skill made by Your
hands without medicine and roots. As people say, You make the blinds to
see, the lames to walk, You clean the lepers, banish evil spirits and dragons,
cure the exhausted with long illnesses, as well as You vivify the deads.
When I have heard all these about You I understood that there is one
of the two: either You are the God, Who descented from the heaven and is
doing all these, or You are the Son of the God if doing all these.
That is why I have written You beseeching to cause inconvenience to
come to me to cure my illness.
Also I have heard that Jews are murmuring at you and want to
torment you, but I have the little and nice town which is enough for both of
us".
The letter of Jesus Christ to Abgar V
''The one is fortunate who believes Me, though he does not see Me,
because it is written about Me that who saw Me they do not believe Me, but
who has not seen, they believe Me and find a life.
About that, you have written to Me to come to You. I must do here
everything for what I was delegated. When I complete all these, I shall
ascent to Him, Who delegated Me. After My Ascension I shall send you one
of these My pupils to cure your illness and present life to you and to them
who are with you".
• These texts are also in [33, pp. 222-223], [SO, pp. 40-41] and in other publications.
155
The question is in what language were these important letters? There is
the opinion that it was so-called Aramaean. But it is a mistake. As I argued
in Item 2.15 so-called Aramaean semitic language and alphabet never
existed. In reality it was Armennian language and Alphabet. And
Armennian King Artashes who lived more than two hundred years before
the King Abgar V, wrote in Armennian also. Thus, these two letters were, of
course, in Armennian written language, using Armennian Alphabet, as all
Armennian kings did.
What happened after the letter of Jesus Christ? After His Ascension in
33 AD apostle Thaddevos came to Armennian King Abgar V, to Edessia and
cured his illness (headache) as it was promised by Jesus Christ, as well as
cured illnesses of all Edessian people. After his marvellous recovery King
Abgar V adopted Christianity with all his family and population of Edessia
in 33 AD. Abgar V became the first in the World Christian king and
Edessian Armennia became the first Christian country. So I am sure that
the King Abgar V Yervandouni deserved the title ''the Great".
At that time Israel was in Palestinian province of Roman Empire and
Abgar V sent another letter to Rome.
The letter of Abgar V to Roman Emperor Tiberri
"Abgar, King of Armennia, to my lord Tiberri, Kesar of Romans,
regards.
Although I know you are already informed, but as your friend I can tell
you more with this written message, because Jews, living in Palestinian
province, got together and crucified Christ without any guilt, in spite of His
great boons He has done in their presence - marvels and beautiful things,
even vivifying the dead. You have to know these are not actions of usual man
but of Gods. Because when He was crucified the Sun eclipsed, the Earth
shifted and reeled, and many people have seen as He being dead for three
days, revives. And now everywhere His name by means of His pupils makes
the great beauties as it was done with me.
At present and in future now your power knows to tell (you) what is
necessary to do in connection with Jewish people who made that thing, and
to write to all World to adore Christ as the truthful God. Be healthy."
The letter of Roman emperor Tiberri to Abgar V
"Tiberri, Kesar of Romans, to Armennian King Abgar, regards.
Your friendly letter was read for me", Thanks from us for it. Although
we have heard about that from many persons but Pillat clearly reported to
us about His marvels and that after His Ascension many people believe that
He is God. So I also decided to do so as you thought.
• The expression ''was read for me" tells that the letter of Abgar V to Tiberri was also in
Armennian language.
156
We ordered that each one who wants can deem Jesus also in line of
Gods, and we impend death to them who will backbite about Christian
peoples.
... In connection of Jewish people who crucified Him, about Whom I
heard He did not merit crucifixion and death, but honor and adoration, I
shall investigate this case and requite them according to their deserts..•"
This letter of Tiberri was the very beginning of the process of
Christianity adopting in Rome.
From the second letter of Abgar V to Tiberri
"Abgar, King of Armennia, to my lord, Tiberri, Kesar of Romans,
regards.
But you, lord, be pleased to send another man to Jerusalem instead of
Pillat in order to remove him with ignominy from the post which you gave
him, because he performed the will of Jews and crucified Christ without any
guilt and without your order. Be healthy".
It is known that PiUat was relayed.
The letter of Abgar V to Nerseh, King of Assyria and Babylon
"Abgar, King of Armennia, to my son Nerseh, regards.
I have read the hails in your letter, discharged Perroz from fetters and
excused his fault, so if it fits you, appoint him the ruler of Ninve (the capital
of Assyria, P.D.), as you want.
Coming to the subject you asked to send you that doctor to see and
hear him who makes these marvels and preaches another God, Who is more
powerful than fire and water, he was not a doctor with human art, but he
was a pupil of the Son of the God, the creator of the fire and water, and he
was sent to Armennia land, as it was his lot.
But one of his main friends by the name Simmon is sent to your land, to
Iran. Look for him, find him and you will hear from him, as well as your
Artashes father. He will cure all illnesses and will show the way of life."
The letter of Abgar V to Artashes, King of Iran
"Abgar, King of Armennia, to my brother Artashes, King of Iran,
regards.
I know you have already heard about Jesus Christ, the Son of the God,
Whom Jews crucified, Who died and then resurrected and sent His pupils to
all the World to teach everywhere.
One of His main pupils, by the name Simmon, is in sides of your
country. So look for him, find him and he will cure all ailments and illnesses
in your side, and will show the way of life.
Believe him, you and your brothers and everybody who unaskedly
submit you. Because I shall enjoy, if you, my relatives by body, will be my
close natives also by soul".
157
The texts of above five letters of Abgar V are also in the same book of
Movses Khorenatsi [79, pp. 179-182]. Khorenatsi wrote also that Abgar V
kept all (these seven) letters in his archives in Edessia. Afterwards his
archives were transported to Europe.
Movses Khorenatsi wrote also that the letter to Jesus Christ Abgar sent
to Jerusalem with his devoted secretary Annan (who perhaps was also a
gifted artist, or with him was a good artist"), Coming back to Edessia,
Annan brought the answer letter of Jesus Christ and also His portrait [79,
p.178], so-called "Mandillion", famed and single portrait of Jesus Christ.
Afterwards copies were made, one of which is kept in British Museum.
Thus, Abgar V was the first in the World Christian King and played a
- great role in Christianity adopting and propagation. Staying in Edessia he
was also the King of the Great Armennia (12-50AD), the son of Arsham, the
brother of the Great Armennian King Tigran IT the Great, "King of Kings".
Abgar V died in 50 AD [33, p.227].
I think, Abgar V deserve the title "The Great".
To keep the holy relics, i.e. the letter of Jesus Christ and His portrait
(and all archives of Abgar V), Armennians put them inside the stone laying
(masonry) in the Edessian town gate (about 220 AD) where they were until
525 AD when a big flood took place and holy relics were found again [33,
p.227].
After Abgar V to the Edessian throne came his son Annanne (50 - 53
AD) and nephew Sannattrouk became the king of the Great Armennia (50 -
64 AD).
After Annanne to the Edessian throne in 53 AD came the next son of
Abgar V, Manouk VI (53 - 60 AD), who did not like Christianity and
returned to the old Gods in 57 BC. But Armennian population of Edessia
(and all Osroen) remained Christian.
Christianity was adopted in Armennian Mesopotamia (Edessia) again
in 207 AD by the king Abgar VIII the Great (177-212 AD).
According to A.Gilbert, Abgar VUI the Great had also the title "King
of Kings" and in 197 AD he got a luxurious reception in Rome [33, p.221].
3.42. KOMAGENA". TSOPC, KAPPADOKIA, ARMENNIA MINOR
These four countries (regions) were the Armennian Kingdoms from
about 23 millennium BC and they had sometimes the common Kings. In old
period Komagena and Kappadokia were inside the larger Tsopc region of
the Great Armennia.
• At that time the good artists were in palaces of kings.
•• This word is necessary to read as Kommaggenna.
158
a. Komagena
Komagena was to the West of Osroen (Edessia), on the right side of
river Euphrates.
Main (capital) town was Sammosat on the right bank of Euphrates.
The old name of Sammosat was, perhaps, Saghm(os)at which in Armennian
means: "saghm- os- at= separate holy song or chorale". In Sammosat (as in
Edesia) there were big libraries.
Being in the West of Euphrates, Komagena was sometimes incurred to
occupation from the West, especially at last period when the Roman Empire
and Byzantium arose.
The Kings of Komagena were from Yervandouni Dynasty of the Great
Armennia.
b. Tsopc
The name Tsopc in cuneiforrns is Tsup (Tsoup), in ancient sources is
Sofena.
Tsopc (also Shaouni) was to the North of Osroen (Edessia) and to the
West from Taron, region of the Great Armennia, which was in the West
from the Lake Van till the river Euphrates, and along the river Aratsanni
(tributary of Euphrates). Tsopc in belated period was called also Sophena.
Let me show here the short list of some kings of Tsopc who were (as in
Edesia) the junior arm of Yervandouni, Kings Dynasty of the Great
Armennia:
Sammos (middle of Hl century BC),
Arsham (240-220 BC),
Csercsess (end of ill century BC),
Zarreh (190-175 BC),
Arkathias (middle of n century BC),
Mehroujan (end of n century BC),
Artannes (end of n century BC-94 BC).
In Tsopc there were the big towns Kharpert or Carbert =car - bert=
"stone castle" in Armennian, the more old name of which was
Carput=Car-p-u-t= the place having stone wall",
c. Kappadokia**
Kappaddokia was to the West of Euphrates (in Asia Minor), and by the
NS direction - between Armennia Minor and Kilikia. At the West part of
• ''To put" is kept in Indo-European languages as ''to collect" in Armennian, ''to set, put,
place, stand" in English.
•• This word is necessary to read as Kappaddokkia.
159
Komagena there is the lake Tuz (or Thouz) which means ''fig'' in
Armennian. The Armennian old name of Kappadokia was Gammirc
(Q.wuppp) which means "ga- mireefruit bringer".
The main and old town of Kappadokia had the old name Maihak (or
Mshak) which in Armennian is: ma- z- ak=''the source of force and life".
Afterwards, at the belated Period the town was renamed to Kesaria
(Kessarria), which also came from Armennian old word ''kes- ar"=''half
God"(the old title of Armennian kings), and Kesaria means "The place
(side) of Kesar".
About the Sanctuary in Kappadokia it was said in Item 3.23 (see also
Figures 64, 70-74).
According to Movses Khorenatsi Kings of old Gammirc were from the
Great Armennia Kesar Arram (Son of the Sun) Dynasty.
d. Armennia Minor
Armennia Minor was from the South of Black Sea, until Kappadokia,
including riverhead of Euphrates. Between the Armennia Minor and the
Great Armennia is the mountain ridge ''High Armennia".
The capital town was Ani-Kamakh. Another main town of Armennia
Minor was the port Trabzon (Trapezund). This name in Armennian means
''tr- a - b - z- 0 - n=it gives the beginning of the constructive life". The name of
another big and old town was Sebbastia= "se- b - as - t - iaethe place and town
of the kind love". There were also the old towns Ardassa= ''this is the life
directed to the Sun" and Nlkepolise ''n-ik(a)-o-polis= it becomes the holy
town".
Afterwards at the North part of Armennia Minor emerged (for a short
period) the Pontian Kingdom, dependent on the Great Armennia.
After the genocide of Armennians in Turkey (1915) the main part of
Armennia Minor population (from Trabzon and other towns) migrated to
the East Bank of Black Sea, to the Sukhumi (Abkhazia), Sochi (Russia) and
other sides.
3.43. KILIKIA
Kilikia = ''k- i -Ii - k - i-a = half people (near) water, half people on land
(mounts)"•
Kilikia was a big Armennian state (Kingdom) from about 22
millennium BC until I century BC and then from XI until XIV centuries AD
(1080 - 1375 AD). The mountain regions of Kilikia were the Armennian
160
territories until the end of XVIII century AD [64, p. 28], when the genocide
of Armennians in Turkey began.
Kilikia is on the NE bank of Mediterranean Sea including Cyprus
Island. Kilikia is around Armennian Bay in NE of Mediterranean Sea and
lies to the North from sea up to Kappadokia, and to the West till half of Asia
Minor (Anatolia), Le. almost to the longitude 30
oE.
The natural conditions of Kilikia divide the country into two parts:
Mountain Kilikia, where from the West to the East goes the mount ridge
Armennian Tauros, and the Plane Kilikia, laying along seaboard.
The warm climate and other natural conditions are advantageous for
development of people's culture and economic structures. For irrigation the
mountain rivers Pirram, Sar, Kidn (Tars) and Kallikkadn were used.
Transit to Kilikia is possible only through some mountain gates as
Kilikian Gate (Fig. 79) and Syrian Gate. These gates and other places were
secured by castles: Lambron, Vakha, Korrikos, Levonkla (Fig. 80a, b, c, d),
Kapan, Berdous, Annazarba, Romkla.
The capital town of Kilikia is Sis, where until now is the Armennian
Patriarch, Catholicos of Kilikia.
Other old and big towns are: Tars, Annazarba, Hajen, Drazzark,
Kappan, Zeytoun (Ulnia), Berdus, Marrash, Skevvera, Mousaller and
others.
The ports-towns are: Hayas and Aleksandretta (in Armennian Bay),
Addana (on river Sar), Korikkos, Selleukia, Kolonop (on the bank of the
sea).
Fig. 79. Kilikian Gate in Armenian Tavros mountain ridge.
161
a) Lambron
c) Korrikas
b) Vakha
d) Levonkla
162
Fig. 80. Kilikian castles
Kilikia was a great marine country. Kilikians, using growing here the
best wood-material, built big (even up to five decks) marine ships and
together with Phoenicians (another Armennian great marine country) they
sailed across seas and oceans to the far ''terra incognitas", up to America at
old time. Now some of their big ships were found in Egypt (Giza,
Alexandria, into the sand).
Some Kilikian (old Armennian) beautiful songs came to us. I shall just
say about two of them: "Kilikia" and "Captain".
In song "Kilikia" author tells about the beautiful Armennian country
Kilikia, the country, which gave him the Sun (means life). Being out of the
country and homesick, he wants to return and to see Kilikia again.
The song "Captain" (Nav-a-var - ship leader) is about the captain of
fisher-ship, who is a bold man going to the sea in front of the storm and
being not afraid, because he was born on seaboard and all his life spent in
sea as his father and brothers.
Kilikians were Armennians and used, of course, Armennian language
and Armennian Alphabet" when it arose", The same were Phoenicians. So
the opinion of M. Rimshneider [61] that Greeks adopted Phoenician
Alphabet from Kilikia (See PART 2) is fully right, because Kilikia is closer
to Greece than Phoenicia.
Archaeological excavations are almost not done in Kilikia, so about old
time history we have not real information. For belated period all kings of
two Armennian Kilikia Dynasties: Roubinnians (1080-1225 AD) and
Hetoumians (1226-1875 AD) are known (see Table of Armennian Kings).
The last Kilikian king, Levvon VI (1374-1375 AD) died in 1393 AD in Paris
and was buried in Saint-Denis Basilica (Tomb N55).
3.44. PHOENICIA (AND HARRIES)
Phoenicia (CI>Jnlfip1Jl1w =tPeJ-rllfiepeqepew= hunlunnup hu nlfihu' 1'111
(bnqwJPfi) qhut! L. luwfiPt! (gwuwp{!)) is in Armennian: ''I have equal: the
(sea) half and the life (land)".
Phoenicia was an Armennian State (Kingdom) from about 20
millennium BC until I century BC.
Phoenicia was at East bank of Mediterranean sea in the place of the
present Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Israel.
The main old towns were:
Tir ( m ep ep = uWptlqwfig mhIt wfinq) =the place given for men,
• This is affirmed also by Armennian letter inscriptions on coins of Kilikian Kings.
•• Beginning from 10 thousand years ago (see PART 2).
163
Sidon (u·p-Il-n-fi = fiw umpp mhq uWJUllltfi dnmpq) = it is holy place
close to man,
Bibl (p-pep-.. = lwtl pwppp uWJUllltfi phpntl) =good property-bringer to
man,
Jerusalem = h-ar-i-sa-gh-e-m= (hewp-p-uweq-h-u) = wpLt! lllwlUlllIl
uWIUlqwfig tntpJwfi uw Uhbqhfimpnfi) =this is the big center of the Sun-
adoring men entity.
Jerusalem was established at VI millennium BC by Armennians-
Harries (hari =h-wep-p =the Sun adoring men) who came from the Great
Armennia and lived in the South part of Phoenicia, on the territory called
Harit = the place of the Sun adoring men. So to call them Horites
(hwppmfihp, hntppmfihp) is not right. It is necessary to call them Harries, Le,
Armennians, who were living in Harrit (hwppfihp, unqpnq
Phoenicia and Kilikia were the Armennian great marine countries.
Their hardy sailors and scientists, using big marine ships, researched
overseas far lands, even America and Antarktida at VIII-VI millennia BC.
In Central America they taught local tribes culture, built there the Sun-God
temples and ziggurat-type pyramids (see Item 3.25).
Afterwards Phoenicians built also another famous town Carthagen in
the African bank of Mediterranean sea. Further this town with its lands
grew and became a big state. The word Carthagen means: pwp- p- w-q- h- fi
= pwpp tqhu hwtlhpd"fit qhqhgpq hqun] fiw = it became eternal as stone, and
nice.
Phoenicians (and Harries) were Armennians and used, of course, the
Armennian language and Armennian Alphabet. The opinion that all other
Alphabets of the World came from Phoenician Alphabet is right, but it will
be more correct to say that all other Alphabets came from the Armennian
Alphabet, because the Phoenician one was the same Armennian Alphabet
and Phoenicia was just a part of the Old Armennia.
Armennian old history is thrown out from all-human old history.
Therefore, in human old history there are many problems, when there are
facts, which do not have explanations.
Such facts are also the ruins of very old temples and pyramids in
Central America and towns as Machu-Pikchu, the age of which is more than
six thousand years (so, much older than civilizations of Maya, Aztecs, Incas).
164
3. 5. THE GREAT ARMENNIA IN 23 - 10 MILLENNIA BC.
3.51. SCIENCE AND CULTURE
At the period of 23-10 millennia BC Armennians already had enough
developed science, technology and culture.
Astronomy
The Sun, Moon, Stellar Sky and their motions attracted Homo
Sapiens's attention even from the very beginning, in the 50-40 millennia BC.
Step by step their knowledge grew and accumulated.
Armennian civilization arose in about 40 millennium BC. The
knowledge, accumulated during thousands of years, gave the possibility
approximately in 23 millennium BC, using simple astronomical instruments,
to define that one circle of Sunrise point motion along the horizon, Le. one
year, consists of 365 days and to establish the first Armennian Calendar (see
Item 1.17). We can suppose that as the beginning of the year was chosen the
Sunrise moment (6 o'clock) on the spring equinox day (March 21). This is
the most probable variant. We can also suppose that one year was divided
into 12 months and the stellar way of the Sun was divided into 12 parts (Le.
constellations).
We can deem conditionally that all these events took place in 22946 BC,
accounted as 14 Armennian periods (1461 year) before Kesar Hayk's victory
in 2492 BC (14 x 1461+2492=22946).
Armennian astronomers, searching the Sky during thousands of years,
had to descry that the Sun slowly changes its position relatively to stars
(with velocity 2160 years per each Zodiacal constellation), Le. they knew the
phenomenon of Earth Axis Precession in about 11 millennium BC (see Item
1.22).
Technology
Armennians had a big progress in building of houses, settlements and
towns, in technology of stone treatment and its using in houses and temples
building. They made good instruments from stone, wood, clay and other
materials. They also began to use the metals, found in meteorites, bolides
and in mountain quarries. There were the instruments of much higher
quality than excavated thousands stone instruments having age of 300-50
thousand years.
Armennians invented and used powerful machine cranes to elevate
heavy stones and developed the technology of houses and temples building.
The food and clothes production technologies were also developed.
165
Agriculture
Besides apple, grape (vine), apricot Armennians began to breed the
wheat and had the technology of bread baking, using the inside surface of
the big clay cylinder called "thoir" in Armennian. All these were the first in
the World.
It is interesting that till now in Armennia three types (from four known
in the World) of the savage wheat are growing. So Armennia is the
homeland of the wheat.
Domestic Animals
Apart from sheep, hen, dog, etc., Armennians domesticated also the
horse, cow, bull, goat, pig, cat, etc. All these were at first in the World,
because any other nations and civilizations were absent yet.
Armennians used horses and bulls as powerful draught force in farm,
agriculture and house building. There are many petrogliphs (carved
pictures of IV mill. BC) in mountains of Armennia with two-axis carts and
harnessed bulls (Fig. 61). Afterwards, in 111-1 mill. BC, more developed carts
were in use (Fig. 81).
Beginning from 111-11 millennia BC, when wars arose, Armennian
cavalry was well known everywhere as the best. Iran and other countries
purchased tens of thousand horses in Armennia per year. So Armennia is
the homeland of the domestic horse.
..-. . ---
Fig. 81. Developed cards of 111-1 mill. BC, excavated near lake Sevan.
Written language
In about 23-22 millennia BC in Armennia the first written language
arose (pictures, symbols, then hieroglyphs), which after 10 mill. BC was in
use also (in parallel with Alphabet) for a long time, until III millennium BC,
as it is on rocks in Metsamor, the big metallurgic center (3600 BC) at
distance of 25 km from Yerevan, in Ararat Valley [92].
166
Armennian Alphabet
Armennian Preliminary Alphabet arose at 12-10 millennia BC. I have
found out 19 letters of Preliminary Alphabet using the requirement: each
next added letter has to form maximal possible quantity of new Armennian
words (see Item 2.11). I put these letters in two lines with 10 and 9 letters in
each line (Table 15), and was very surprised receiving two old sentences and
finding out the similarity between the forms of letters and figures. These two
results mean that:
- the finding of 19 letters of Preliminary Alphabet is correct,
- the figures 1, 2, 3..• 9, 0 are Armennian figures, coming from the old
Preliminary Alphabet (X millennium BC).
In Carahunge time, VU-VI millennia BC, Armennian Alphabet became
more developed and included about 34 letters (see PART 1 and 2).
Culture
From the very old time began to develop Armennian Poetry, Songs and
Dances.
Somewhere in 23 millennium BC arose the Armennian Epos (also in
songs) about the God Vahagn, fighter of evil and dragons. In Item 3.3.
eleven lines from that Epos about birth of Vahagn were shown.
We can suppose that somewhere in 10 millennium BC arose the
beginning of the famous Armennian Epos "Sassountsi Davvith" or David of
Sassoun, about the hero who protected Armennia. His sculpture in Yerevan
in Fig. 82 is shown. In the beginning of this Epos Tsovinnar (c)m.[ -11-liwl1 =
The leader of sea people), the daughter of Armennian King, took two palms
of water from the spring in sea, drank it and gave birth to two heroes:
Sannassar and Bagdassar.
Afterwards (and until now) Armennian poetry, music, songs and reels
have been very developed in Armennia, and then were adopted by many
other nations. For example, Indian old Epos "Rammayana" begins as the
said Armennian legend about Tsovinnar; Scotch, Irish and Welsh folk
music, songs and reels are very close to Armennian ones; the sources of
European ecclesiastical and classical music are in Armennian ecclesiastical
and folk music.
It is obvious that the fast development of further civilizations in the
World was under influence of the Armennian old civilization, including its
Astronomy, Mathematics, Technology, Agriculture, Culture, as well as
Armennian old State (Kingdom) with Laws and Order, which were much
more developed.
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3. 52. ARMENNIAN SUMER (JUNIOR ARAM KINGDOM)
In about 14 millennium BC (and earlier) Armennians came to the
South of Mesopotamia, and founded the Junior Aram Armennian Kingdom
(or Armennian Sumer) in the place shortly called also Sumer (su-mer =
sa-mer = uw Uhpfi (t) = ''this (is) ours" in Armennian). They followed
agriculture, had many domestic animals and built towns.
G. Hancoc tells very old legend, where according to Haldean historian
Beros ''The tarn Gods came to the Sumer country at very old time. The
name of their leader was Oannesh. He gave to Sumerians the knowledge of
literacy, science and of different arts. He taught them to build houses and
temples, to form laws, explained them basics of geometrical knowledge. He
taught them agriculture and humanism. His teaching was so universal that
from that time it was not necessary to add something more vital" [24, pp. 77-
78].
I can add here that the name Oannesh is the Armennian name
Hovannes, which means ''h- 0 - van- es = I am worshipper from holly Van",
from the Lake Van in Armennian Highland.
The Russian archaeologists V. Batsaev and A. Varrakkin write that the
excavations of Sumerian towns show that their culture was based on the
high culture of other prior nation which was not Sumers and whose high
culture, according to famous English archaeologist L.Voulli, existed before
the Great Deluge [82, p. 19]. L. Voulli wrote about that old nation: ''It was
their culture who lived before the Great Deluge••• With many other values
they gave Sumers also the legend about the Great Deluge" [82, p, 19].
Who were those high-civilized people? V. Batsaev and A. Varrakkin
write also: "Presumerian inhabitants of Mesopotamia could bring
Sumerians from primeval condition to high civilization. It was they, who
changed stone instruments to metallic ones and made luxury objects•••To-
day we know exactly that these people were not Sumers, and not Sumerian
were the names of Sumerian towns: Ur, Erridou, Larrak, Urouk, Nippour,
Kish. These are the names from the radically other language... Not
Sumerian were also the names of professions in old Sumer: farmer,
carpenter, merchant."
Indeed, who were those old and high.civilized people and what
language did they use? They could be only Armennians, because only
Armennians at that time had necessary high level of civilization and the
names of all seven Sumerian main towns have easy explanation in
Armennian. Let me show this (see Table 10):
Ur=Ar=the Sun (the capital of Sumer)
(ntp=Up=Upu, CntUhpp uWJPWpwllwPl!>,
Erridou=Aridou=Ar - i - d - u=the place of Sun people
(f:plupu=Up-P-Il-Ilt=UpLP uWIUlqwfig qWJPt!),
- Larrak=L- ar - ak=the source filled up by Sun
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(lwpwll=tewpewll=UpLnq1lJ. Wlln1fill),
Larrsaed.varvsaethls is the good Sun (Sunny)
(Lwpuw=t-wp-uw=uwlwq wpL. (mn) t),
Urouk=Ar-ak= eye of the Sun
(filpDlll=Upewll=UpLP wW),
Nippour=N- i - P- ar=it is the sunny place for man (people)
(UP11In1P=fi-PlIllIewP=fiw (uw) UWPJlDl hwllwp wpLnmmwpwbpfi t),
Kish= K• i - sh=the feeder of many people
(lIP2=1l-P-2=2
wm
lIwPJlllwfig llbpwtuuuu!).
We can see that the Armennian explanation of Sumerian towns names
is not only the literal translation but gives also the deep understanding of
natural feature of Sumer country: the very sunny place, the "bread-winner"
place (it is possible to have three harvests per year). In the six town-names
(from seven ones) there is word AR (Sun). We know that Armennians were
the Sun worshipers and traditionally had the high agricultural technology.
Let me also say that in the example of this explanation of town-names it
is also obvious the systematic mistake of many scientists who read Sumerian,
Urartian and other words using sound (pronunciation) "ou" instead of
sound "a" (not "ay", but as the middle sound in word "sun"). This error
gives the mistakes as "Urartu" instead of "Ararat" (Arrarrat), etc. Perhaps
this comes from reading of old words (including Armennian ones) in
Assyrrian language instead of Armennian. .
Let us remember here again the words of great English poet lord
Byron, who said: ''It is impossible to study the history of East without
knowing Armennian." Living in Armennian abbey on St. Lazar island, he
learned Armennian and formed the first English-Armennian dictionary and
grammar.
Armennian researcher V. Saffarian successfully read also old Sumerian
pictorial texts in Armennian and he thinks that the right reading is possible
only in Armennian language [83].
The Sumerian epos, one of the oldest in the World, includes nine epic
songs based on historical events of the 28-27
th
centuries BC. Five of them
contain the name "Aratta" for the land from where the ancestors of Sumers
came. Where was Arrata? There are opinions that it was in Iran,
Afghanistan or Armennian Highland. Armennian historian A. Movsessian
cogently demonstrates that Aratta means Ararat and Aratta land is
Armennian Highland, its part to the SE from Lake Van, which is Harrit, the
country of Harries (Horites), I, e. Armennians who at that time (the end of
ill millennium BC) had, as it is known, their own (l,e, Armennian) Alphabet
{84].
Thus, before the Great Deluge (Le. before 10 millennium BC)
Armennians came to the land Sumer (South Mesopotamia) in about 14
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millennium BC (or earlier) and formed the New Kingdom, built towns,
practiced agriculture, etc.
The new stream of Armennians came to Sumer after the Great Deluge,
might be in IX-vm millennia BC, told the local tribes about Armennia,
about Great Deluge, taught them culture, science, agriculture, architecture,
the Sun kind religion. Above said seven towns were rebuilt on the same
places on the thick (19m) coat of ooze after the Great Deluge. Afterwards
these Armennians, perhaps, partially mixed with local tribes and the
Sumerian-Babylonian-Armennian people were formed.
Now it is understandable why Sumers, living thousands years after the
Great Deluge, could have legends about the Great Deluge. Historians
G. Smith (in 1872) and A. Pebel (in 1914) demonstrated, that Sumers (and
Babylonians) have had legend about Great Deluge a few millennia earlier of
the Bible [82, p. 18].
3.53. ARMENNIANS IN EGYPT
During XV-IT millennia BC Armennians researched the near and far
lands and seas, and propagated everywhere civilization, knowledge and
belief to the AR kind God. Everywhere local tribes deified them for their
humanity, high knowledge and kindness. Armennians presented to other
nations accumulated during millennia high knowledge, kindness, Indo-
European culture and language as bounteously and unselfishly as their AR-
Father God presented them the life, light and warmth.
Armennians for the accumulation of knowledge (say up to Carahunge
level) spent about 30 thousand years, but other nations (at ID millennium
BC and later) to achieve the same level of knowledge spent about just one
thousand years or less. The main reason of this is that Armennians during
30 thousands years were alone and did not have any teachers.
Approximately at eleven millennium BC Armennians came to Egypt (of
course, there was not any country at that time). The main purpose was to
research new lands and to build a giant monument in favor of their new and
great scientific investigation of the phenomenon of the Earth axis precession.
And they built the Great Sphinx, the big lion with lion face, looking exactly
to the East point of horizon, where twice per year, at equinox days, rises the
Sun being in the Lion Zodiacal constellation at that time. More details about
these you can see in Item 1.35. "The Great Sphinx" (in PART 1).
After the Great Deluge and during the period of draught in Egypt,
Armennians came to Egypt again at 3500 - 3000 BC, and collecting there
different local tribes founded the first Egyptian State. In books of old history
it is said that the name of the first Egyptian king was Menes or Min. These
two names together are very close with Armennian name Minas, which in
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Armennian means: ''meieneas =u·pefiewu = Uhb' UWIUlt! fiw wnw2llfi =he
(is) the first great man", Le, the first kesar (or pharaoh)!
It is very important to say here that Armennians did not occupy Egypt
but founded in Egypt the first State of Egypt. The word Egypt in Armennian
mean: "eegeyepet =he qe pel.ll em= hqwfi luhtwgp uwPJl11q t!fimpwb' mlum
= the clever men came to (the) chosen place". The local tribes met
Armennians kindly and deified them for their kindness and high knowledge.
They also adopted from Armennians the adoration to the kind main God
AR (RA) and to the SETA (SET), the Goddess of the knowledge and science.
Seta (Zet) was at that time also the name of the brightest star of Hayk Belt,
of kesar Hayk constellation (now star Alnitak of Orion constellation).
One of the old Armennian hymns to AR God is retained in Egypt.
There are a few lines from this big hymn:
0, Thou" who art beautiful at morning and at evening,
0, Thou Lord who livest and art established,
0, my Lord!
0, Thou who art crowned the King ofthe Gods!
0, Lord ofthe Gods,
0, Thou only one... [88]
Beginning from Minas all Egyptian kesars (pharaohs) and the top caste
were Armennians for the long period of I-xvm dynasties, Le. from about
3100 BC until 1600 BC.
The history of Egypt is divided into some Periods.
Early Period (3000 - 2800 BC) when was the first Egyptian State
established by Kesar Minas of I Dynasty; then 11 Dynasty came.:
Ancient Period (2800 - 2300 BC) when was the Kesar Jesser (=
2ebeubp =jeeeser =came (the) nice love) of III dynasty. In 2490-2480 BC
was Kesar Hayk (Armennian Kesar in 2493-2444 BC), who founded
Egyptian the IV Dynasty and built the Great Pyramid.
First Intermediate Period (2300-2000 BC), VII-X dynasties when in
Egypt were Hotites-Aryans (Harries-Armennians, 2200-1800 BC).
Medial Period (2000-1800 BC), XI and XII dynasties, when was the
kesar Armenni and others.
Second Intermediate Period (1800-1600 BC), XIII-XVm dynasties,
when in Egypt were Armennians-Hyksoses, who built the capital town
Avaris.
New Period (1600-1100 BC), XIX, XX dynasties.
Belated Period (11-6 century BC).
• The word "Thou" is singular form of the word ''You'', which is used in English to
address the God. ''Thou'' in Armennian is "dou" (rpn), and "You"· is "doukh" (I}Iltp).
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Occupation of Egypt by Persians (6-4 century BC), by A. Macedonian
(in 332 BC), then by Ptolomeans (or Hellenistic Period, 4-1 century BC), by
Rome (30 BC - 395 AD), by Byzantium (395-639 AD), and by Arabs (from
639 AD until now).
Present remnant Egyptians (so-called Kopts) living now in Arabian
Egypt are Christians, adopted Armennian (monotheistic) Christianity.
Thus, from the very beginning, from the first King Minas (5500-5000
years ago) until the end of XVIII Dynasty (1600 BC), Le. about 2000 years,
the kings of Egypt were Armennians. They were in the same time the main
priests of Egypt, i.e. kesars. Beginning from XVI century BC instead of
word "Kesar" the word ''Pharavon'' was in use in Egypt. This word has
Armennian interpretation: ~ p w q n a = $-wp-w-qen-a = bW umpp nUJ1ul
(tuwan) uWIUl UpLP !w$ = ''He holy straight life (person) as the Sun". Let
us remember that Armennian word "Kesar" means "half Sun" or "As the
Sun".
It is interesting also that the names of many Pharaohs (especially of
"Armennian Dynasties") have Armennian interpretations (meanings). For
example:
Toutmos 11(XVI cent. BC) = S -nt-m-u (nu)= Uhb" mwa ntap mbIJ. -His
sit is in big house.
Amenkkotep IV (XIV cent. BC) = bW hqun] Ubb" 4.Jwanp aZwa, umpp
mbIJ.a hqwq mpphg= He became the sign of large life and came and held the
holy site.
Ramses 11 (XIII cent. BC) = Uplat! Ubb" lInmpq hlwq pad = The Great
Sun came close to me.
Nefertiti (Xm cent. BC) = bW mwa mppn2 ppqntana hqun] = She
became the rear of home lord. Probably she was Armennian because it is
known her letter to the father sent to Northern country, where she asks to
give (send) Her metals as a part of her dowry.
There are also many words in Egyptian language, which are identic
with Armennian words. For example: qwIUl (vard - rose), hwg (hats -
bread), upp, uhp (sir, ser -love), unnn (ast - universe, place).
Kesar of the Great Armennia Hayk (about 2544-2444 BC, Kesar in
about 2493-2444 BC), after the building of Babylon Pyramid (Tower) in
about 2526-2495 BC, came to Egypt and built the Great Pyramid (in Giza)
in about 2490-2480 BC (see Item 3.30). He was for Egyptians the Son of AR
(RA), he was in the Sky as Hayk-Arian (later Orion) constellation, he was
the God Osiris (and Ceops, Hu-Fu).
G. Hancock and R. Bauvel in their book "The Message of the Sphinx"
wrote that Egyptologist Selim Hassan during his excavations in 1930-40s
"... uncovered evidence that a colony of foreigners - "Cananites" had
resided in this part of Lower Egypt in the early second millennium BC. They
were from the sacred city of Harran •.. and they may perhaps have been
pilgrims. At any rate artifacts and commemorative stelae prove that they
172
lived in the immediate vicinity of the Sphinx, worshipping it as a God under
the name Hwl" [95, p.4]. Let me add that "Cananites (Harranites) from
sacred city of Harran" are Armennians from Armennian famous town
Harran =hear-an =the town of Sun (AR) worshippers. The word ''Hwl''
(old name of Sphinx) in Armennian means ''h-w-I =worshipper to (of the)
Light (means the AR)".
The Great Pyramid and Stonehenge, and later also Camak,
Stonehenges II and Ill, Calenish and Ammon-RA Temple with the oldest
Egyptian observatory near present Assouan in Egypt were built by
Armennians in about the middle and the end of ID millennium BC in honor
of the great scientific investigation of Armennian old scientists about the
ball-form of the Earth (and of it sizes). There were in Armennia
Observatories, the Sun-God Temples and Universities, as was Carahunge at
the period of more than 7500 years ago until about 2000 years ago (see
PART 1, Item 1.34).
3. 54. ARMENNIANS IN ETIDOPIA
Armennians came to Ethiopia approximately at the same period (after
the Great Deluge) as to Egypt. Probably, at the first time Ethiopia was inside
the first established Egyptian State and then became independent State.
In any case, the ascendancy of Armennians to Ethiopians and
communications between them is obvious.
Still now the Ethiopians use Alphabet, the letters of which are almost
Armennian ones.
In the Great Armennia from the old time until belated medieval period
Ethiopian women were deemed as the best child nurses. They lived in the
palaces and castles of many Armennian kings and lords.
Ethiopians were in close contacts also with other Armennian kingdoms,
as Phoenicia, from the old time. They lived also in Carthagen, which was
built by Phoenicians (founded in 825 BC, destroyed by Rome at 146 BC).
3. 55. ARMENNIANS IN THE NORTHERN LANDS
Before the Great Deluge Armennians propagated and lived at the
North from the center of the Great Armennia, in Virc, Kolhida, North
Caucasus and Crimea.
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Virc or Upper Armennia
Virc or Upper Armennia was the northern part of the Great Armennia,
the places to the North and NW from the river Cour (Kura), where the
present Georgia is. In Armennian language Virc ('-Q1PIl, qlipllfi) means
''Upper'' and Vmtsi ( ~ w g } 1 ) means ''the inhabitant of Virc" or
"Armennians from upper side, Virc". In present Armennian, saying
"Vratsi" we understand "Georgian" which is a mistake, because present
"Georgians" came to Virc much later and were just a little part of all Virc
population (10 % in 1 921 AD) [85, p.4].
According to literature, the North bound of Great Armennia was along
Caucasian Ridge even at the end of VI century AD [85, p, 33], [86, p. 38].
During the whole time the lords of Virc were Armennians. In 1001 AD the
brother of the Great Armennian King of Kings Gaggik I Bagratouni (989-
1020 AD), lord of Virc Gevvorc Bagratouni became the King of Virc (one of
about 10 Armennian kings of different Armennian regions, who were under
the King of Kings of Great Armennia). Bagrat, son of Gevvorc, became the
King of Abkhazzia (Sukhumi) which initially was called Kolhida [87, p. 605].
Kolhida
Armennians from the Great Armennia, Armennia Minor and Virc
came along the seaboard of Black Sea to the North, to Kolhida
(K-o-I-h-i-d-ar =part of holy God people adoring the Sun). At VI-ll
centuries BC the Kolhidian Kingdom arose [87, p. 605]. It is known that in
1001 AD Bagrat Bagratouni, the son of Gevvorc Bagratouni (the king of
Vier) became the king of Kolhida, which now is called Abkhazzia with main
town Sukhumi [85, p. 39].
Now in Abkhazzia Armennian population is about 60% of all
population. The explanation of this high percentage is also the immigration
after the Armennian genocide in present Turkey, in 1915, on all the
territories inhabited by Armennians including former Armennia Minor
(town Trapezund and others).
North Caucasus and Crimea
Armennians, going ahead to the North along seaboard of the Black Sea
and then to the right and left sides, came also to the North Caucasus land
and Crimean peninsula. They built towns and temples (later Christian
churches), and live here until now. There are now many Armennian old
churches in North Caucasus and the North seaboard of the Black Sea.
Armennians, came in I-ll century AD from Edessian Armennian
Kingdom, founded the town Odessa on the North seaboard of the Black Sea.
174
3.56. ARMENNIANS IN EAST
Before the Great Deluge Armennians propagated not only to the South
direction (Sumer, Phoenicia, Egypt, Ethiopia) and North direction (Kolhida,
North Caucasus, Crimea), but also to the East direction (Iran, India, Middle
Asia) and to the West, to whole Asia Minor (Armennia Minor, Kappadokia,
Kilikia, Hlttite, Lydia, Troy).
Everywhere Armennians taught local tribes culture, knowledge,
Armennian (i.e. Indo-European) language, kindness and Sun religion,
forbade the human sacrifices. Armennians played also an important role in
the history, culture and science of all these countries (as well as in Western
countries).
3.57. ARMENNIANS IN IRAN
Iran is the land which abuts on the Great Armennia from the East side.
The Armennian name of Iran was Arran =Arean =the Sun (sunny)
country. Later Iranian people became the arm of Aryans, Indo-European
people.
At the DI millennium BC the flrst Irannian State was formed. At the II
millennium BC the Old Persian, Avestian and Scythian languages were
formed. Beginning from 9-8 centuries BC the New-Iranian (Indo-European)
languages existed: Persian, Farsi (Dari), Tadjikian, Afghan (Pushtu),
Kurdish, Pamirian, Osetian, Talishian and others.
The Great Armennia almost all the time was in close contacts with
Iran. Some time the kings of both countries were even from the same
(parthian) dynasty: Arshakids in Iran (250 BC - 224 AD) and Arshakouni
in Armennia (62- 428 AD), Le, during 224-62=162 years, and all life of this
Dynasty was 250+428=678years.
There are many Armennians in Iran also now.
3.58. ARMENNIANS IN INDIA
Armennians at first came to India presumably before the Great Deluge,
taught local tribes the humanity, kindness and high knowledge. And the
formation of Indo-European population in India (Armennlans plus high
caste of local tribes) began. Later Armennians came to India in Ill-ll mill.
BC bringing aryan world outlook and civilization (with epos). In the
beginning of I mill. BC the first Indian State arose in the North part of the
country and in VIII-VD cent. BC the Brahma written language arose on the
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base of Armennian Alphabet. Sanskrit arose on the same base in IV-I cent.
BC and played important role in India until XIX cent. AD.
In the Indian main and old (also present) Hindi language (Indo-Aryan
group of Indo-European languages family) the word India is Bharrat, which
in Armennian means: Bvh-ur s at = (P-h-Wp-WUl) = the life place of the kind
worshippers of Sun (UP-p ptup]; hpqpUJ.wqntlfihpp tuwfipp qWJPt!).
The oldest civilization in Indus Valley was called Harrappian
civilization (III-II millennia BC). This word in Armennian means "the
Southern" civilization, and also comes from the name of
Armennian old and big town Harran (in Armennian Highland), which
means in Armennian: Hvar s an, Hs ar s ap = the town
(place) of the Sun worshippers (UP-pfi hpqpUJ.wqntlfihpp pWllwP, qWJp).
The pre-Vedic culture in India had genetic relation to the pre-
Harappian culture [105]. The big states Magadha and others arose in India
in the second half of I millennium BC.
At 19th century AD India became the Brittannian colony. In 1950 AD
the independent Republic of India was established.
Indian old epos "Ramayana" begins exactly as Armennian epos
"Sassountsi David", where the Princess Tsovinar drank two times the water
from spring in sea and gave birth to two powerful sons: Sannassar and
Baghdassar.
Armennians live in India until present time (mostly in Calcutta), as
well as in other Eastern countries.
In Fig. 83 the facade of the Sun God Temple Konark in Orissa is
shown. Konark (k - 0 - n - ar - k) means in Armennian: he half holy, half (part)
of the Sun. It is interesting that the Sun is presented here similar with the
Sun descriptions in old Armennian engravings on rocks (as a wheel), see Fig.
56.
Fig. 83. A facade of the Sun God old Temple Konark in Orissa, India.
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Here are some interesting facts.
In the end of XV century AD the Emperor Akbar, from the Great
Moguls' Dynasty, married Armennian lady Mariam Zamani Begum
(Queen). In Emperor's Court there were many Armennians, as: Mirza-Zul-
Quamain, adopted son of Akbar, prominent poet and singer; lady Juliana-
royal doctor (later she got married to Prince Philippe Bourbon de Navarre);
Abdul Hai - Chief Justice; Domingo Pires - interpreter and others [102].
In xvn century AD the Emperor Shah Jahan from the Great Mongol
Dynasty (the grandson of above-said Akbar) married Armennian lady
Heghine (Helen)-. After her death Shah Jahan built in her memory the
world famous Mausoleum Tai Mahal where she, and later also he, were
buried [103, p. 213]. As we know Taj Mahal was built by Armennian
architecture and masters.
3.59. ARMENNIANS IN MIDDLE ASIA
Armennians came to Middle Asia in old time. But about it there is too
little data. It is known that:
1. There was an old state called Baktria. This word has Armennian
background and in Armennian means: B-ak-t-r-ia (P-wq-mep-}1w) =the
country giving kind beginning =pwp}1 w q n d i ~ mqllIJ. hplWp.
2. Bactrians or Tohars routed the Greek State in Bactria in n century
BC.
3. The territory (region) on the South of Middle Asia (South of the
present Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and North of Afghanistan) was called
Toharstan, beginning from I millennium BC.
4. Tohars were the people living in the Middle Asia at n century BC
until I millennium AD.
5. Tohar in Armennian means: T-o-h-ar (S-n-h-wl1) =the place of
sons of the Sun worshippers =Up-}1 hpqplllwqnqfihp}1 nJUlD.g qWJP (hplWp).
6. Both words Bactria and Tohar have Armennian interpretations
showing that these people came from outside (from the country of the Kind
Sun worshippers, so from Armennia).
7. Toharian language is the group of extinct languages of Indo-
European family. There are Toharian manuscripts of 5-8 cent. AD.
Probably, present Tajiks and Afghans arose from Tohars (Armennians) and
Iranians.
Armennians in old Middle Asia lived in mountainous part and also in
oases, where archaeologists found the developed old settlements and
irrigation channels.
• She is known as Mumtaz MahaI.
177
About the presence of Armennians in Middle Asia say also the old
architectural monuments as the castle "Ark" (the half-Sun in Armennian) in
town Bouhara (Pentehewp =pwp}1p ndip up-pa UlwZlJlIlIffi =well being has
the Sun worshipper), the old town Samarkand, which is known from 329 BC
as Markand (lIewpeQewaell = aw :qbutlt 1Ihp Upht! bwqtUl = it is to our
Sunrise =it is to the East from us), the medieval (1428AD) observatory near
Samarkand and other historical monuments.
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3.6. THE GREAT DELUGE
The main reason of the Great Deluge and line of other phenomena on
the Earth is the slow change of the Earth Axis Incline angle (e). This angle
(equal now 23.44°) changes in limits 23.3° ± 1.2°, Le, from 24.5° to 22.1°
(and back) during 41 thousand years.
In Fig. 28 (PART 1, Item 1.20) the change of Earth Axis Incline and
Eras evolution in time are shown. The full (absolute) value of the change of
angle e is 2.4°. This is not so conspicuous for weather of the tropical zones of
the Earth, but more noticeable for polar regions where the Sun rays come
under the more sharp angles. So the glacial covering on the polar zones of
Earth increases when the angle e decreases and glaciers decrease (melt) with
increasing of e.
The beginning of the last Freeze period was 34500 years ago. Little by
little temperature became lower and 32500 years ago the Northern parts of
Europe, Russia and Canada were under glaciers. With the advent of glaciers
the people and animals moved to the South.
The Glacial period was for a long time, 18500 years, until the beginning
of glaciers melting period 32500 - 18500=14000years ago. Then the period of
intensive melt came, during 2000 years, as the result of which the Great
Deluge took place 12000 years ago (in 10000 BC) resulting from water
covering of huge territories, intensive evaporation, water vapor, clouds, and
heavy rains. All rivers (and new ones) became very swollen, carrying huge
mass of water to the seas and oceans. In the result the level of world ocean
grew up to 100 meters.
All lowlands were flushed by thick water covering, many people
(tribes), animals and plants were perished, all settlements and towns in
lowlands were destroyed. Later all these were covered by thick coat of slime,
particularly in Mesopotamia.
Many old legends of different nations about Great Deluge, particularly
from Sumer and India, came to us from ID millennium BC.
The first factual demonstration of the Great Deluge existence was
found by English archaeologist L. Vulli. Excavating Sumerian towns he
continued excavation down to 19m and found out other older towns. These
19m of slime affirmed that the Great Deluge existed and these old towns
were built before the Great Deluge. In Item 3.14 I showed that these old
towns were Armennian ones. So we can suppose that Armennians, returning
to Sumer after Great Deluge told the "new" Sumers about the Great Deluge
and taught them much more knowledge, and these "new" Sumers were
mixture between Armennians and local tribes.
The next Great Deluge will take place after 29000 years (in 31000 AD),
see Fig. 28 in PART 1. Before that, the beginning of next freeze period in the
Earth polar regions will come after 6500 years and then, after intensive
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freeze the next Glacial period (Ice Age) will come after 8500 years with
the duration of 18500 years. Then will come the period of glaciers melt
(during 2000 years) and the next Great Deluge will take place after
41000-12000 =29000 years.
What happened in Great Armennia during the last Great Deluge 12000
years ago? Nothing terrible. There was not any water covering here, because
the average altitude of the Armennian Highland is 1700m and the lowest
altitude of the mountain valleys is 600m (the ocean level grew up for lOOm
only). In Armennia, of course, were too much clouds, wind, rain and
powerful Iightnings. The rough rivers made big canyons in basalt rocks of
mountains. But the population with its culture, all animals and plants were
not perished. So all the territory of the Great Armennia was as the symbolic
giant Noah's Ark, where all people, animals and plants were saved. This is
the reason why Armennians have no legend about the Great Deluge.
In Armennia, during the Great Deluge such animals as horse, bull,
goat, being afraid of Nature forces (lightning, etc.), came closer to people
and their settlements, seeking protection and were domesticated.
The aries, a beautiful and bold mountain animal, was not afraid of
Iightnings and was free. So it became Aries, Le, the third (after lion (Ariuts)
and Eagle (Artsiv» Symbol of the Sun (AR) God of Armennians and also the
first Zodiacal constellation. The helix form of the Aries horns became the
beautiful architectural ornament (see Fig. 45, PART 2).
Because the Aries became the Symbol of AR after (or during) the Great
Deluge and his sculpture is absent in Kappadokia sculptural group (see Fig.
60,65 - 68) we can suppose that this sculptural group (AR, Kesar, Annahit,
Tir, Vahagn, Lion and Eagle) was built before the Great Deluge, before than
12000 years ago (see Item 3.6a).
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3. 7. THE GREAT ARMENNIA IN 10 - 5 MILLENNIA BC
In the period of X-V millennia BC the Great Armennia still was the
single state (with other Armennian kingdoms) in the World and Armennians
were the single civilized nation, having high culture, knowledge and
Alphabet.
The Great Armennia existed on territories between Black and Caspian
seas in Trans Caucasus (South Caucasus) on the both sides of river Cour
(Kura), around mountains Ararat and Aragats, lakes Sevan, Van and
Urmia, on the all Armennian Highland and Mesopotamia (Edessian
Kingdom)",
Along with the Great Armennia there existed other Armennian
kingdoms in Kilikia, Phoenicia, Asia Minor, and Mesopotamia",
The English historian A. Gilbert wrote that much before Pyramids
building and much before the travelling of Jewish forefather Abraham from
Haldean Ur (Armennian Ar will be more correct, P.H.) to Khevron
(Chevron), one nation of Indo-European birth already existed, who was the
ancestor of Persians and Europeans and who had the kings dynasties [33]. It
seems to me A. Gilbert knew but did not say the truth that it was
Armennian nation.
German historian M. Rimshneider wrote that all Greek culture was
taken from Kilikians, Phoenicians, Hittites and Chaldeans, which were
Urartians or inhabitants of Araratian kingdom [61].
Other nations, states and civilizations began to form in Sumer, Egypt,
Babylon, Iran, etc. with help of Armennians in III millennium BC and later.
Armennians were never aggressive, had no chauvinistic or imperialistic
ambitions. Being the first in the World civilized nation, they were noble,
clever and kind. Their Great Mission was to civilize all tribes around and
beyond. They came to other lands to help local tribes to form states, as it was
in Egypt, Sumer, Babylon, Ethiopia, India, Middle Asia, etc.
But Armennians heroically defended their fatherland, often by less forces
than enemy had.
3. 71. ENIGMAS IN WORLD OLD HISTORY
The Old History of Armennia is made out from the World Old History.
By this reason in the World Old History there are many enigmas and
mysteries, when there are many facts but there are no answers, explanations
for them. Let us present here some of these enigmas.
• Let us remember the Item 3.1. "Anthropological data".
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The Questions
La, Who built the Great Pyramid 4500 years ago? And Great Sphinx
much earlier?
Lb. Why were they built? For what purpose?
Le, Why were they built in their present places (sites)? For what were
the great works done?
2.a, b, c. The same questions for Stonehenge, New-Grenge, Carnak and
other big old monuments (4500-4000years ago).
3. Who and why built the pyramids and temples in tropical woods of
Central America more than 6000 years ago?
4. The enigma of geographical maps. There are a few medieval time
maps on which the different regions of Earth are shown, which have the
high accuracy impossible for that time. On these maps there are shown even
regions not discovered yet at that time.
For example, there is so-called map of admiral Piry Rase dated by 1513
AD, which presented Antarktida, discovered at 1818 AD, so more than 300
years before the discovery! Admiral wrote on margin of map that he made
this map using more ancient sources (which are not saved). The more
interesting is that Antarctica on this map is shown without ice-covering as it
is now. By the geophysical data this was more than 6000 years ago!
Moreover, this map concurs with the map of Antarctica made in XX century
using modern methods of seismography by international scientific
expedition [24, p.9-17].
The question (No. 4) is who and why made this map more than 6000
years ago? The consequence of scientists is one: in prehistoric time a high
civilization, existed on not known yet place of Earth, had researched almost
the whole Planet and transited their knowledge to other nations [24].
There are also other examples of such astonishing old maps made with
very high accuracy [24].
The Answers
The main and general answer is that Carahunge and other data
(including linguistic ones) are attested to say: at that time the necessary
knowledge, instruments and technology had Armennians only.
The more detailed answers of above questions in PARTS 1 and 2 were
done. Here we can repeat them just shortly.
Answer to questions la and 2a is that the Great Pyramid and
Stonehenge and many other monuments were built by Armennians, by
Original Brain Center (Item 1. 34.), particularly by Armennian Kesar Hayk
(Item 3. 30).
Answer to questions 1b and 2b is that the Great Pyramid and
Stonehenge were built as the Observatories and memorials to keep for far
future generations the information about the great scientific investigation
that Earth is ball-formed (Item 1. 28.). The Great Sphinx was built to keep
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for far future the information about another great investigation of Earth
Axis Precession phenomenon (Item 1. 22. and 1. 35.).
Answer to questions 1c and 2c is that to demonstrate the ball-form of
the Earth some monuments were built at the latitudes which are at the equal
distances (by latitude) from Carahunge. For example, the Stonehenge and
the Great Pyramid are at latitude distances of about ± 100from Carahunge;
the Callenish (Scotland) and the oldest observatory and Amon-RA (the Sun)
Temple in Egypt (near present Assuan) are in latitude differences of ± 16
0
from Carahunge.
Answer to question 3 is that Armennians in 15-2 millennia BC
researched almost all Planet. Their great mission was to teach local tribes
everywhere, to propagate knowledge, kindness, humanity and the kind
religion of the Sun God AR. This attests also the existence of the same old
legends of different nations in different places. According to these legends, in
the old time to their countries came white-faced and big bearded (the main
indications of Armennoid race) Gods, who knew everything and taught them
kindness and knowledge. Such legends have not only Sumerians, Hindus,
etc. but also the inhabitants of all countries of Central America (Peru,
Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, etc.).
Answer to question 4 is the following. Such accurate maps could be
prepared by the scientists who knew mathematics, geometry (including
spherical geometry and trigonometry), who had very accurate instruments
for measuring the latitude and longitude of place and had big oceanic ships.
Such astronomical and other instruments had in Carahunge time (7500
years ago) Armennian scientists. Carahunge attests that they knew also
mathematics, geometry, trigonometry and had high experience of accurate
measurements with accuracy of 30 sec. of arc or 2 sec. of time. In the same
time Kilikian and Phoenician Armennians had at that time big oceanic ships
(''nav'' in Armennian) and high level of navigation. Thus 6000 and more
years ago the necessary knowledge and possibility had only Armennians.
3. 72. ARMENNIANS IN AMERICA
There are many enigmas in Old History of Central America, coming
from the period of many thousand years ago, l.e, before the well known
period of Mayas, Aztecs (Mexico), Incas (Peru, Bolivia, Chile) cultures of n
millennium BC- 11 millennium AD. These enigmas include the presence of
the same old legends of population of all said countries and the presence of
old towns, temples and pyramids of Ziggurat type (step by step) as they are
in Babylon, Ur (Ar in Armennian) and Egypt.
G. Hancock writes that old legends of Incas are taken from the book of
Khose de Akosta, Spanish scientist and priest (XVI century AD), about
183
Incas descent after the Great Deluge: ''From the lake Titikaka came
Virakocha God ••• and the augmenting of the human genus began". In other
legends of the Andes Mountains inhabitants it is said that Virakocha
was a white-faced and bearded man of middle height. He called
the people as his sons and daughters. He travelled and made miracles, cured
diseases ''by touching", was very kind, taught people medicine, metallurgy,
agriculture, stock-raising, art of witting (later forgotten) and understanding
of complex bases of technique and building [24, pp. 48, 49, 54]. Many
legends said that Virakocha and his people went back by water, moving by
ocean (pacific) in ships without oars [24, p, 88].
G. Hancock tells also that in town Tiauanako of lake Titikaka region
the local Indians-Aymara speak until now in about 10000 years old language
of Virakocha. In opinion of some linguists the Aymara language is the oldest
in the World and has a rich and strong structure of syntax [24, p. 87].
It is interesting that in Armennian Titikaka means ''t - i- ka =there is
the house of men", and Aymara means "hay- mar- a =Armennian from
sea", or ''from mother Armennia". The name Virakocha in Armennian
means ''Vir-a-koch = called from above = tlbpbfi qn1tlwb". Armennian
philologist Dr M.Sarkisian proves that Aymara language is very close to
Armennian because from 600 words in English-Aymara dictionary she has
found 54 words which are similar to Armennian words [l01].
G. Hancock describes the old Temple in Tiauanako (Bolivia) with big
statue of Virakocha, "Sun Gate" and square Calasasaya, which in Ayamara
language means ''The place of vertical standing stones" [24, p.72]. In
Armennian the word Calasasaya means "Car- sas - haya =big standing
stones of Armennians" or "Car- sas - ia =the place of big standing stones".
These and other examples mean that Aymara and Armennian languages are
close one to another indeed. This impression becomes more trustworthy if to
take into account that by G. Hancock Calasasaya was a 15-17 thousand
years old observatory and Stone Calendar [24, p.74]. Of course, it was not so
developed observatory as Carahunge, because in standing stones of
Calasasaya there are not holes, so accuracy of observations was not very
high. But all these agree with our supposition that the first observatories in
Armennia were built about 23 thousand years ago (see Item 1.17.).
The same old legends, coming from ancestors of Mayas and Aztecs,
have the people of Mexico. G. Hancock tells the legend from the notes of
Khuan de Torkvemada, Spanish chronicler (XVI century AD), that
Quetzalcoatl (Mexican analog of Virakocha) was ''the rosy man with lengthy
beard ... He was a mighty built white man with high forehead, big eyes and
big beard ... He condemns sacrifices besides fruits and flowers. He was
known as the God of peace...". This wise teacher "came from behind of sea
in the boat which moves itself without oars .•• He taught people to use fire •••
He also built houses and taught couples to live together as husband and
wife•••" [24, 97].
184
According to G.Hancock S.G. Morly, the top researcher of Maya writes
that the same "Great God ... of pantheon of Maya was the great organizer,
founder of towns, author of laws and calendar ..• His main streaks and
biography are so realistic that it is fully probably he was a real historical
personage, major law-maker ... which was the reason of his deification".
G.Hancock writes here that "All legends rightly affirm that Quetzalcoatl
came to Central America from afar (from behind, "from the East Sea") and
later again sailed away to the same direction..." [24, p, 96, 97].
All these and other legends confirm that the "Gods" came in old time to
Central America, built with local population big towns, very long roads
(about 15000km !), temples and pyramids. As the bright example of the
presence of developed old towns we can note also Machu-Pikchu in the
beautiful mountains of Peru. This town was built too far from roads, so G.
Hancock writes "Who ever went ... to build Machu-Pikchu here, he had to
have the very serious reasons for that" [24, p. 57].
Machu-Pikchu has astronomical orientation and was built at the foot
of double-headed big mountain which is very like to the Great and Small
Mount Ararat (see Fig. 84). The town was built much earlier than was Inkas
civilization [24, pp. 36-53]. R. Muller, Professor of astronomy of Potsdam
University, found out that the important elements of Machu-Pikchu
buildings have astronomical orientations. Using the laws of Earth Axis
Precession he calculated that the town was built 'between 4000 and 2000 BC,
so about 6000 years ago [24, p. 60].
Fig. 84. Machu-Pikchu, the old town in Central America [24].
In town Cuzco (Peru) there is the old temple of the Sun with name
Qozikancha (with images of Virakocha) [93, p. 355]. This name is very close
to Armennian word Carikanch =earl- kanch =stone's call =puip]; qwU1.,
, which is almost the same as Carahunge (Speeking Stones).
185
The astronomical dating of the age of old towns, particularly
Tiauanako with Sun Temple, Sun Gate, Pyramid and Calasasaya square,
were done at 1927-1930 by scientists A.Poznansky, Prof. of La-Pas
University, Dr F. Bekker from the "Specula Vaticanica", Prof. A. Kolsutter
from Bonn University. All they demonstrated that Tiauanako is about 17
thousand years old [24, p. 76].
Have we enough bases to say that all these large activities in Central
America at old time were done by Armennians? I think ''yes'', because:
1. there are many the same legends of all countries of Central America,
that in old time the kind, clever "gods" with high knowledge came from the
East and then returned back to the East by sea. This book shows that
Armennians in old time (17-4 thousand years ago) were also kind, clever and
with high knowledge;
2. the "gods" were white and bearded men with high forehead and big
eyes, which are the indications of Armennoid race;
3. in the old time Armennians went to many other lands and seas and
everywhere the local population deified them thanks to their kindness, high
knowledge and volition to help. They disallowed sacrifices and taught
knowledge, building, language and trust to the kind Sun God. The main God
of local tribes was also the Sun.
4. the "gods" language was Armennian, because many old, even present
names of towns, buildings and old "gods" (as Virakocha) as well as many
words of some languages (as Aymara) have Armennian interpretation.
5. the "gods" built towns, roads, Sun-God Temples and Ziggurat type
pyramids with astronomical orientation. They had big ocean ships, high
accurate instruments and navigation, which at that time had only
Armennians.
3. 73. ARMENNIAN ASIA MINOR:
HITTITIAN KINGDOM, PHRYGIA, LYDIA
It is known that Armennian race was sole inhabitant of Asia Minor
from the old time. In Asia Minor there were a number of Armennian old
Kingdoms. About the Armennian Kingdoms of Komagena, Tsopc,
Kappadokia and Armennia Minor we said in Item 3. 10. About Kilikia it
was in Item 3. 11. About Troy (lllion) will be in next Item 3. 27. This Item
3. 26. is about Hittitian Kingdom, Phrygia and Lydia.
Hittitian Kingdom
It is known that Hittitian State was in central part of Asia Minor
during 17-12 centuries BC and Hittitian language (Hattiti) was Indo-
European [87]. But what was before the said centuries? The book "Ancient
civilizations" says: "Hatti seems to have been in origin a very ancient name
186
for the district around the city Hattush..• The inhabitants of this district in
the ID millennium BC spoke Hattiti and would therefore have had first
right to the name of "Hattite" if they had not been pre-empted by the people
of the later kingdom, of which Hattush was the capital" [93, p. 111].
What was before ID millennium BC is unknown. Let us remember
here the anthropological data (see Item 3. 1.) that 10 thousand years ago all
Asia Minor was populated by Armennoid race only, Le, by Armennians,
from whom came Indo-Europeans and Indo-European languages. Before
about the middle of XX century AD it was said everywhere that Hattitean
language was Semitic. But after the excavations of Hittitean capital Hattush
with big library it was demonstrated that Hittitean language is Indo-
European. Now it is known that many Hittitian words (and grammar) are
the same as Armennians or very close to them [64].
It is known also that Hittitean country (state, then Empire) was in close
contacts with Great Armennia and other Armennian Kingdoms,
particularly with Kilikia, the kings of which were at one period brothers
(from the one dynasty) with Hittiean kings. They received from Great
Armennia many goods, finery and weaponry.
Phrygia
After the fall of Troy (13c. BC) this country is known in the history as
Phrygia, which was located in NW of Asia Minor, with its capital Gordion.
According to historical data Phrygia existed from 10-8 cent. BC to 2-3 cent.
AD. The language is separate branch of Indo-European family (as
Armennian also). The language is represented with inscriptions, glosses and
personal names [70, p. 376; 1986]. It is obvious that these writings must be
read in old Armennian language.
Lydia
Lydia located in SW of Asia Minor was, as Phrygia and other countries
in Asia Minor, inside other (bigger) Armennian Kingdoms (as Kilikia,
Hittites, Troy and others) in different times. Lydia was independent state at
7-6 cent. BC. The language was Indo-European.
3. 74. ARMENNIAN TROY
Our knowledge about Troy and Trojan Kingdom comes from "Iliad"
of Homer (IX-VID cent. BC) and results of excavations of German
archaeologist H.Schliemann in 1870-1890 on a hill lying about 6km from the
Dardanelles Channel. Excavations were continued by W.Dorpfeld and then,
in 1932-1938 by American expedition led by W.Semple and C.Blegen.
187
Troy was a big old town surrounded by many settlements, the age of
which now is under discussion (2500-1900 BC) [93, p. 144]. Trojan War was
in XIII cent. BC. By the other sources Troy existed in IV millennium BC
and was placed on the bank of old bay, [97, p. 25, 144, 145; 98].
The map of Troy excavations is shown in Fig. 85 [93, p. 142] and
Mrs. Schliemann wearing Trojan jewellery - in Fig. 86 [93, p. 143].
Tray
Tray I •
Tray 11 •
Tray VI 0
Tray IX .
Fig. 85. Troy. Map of
excavations [93].
Fig. 85a. Mrs. Schliemann
wearing Trojan jewellery [93].
188
It is important for us how old really was the Trojan country. I am sure
that it was more than 10 thousand years ago when Armennians lived here
(Armennoid race) and it was Armennian country (Kingdom) having much
more territory than in later period. I am sure that this will be affirmed by
the new excavations, and all old Trojan writings are necessary to read in
Armennian language (as well as old Egyptian, Sumerian, Babylonian and
others).
In XIll century BC when Trojan War took place, Greeks were not
formed yet as one nation. Homer calls them as Acheans and Danayans.
There were separate little town-states and island-states. Developing Greeks
needed the trade ways, especially to the East, including Black Sea basin
(West was not developed yet). But on the routes to the East (marine and
overland), on Dardanelles Channel there was the Trojan Kingdom. Dardan
is the old word which in Armennian means: D- ar- d - an = way to the AR, to
Him (to the God).
Homer named Troy lllion which is Armennian name (Illion -
Arian=Ar-i-an=the town of Sun people). To conquer the routes to the new
lands, Greek little states joined at first in one army and led by Agamemnon
(one of little kings), using hundreds of ships, came to conquer Troy. To help
Trojans to defend, there came troops from a number of Eastern countries.
From Armennia it was the King Zayrmayr of Nairi Country (z-ayr-mayr
= mother's first son), who fell in Trojan War.
In fact it was the first World war between the developing West
(Greece) and the East, which lasted ten years. Greeks could not win but at
the end did it by the cheat, for what they were punished by their own Gods.
All these are known from Homer's ''Diad''.
The question is: could "Iliad" be Greek epos (or poem). Of course not,
because:
1. In ''Diad'', from the very beginning, Achean-Danayan (Greece) main
heroes as Achilles and Agamemnon are presented negatively. They are
arguing, hufTmg, calling one another sordid, etc. In the result Achilles
disowned war (during one year) and said to Agamemnon that he had
nothing against Trojans, tamers of horses (i,e, against Armennians). When
Achilles killed Hector, he fastened the body to the tail of his horse and drew
it over the ground. Hector's father, the white-haired old Priam, the King of
Troy, came and kneeled imploring Achilles to give him his son's body to
bury, but Achilles refused. Homer presents many other negative moments in
actions of Greeks. But Homer used other epithets for Trojan heroes, as
noble Priam, noble Hekuba, etc.
Is it possible to be in any national epos, that their own heroes are called
"sordid", but the opposite persons (of ten-year war enemy) called "noble"? I
think, impossible.
2. The Greeks own Gods did not like Greece heroes. The main Gods,
Zeus and Poseidon, are kept nonchalant. Only Athen-Warrior (ugly-born
189
from the head of Zeus with her helmet) patroned Greeks. The patron of
Trojans (-Armennians) was, of course, Apollo - the Sun God.
3. When after ten-year war Greeks did not win and decided to go back,
Hodiseus devised guile with big wooden horse, and Greeks became able to
kill Trojans, when they were sleeping at night and to burn Troy.
For this dishonest and ignoble victory the Gods strictly castigated
Greeks. On their back way home Poseidon made a powerful storm and more
than half of Greek ships were sunk to bed. Agamemnon on coming back to
his town saw that now the king was another man. Zeus disallowed Hodiseus
to return home during 20 years, etc.
4. The names of Trojan heroes had Armennian meanings: King Priam
(descendant of the God-King Dardan) - ''leader of people"; his wife Hekuba
- "devoted and generous"; their son Hector - "devoted protector of
homeiand"; their son Paris - ''the man from the God (AR) surround"; their
daughter Kassandra - "she is child of master, devoted to his life".
5. It is under discussion until now who and from where was Homer.
The Greece philosopher Loukian (11 century AD) wrote that in his dream
came Homer and on question ''from where you are and what is your real
name?" he answered that he is from Eastern Babylonian countries (old
Greeks almost everything on east called "Babylonian"), and his name there
was Tigran [99, pp. 398, 399]. It is known that Tigran is (and was) the
popular Armennian name (Tigran= ''the man (who) makes beautiful home
(life) of people"). The name Tigran had also some Kings of the Great
Armennia.
All these confirm that ''Iliad'' is Armennian (Trojan) epos and Homer
(Tigran) was Armennian poet.
3.75. CULTURE IN GREAT ARMENNIA
Excavations in Armennian Highland
Near Armennian historical town Arhan (now Ergani in Diarbekir
region of Turkey) 9500-year-old town with very high culture was excavated
in 80-es of last century [91]. The monumental houses of this town were built
according to one general project. Many tools, instruments and weapons
made from copper and marks of developed agriculture were found.
It was, of course, Armennian town (are h ean = town of AR worshipers),
so the Copper Age in Armennia began about 10 thousand years ago, or more
than 5000 years earlier than it is accepted in general.
. Territory of present Armennia
Carahunge Observatory, the oldest in the World, was built and operated
more than 7500 years ago (see PART 1). It was a large and developed
190
observatory with many stone astronomical instruments of high accuracy.
Old Armennian scientists had very high knowledge. They knew that the
Earth is ball-formed, measured its sizes. They knew that the Earth rotates
around its own axis and around the Sun, knew mathematics, cosmogony,
written language. They projected and built other large monuments in other
latitudes, as the Great Pyramid and Stonehenge.
Science, of course, is connected with culture, art. For example,
Armennian researcher of Shakespeare E. Vandanian thinks that Armennian
theatre was born about 8000 years ago [l08].
Developed Armennian Culture (so-called Cour-Arracsian Culture) of
the period from 8000 years ago and earlier, until 11 mill. BC presented by
the results of many excavations on the territory of present Armennia
between rivers Cour (Kura) and Aracs (Stengavit, Shannidar, Mokhrablour,
Vannadzor, Lehashen, Aggarak, ete.), The artifices were made from stones,
wood, copper, bronze, gold, silver, glass and further (111-11 mill. BC) from
iron and steel. These are tools, instruments, statuettes, finery, dishes, etc.
Many of the same artifices were found in other countries, particularly in
Europe, appertained to ID-II mill. BC.
The inhabitants of this territory were always Armennians. Why did
they call this culture "Cour-Arracsian" and their language ''Hourite-
Urartian", instead of Armennian? These authors use whatever words just
not to say "Armennia, Armennian, Armennians". Why?
In Fig. 80 the bronze statuette of the Aries is presented (XIV-XIII cent.
BC) found by archaeologist Professor T. Khachatourian during excavations
near village Arrich on the North slope of Mount Aragats. The Aries stands
on anchor which was necessary to fIX the statuette on cart. The body of Aries
is empty inside where metallic balls are put. When the cart moved, the tinkle
was ringing out and "evil spirits" ran away. Specialists say, that to cast
(found) such a figure, it was necessary to have the high technology.
Metsamor was a big old metallurgical plant, placed with its Museum in
Ararat Valley, about 30 km from Yerevan. Here, beginning from V mill. BC,
metal was smelted in big quantities. It was at first copper, gold, silver,
bronze, then (from 111-11 mill. BC) iron and steel, and also beads from
colour glass. The production of Metsamor plant was widely sent abroad.
Many excavations in Metsamor were done [92].
191
3.8. THE GREAT ARMENNIA IN 5 - 1 mill. BC
Before ID-I1 mill. BC in the World there were no wars, because the
main power had the Great Armennia and other Armennian old Kingdoms
and Armennians were not aggressive, never wanted to occupy the territories
of other people or countries. They went to many other lands with the single
noble mission to propagate the humanity and kindness, to teach knowledge
other people, to help them to federate their own first states.
But when other peoples (nations) learned knowledge, they began to
make weapons and many of them began to kill one another, to start wars, to
occupy other territories. The era of total nobility on the Earth finished, and
there came the era of avidity: ambitions to be rich, powerful, to domineer
over others became usual relations. Unfortunately this new era lasts until
now.
Attacks on Armennia took place also, and in result Armennia very
suffered from all sides. But the civil wars in Armennia never took place.
The first war in the World took place in the middle of III millennium
BC, when army of giants from Babylon led by commander Bel came to
occupy Armennia. But Bel was killed by Armennian Kesar Hayk in battle in
2492 BC and Babylonian army ran away (see Items 1.18 and 1.30).
Here I want to show the opinion of other authors about Armennians.
German researcher Magda Neimann wrote: ''It is known to everybody
who knows history of Armennia, that it was the single country in the World,
where castes, slaves, villeins never existed from the very beginning of
political being of Armennia until now: Armennians never have the concept
about some contemptible class" (p. 88). "All foreigners, who were captivated
during war or came to Armennia by one's free will received, on territory of
Armennia the full freedom and equal rights with Armennians" [90, p. 89].
"Armennian State consisted of four estates: nobility (lord's genuses),
priests, townsmen and villagers. They were just in natural relations with
each other and kept mutual and common interest" (p. 89).
''The woman in Armennia was not a subject of special cult, but she had
a very honorary place at home. There were never hetaeras in Armennia.
Along of hallowed tradition of monogamy the wife of Armennian always was
devoted friend of husband and authoritative hostess of family hearth" (p.
89).
Russian historian S. Glinka in his book "Review of Armennian nation
history", 1833, S.Petersburg, wrote: "Armennians never war for the war.
They war for Fatherland which was present in their hearts and described on
their old shields, or they war for independence which was treasured higher
than their own life". The main problems of State were decided together with
public meetings [89].
This was demonstrated once more during last event in 1990-es, when all
Armennian nation stood to protect the independence of Nagorni Karabakh,
192
the Armennian own old territory with Armennian population, which in
Soviet time, in 1920-es was (with Nakhichevan territory) coercively devolved
to Azerbaijan (turks) without Armennia assent.
3. 81. ARMENNIAN KESAR HAYK
According to the Bible (and also by Movses Khorenatsi [20, p. 12]) the
Armennian Kesar Torgom, the father of Hayk, was the third after lafet
(Habeth), son of Noah. By the name of Kesar Torgom Armennia was also
called (sometimes until now) ''Torgom's home (dome)".
In the middle of ID millennium BC the son of Torgom, Prince Hayk
with his family, top scientists and masters (more than 300 people) went to
the South lands and started to build there the ziggurat type pyramid
(Tower) with the help of local tribes.
Around this giant building a town soon arose, which later was called
Babylon after the name of Armennian commander Bab (p-w- p =the kind
life bringer), who later became the first King of Babylon.
When the bigger part of Tower was built, some conflict between Hayk
and local commander Bel (by Bible Nebrot, the third after Cam, the son of
Noah) took place, and the building of the Tower stopped. Hayk with his
people (more than 300 person) returned to Armennia.
M. Khorenatsi wrote that in Armennia, on the way to Ararratian land,
Hayk rested near Lake Van, built the lord-house and gave it to his grandson
Kadmos enthroning him as a Lord of Lake Van land.
Then Hayk came to Ararratian land and became the Armennian Kesar
(the King and Main Priest), after his father Torgom. At that time Hayk had
four sons, six daughters and many grandsons. The statue of Hayk in
Yerevan was shown in color Fig. 68.
M. Khorenatsi calls Hayk as ''Famous and brave nakharrar, and
marksman of the powerful bow" [20, p.18; 79, p.l09]. He does not call Him
''Forefather of Armennians". But now sometimes in use "our ancestor",
which is not right. The word ''nakharrar'' in Armennian means:
"nakhearar =precreated (man); fiwtu-wpwp = fiwtuwUIbu umbtt.b1lwb"', so
it means the top man standing before, over other men, so the king, the main
priest, so it is the highest administrative (and clerical) title in countries,
which is the same as very old Armennian word Kesar, The word nakharrar
came from M. Khorenatsi to us, and in present Armennian is in use as
"minister". So it is more exact to call Hayk as Kesar or King.
When Hayk had left Babylon, commander Bel began to act as a king
there, but the first official King of Babylon was Bab (after Bel death).
Bel sent (with his son) the letter to Hayk where it was said: "You are
living in terribly cold land, but•.• comply with me and live calmly where you
193
want in my country". But Hayk answered with rigid refusal, that he did not
want to return to Babylon [20, p. 19]. Then angry Bel gathered from the
local tribes a big army (of Pedestrian giants) and went to occupy Armennia.
When he came up to Lake Van, Kadmos (the grandson of Hayk) urgently
arrived in Ararratian land and informed Hayk about Bel's Army coming.
Kesar Hayk quickly gathered army and went to meet Bel. Both armies
met in Hayots Dzor (Armennian Gorge) to the North from Lake Van.
The battle started and terrible clatter rang around. Hayk with a group
of men of courage broke through Bel's Army to the position on hill where
Bel was standing with the group of his warriors. Bel was dressed in helmet
from iron, copper plates on bosom and back, armour on legs and arms. He
wielded double-edged sword and a very long pike.
Hayk went forward, hoisted his taut big bow and his three-head" arrow
breached body of Bel between shoulders and pierced into ground. Bel fell
Oat and died. His army was shattered and exiled from Armennia [20, p, 19-
23].
This battle was in 2492 BC. Hayk ordered to celebrate this day of
victory each year and Armennian new calendar (HBT) started (see Item
1.18).
Armennian nation deified Kesar Hayk. The sculpture of Hayk in
Yerevan with his big bow is shown in Fig. 63.
After Hayk Armennian Kesar became his son Aramaniak.
We can try to calculate approximate dates of life and activity of
Torgom, Hayk, and others, using the following known data:
1. Aramaniak, son of Hayk, was born in Babylon,
2. Torgom was the third after lafet, son of Noah,
3. Bel was the third after Cam, son of Noah,
4. On the back way from Babylon Hayk stayed in Armennian place
near Lake Van, built palace for Kadmos, son of Aramaniak,
5. The Hayk-Bel battle took place in 2492 BC.
Besides we can suppose the following:
1. Torgom was 30 years old when Hayk was born (in 2544 BC),
2. Bel was for 15 years older than Hayk,
3. Aramaniak was 17 years old when Kadmos was born (in 2509 BC),
4. Kadmos became the Lord of Van land when he was 15 years old and
in 2495 BC he was 17 years old,
5. Torgom, Hayk and Aramaniak, each of them lived 100 years.
Using these known historical facts and our suppositions, we can now
calculate and reival approximately, that:
1. Torgom was born in 2574 BC (and Bel - in 2559 BC),
2. Hayk was born in 2544 BC (when Torgom was 30 years old),
• His arrow had three heads (pikes) because the main God AR had three symbols: Aryouts
(Lion), Artsiv (Eagle) and Aris (Aries).
194
3. Hayk went to Babylon land in 2526 BC when he was 18 years old (at
that time Torgom was 48 years old, and Bel - 33),
4. Hayk left Babylon in 2495 BC, when he was 49 years old (Torgom -
79, Bel - 64). He was in Babylon and built Tower during 31 years,
5. Hayk returned to Armennia (at first in Van) in 2494 BC, when he
was 50 years old (Torgom- 80, Bel - 65),
6. Hayk became the Kesar of Armennia in 2493 BC, when he was 51,
7. Bel with army left Babylon in 2493 BC, when he was 66 years old,
8. The Hayk - Bel's battle was in 2492 BC, when Hayk was 52 years
old (Torgom - 82, Bel- 67, Aramaniak - 34, Kadmos - 17),
9. Aramaniak was born in 2526 BC,
10. Kadmos was born in 2509 BC (when Aramaniak was 17 years old)
and became the Lord of Van in 2494 BC, when he was 15 years old.
These calculations are better to understand, beginning at the first from
the last positions (10, 9).
Thus, we can also write:
Torgom-life period 2574 - 2474 BC and King ? - 2493 BC,
Hayk -life period 2544 - 2444 BC, Kesar 2493 - 2444 BC,
Aramaniak -life 2526 - 2426 BC, Kesar 2444 - 2426 BC,
Kadmos -life 2509 - 2409 BC,
Bel (Nebrot) -life 2559 - 2492 BC,
Babylon Tower was in building during 2526 - 2495 BC.
We can suppose also the following:
1. Hayk went to Egypt in about 2490 BC and built the Big Pyramid
during about 10 years (perhaps, it was finished after Hayk's departure). For
his kindness and high knowledge he was deified by Egyptians, became the
Pharaoh and founded the IV Dynasty of Egyptian Pharaohs. He left Egypt
in about 2480 BC and, perhaps, promised to Egyptians to return back. But
he could not do it. So, maybe, Egyptians were waiting for him and identified
him with the God Osiris, who periodically died and revived again. If all
these took place, then it is understandable why in Big Pyramid nobody was
buried whereas sarcophagus (also for his wife) was prepared.
2. After return to Armennia for one-two years Hayk in 2477 BC went
to France (Bretain) and GB, where staying for about 10 years, founded
simple observatories, the first simple variants of present Carnak in Bretain,
Stonehenge in England, New-Grenge in Ireland and Callanish in Scotland.
They were almost similar to Carahunge in Armennia but later were rebuilt
to the present condition, being used for other purposes (as cult). Besides
Callanish which is similar to Carahunge until now (the word "Carenish" in
Armennian means "Stone Sign").
3. Hayk returned to Armennia in about 2467 BC, when he was about
77 years old. After his death (in about 2444 BC) the Kesar of Armennia
became his son Aramaniak (until about 2426 BC).
195
3. 82. ARMENNIANS IN BABYLON
. .
w "••
The town and State Babylon arose in South Mesopotamia during the
process of building of Babylon Tower by Armennian Kesar Hayk,
approximately at the period of 2526 - 2495 BC, when at that place many
workers were settled.
In this land from the old time many Armennians lived. The first King
of this land was Armennian Bab (from 2492 BC). Bab in Armennian means
"kind life bringer". After his name this land was called Babylon, which in
Armennian means "came Bab (having) big soul" or "benign Bab came".
From the old time Babylon was in friendly relations with the Great
Armennia, Armennian Kilikia and Lydia. The flush period of Babylon was
at King Khammurapi (18 cent. BC), which in Armennian means "strong
father".
In 626 - 538 BC and later Babylon was called Haldean (or Now-
Babylonian) Kingdom where kings were so-called Halds or Haldeans. They
were Armennians with high knowledge. The word "HaId" in many countries
and for very long times (sometimes until now) was in use (means) as "sage
men", "magi", and in Armennian means "hs al e d = h - ar - d = (to) the Sun
worshippers".
According to handbooks the flush period of Haldean Kingdom was at
King Nabukhodonosor 11 (605 - 562 BC). His name is very distorted by
adding different parts. The main part is the first one "Nab", which in
Armennian means "na - b = he (is) kind".
In the book "History of Old World" by D. Reser and E. Cherkassova it
is said: "Later the terms "BabyIonian" and "Haldean" became synonyms".
"Babylon under Haldean Dynasty again achieved heyday" [117, p. 231].
. . In Bible the town
"Ur Haldean" is noted. It
will be more accurate to
read this name as "Ar
Armennian".
There are many old
maps where Armennia is
shown. In the book of
British historian Rouben
Galichian more than 120
such maps are presented
[109]. The oldest one
(came to us) Is the
Babylonian clay tablet
map dated from the VI
cent. BC, the scheme of
which is shown in Fig. 86.
. . .
Fig. 86. Babylonian map (VI c. BC), where Armenia and Harran are shown.
196
Here the Armennia and Armennian Harran countries, also Armennian
Highland (Mountains) are presented (also Babylon and Assyria) [109, p. 36].
Assyria was a very aggressive country and a big lover of terrible wars
with all countries around. M. Neiman wrote that Assyria many centuries
attacked Armennia, so Armennian army with Mydian and Babylonian ones
came to Ninve, capital of Assyria, and stormed it in 605 BC. Assyria was
annihilated [90, p. 63].
3. 83. ARMENNIAN BEHAYNA KINGDOM
In many books on history it is said that in territory of the Great
Armennia 4300 - 4200 years ago there lived tribes of Hourites (or Hayassa).
These are wrong, because they were not tribes and did not have said names.
They were Armennians-Aryans living all the time in the Great Armennian
Kingdom.
In Armennia have always lived Armennians. And it is not necessary to
devise other names for inhabitants of Armennia.
In the Great Armennia during the period of 13-6 centuries BC existed
the Armennian Behayna Kingdom which consisted of two parts: Nairi
Kingdom (known in 13-9 cent. BC) with capital town Van (founded in about
35 mill. BC) and Ararratian Kingdom from very old time, which was
wrongly so-called ''Urartu'', for the period of 9-6 centuries BC. Until 9 cent.
BC Araratian Kingdom had a capital town Manazkert (founded in about 25
mill. BC).
In 9 century BC Nairi was united with Ararratian Kingdom at the
period of the King (Kesar) Aram (860-840 BC) having the capital town Van.
This united Armennian State was called Behayna, which in Armennian
means: Be-hay-na =it (is) double Armennian =17w qpq(iwtUt hWJqwqw(i
(bPtUtpt).
Ararratian Kingdom is well researched for the "Urartian" period.
On the territory of present Armennia many excavations were done and
many old things were found: home utensil, dishes, decoration, carts,
weapon, dresses, paints, etc. All these artefacts for pre-Urartian,
Urartian and after-Urartian periods are the same as well as the Armennoid
race for people. This means that there was not a certain "Urartu" for a short
period of 9-6 centuries BC, but was Armennian Ararratian Kingdom for a
very long period, which with Armennian Nairi Kingdom in 9-6 centuries BC
were called Behayna.
The names of all kings of the period of 9-6 cent. BC are known (see
Table of King below).
Present capital town of Armennia, Yerevan, was founded in 782 BC by
the King Argist I (788 - 764 BC). On the territory of present Yerevan the
old town-castle ''Yerebouni'' was excavated and partly reconstructed. Here
197
was found out the stone with cuneiform characters of King Argist I
(Armennians in that time used Alphabet and also cuneiform in parallel)
about the foundation of Yerebouni - Yerevan, with the text: "I am, Argist,
son of Menoua, by the order of the God Bald this beautiful town built for
the potency of Behayna country..." (see Fig. 87). So "Urartian" kings called
their own country Behayna. In Fig. 88 another Armennian old and big castle
"Amberd", on Mount Aragats, is shown.
Fig. 83. The stone with script about foundation of Yerevan (in 782 BC) by
King Argist of Behayna country.
3. 84. ARMENNIANS IN SYRIA, LEBANON AND PALESTINE
Armennians were in territories of present Syria, Lebanon and Palestine
from the very old time (before the Great Deluge) on their way to the
Phoenicia and Egypt. They played an important role in the formation of
local nations.
Armennians taught inhabitants knowledge, art of houses and towns
building, the adoration to the kind AR God and to other Armennian Gods.
For example, in Palestine Armennians founded the town Yerusalem
(Jerusalem) (before the III mill. BC), and inhabitants of old Palestine were
worshippers of Armennian Gods, particularly, of the God Vahal (Vahagn)
and the Goddess Astart (Astghik).
In Lebanon the quantity of Armennians increased after the genocide of
Armennians in Turkey (including Kilikia) in 1915 AD, when many
Armennians from Kilikia and other regions came to the neighbouring
Lebanon. Now here along the seaboard there are many Armennian villages.
So now in Palestine, Lebanon and Syria there are many Armennians
and other Christians, close to Armennians.
198
3. 85. ARMENNIANS ANDJEWS
In 586 BC Jerusalem was occupied by Babylon and part of Jews was by
force transmigrated to Babylon (Babylonian captives. 586 - 539 BC).
Because the threat for Judea still existed, Jew's Seer Ieremia invoked
his nation to call Armennians for help: "Boost flags, blare trumpets amidst
nations, arm nations against him (Babylon), call against him Ararratian,
Miniean and Askanazian" Kingdoms" [110].
King of the Great Armennia Tigran Yervandouni (560 - 535 BC)
together with Iranian King Kir came and stormed Babylon, annihilated
Babylon Kingdom at 539 BC and liberated Jews [90, p.64].
Armennian King Tigran n the Great (95 - 55 BC) built his second
capital town Tigrannakert (southward from Lake Van) and after occupation
of Jerusalem invited to Tigrannakert about ten thousand Jews (and also
Greeks) - artisans. Their descendants are living in Armennia until now.
In 1960-es AD in Jerusalem lived 15 - 17 thousand Armennians. But
now they are only about one thousand.
3. 86. ARMENNIANS IN EUROPE
The first Armennian expeditions to Europe took place probably in V -
IV millennia BC. The main purpose was researching the lands, measuring
latitudes of different points and building simple observatories having some
analogy with Carahunge.
Afterwards, at the time of Armennian Kesar Hayk (the middle of ill
millennium BC) many Monuments were rebuilt with local tribes to have
more religious designation, besides Callanish in Scotland which has kept big
analogy with Carahunge until now. So, maybe, the age of Callanish is much
more, than it is dated now.
About the presence of Armennians and their settlements in Europe,
beginning from In millennium BC, tell also the Armennian names kept until
now in Bretain (France): as Carnak (the names of Monument and town), the
town Van, the mountain ridge Armorika and others. The word ''Bret'' in
Armennian means: p • P • h • m =pwp}1 wpqbg}1fi btwb (lJ.wnntgqwb) mfibpD
=the houses were kindly built.
• Annennian Kingdoms [90, p.64].
199
GREECE
Armennians came to Greece during V - ID millennia BC from two
sides: South - Crete, Mycenae and from North part - Delphi.
Crete in Armennian means: q • p • b • m • b =qpuwm wpqwb' mhq t =
qmpqwb' mhq t 0l1lq}1) =cut place (island).
Greek historian J.A. Papapostolou in his book "Crete" wrote: ''The
earliest traces of civilization••• have been noted at Knossos and belong to the
end of the 7th millennium BC. The man who lived in Crete at that time
knew how to cultivate wheat and used primitive stone tools. ••• About the
middle of the 5th millennium BC the making and use of hand-made pottery
vases began.
At the beginning of this period (from 2600 BC) the Neolithic elements
still held sway in the way of life and art. Quickly, however, the old traits
were creatively modified and the new inhabitants sought and found their
own ways of exploring the rich resources of the island and came into
contract with Egypt, Asia Minor and Syria. From there they secured
supplies of copper, tin, ivory and gold" [111, p.13]
The word Mycenae in Armennian means: U • }1 • p • b • fiw =Ubb'
uWIUlqwfigwl1pngfi hqwq fiw = it became the castle of big (top) men.
Mycenae, the old town in South Greece, was the centre of Aegean
(Cretan-Mycenaean) Culture of the Bronze Age (about 2800 - 1000 BC).
The bloom of Mycenae was in 1400 - 1200 BC, but about 1200 BC Mycenae
was perished in fire [87, pp. 802, 1538].
In National historical Museum in Athens I have been, of course, also in
halls of Crete-Mycenaean culture. Here everywhere on walls were the big
Suns of gold colour with large and long rays. These Suns are the main
indication or mark of the Armennian old culture. I bought there books
about Crete and Mycenaean culture and was surprised, because in the
books, among illustrations there was not shown even one Sun[111].
The word Delphi in Armennian means: 11 • bl • UJ. • h • }1 =(}111) 1lP11wg
blwfi pnlnp UJ.wZlDDIl l1wIUl1tq = all worshipper men stand before (me). These
are the words of Armennian Main God AR (the Sun) and Mother-Goddess
Haya (Earth). In honour of the AR the famous Temple of the Sun-God
(Apollo) was built in Delphi, before the full formation of Greek nation with
their Pantheon of Gods. ''In 8 - 6 centuries BC in Greece polices (town-
states) were formed in Athens, Sparta, Crete. In 5 - 4 cent. BC was the
bloom of polices. The bloom of Athens was at Pericl (443 - 429)" [87, p.339].
Greek historian B. Petrakos in his book ''Delphi'' wrote: "From the
excavations carried out in the area, we know that in the period now called
"Mycenaean" (14th to 11th cent. BC) Delphi was a small village whose
inhabitants worshipped a female deity, the original owner of the place,
200
goddess Earth. Clay figurines of this deity were found in the deepest layers
of the sanctuaries of Apollo and Athena Pronaia.
Later, during the "Geometric" period (11th to 9th cent. BC), the
sanctuary of goddess Earth was taken over by Apollo." [112, p.7].
I have heard that some Greek historians have the opinion that
Armennians have arisen from Delphi. I am glad that they see the connection
between Delphi and Armennians, I am sure that it took place vice versa:
Delphi was built by Armennians.
ITALY
In I millennium BC on the NW of Apennine Peninsula (on territory of .
present Tuscany) lived Etruscans who had a developed civilization, which
made a big influence on development of Rome. Etruscans in 7 cent. BC
made a unit from their 12 town-states and in 6 cent. BC held Campania
region in the South of Italy (Neapol). But in 5 -3 cent. BC they were
vanquished by Roma. There is the hypothesis that Etruscans language
pertain to the Indo-European family of languages. [87, p.1568].
In the book of Ancient civilizations it is said: ''The question of the
Etruscans is impenetrable. Basically there are only two tenable theories.
Either they were an indigenous people who developed their culture as a
result of contact with Greek traders and others. Or they came from West
Asia at some time during the disturbances that followed the collapse of the
Hittite and Mycenaean empires and settled in Italy cross-fertilizing with the
native (Villanovan) population already established there. The question
cannot yet be solved archaeologically, but on the whole, the second solution
seems more probable: not only because the Etruscan language has close
affinities with eastern scripts .•. and features of Etruscan religious ceremony
.•. can best be paralleled from eastern sources, but because of the strength of
the tradition that there was a migration from Asia Minor. It is not just the
legend of Aeneans fleeing from Troy that was to figure so prominently in
Etruscan art" [93, p.241- 242].
These and other sources tell that in Apennine Peninsula, in I
millennium BC, the Etruscans lived, who probably came from the West Asia
(Hittites) or from Balkan Peninsula (Mycenae).
All these do not contradlet to existed supposition about Armennian
genesis of Etruscans. I know that in Europe in 19th cent. AD the book was
printed with title: "Armennian Origin of Etruscans", but could not find it.
The word "Etrusc (Tusc)" in Armennian means: t • m • p • m • U • q
(mnlult) =qbut! (lIwuf!) uiju ml)l1wl m1uUJ. mbpfi t =the half (part) is the lord
of this given place. This is very interesting and means also that Etruscan
scripts are necessary to be read in Armennian.
201
Let me add that the supposition about Armennian genesis of Etruscans
is right also because in I century BC Armennians were almost in all Europe.
CELTS
"Celts (Roman name Galls) were ancient Indo-European tribes, who
lived in second part of I millennium BC on territories of present France,
Belgium, Switzerland, South part of Germany, in Austria, North Italy,
North and West Spain, British Islands, Czechia, and partly in Hungary and
Bulgaria" [87, p. 567].
"Celtic languages - the group of kindred languages of the Indo-
European family. Included: Gallian, Celtiberian, Irish, Menian, Welchian,
Corian and British languages." [87, p.567].
"Gallia - in ancient time the region on territory between river Po and
the Alps, and between the Alps, Mediterranean Sea, the Pyrenees and the
Atlantic Ocean.
From the beginning of 5 cent. BC territory of Gallia was occupied by
German tribes, and in the end of 5 cent. AD was included in Franklin State"
[87, p.271].
Celt in Armennian means: q •h •1•m = qhut! (uwut!), hqwb" lwl{mhq =
the half (part) who came to the good place. So it is Armennian word.
Celts were Armennians, also because Armennia was the cradle of Indo-
Europeans, and their languages came from Armennian language (see PART
2). There are very many facts showing this (see also below).
Celts were the main connecting link between Armennia and young
Europeans, who brought to Europe Indo-European genes, knowledge,
culture and civilization. Thereat Armennia never had hegemonic tendencies.
GERMANY
"Germans - old tribes of Indo-European family of languages, lived in
the first century BC between the North and Baltic Seas, rivers Rein, Danube
and Visla, and in South Scandinavia, and had tribal system. In 4 - 6 cent.
AD they captured a big part of West Roma Empire and formed some
kingdoms: westgotian, ostgotian, burgundian, frankian, langobardian" [87,
p.296]:
"German languages - the group of kindred languages of the Indo-
European family:
East German ones: Gottian and others,
Scandinavian or North German ones: Swedish, Danish, Norwegian,
Icelandic, Farerian,
West German: English, German, Idish, Dutch, Frizian, Africans".
202
The leaders of old German main tribes were Armennians with
Armennian names Armen - in Armennian "(from) the Sun people", and
Arman - in Armennian ''the Sun man". These names were transformed to
German, and country - to Germany. So Germany is the analogue of
Armennia.
The tribes were united by the leader by the name of Arminius.
"Arminius (18 or 16 BC - 19, 21 AD). The leader of German tribe of
Cheruski, In 9 AD routed the Roman army led by Vara in Tevtoburgian
forest" [87, p. 76].
Probably, the nearest to Armennians in present Germany are
Bavarians.
FRANCE
''France - ••• In ancient times on territory of France lived Galls (Celts)
and country was called Gallia; from the 10th cent. AD - France".
"French language - the Indo-European language of Frenchmen and
French population of Belgium, Switzerland, Canada (where it is one of
official languages) and of many States of Africa, Haiti, French Guiana" [87,
p.1435].
In France at the I millennium BC the Celts-Armennians lived who were
the ancestors of Frenchmen. There are many marks of presence of
Armennians in France. For example, the oldest Christian church in France
(the church of Carolings) was built in Germini de Pre (Luara department)
in 806 AD by Armennian architect Odon Le Messin (Metzn) [113]. The word
"Metzn" in Armennian means ''the Great". Apropos, the name Caroling in
Armennian means: Caro • ling, where "Caro" is Armennian rife first male
name (means "Saint Stone") and ''ling or leng" means ''lame''. There are
also many other French words and names, especially, beginning with "Ar
(the Sun)", as Armaniak, d"Artanian, d"Arting, etc., which have the
interpretation in Armennian.
Very many marks of Armennian presence are in Brittany Peninsula.
"Brittany (Bretagne) - the Peninsula in the West (NW) of France. The
main town Ren•••• Armorikan Hills (Highness) with top height 384 m.
Brettonians - population of Brittany•••• The language is Brettonian, of
Celtic group" [87, p. 168].
The name of Brittany Peninsula in ancient and medieval time was
"Armorika". This word in Armennian means: Ar • mor • ika (UP-I! lTnpfi
pqw) = the AR (Sun) to (His) Mother came. Indeed, inhabitants of Brittany
every day saw as the Sun is setting into the ocean-Mother, on the West. In
other words, "Armorika" is the explanation (in Armennian) of the word
"West" (of the country).
Other present marks are: Armorikan Hills; the town Van (the name of
Lake Van in Armennia and name of the town Van, which during the
203
I mill. BC was the capital of the Great Armennia); the names of the town
and Old Monument "Carnac", which in Armennian means "Stone Sign" or
"Stone Mark" (see PART 1), etc.
So, in France, particularly in Brittany, in ancient time the Celt-
Brettonian-Armennians lived, who were the ancestors of Frenchmen.
THE UNITED KINGDOM
''The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has
National regions: England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland.
In the I millennium BC on the territory of present U.K. lived Celts. In
5-6 cent. AD there have come Anglo-Saxons" [87, p, 204].
Anglo-Saxons were West-Saxes who came to the U.K. in 449 AD. Here
they mixed with local population-Celts (or Brettons-Armorikans-
Armennians). The name England comes from VII cent. AD. The
Christianity was adopted in VI - VII cent. AD, and Latin Alphabet - in VII
cent. AD.
In the English oldest three-language book ''The Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle" (about VIII cent. AD) it is written: ''The first inhabitants of this
land (Britain) were the Britons, who came from Armenia ..." [104]. In
Fig. 89a the first page of this book is shown. In Fig. 89b the translation of
original text into modern English of 1861 is shown, and in Fig. 89c the
translation on modern English of 1953 (now under title "The Laud
Chronicle") is shown.
It is also interesting that both translators (of 1861 and 1953)
marked that "from Armenia" is an error, it had to be "from
Armorika". From the book edition time and translation time passed
more than 1000 years, so it was forgotten that Armorikans (Britons-
Celts) were Armennians who came to Armorika from Armennia and
Armorika is old Armenian name of Briton. So author (authors) of the
old book were right, saying "from Armennia".
About predominant role of Armenians (Celts) in old territory of
U.K. tells also the data of analysis of the present English language,
where 55% of words were taken from French (Celt-Armennian)
language and 10% - from Latin group of languages.
The present population of Wales, Scotland and Ireland is more
close to Armennians until now by their traditions, mentality, habits,
folk songs, dances, etc.
In Oxford Dictionary is said: "Welch - the Celtic language of
Wales" [58, p. 1354]. As I know, the self-name of inhabitants of Wales
is "Kumri". It is interesting to note that in Armennia there is the old
region with the main town having the old and present names "Kumri"
or "Gumri". The town Kumri is in 120 km from Yerevan.
204
m E
.\ x L0 -SAX0 N CIT 0 NI CLE.
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THE
ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICtE.
,.. Wad of Brieua It' . iih& mUe. laDg, Uld hro
"..dAd alae. br'C*l f ud here u-. In'the 1a1&D.d ATe 'people. I
Uclt.h, Brlf.o..WeJlh, 8ootdah, PiOtilh, '. and
fire' iDhnblCln, .hi. land '!Yere Britona I they came
.. and ilrlt ICttled lOuthward in Britain.
'If.n.-TM DUlNnlalA &be . Ide I ·AD mw fbt Ar.orb.-- Da
-.,. t!M P'Se- of the .. lndll Annorloeao et!nel.l,· an
Int. ,be word. oC JadI. H.E. L 1.
THE LAUD cHRoNIO.E (E)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 89. Copies of the "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" old book, where is said:
"Britons came from Armenia". Original book in thr ee languages (a), tr anslations
into modern English of 1861 (b) and 1953 (c).
205
3.87. ARMENNIANS AND SLAVS
"Slavs - the group of nations having kindred ancestry. This group
includes: the East group (Russians, Ukrainians, Byelorussians), the West
group (poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Lujichians), South group (Bulgarians, Serbs,
Croats, Sloventses, Macedonians, Bosnians)" [87, p.1222].
The languages are Indo-European (of the Slavian group).
"Russians - as also Ukrainians and Byelorussians, arose from the East-
Slavian tribes and founded Ancient-Russian State around the town Kiev.
The nation was formed in 14-15 cent. AD••••" [87, p.1149].
There are a lot of information about ancestry and development of Slavs
in connection with Armennians.
There is the supposition that Slavs (Russians, Ukrainians, Macedonians
and others) arose in the result of contacts between Armennians (coming to
the region) and local tribes.
The words "Rous", ''Rossia'' (Russia in Russian) and ''Rousskiy''
(Russian in Russian) have no explanations in Russian language. But in
Armennian these three words are "Rous", "Rousastan", "Rous" and have
explanations (meaning): "fi.n1u" = D • D1 • U = (fim) lthb" t D1 uppn1fi = (he) is
big and beautiful and "Rous . astan" =Rous country. Besides, in the Great
Armennia in the first millennium BC (in Behayna-Arraratian country) in
the period of 735 - 590 BC there were four Kings having name Rousa (I, D,
rn, IV) =(he) is big and beautiful man. So the supposition is, that at the time
of one of these Kings a part of Armennians went to the North (may be led by
one of King with the name Rousa) and rested somewhere in Russia. Later
Armennians mixed with local tribes. Thus, at the end of 1 millennium BC the
name of local population became Rous, and the name of their country -
Roussiya.
Armennian Lord 5mbat Bagratouni after his victory in Livia sailed to
Crimea, went with his troop to the North and on the bank of the river
Dnieper in 585 AD founded the castle 5mbatas, which later grew to the town
Kiev. At that time there were also other Armennian towns Armen (Romen),
Artan, Artavet where lived Armennians and made valuable steel swords
[115, p. 293].
3.88. CULTURE IN THE GREAT ARMENNIA
During the period of 5 - 1 mill. BC the leading role of Armennian
Science and Culture all over the World was continued. This is confirmed by
the big influence of Armennians and their culture on development of the
206
level of other nations and countries, particularly in Europe, including also
the early Christian period - the first millennium BC.
It is known also the big influence of Armennians on the formation of
Indo-European race and languages, on the science, technology, music,
architecture, human relations, which were much more developed in
Armennia. I want especially to note the beautiful Armennian Poetry, coming
from the old time up to now.
This period was the time when many nations and countries arose and
quickly developed. They learned also to make weapon and unfortunately the
wars started in the World. The era of wars came and it continued until now.
Many important problems people try to decide by force, having not yet
enough experience in kindness, accumulation of which needs thousands of
years.
At the same time the Great Armennia was, as before, the centre of
education and learning of the kind Sun God religion. Many foreign
scientists, philosophers, musicians, priests, historians and others came to
Armennia or to countries where Armennian scientists, artists, priests and
magi lived, such as Egypt, Babylon, Syria, etc. For example, such famous
persons as Pythagoras, Zoroastra, Abraham and others.
The ''father of western philosophy" Pythagoras (VI cent. BC),
according to Greece philosopher Yamblicus (ill - IV cent. AD) "••• visited all
Egyptian priests and found all wisdom from each of them. Thereby he spent
twenty two years (in Egypt) in temples, learning astronomy and geometry
not at all superficially meeting with all the secrets of the Gods•••• (then) in
Babylon he had the great pleasure from contacts with magi, consecrating
him into their old knowledge and into the most ideal service to the Gods.
With their help he finished learning of arithmetic, music and other sciences.
After twelve years, in the age of about 56, he returned to the Samos Island"
[33, p. 53].
The famous theorem of Pythagoras Babylonians knew 1200 years
before Pythagoras, so 3800 years ago, and Armennians knew it in
Carahunge time, so 7500 years ago.
The founder of Persian Zoroastrism religion Zoroastrian (VII cent.
BC) was born in Armennia, on the bank of river Araks (in about 630 BC)
and educated in Armennia, also in Babylon.
The progenitor of Jews Abraham (about 1680 BC) lived in Chaldean
Ur (Armennian Ar), then in Armennian big town Harran and, in the age of
about 73, buried in Harran his father Farra and went to Palestine [33].
About influence of Armennian culture and technology on development
of other countries tells also the book "Oriental Carpets (Their Iconology and
Iconography from Earliest Times to the 18th Century AD)" by Volkmar
Gantzhorn [59], where is shown that Carpets propagated to all the World
from Armennia. It is obvious from his map, shown here in Fig. 90 [59, p. 20].
207
In Armenia from the old time the making of different kind of utensil,
dishes, decoration, etc. from metals were traditionally developed. In Fig. 91
the Armenian female traditional silver belt of XVI century AD is shown. In
Fig. 92 the bronze statuette of Aries of XIII cent. BC (the Symbol of Sun) is
shown. It found out near village Arich (Mount Aragts, Armenia) by
archaeologist Prof. T.Khachaturian.
osamarkand
oKhor• • • n 0 Kabul
._.j
lIalu<hl\ tan
Kerman
o
Fig. 90. Map of Carpets propagation from Armennia
to the all World [59].
Formation of other nations and countries gives also the new result in
the field of information about Armennia. Foreign authors, travellers and
historians began to write about Armennia.
The first known information comes from Sumerian epos of III
millennium BC, where is said that their ancestors came from "Arratta",
which is Armennia (see Item 3.14).
After formation of Greece, Rome (I mill. BC - beginning of I mill. AD)
many Greek, Roman and Byzantine travellers, warriors and historians were
in Armennia and wrote about it. They are: Sfrabon, Pliniy, Procopiy, Dion,
Kassiy, Tatsit, Ammian, Martsella, Ploutarkh, Ptolemmey, Theodoret,
Isidor, Sintsell, Herodot, Ksenofont, Polibbiy, Tsitseron, Horatsiy, Svettoniy,
Sozomen, Sokrat, Evagriy, Zonar, Sineziy, Hulian, Yevsevviy, Zosim,
Michael Attalliot, Pheophan, Georgiy, Tsedren, Efremiy, Georgiy Pakhimer,
Nikkita Khoniat, Doukas, Konstantin Bagrianorodniy, Nikkifor Gregoras,
Lev Diakkon, Kantakkouazen and others [90, p. 63].
208
The new information comes also as the result of new excavations on the
territory of present Armennia. For example, during present excavations
near Mount Araggats (villages Aggarak and Dzorap) was found out an
Armennian big town of the beginning of ill - I mill. BC with developed
architecture and culture [94].
3.9. THE GREAT ARMENNIA IN 1 MILL. BC - 301 AD
3.91. ARMENNIAN KESAR ARTASHES I THE KIND
In n century BC the independent Armennian States were the Great
Armennia, Armennia Minor, Tsopc and Kommagena. Other Armennian
countries were occupied by foreigners.
Armennian Kesar of Great Armennia Artashes I the Kind (186 - 160
BC) of Yervandouni Dynasty (which came from Haykian Dynasty)
established the Dynasty of Artashesouni and began to unite Armennia. In
the result of his activity the Great Armennia re-established almost his full
power from the river Cour (Kura) to the river Tigris, Armennian
Mesopotamia, Korduk and Armennian Mountains; from the Caspian Sea to
river Euphrates and basin of river Chorokh to the Black Sea. As the King of
Tsopc became Merujan, son of Zareh of Yervandouni Dynasty which came
back also to the throne of Kommagena (163 BC) [68, p, 23].
In the inscriptions on stones (see Item 2.15) the King Artashes I called
himself as "Artashes, the king Yervandouni, the Good (Kind) son of
Zarekh". He founded in Ararat valley the new capital town of the Great
Armennia - Artashat.
Movses Khorenatsi wrote: "Artashes ••• created his town, with the best
view of the capital town". Plutarkh wrote about Artashat ''the very
beautiful town".
3.92. ARMENNIAN KESAR TIGRAN n THE GREAT;
THE KING OF KINGS
Armennian Kesar of Great Armennia Tigran n the Great, King of
Kings (95 - 55 BC) led politics of development of economical and defensive
power of Great Armennia and deliverance of other Armennian Kingdoms
from Roman and Parthian aggression.
He reunited with the Great Armennia Tsopc (94 BC) and Kappadokia
which was under Roman protege. In 86 BC he delivered from the Parthians
Armennian Mesopotamia (Edessia, Mtsbin and other), where from the old
time was Armennian Dynasty of Abgarian (Yervandouni). He returned into
209
the Great Armennia the regions occupied by the Parthians: "Seventy
valleys", Nina, Arbel (Adiabena) and other parts of Mesopotamia and also
Ekbotan, Atrapatakan (Atropatena).
Precipitating Selevkides, Tigran the Great added Syria and Kilikia to
the Great Armennia and put on Syrian throne Armennian commander
Bagarat as his deputy. Antiokhia, the capital town of Selevkides, in 83 BC he
converted to the one of his capital towns where his coins were minted.
In Fig. 93 the silver coin of kesar Tigran 11 the Great is shown.
Fig. 93. Silver coin of Tigran 11 the Great
The lordship of Tigran 11 the Great propagated also over Kilikia,
Phoenicia, Kommagena, Syria, Palestine with Judea and in the North over
Iveria and Agouvank. Ploutarch tells that "Around Tigran were many kings
with the statute of servants" [68, p.26].
The capital town Artashat was at the North part of the large Great
Armennia, so Tigran the Great in 80 BC built another capital town
Tigrannakkert (with theatres) in the Agdznik region, southward of the Lake
Van. Ploutarkh tells that "Tigrannakkert was very rich town with big
treasures and expensive bestowals for Gods, because the private persons and
lords in eager rivalry widened and beautified the town struggling to be ,.
compliant to the King" [68, p. 26].
To the Tigran 11 the Great Jews ambassadors came with rich bestowals
and asked him to be gracious to their Tsarina and people. Tigran 11 the
Great gave hope to ambassadors of Jews Tsarina.
Armennia was attacked by Loukull with Roman army. They wade
Euphrates, came via Tsopc, besieged and came into the Tigrannakkert
(when Tigran 11 the Great was absent). In 68 BC Loukull went to Artashat
direction. But near the river Aratsani was met by Tigran 11 the Great with
Armennian army which shattered Roman army and banished them out
from Armennia (68 BC).
In 66 BC from the side of Kilikia Armennia was attacked by Pompey
with lOO-thousand Roman Army. At the same time Armennia from the East
was attacked by Parthian army with King Phraat Ill, who came to the
Ararat valley and besieged Artashat, but was shattered by Tigran 11 the
210
Great and banished out from Armennia. Seeing this, Pompey disbelieved in
his victory and they with Tigran n the Great decided to conclude the
agreement of peace between Armennia and Roma (66 BC). Pompey
recognized Tigran n the Great as the king of Great Armennia in its native
boundaries: from basins of Euphrates and Chorokh (in West) until river
Cour (Kura) and Caspian Sea (in East) and Armennian Mesopotamia (in
South). The Kingdom of Great Armennia was proclaimed as the friend and
ally of Roman nation. The paint of Tigran Il the Great on throne is shown in
Fig. 68a. on page 144.
In 64 BC Tigran n the Great concluded a peace also with Iranian
Parthia.
The last period of Tigran Il the Great was placid. After him the Kesar
of the Great Armennia became his son, Artavvazd n (55 - 34 BC).
3.93. ARMENNIAN - PARTHIAN UNION
In 54 BC Roman army with Mark Krass crossed river Euphrates from
Syria side and came to town Harran in Armennian Mesopotamia with
purpose to attack Parthia.
At that time Parthian King Orrod was invited by Artavvazd n to
Artashat, where the union between Armennia and Parthia was renewed and
sustained by the marriage of Artavvazd n sister with Orrod's sun Pakkor.
In main battle near Harran Roman army was shattered (53 BC) and
Krass was killed. His head was taken to Artashat and shown to Artavvazd,
Orrod and people in theatre where the demonstration of Greece play took
place.
After 15 years, when in 39 BC Prince Pakkor with army went to Syria
and Phoenicia, Roman army conquered his army and killed him.
In 34 BC Mark Antoniy attacked Armennia with Roman army and
came nearer Artashat, where negotiation with Artavvazd n began. But
during negotiation Antoniy disloyally arrested Artavvazd. Armennian
Prince Artashes attacked Antoniy to deliver his father, but could not do it.
Antoniy carried off Artavvazd to Alexandria where with his wife Cleopatra
put Artavvazd in jail, where he after three years was killed. In 31 BC M.
Antoniy perished in battle with Oktavian and Cleopatra committed suicide.
In 31 BC Artashes n (31 - 20 BC) became the Kesar of the Great
Armennia and extirpated Roman army which occupied Armennia. In 20
BC other Roman army came to Armennia, Artashes Il was killed and his
brother Tigran ID became the Kesar of Great Armennia (20 - 8 BC) who
led politics of independence from Roma. The same did his son Tigran IV (8
- 5 BC), then his uncle Artavvazd nI (5 - 3 BC).
211
Continuation of Roman aggression against Aarmennia and Parthia
gave in result more consolidation of Armennian -Parthian union and
relations.
In 51 AD the King of Parthia became Vologes I Arshakid who was in
allied relations with Armennian Kings. The top lords of Armennia decided
to have closest relations with Parthia up to invitation of Arshakids to
Armennian throne.
In 52 AD the brother of Vologes I Trdat became Armennian King
Trdat I. But Emperor Neron (54 -68) did not want to agree and sent to the
East, to Armennia Roman army with Corbulon, who occupied Artashat and
then came and occupied Tigrannakkert (59 AD).
Trdat I in 61 AD encompassed Tigrannakkert; Vologes I came to
Roman province Syria. Corbulon was forced to agree to conclude the peace
agreement and to avow Trdat I as the King of independent Great Amennia.
But Neron did not agree and sent to Armennia another army with
commander Pet. This army was shattered by Armennian-Partbian united
army (62 BC). Neron in 64 AD was forced to avow Trdat I as King of Great
Armennia.
In the end of the 11 cent. BC the Dynasty of Arshakids became
ancestral in Armennian throne as Aarshakouni dynasty. Neron, as the sign
of his agreement to avow Trdat I, invited him to Roma, made a gross
reception, put on his head crown and gave him huge amount of gold as
compensation for restoration of Artashat after Corbulon occupation.
Roma could not occupy Armennia and turn it to Roman province, as it
happened to Egypt, Syria, Kappadokia, Judaea and other countries.
3.94. DISTORTIONS OF ARMENNIAN mSTORY
Unfortunately, Armennian History is very negatively distorted. Let me
show this by some examples.
1. About so-called "Urartu". According to present history, this very
strange state with unknown nation suddenly arose with very high developed
level, in IX cent. BC in South Caucasus and basin of Lake Van. They were
able to cultivate metals (bronze, steel). Then in VI cent. BC they also
suddenly disappeared; after what, in V cent. BC Armennians arose in the
same place. All these are very strange.
This enigma has a simple decision, if in word ''Urartu'' instead of letter
"u" to put letter "a". Then we will have the word "Ararta or Ararat".
Indeed, it was Arraratian State of Armennian Behayna Kingdom (See Item
3.83), where Be • hay • na in Armennian means ''Double Armennian
Country", which was united "Nairi Armennian Country" plus "Arraratian
Armennian Country". I don't know what "genius" put ''0'' instead of "a"
212
and "decided" that the language of Behayna was not Indo-European
(Armennian) but "Semitic". Perhaps, it was semitic "genius", who so simply
distorted all history. Of course, this and other "scientists" do not believe
even the Armennian King Argist I who founded town Yerevan (capital of
present Armennia) in 782 BC and wrote that he built this town in honor of
Behayna Country by the order of the God Hard, Le, the Sun. Let us note
again that "hay", the main root in word ''Behayna'', in Armennian means
"Armennian"•
These "historians" ignored even the results of excavations. It is well
known, for example, that all archaeological findings (parts of clothes, dishes,
decorations, weaponry, utensil, carts, ete.) are the same for ''preurartian'',
''urartian'' and ''posturartian'' periods. Anthropological data also tell that in
all these periods population in all these regions was Armennians
(Armennoid race).
So nobody suddenly arose and tailed away, there was no any ''Urartu''.
There was Armennia (Great Behayna) populated with Armennians, having
high culture. Recently in this problem there is some progress. It was said
above that historian M. Rimshneider wrote that Urartu is Arraratian
country [61].
British specialist on Caucasian history David Lang in his book
"Armennia, Cradle of Civilization" [53] has the Item 4 with name ''Urartu -
the First Armennian State", and in the book ''The Encyclopedia of Ancient
Civilization" [93] he has an article named ''Urartu and Armennia" [p.117].
All this is a progress, but even these authors can not refuse from the word
''Urartu''•
2. The mentioned book [53] in 2004 was translated into Russian by E.
F. Levina, where the name of the book is changed to "Armennians, Nation -
Creator"[l18]. This ''little'' change changes all sense of the book.
3. To conceal that Armennian language is the oldest, it was devised so-
called Aramaean language (also "semitic") to make impossible to find out
and read Armennian old scripts in Armennian (see Item 2.15).
4. In the book "Ancient Civilizations", edited by G. Bongard-Levin,
Moscow, 1989 (in Russian) [119], Armennia is presented divided to three
parts: in South Caucasus, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor (Why?). In the part
of South Caucasus about Armennia (by V.M. Masson) it is said even that
"so-called Great Armennia" was created by King Antiokb III as the part of
Seleucidian State, said that Tigran II the Great was a vassal of Roma
[p.171], etc. It is funny: the large Great Armennia ''was a part" of a little
Seleucidian country! Even Alexander of Macedonia with his great army
passed by Armennia from South.
All these are deliberate and caddish lie. Indeed, why don't Jews-
historians like Armennian History?
213
In all these and many other distortions of Armennian History
Armennian historians, of course, are also guilty because they didn't fight
against all this injustice.
3.95. CHRISTIANITY ADOPTING IN THE GREAT ARMENNIA
In Item 3.21 it was told that the Christianity arose from the kind, creative
and human AR (Sun) - Father Main God Armennian religion, as its
continuation and in Christianity the God-Father from the very beginning
until now is the same AR (Sun) - Father Main God.
About deep connection between
Christianity and old Armenian knoleadge,
culture and symbols of the AR-Father
Main God period there are many facts.
One of them is the structure of famous
Cross-stones (6") of Armennian
Christianity period, coming to us across
thousand of years. They means a man,
tanding on ball-formed Earth, as it is on
engraving on rock of V millenium BC,
which was shown in PART 1, pages 50, 60
and Fig. 40. In Fig. 94 one of these Cross-
stones (of XIV century AD) is shown.
So Christianity was born in
Armennia and Armennians came to
Christianity earlier and easily, being the
children of the AR- Father God, noble
and creative Aryans. Jesus Christ was
(and is) also the Son of the Sun-Father
Armennian God and preached His kind
and creative religion, i.e. Jesus Christ was
Armennian, as also Maria (Mariam), His
Fig. 94. Cross-stone of Mother. They spoke, read and wrote in
XIV century AD Armennian.
It is known, that when Jesus Christ was born, three Magi visited Him
with congratulations and presents. Who were those three Magi? To find the
answer to this question Adrian G. Gilbert consecrates a whole book "Magi"
[33]. He told how he met some Armennian people, visited towns in Historical
Armennia. He gave even the names of these three Magi: Kaspar, Melkhior
(Melikh, P.H. ) and Baltasar (Bagdassar, P.H.) [33, p. 21] which are
Armennian names, but doesn't tell, that they were Armennians from
Armennia.
214
At first in the World the Christianity was officially adopted by
Armenians in 33 AD in Edessia, Capital of Armennian Mesopotamia
country, by the King Abgar V the Great (12 - 50 AD) of the Great
Armennian Yervandouni Dynasty (see Item 3.41).
In 57 AD this decision lost its official force, but in 207 AD Christianity
was again officially adopted in Edessia by the King Abgar VIll the Great
(177 - 212 AD) of Yervandouni Dynasty (Item 3.41).
King Abgar V the Great (12 - 50 AD), his son Sannatrouk (50 - 57 AD)
and King Abgar YIll the Great, King of Kings (177 - 212 AD) were at the
same time the Kings (Kesars) of the Great Armennia.
In 301 AD the Christianity was adopted officially in the Great
Armennia, in Capital town Vaggarshappat, by the King Trdat ill the Great
(287 - 330 AD) Arshakouni.
The Central Cathedral of the Armennian Apostolic Church was built
(301 - 304 AD) and named St. Echmiatsin (see Fig. 95), which means ''the
Sole Born (Jesus Christ) descended".
The first Catholicos of all Armennians became Grigor, son of Annat
Parthev. Later he received the title "Lousavorich", which means "Bringer of
light".
In 1918 the Capital town of Armennian First Republic became Yerevan
and town Vaggarshappat in 1945 was renamed to Echmiatsin. .
In christianity period thousands Armenian beautiful churches in
territories of the present and thousands of them in territories of Historical
Armenia were built. In Fig. 96 the St. Hripsime Basilica (618 AD) in
Echmiatsin is shown. This Church Is,..one of examples (masterpieces) of
architectural Gothic Style foundation•.
During I millenium AD many Christian churches in Europe were built
by Armennian masters-stonemasons, who had in Europe their own closed
society.·
• Afterwards, this society was (and is) in use mainly by Jews.
215
3.10. ARMENNIAN OLD mSTORY CHRONICLE
Below the of Armennian Old History Chronicle (before Christianity) is
presented (Table 21, page 225).
3.11. ARMENNIAN KESARS, KINGS and DYNASTIES
CHRONICLE
Below the Armennian Kesars and Kings Chronicle is presented
(Table 22, page 231).
Armennia during his long History had about 1000 Kesars and Kings of 18
Dynasties. During the last 10 thousand years there were about 300 Kesars and
Kings of 13 Dynasties. From these 300 the names of about 170 are known (see
Table 22).
During Christianity period (after 301 AD) in Armennia has been 132
Catholleoses (Superior Patriarches) of all Armennians.
3.12. ARMENNIAN CAPITAL TOWNS CHRONICLE
Below the Armennian Capital Towns Chronicle is presented (Table 23,
page 234). During her long History Armennia had 23 Capital towns.
216
Fig. 76. Lake Sevan
Fig. 77. Lake Sevan. Sunrise. Painted by P. Herouni
217
Fit:. 78. Lake Van with Mount Sippan
218
Fig. 82. David of Sassoun
219
Fi2. 88. Armennian old big castle Amberd on
Mount Aragats
220
Fi2. 91. Traditional Armennian females silver belt
(XVI cent. AD) Painted by P. Herouni
221
222
Fig. 92. Aries (the old Symbol of AR). Bronze statuette
of XIII cent. BC. Found near village Arich (Mount
Aragats) by archaeologist Prof. T. Khachaturian
Fi2.95. St. Echmiatsin Central Cathedral (301 - 304 AD)
223
Fig. 96. St. Hripsime Basilica (618 AD), in Echmiatsin
224
Table 21 -1
ARMENIAN OLD HISTORY CHRONICLE
BEFORE CHRISTIANITY
mille-
Armenians, Armenia
Indo-Euro- Semits
Other
The main
peans of (Jewish, Gods
Years
nnium
nations
Armenians Armenian Armenian
Armenian Arabian)
Arme-
Other
ago
BC
(Armennoid) terrltorv, towns civilization
origin
.
man
1 2 3 4 5 6 7.8 9 10 11
302000
300 • Ancestors of Armenians:
CENTRAL (MOTHER) ARMENIA
• Early paleolitic culture,
AR-
neadertal man,
Camps, stone tools, HAYR
kromanions. • Around ARARAT
crockery, (Sun-
• Close to Nature, human • ARMENIAN ffiGHLAND
Clay things, fire-places.
Father)
(Likes Van, Sevan, Urmia,
300 millenniums ago
60
• Children of AR rivers Cour, Araks, Euphrates, Ti-
mll. ago
• Armennoid race
gris)
• "Amkhian", lOO-SO millen. BC
in vil, Azokh, Artsakh. EARTH-
• SAUTH CAUCASUS
MOTHER
(HAYA)
• Camps and Settlements in:
ARMENIAN LANGUAGE
ANAHIT
Ararat valley, around mount
Ara1ats, gorges of river Hrazdan,
beginning, 50 mil. BC
AR's
Eup rates, Aratsani, near towns
Daughter
Yerevan, Van, Carbert, Sevan,
Armenian Tavr ridge, etc.
50000
48
• Homo Sapience
• Names of places, rivers: • Names: Aram, Arman,
NANE,
Ararat, Aragats, Van, Sevan, Hay, Armen (AR's chil-
• Aryan Armenians Araks, Euphrates, Tigris dren)
• Tribes iolnlne
AR's
ARMENIA - J AYASTAN(THE GREAT ARMENIA)
Daughter
42000
40
Formation of the first States, 40 mill. BC
ADAM
Aramian Dynasty
40-10 .rut. BC Names of Countries • Settled life, settlements
AR's
ARAM I (Hay, Hayomard)
• Domestic animals: Son
(ADAM in Bible) Centre - Ayrarat, Aragatsotn,
sheep,hen,doS!
37000 Armenian
Turuberan
35
West - High Armenia, Tosp, • Agriculture: apple, grape,
Aryan civilization
Sasun, Tarron, Kilikia
apricot
and State
beginning from
East - Sunic, Paitakkaran • Town-building, art
40 millennium BC
NE - Taye, Gougarc, Utlc,
• Handicraft, tools, wheel
Artsakh
• Aryan civilization
• Equality, freedom,
South - Mokk, Aghdznic,
beginning from
kindness
Korduk, Arustan
40001. BC
SE - Vaspurakan, Shlrakan
Table 21-2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7.8 9 10 11
25000 23
+ NORTH MESOPOTAMIAN WRITTEN LANGUAGE
T.he b1lD-
VAHAGN
• Harranlan Armenian ARMENIAN (Eddesslan) (pictures, symbols
l
hieroalyphS)
DIngo
Armenians Fighter of
Kingdom
Kingdom Astronomy: Sun dais an
propagation evil
23 mil, BC - 4 cent. AD
Towns: Harran, Arhan Armenian first Calendar, begun
to Black,
ctrha, Orran, Urfa, from 22946 BC, Areg I
Mediterra- ASTGHIK,
• Klllldan Armenian
ddessla). 21);
nean Daughter
dlac constellations
Caspian, of
Kingdom KILIKIAN ARMENIAN
• Epos about Vahagn
Seas, Mesopo- AR'
22 mil.-Icent AD
Kingdom
,
tamia, Asia Wife of
and 11-14 cent. AD
Towns: Tars, Sis, Addana,
(oral and songs)
Minor, Vahagn
Hatchn, Mousaler
• Crape, wine, wheat 23-20 mil. BC
22000 20
• Armenian Phoenician
PHOENICIAN Kingdom, • Laws, Order UNIVERCE
Kingdom
15 mil, -1 cent. BC
• Fleet, Navigation Armenians
21 mil. -1 cent. BC
Towns: Tir, Sldon, Bibl
• Tsovlnar: beginning of
in Sumer
AR
Armenian Epos about David
and
in Egypt
ANAT
• Junior Aram Armenian
+MESOPOTAMIA
of Sasun (Sasuntsi David)
Dlnasd-'l (Sumer)
Kingdom of Junior Aram • Armenian (old Sumerian) Great Sphinx.
VAHAL
1 -1 mil. BC (or Armenian Sumer)
Culture (before Great (Precession)
ASTART
Armenians in Sumer
Towns: Ar (Ur), Aritun, Arak,
Deluge)
11-10 mll, BC (Phoenic.)
9-8 mil. BC
Larak, Clsh
• Astronomy, Precession
12000 10 Great Deluge, 10 mil, BC
Union of Ararat, Van
• Preliminary ALPHABET Noah .......... (1)
Ararat Armenian Dynasty
and Mesopotamia (19 letters + 10 figures)
During
10-3 mil. BC
Towns: Akorl, Nakhlchevan
10 mll, BC
15-1 mil, BC (numbered names
King NOAH............. (1)
• Domestic animals: horse,
Armenians
by Bible)
bull. cat etc.
searched
TIR,
11 000 9 Habet <Iafetl..........(2)
+ASIA MINOR • Developed ALPHABET
near and far
Sem Ham Secretary of
+ CAUCASUS, CRIMEA
(34 letters), 8 mil, BC
lands and
(2) (2)
AR, the
(or Kesar Aram 11) Towns: Yeraskh, Azov
• Metal using figures seas, dissemi-
God ofScI-
enee, Wrltt.
Arhan (Ergani, Dierbeldr)
• Food and clothe production nated lanjUage
teehnolozles
knowledge,
an Art
7500 6 Kesars
Towns: Sisakan (Slslanld CARAHUNGE
civilization
Mltsbin, Malatia, Arab r, (more than 7500 years ago) ARldnd
(Kesarla), Sebastia,
• More than 220 staying Stones
religion,
Tra zon, Bal{garran,
• AR God Temple
founded
Tribes Mihz, Marts, rkathlokert
• Powerful Observatory Aryan (Indo-
(Arkath, Yerkath), Carahunge transposition
• University European)
• Sun, Moon and star observation
race and
to the South
• FixedCalendar
languages
• Mathematics
• Cosmogony, theology
• Earth has balI-formand rotates
Table 21-3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7,8 9 10 11
7500 6 Gamer..............(3)
Towns: Shushi, Meghri,
• ARMENNIAN
(COUR- ARAKSIAN )
Arpaksat(3) Coush..(3)
Gandzak, Kaghzvan
high culture
n), Bakar, Aghpat and oth,
(from VI mil. BC)
• Armenian Theatre
7000 5
Trojan Armennian • TownTroya(Arian, Dion) TROYAN Armenian Armenians In
Kainan..(4)
Mes-
Kingdom 50 cent - 1225 BC
Kingdom 50-13 cent. BC Sumerfrom traim....(4)
30 cent. BC
50-13 cent. BC Towns: Lorl, Kumayrl,
• Constellations, It's names Towns:Ar (Ur)
L1chashen, Hrand, Yerezkan,
• Zodiac Signs, completed
Aritun, Kish,
Aruk, Larak,
Thiras ..............(4) • Metal using
Nishput
5000 3
• Central Armenia.
Armenians
Sagha...(5)
.RA
Thorgom Kingdom Towns: Ugarlt, Ashtarak, - Kesars in

(AR)
264 cent. BC Artashat, Metsamor

tate
MIHR
• Pyramids in Armenia Mardouk
• Orlon
THORGOM.............. (5)
Manes, (Alaverdl), • Metal production, Metsamor
(I-XVIII din)
from (Son of
(Hayk)
2574-2474 BC
Kesar: 2554-2493 BC
Darani (Elar), Agarak
First king
30 c.BC AR)
.Vahal
Minass
Astart
'E2YPt)
4600 3
• Buildi4\of Babylon Tower Yeber...(6)
2526-2 5 BC (by Hayk) • Bel.(5)
• Hayk's Victory in First Na-
• Iran (Aran)

• Haykian Dynasty Great Armennia
tive war Bel and his
• TownDeI-
540-24 Sons of
25-1 cent. BC Armenia - HAYASTAN
army, 24 2 BC
&hi,illmll.
"King"
HAYK
RA:
• Boun Hayots Tomar (BHT) -
C, Temple
Orion,
• Union of central Armenia,
Fundamental Armenian
ofAR, 2515-2492
Osiris
HAYK .............(6) Mesopotamia, Egypt,
Style - Fixed Solar Calendar,
(afterwards
(Egypt)
2544-2444 BC Phoenlcia, Kilikia and Hittite
from 2492 BC
of Appolon
Kesar: 2493-2444 BC • Towns: • Buildingof Great In
of Greece)
Son of AR \Sun) Haykashen (26 c.
Egypt by Hayk (24 2480BC) • Town • Bab..(6)
Arran - Or 0 (SaJiittarius), Manazkert (25 c. B ),
• First variants of Carnak (Bre-

From
Osirfs - (Ceops, u-Fu) Shengavit, Malishka (Moz)
2525- 9BC
2492 BC
tain), Stonehenge
(Hayk)
NewGrenge (Ireland), C an-
the first
ish built by Hayk
king of
(24 7-2467BC)
Babylon
Table 21-4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18 9 10 11
4400 3
e Hurrlts (Hayases), In 22 c. BC eCrete - Mik- Phaghek ...(7) Anerls (7) Aram-
came from Armenia and were enlan (Arme-
Ragav ...... (8) Abel ...(8)
azd-
klnfs 2100-1800 BC
nian) culture
Ormuzd
(VI -XII ynast.), then founded III mil. BC
Seruk,....... (9) Cayagh (9) (Iran)
Kesars:
Towns: Carcenish, Armavir,
in Armenian Mesopotamia State
eHiksosian
Nakovr ...(10) Abet.. (10)
'1..:zc), Parga, Shilaya, Khazana,
Mitanni, 22-13cent. BC.
capital
Thera...... (11) Nin.... (11)
Aramanyak........(7)
an, Tsronk, Garni, Thordan,
PHYNIKIAN Avaris in
(2444-2426 BC)
Kal:n, Arshamashat,
State and Alpha t, 22 c. BC
Ef§,pt
eBabylon
Aramayis ...........(8) elitena, ghkhaih (Khazah),
( c. BC)
State
ARAM-
Amassia .............(9)
Khatusas,
e Hlksoses in 19 c. BC came 19c.-626
AZD
rut), ardenis, Avarna, rmuk,
from Armenia and were klnfs eHindus BC
Gegham............(10)
Yanatur, Tso-
in 1800-1600 BC (XII -
eCretean writ-
(Son of
Harma .............(11)
paber, Ar (Hal ean UR)
XVI ynast.)
ten language
ePalestine
AR)
e Hetits, Halds (Hards)
and others e Hurri-Urartian Armenian dla-
eTown Jerusa-
eTown
lect
lern, built by
Jerusalem
e Stonehen!e I (Carahunge) In Armenians
Britannia 475-2470 (then 2000
(Harries)
BC, 1800BC).
e Carnak in Bretain (France),
before 2000BC
3800 2
e ARAM 111...(12) Towns: Yerznka, Carashamb HETIT elranlan ABRAM(12)
eNinuas
eYs
(20c), Ambert, Majak (Kesaria),
Armenian Kingdom
language Semites
(12)
Gods:
(2 mil. BC)
Anlastan, Berd (Tavoush),
18 - 12 cent. BC eDelphians
Forefather
Zanm,
1680 BC
eSyria Indra
Berd (Artsakh) MITANNI
(Armenians)
eLaws

Thathoull Harran.
Armenian State 16-13 cent. BC
eMacedonians Abraham Ibrahim of Ha-
,Ra-
Levon Kingdom
e Callanish (Care nish)
(Armenians) (Jewish) (Arab)

mayana)
in Scotland 1800 BC
18 c. C
3500 2
Towns; Aritch (15 c.)
Existence of Armenian
e Town Isahak Ismail
ARA Geghetsik..(13) Amasia, Byurakan,
Kingdoms: NAlRI (with eapl-
Athens, 15c. (13)
eChina
ARA
(Beautiful) Amed (Diarbeklr),
tal Van)
(13)
14 c. BC Geghestlk
Artsn, Karin (Arzerum),
and e India
lakov
Navaiof
Ara-Araid....(14) Phaitarakan
Araratian the capital
e Arlrans
(14) (14)
eAssyria
Manazkert
14-7
in ndia
Jews Arabs
cent. BC
Table 21-5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
3300 2
Nairi Dynasty NAlRI
• Trojan war, 1235 -1225 BC
• Greeks • Jewish
·Kedml
YAHVE
King ZAYRMAYR,
Armenian Kingdom
between Trojans with other

iii6eS

13 cent. BC
(lakes Van, Urmia)
East kingdoms against
mans
• Moisey
13 - 9 cent. BC
al&essors:
and Delphians)
• Town
_.-
Capital town VAN
eans and Danayans.
(1\1ovses)
Damask
1EVS
Trojan King PRIAM,
• Town Gandzak on the South
• Ancestors of
13c.BC
PnUlon
13 cent. BC
of the Lake Kaputan (Urmia)
• Urartians (Halds, Hards-
=
- Armenians), 13 cent. BC ll-lmiL BC
3000 1 • Town Kartha-

Town
BRAB-
• Behayna Dvnastv
Town Yerevan
gen(phoeni- aVI
Ninve
MA
(9 - 6 cent. BC) (Errebouni), 782 BC
dan) Kingdom
10c.BC
BEHAYNA
Capital of Armenia from 1918AD
825-2011145BC l0-8c.BC
(Assyrian)
Aram IV.... 860 - 840
Armenian United Klngdem of
Nairi and AraratIan
• Etrousks
• David
......................................
(so-called Urartu) countries
• Homer (Tigran), 8 cent.
8-7c.BC ?-950BC
Mina .......... 810 -788
9-6 cent. BC • Armenian Epos Iliada,
·SoloImll
Argist I ...... 788 - 764 Capital town - Van 8 cent. BC • TownRoma,
96S-928BC
754BC
...................................... _.-
Towns of8 cent. BC:
Rousa I ........ 735 -714
• Celts, Bri2is
• Jewish
Sarikhamish, Moku, Artchaesh
Alphabet
......................................
8c.BC-5CO
(tal<en from
Rousa IV • 590 - 570
• GreekAl&:a-
Phoenidan),
bet,9 c. (ta n 10c.BC
ti'omPhoeni-
clan) • Israel

2700 1 • Ha'tazouni Dcnast
y• Towns: Artske (7c.), Karmir NEW BABELONIAN
928- 22 BC
BraIIrrian .Zoro-
80-570 B
Blur (7c.), Ardvin, Agarak,
(Haldean) Armenian
writt.Jlm. astrizm
• Greece(State) ·Judas

from
Skayvordi .. 680 - 673 BC Aghstev, Khndzoresk,
Kingdom, 626 - 538 BC

about
Parouyr ..... 673 - 630 BC Koualini (7c.),
• Skiphs 928- 86BC

600 BC
Hrachia ...... 625 - 624 BC Vagharshapat (6c., from
• Midia, 7 - 6 cent. BC
7c. BC-3c.AD
(State
1945 AD Echmiatsin) • Lydla, 7 -6 cent. BC
religion
in Iran,
2600 1
• Yervandouni Dynasty GREAT ARMENIA • Castles, pyramids, temples in • Ethio-
3c.AD)
6BC-3 AD,
HAmB
all Armenia
• Irelands,
p!!State
• Boude
70 BC-I045
• Temple Zvarthnots 4c.BC
• Town izm 6-4
Yervand I ..... 570 - 560 BC Towns: Ani!( c.), Dvin (4 e.), Alexan- c.BC
Bitlls e.), mesia c.),
ARMENIAN MESOPOTAMIA

Alexander
dria 332 (India)
Balu( c.), Ervandas at (3 e.),
(Edesa) Kingdom Macedonian,
BC
Jugha, Julpha
• Absarian (Junior Yervandouni
4c.BC
Dvnastv,Jll Hl - lIb ADI
Table 21-6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
2300 1 e Artashesouni Towns: Baberd (3c), Arshama- After downfaDof Karthagen, e Hellenism, Jewish .Selev- JUPI
189BC-I shat (3 Artamet (2 e.), Hannibalr6-183 BC) came to 3-2 cent. BC square let- kides TER
Zarishat 2 e.), Artashat, 188 BC Arii1e1ilil hoeniclans mother-
e Sanskrit,
ten, 312-64
(Rom.
Artashes I, 189 - 160 BC
(on the place of7 c. BC town)
lanrl.
4-1 cent BC
3-2c.BC BC
an)
and e1s: kind Artashes tofortify
e Rome
(on base of
eAntioh
the clta el of capital Artashat Aramean&
111,242-
• Theatre in Artashat
3cent C Phoenidan)
187 BC
2100 1
ARMENIA e A2hvanc Kolhida
TIGRAN 11the Great
from sea to sea e Victories in 86, 68, 66, 55 BC state KiIig-
95-55BC over Parphians and Roman
e Alania
dom
King of Kings e Town
andl.eaceful pacts
6-2c.
(11capital) 77 BC w t them (66, BC). e Slavs BC
Artavazd 11
1-2 cent. AD
55-34BC • Theatre in Tigranakert
e Goths
1-2 cent. AD
2000 lAD e Yervandouni dynasty
JESUS CH RI S T,
Abgar V, 12 - 50 AD
THE SON OF AR-FATHER, WAS BORN
Abgar VIII, 177- 212 AD
Three Armenian, Magi <t:ings) Kaspar, Melic, Baghdasar first visited Holy
ArshakouniDynasty
im with presents Trin-
64-428 AD
ity:
21 kings Two Apostles: Thadeos and BardouhimeosvisitedArmenia • Pilatos
Father
Trdat L 64 - 88 AD
ChristianiW.:bArmenian Mesopotamia kings Abgar Vthe e Juda AR
Khosrov 11the Great Great in3 and Abgar VIII the Great in2 AD first adopted
e Chris-

279-298Afi
tianity
Son
Jesus
1700 301 AD TRDAT III the Great
Christianity in All Armennia
was
Arabian Christ

298-330 AD
as State Religion in 301 AD
in 3AD
letters

4c.AD
HOlr
was Adopted (taken Sou
from
Arme-
St. Echmiatsin
nian)
Table 22
ARMENNIAN KESARS, KINGS and DYNASTIES CHRONOLOGY
The Great Armennia
• Arramian Dynasty ...... 40-10 mill. BC
ARAMI
(Hay, Hayomard;
ADAM in Bible) •••••••...•....• 40 mill. BC

• Harranian (Edessian) Dynasty
23 mill. BC - 4 cent. AD
Thathoul, Levon .•...........•...• 2 mill. BC
• Kilikian Dynasty
22 mill. BC- 1 cent. AD
(and 11 - 14 cent. AD)
• Phoenician Dynasty
21 mill. BC - 1 cent. BC
• Junior Aram (Mesopot.)
or Sumer Dynasty _ 15 mill. -10 milL BC

The Great Armennia
• Ararat Dynasty ........... 10 - 3 mill. BC
NOAH (or ARAM 11)••.•••• 10 mill. BC
HABET (IAFET)
Gamer
Thiras and others

• Troyan Dynasty ....... 5 mill. -1225 BC
Dardan ••••.••••..........•....•.......• 5 milL BC
Priam •••••••••••••.•••.•••••••.•.•••• 13 cent. BC

The Great Armennia
(fhorgom Kingdom) •.•.••..•..• 3 mill. BC
THORGOM .......••••••• 2554 - 2493 BC
• Haykian Dynasty ........ 25 - 1 cent. BC
HAYK•••••••••••••••••.••••••••• 2493 - 2444 BC
Aramaniak 2444 - 2426 BC
Aramayis
Amasia
Gegham
Harma
Aram III ...........•.....•.......••.••. 2 mill. BC
ARA Geghetsik
(the Beautiful) 2 mill. BC
Ara-Araid, Anoushavan, Paret,
Arbak, Zaven, Pharnak I, Sour,
Havanak, Vashtak, Haykaz I,
Ampak I, Amak, Shavarsh I,
Norayr, Vatam, Kar, Gornak,
Hrant I, Endzac, Gzak, Horo,
Zayrmayr (Nairi Country; he
fell in Trojan war, 13 cent. BC)
Shavarsh 11, Perch I, Arboun,
Perch 11, Bazouk, Hoy, Housak,
Ambak 11, Kaypak, Famak 11
• Behayna Dynasty ...... 9 - 6 cent. BC
(continuation of Haykians)
ARAM IV..................... 860 - 840 BC
Sarkar I 825 - 824 BC
Issponi •••••.•••••.•.•.••••••••..•• 824 - 810 BC
Mina (Menua) ......•...••... 810 - 788 BC
Argist I •••••••••••.•.•.•••.••.•••• 788 - 7M BC
Sarkar 11 7M - 735 BC
Rousa I •••....•....•.•..•..••.••. 735 - 714 BC
Argist 11 714 - 685 BC
Rousa 11 685 - 640 BC
Sarkar III MO- 620 BC
Armen ••.•.............•..•.••••. 620 - 60s BC
Rousa III 605 - 590 BC
Rousa IV ••.••.•••.•.•.•.•..•.••• 590 - 570 BC
• Haykazouni Dynasty ..... 680 - 570 BC
(continuation of Haykians)
Skayvordi 680 - 673 BC
Parouyr •••••.•.•.••..•.•.••.••.•• 673 - 630 BC
Brachia 625 - 624 BC
Pharnavor
Phachouych
Camak
Phavvos
Haykaz •.•..•.•..•........•.•.••.••..•• ?- 570 BC
231
Table 22 (continuat.)
••••••..•••••• 520 - 404 BC
The Great Armennia
• Yervandouni Dynasty
6 cent. BC - 1 cent. AD
(continuation ofBayldans)
Yervand I 570 - 560 BC
Tigran I ••.••••••.•••••••••.•.•.••• 560 - 520 BC
Vahhago
Aravvan
Nerseh
Zareh
Arman
Baddam
Vahhan
Artashir
Yervand 11 404 - 360 BC
Vahhe ••••••••.•.••••••••••••••••••• 356 - 323 BC
(he feU in Persian battle against
Alexandr Makedonian)
Yervand III ••••••••••••.••••••• 323 - 280 BC
Yervand IV ••••••••.••••••••••• 220 -189 BC
Abgar V the Great •••••••••••.• 12 - 50 AD
Adopted Christianity in Edessia, 33 AD
Sannatreak •...•......•••..•••..•. 50 - 64 AD
Kings of Tsopc
• Junior arm of Yervandouni
3 -1 cent. BC
Sammos •.•.•••.•••.•. middle of 3 cent. BC
Arsham •••••.•.•.•.•••.••.••••.••• 240 - 220 BC
Csercses ••••••••••.•••.••••• end of 3 cent. BC
Zarreh ...•.•......•...............•• 190 - 175 BC
Arkathias •••••.••••• middle of 2 cent. BC
Mehroujan •••.•••.•••.•• end of 2 cent. BC
Artaones •••..•.••.••.•.•.••••••••.•••• ? - 94 BC

The Great Armennia
• Artashesouni Dynasty 189 BC -1 AD
(continuation of Bayldans)
Artashes I 189 -160 BC
Artavvazd I 160 - 145 BC
Vagharshak ••••••••••••••••••• 145 -115 BC
Tigran I •.....•••.....••.•...•••••... 115 - 95 BC
Tigran 11 the Great ••••••••••• 95 - 55 BC
King of Kings
Artavvazd n 55 - 34 BC
Abgar VIII the Great •••• 177 - 212 AD
King of Kings
Adopted Christianity in Edessia, 207 AD
Artashes n 30 - 20 BC
Tigran III ••••••.•.••.••••••.•••.•••••• 20 - 6 BC
Tigran IV ••••.•••••.••••.•••••••.••••••••• 8 - S BC

Arat •••••••••.•••••••.••••.•.•••••.••• 2 BC - 1 AD
Partham •..•••..............••... 113-114AD
Bakour I •••••••••••••••••••••••• 144 -161 AD
Bakour 11 161 -163 AD
Sanatrouk ••••••.••••••••••••••••• 88 - 110 AD
M-428AD
Kh.osrov 11the Great ••••• 279 - 298 AD
Trdat III the Great ••••••• 298 - 330 AD
Adopted Christianity in the Great
Armennia in 301 AD
Trdat II 216 - 252 AD
Trdat I ••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••• M - 88 AD
Kh.osrov I 198 - 216 AD
Vagharsh 11 ••.•••••••••••••••• 186 -198 AD
Ashkhadar •••.••••••.•••••••••• 110 - 113 AD
Tigran I •••••••••••.•••••.•..•••• 164 -186 AD
Vagharsh I •••••.••.••••••••••.• 117 -144 AD
• Arshakouni Dynasty
Saonatrouk ••..•••...••.•.....•.•... 60 - M AD

Abgar 11 63(53) ••• ? BC
AnnaDne ••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••• SO - S3AD
Manouk VI ••••••••••••••••••••••.••• S3- 60 AD
(returned to the Old Religion)
Abgar VIII the Great,
King of Kings •••••••••••••••.• 177 - 212 AD
Adopted Christianity in 207 AD
Abgar IV ••••••••• in 3 AD rebuilt Edessa
Abgar V the Great 12 - 50 AD
Adopted Christianity in 33 AD
• Edessian (Yervandouni-Abgarianl
Dynasty 312 BC- 240 AD
Abgar I 312 - ? BC
(After short interruption returned to
the Edessian throne in 163 BC)
232
Khosrov III ••••••••••••••.••••• 330 - 338 AD
Tirran II 338 - 350 AD
Arshak 11 350 - 368 AD
Pap 369 - 374 AD
Varrazdat 374 - 378 AD
Arshak III 378 - 389 AD
Vramshapouh 389 - 417 AD
Artashes III •••••••••••.••.••••• 422 - 428 AD
Arshakouni (Parthian Arshakid)
Dynasty in Armennia was not popular
among population and lords. In result
Armennia was weakened and divided
between Persia and Byzantium in 428 AD.
The independence was reestablished by
the King Ashot I Bagratouni in 885 AD.
The Great Armennia
• Bagratouni Dynasty 885 - 1045 AD
Ashot I 885 - 890 AD
5mbat I 890 - 914 AD
Ashot 11 the Iron ••••••••••••• 914 - 929 AD
Abbas 929 - 953 AD
Ashot III 953 - 977 AD
5mbat 11 977 - 989 AD
Gaggik. I 989 - 1020 AD
Hovhannes ••••••••••••••..•• 1020 -1041 AD
Ashot IV ••••••••••.•••••••••• 1022 - 1040 AD
Gaggik 11 •••••••••••••••••••• 1043 - 1045 AD

Table 22 (continuaL)
Kilikian Armennia
• Roubenian Dynasty
1080 -1225 AD
Rouben I 1080 -1095 AD
Kostandin I ••.••••.••••.•• 1095 -1100 AD
Thoros I •.•••••••••.•••.•••.• 1100 -1129 AD
Levvon I ••.••••••.•••••••..•• 1129 - 1137 AD
Thoros 11 •••••••.•••.•••.••• 1145 -1169 AD
Rouben If 1169
Mleh 1169-1175 AD
Rouben III •••••.•••.••••••• 1175 -1187 AD
Levvon 11 ••••••••••••.•.•••• 1187 - 1219 AD
Zabbel Queen 1219 - 1252 AD
FiUip 1222 - 1225 AD
• Hethoumian Dynasty
1226 - 1375 AD
Hethoum I 1225 - 1269 AD
Levvon III •••••••••.••••••• 1269 -1289 AD
Hethoum11 •.•.•.•••••••.•• 1289 - 1296 AD
and 1299 - 1301 AD
5mbat 1296 - 1298 AD
Kostandin 11 ••.•••••.••••• 1298 -1299 AD
Levvon IV 1301 - 1308 AD
Oshin 1308 - 1320 AD
Levvon V................... 1320 - 1342 AD
Kostandin mor Gviddon _1343 -1344 AD
Kostandin IV _............._ 1345-1363AD
Kostandin V.............. 1365 - 1373 AD
Levvon VI 1374 - 1375 AD
(He died in Paris in 1393and is buried in
Saint-Denis' Basilica)
233
Table 23
CAPITALS OF ARMENNIAN KINGDOMS CHRONOLOGY
Date of
No CAPITAL DATE (BC/AD) KINGDOM KING DYNASTY TOWN
built
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
ARAM,VAN
ARMENNIA,
ARAMI Arramian
1
(near Lake Van)
40 -10 mill. BC MOTHER
(ADAM) ~ O -10 mill. BC
40 mill. BC
HAYASTAN
ARMENNIAN
2 HARRAN 23 mill. - 4 c. BC MESOPOTAMIA ? Harranian 23 mill. BC
(North.)
3 TARS '2 mill.BC-le-AD KILIKIAN ? Kilikian 22 mill. BC
AR (UR) (before ARMENIAN JUNIOR
Junior
4 15 -10 mill. BC Arramian 15 mill. BC
Great Deluge) SUMER ARAM
rom 15 mill.BC
5 TIR 21 mill. - 1 c. BC PHOENICIAN ? Phoenician 21 mill. BC
ARMENNIA,
6 NAKHUEVAN 10-9 mill. BC MOTHER NOAH Araratian 10 mill. BC
HAYASTAN
ARMENNIA,
7 YERASKH 9-3 mill. BC MOTHER HABETH Araratian 9 milL BC
HAYASTAN
ARIANIAN DARDAN,
Arian
8 TROYA 5 mill. - 1225 BC (ILION) PRIAM
SO-13 c. BC
SOc. BC
50-13 cent. BC (the last King)
HAYK
THE GREAT Kesar
Haykian 2494 BC
9 HAYKASHEN 25 - 9 cent. BC (MOTHER) 2493-2444 BC
ARMENNIA Life
25 - 9 cent. BC Hayk
2544-2444 BC
10 BABYLON 25 - 19 cent. BC BABYLONIAN
BAB,
Haykian
2525 BC
from 2492 Hayk
NEW
NAB,
lOa
NOR(NEW)
7-6 cent. BC
BABYLONIAN
620-604 BC Araratian
2525 BC
BABYLON (HALDEAN),
(flush years)
Hayk
626-538 BC
HARUSIAN
HATUSIS
11 HARUS(Hatusas) 626-538 BC (Hettian)
16SO-1620 BC
? 18 cent. BC
18 - 12 cent. BC
12 VARAKAN 16 -13 cent. BC
MITANI
?
Harritian
22 cent. BC
16 - 2 cent. BC ~ 6 -13 cent. BC
NAIRI,
13 -9 cent. BC
?
Nairian
13 VAN
13 - 8 cent. BC MOTHER
ARAMIV
13 - 9 cent. BC
35 mill. BC
9-6 cent. BC HAYASTAN
860-840 BC
Araratian
BEHAYNA 9-6 cent. BC
13 - 6 cent. BC
14 MANAZKERT 9 cent. BC ARARATIAN
ARAMIV
Araratian
25 cent. BC
860-840 BC Manazkert
GREAT
YERVAND I Yervandouni
15 ARMAVIR 6-3 cent. BC ARMENNIA ~ 7 5 BC Argist I
570 BC -1045 AD
570-S60BC 6 c. BC-l c. AD
234
--_._-- -- ,------------
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
16 YERVANDASHAT 3 cent. BC
GREAT YERVANDIV
Yervandouni 3 cent. BC
ARMENNIA 220-189 BC
ARIIAN (Urha,
ARMENNIAN
ABGARI Yervandouni-
17 312 BC - 216 AD MESOPOTAMIA 23 milL BC
Orran, Edessia)
(North)
312-1 BC -Abgarian
ARTASHESI
188-163 BC 189'-160 BC Artashesouni
18 ARTASHAT
66-163 AD GREAT TRDATI 189BC-l AD 188 BC
186-335 AD ARMENNIA 64-88 AD Arshakouni Artashes I
VAGHARSH II 64-428 AD
186-198AD
GREAT
VAGHAR-8HAK
19 MTSBIN 145-115BC
ARMENNIA
Arshakouni Artashesouni 6 milL BC
145-115 BC
TIGRAN 11 THE
20 TIGRANAKERT 77-55 BC
GREAT GREAT
Artashesouni
77 BC
ARMENNIA 95-55 BC Tigran 11
King of Kings
VAGHARSHAPAT
130 AD GREAT VAGHARSH I
21 (Echmiatsin Arshakouni 6 cent. BC
from 1945)
163-428 AD ARMENNIA 117-144 AD
KHOSROV III
22 DVIN
335-885 AD GREAT 330-338 AD
Arshakouni
335 AD
914-929 AD ARMENNIA ASHOTll KhosrovlII
914-929 AD
23 BAGARAN 885-890 AD
GREAT ASHOTI Bagratouni
6 milLBC
ARMENNIA 885-890 AD 885-1045 AD
24 SHIRAKAVAN 890-914 AD
GREAT 5MBATI
Bagratouni 7 cent. AD
ARMENNIA 890-914 AD
929-961 AD
GREAT
ABBAS,
25 KARS (963 - 1064 AD
ARMENNIA
929-953 AD Bagratouni 9 cent. BC
Kars kingdom) (MOUSHEGH I)
26 ANI 961-1045AD
GREAT ASHOTIII
Bagratouni 16 cent. BC
ARMENNIA 953-977 AD
27 SIS 1080 -1375 AD
KILIKIAN ROUBENI Roubenian
6 milLBC
1080 -1375 AD 1080 -1095 AD 1080-1225 AD
REPUBLIC of
ARMENNIA
782 BC
28 YEREVAN 1918 - tiU now
1-1918,
- -
11-1920,
Argist I
III -1991
235
INSTEAD OF EPILOGUE
Year 1992 ••• An Armennian young man, aggrieved with all the World,
tried to remember the truth which was forgotten by his nation. He came to
far Tibet, hoping to find his soul teacher. He roamed for a long time, hungry
and thirsty. After long searching, broken down and covered with wounds, he
at last saw a lama, who was plunged in prayer with closed eyes. Around him
the snow and ice have melded due to his huge energy. Lama opened his eyes
and smiling said at once: "What have you lost in these lands, the mad son of
the Sun?"
Then he cured the Armennian's wounds and some days later, when
parting, he told him: "The source of truth you are looking for so long time,
is in your beautiful country called Armennia, which is the cradle of
civilization. You are the first Aryans. You forgot about that, but your
enemies remember it. I can teach you nothing, the knowledge is inside you.
Go back to your country and you will find the truth in your wonderful
mountains." [120].
236
armtorrent.com
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Armennian)
74. Robinson L., Story of the Origin and Destiny of Man, New-York, 1976
75. Galoyan G.A., Armenia in the Aggressive Collisions of the Great Powers
(from the 16-th century to 1917), p.12. Yerevan, 2004
76. "Yerevan", Yerevan, 2002 (in Armennian)
77. Shahhinnian L., Prof., Armennian Old Culture, Yerevan, 1982 (in
Armennian)
78. Mirridjannian L.V., The Sources of Armennian Poetry, Yerevan, 1980
(in Russian)
79. Khorenatsi Movses, History of Armennia, Yerevan, 1981 (in
Armennian)
80. Abazza V.A., History of Armennia, St.Petersburg, 1888 (in Russian)
81. Mellart J., The Oldest civilizations of Old East, pp. 79-109, Moscow,
1962 (in Russian trans. from English)
82. Batsaev V., Varrakkin A., Secrets of Archaeology, Moscow, 1998 (in
Russian)
83. Saffarrian V., Demonstration of Armennian reading of Sumers
scriptions, Yerevan, 2003 (in Armennian)
84. Movsessian A., ARATTA, the Ancient State in Armennia, Yerevan, 1992
(in Armennian, with English, p.73 and Russian, p.78 Summaries)
85. Ayyazian S., To the some problems of Armennian history, Yerevan, 2000
(in Russian)
86. Sebeos Bishop, History, p.38, Yerevan, 1939
87. Soviet Encyclopedic Vocabulary, Moscow, 1987 (in Russian)
88. http://members.aol.comlscrvantlrxlegypt.cr.htmI. 2003
242
89. Glinka S., The historical review of Armennian nation, St.Petersburg,
1832 (in Russian), also Armennian Soviet Encyclopedia, v.3, p.95,
Yerevan, 1977 (in Armennian)
90. Neimann M., Armennians, Series of Articles in German Journal "Neve
Revnes" in St.Petersburg, 1996, 1997. Also printed in Yerevan, 1990 (in
Russian)
91. "Pravda" newspaper, October 10, 1986, Moscow (in Russian)
92. Khanzadian E., The culture of Armennian Highland in period of
neolith and early bronze, Yerevan, 2004, in print
93. The Encyclopedia of Ancient Civilizations, edited by Cotterell A., UK,
USA, 1980/88
94. Gurjian G., - Herouni P., Private Correspondence, Yerevan, 2004
95. Hancock G., Bauval R., The Message of the Sphinx, p. 4, New York,
1996
96. Bochkarev N.G., Bochkarev Yu.N., Armenian Archaeoastronomical
Monuments Carahunge and Metsamor, Report on International
Conference on Archaeoastronomy, SEAC-I0, Tartu, Estonia, Aug.
2002. In print in Journal Folklor, Tartu, 2003.
97. Arrtsrouni A., Armenian Highland and civilization, Moscow 1999 (in
Russian)
98. Krish E., Trojan treasure and its history, Moscow 1999 (in Russian)
99. Loukian(os), Elections, pp. 398, 399, Moscow, 1987, translation from
old Greece (in Russian)
100. www.atamanhotel.com, 2003
101. Sarkisian M., Search of elements analogy between Aymora and
Armennian language. "Herald of Social Sciences" of Arm. National
Acad. of Sci., 12p, No 3, 2004 (in Armennian)
102. Seth M., Armennians in India, New Delhi - Bombay - Calcutta, 1983.
103. Mirgorodskaya M., The Great Armennia: from the beginning till
present days, Moscow, 2000 (in Russian)
243
104. Mukerjee M., Circles for Space, Scientific American, 32, Dec. 2003
105. Altekar R.V., "Vastusastra", Ancient Indian Architecture and Civil
Engineering, New Delhi, p.5, 2004
106. Hovannesian V., - Herouni P., private correspondence, 2004
107. Kent R., I loved your country, Newspaper "Komunist", Yerevan,
August 14, 1962 (in Russian)
108. Vartanian E., The old Armennian world outlook and the birth of
theatre (6000 BC), Yerevan, 1998 (in Armennian)
109. Galichian R., Armennia. Historic maps, London, New York, 2004
110. Seer leremia, book I, part 51, verse 27.
111. Papapostolou J.A., Crete, "CLIO" Editions, 1981
112. Petrakos B., Delphi, "CLIO" Editions, 1977
113. Zinchenkova K., - Herouni P., Private correspondence, Paris, 1995
114. "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", VIII cent. AD, National Library in
Glendale, USA
115. Ayvazian S., History of Russia. Armennian Fingerprint, Moscow, 2002
(in Russian)
116. Marr N., Armennian Culture, Yerevan, 1989 (in Armennian)
117. Reser D., Cherkassova E., History of Old World, v.I, Moscow, 1970 (in
Russian)
118. LanK D., Armenians, Nation-Creator, Moscow, 2004 (Russian
translation of the book [53] by E.F. Levina)
119. Ancient Civilizations. Under redaction of Bongard-Levin G., Moscow,
1989 (in Russian)
120. Avvettissyan A.M., - Herouni P.M., Private Correspondence, Yerevan,
2004
244
INFORMATION
Professor Paris M. HEROUNI
(Curriculum Vitae)
Father, Misak M. Herouni (Sachian), was born
in town Hatchn (Kilikia) in 1906, deceased
in Yerevan in 1986.
Mother, Seda N. Herouni (Azatian), was born in
town Igdir in 1908, deceased in Yerevan
in 1982.
He is married, has two sons and a daughter.
1. Was born 17 December 1933 in Yerevan, in family of teachers. Armenian.
Graduated V. Chkalov 10-year School N30 in Yerevan, in 1951.
2. LABOUR ACTIVITY
1951 -1957 -
1957 -1960 -
1960 -1968.-
1968 - 1971 -
1971 - still -
now
1983 - still-
now
Radiotechnical Department of Moscow Power Institute
Radioengineer, Scientific operator then Chief of Radiophysics
Constructing Bureau in Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, Armenia
Vice Director of Science and Chief of SHF Division in Radiophysics and
Electronics Institute of Armenian Academy of Science (town Ashtarak)
Director of Armenian Radiophysics Department (Yerevan) of All-Union
Physics-Technical and Radiotechnical Research Institute (Moscow)
Director; from 1983 President of All-Union Radiophysics Measurement
Research Institute (RMI) in Yerevan; from 2000 - with name
Radiophysics Research Institute (RRI)
Head of "Antenna Systems" chair of RRI in State Engineering
University of Armenia, Yerevan
3. SCIENTIFIC DEGREES AND TITLES
1965 - Ph. D. (Radiotechnics, defended degree in Moscow)
1968 - Associate Professor, State Engineering University of Armenia, Yerevan
1972 - Doctor of Sci. (Radiophysics, defended degree in Moscow)
1982 - Correspond.- Member of Armenian Academy of Science, Yerevan
1983 - Professor (Radiophysics, RRI)
1996 - Member of National Academy of Science of Armenia, Yerevan
1999 - Member of Engineering Academy of Armenia, Yerevan
2001 - Member of International Academy of Ecology and Life Protection Sciences
(IAELPS), S.-Petersburg
2001 - Member of Technological Academy of Armenia, Yerevan
245
armtorrent.com
4. HONORARY TITLES
1985 - Honorary Villager of Teher, Armenia
1998 - Honorary Member of Artists Union of Armenia, Yerevan
2003 - Honoured Scientist, lAELPS, St.Petersburg
5. SCIENTIFIC (THEORETICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL) ACTIVITY
He founded a line of the first in the World scientific directions, which are accepted
now and in use in developed countries.
In Theory:
5.1. Theory and calculation Methods of the Large Doublemirror Antennas with Fixed
Spherical Main Mirror (1958 - 64),
5.2. Theory and equations of Electromagnetic field Diffraction on the Holes (apertures)
of different configurations; Methods of Near Field Transformation to Far Field (1963 -
65),
5.3. Radioholography. New Methods of field determination in space by measurements
of complex field near (NF) the emitting or scattering objects (1964 - 68),
5.4. Methods of Near-to-Far Field (NF - FF) measurements of antenna parameters
(1967 -70),
5.5. Theory and Methods of Parameters Determination of Scattering Objects (RCS) by
NF-FF Measurements (1984 - 87),
5.6. Theory of field diffraction in antenna edges when illuminated the part of main
aperture (1963 - 64),
5.7. The Antenna Metrology. Theory and Primary Standards of Antenna Parameters
(1970 -75),
5.8. Statistic Theory and Methods of Multi-beam Antenna Parameters Measurement
(1970 -72),
5.9. Theory and Methods of Antenna Parameters Measurement on Spherical Surface
in NF (1980 - 84),
5.10. Theory and Methods of calculation of the New type of powerful Solar Power
Station with one fixed spherical Collimator (1991 - 94),
In Experiment he:
5.11. Projected, built and used Doublemirror Antenna with Fixed Spherical Main
Mirror of 5 m in diameter (DAS-5) which at that time was the largest in World in short
mm waverange (1959 - 62),
5.12. Projected, built, adjusted and used the First Radio-Optical Telescope (ROT-54/2.6)
- the "Herouni Mirror Radiotelescope"(name of Patent) - the Large Antenna of which
with diameter 54m has the best parameters among all Large Antennas in the World
(1960 - 88),
5.13. Disavows, due to exceptionally low level of ROT-54/2.6 Self Noises, the existence
of so-called "background emission" and the cosmogonic theory of Universe formation by
"Big Bang" (1988 - 92),
5.14. Espied the powerful Radio-Flare on the Etta Gemini red giant Star; the powerful
flares on this type of stars were unknown (1985),
5.15. Received (measured) the first in the World Radiohologramm (of complex field in
aperture of 0.5m antenna at wavelength 8 mm),
246
5.16. Projected and built at first in the World many high effective Automatic Systems
of equipment for NF - FF Parameters Measurement of different type Antennas on
different wavelengths (1968 - 93),
5.17. Projected and built eleven the first in the World National Primary Standards of
Antenna Parameters and Phase Shift Angle on SHF and Microwaves (1971- 91),
5.18. Projected and built the first System of equipment with the Antenna of 18m in
diameter for parameters measurement of on-board antennas of flying crafts under
conditions of their real flight (1976 - 79),
5.19. Projected and built at altitude 3200m the unique Antenna of submillimeter
waverange (0.1mm - 3cm) with diameter of 3.2m (1987- 91),
5.20. Presented the "AREV" Project of the New Type of Powerful, high effective and
ecologically pure Solar Power Plant and built 70% of the first Prototype with output
power of 350 kW (1992 - 2004),
5.21. Using astronomical methods Proved that Prehistoric stone big Monument near
town Sisian in Armenia was the first in the World, large and developed Observatory
"Carahunge" having the age more than 7500 years (1994 - 2002),
5.22. At the first in Armenia projected and built Antennas and Radioreceivers for
waveranges of 50cm and 8mm (1957 - 62).
6. Professor Paris Herouni has 350 published Scientific Works, including 243
Printed ones, 3 Monographs and 23 Patents.
He also spoke many times on the air and TV, printed articles in newspapers
and magazines with science popularization.
There were many publications about him and his works in mass media of
USSR, Russia, Armenia, USA, France, U.K., Italy and other countries.
7. SOME MAIN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS.
FOUNDATION OF NEW SCIENTIFIC DIRECTIONS
1957
1958
1959-62
1960-64
1964-65
1968
- First Patent Application
- First Publications (in Russian)
- Design and Construction of 5m Spherical Doublemirror Antenna of mm
Waverange
- Design and Calculation of Spherical Doublemirror Antennas. "Radio-
techniques and Electronics", (RE), v.9, No 1, p.3-12, Moscow, 1964 (in
Russian).
- Waves Diffraction and Far Field Pattern of Spherical Doublemirror
Antenna. "News of Armenia Acad. ofSci., Physics", Yerevan, 1964
Founded the New Direction on Large Antennas Construction, 1964
- The field of Round and Rectangular Holes in Far Field. RE, v. 10, No 9,
p.1594-1599, Moscow, 1965 (in Russian).
Founded the New Direction on Near-to-Far Field (NF-FFl Transformation,
1964
- Five Meter Spherical Antenna of mm Waverange, "Antennas", Collec-
ted Articles, v, 4, p.3-15, Moscow, 1968 (in Russian).
Obtained the First in the World Radiohologramm (in Aperture of 0.5m
Antenna, in 8 mm wave), 1968
247
1968 - 70 - Antenna Parameters Measurement in their Aperture Zone. Trans. of A11-
Union Confer. on Metrology in Radioelectronics, p.82, Moscow, 1970 (in
Russian)
Founded Radioholography and Near-to-Far Field <NF-FFl New Methods
and Facilities for Antenna Parameters Measurement (1964 - 68)
1971 - Methods of Information Processing by Coherent Optic Systems, Trans. of
11 Intern. Symposium on Information Theory, Armenia - Tsahkadzor,
1971
- Device for Parameters Measurement of Narrow-Beam Emitters
(Antennas), SU Patent No 534128, 15.12.1971, Moscow
1971- 72 - Unity Provision of Antenna Measurements in Country, Trans.of 11 AIl-
Union Confer. on Metrology and Exact Measurements, 6p., Tbilisi, 1971
(in Russian)
- State Standard Centre on Antenna Measurements, Proc, of XIX A11-
Union Confer. on Antenna Theory and Technique, 12p., Moscow, 1972
(in Russian)
Founded the "Antenna Metrology" New Direction, 1971
1976 - Radioholography and Modern Methods of Antenna Measurements,
Works on "Radio- and Acoustic Holography", Collected Articles, p.85-
97, "Science", St.Petersburg, 1976 (in Russian)
1977 - "Antenna Measurements. Terms and Definitions", 44p., RMI, Yerevan,
1977 (in Russian)
1978 - Panoramic Radar. SU Patent 123477, 02.02.1978, Moscow
- The Narrow-Beam Antennas. Method of Parameters Measurement in
Near Field (State Standard 8.309-78), 6p., Moscow, 1978 (in Russian)
1979 - Antenna System of 18m in diameter (RT-18). "Antenna Measu-
rements", Proc. of I All-Union Confer. on Antenna Metrology, p.13-23,
RMI, Yerevan, 1979 (in Russian)
Founded the New Type Facility for Parameter Measurements of Onboard
Antennas under Real Flight Conditions, 1979
1980-81 -About one Method ofRT-18 Antenna Certification based on expansion of
its field in spherical harmonics. Proc. of All-Union Confer. on
Radiotechnical Measurements, 2p., Novosibirsk, 1980 (in Russian)
- Facility "Sphere" for Antenna Parameters Measurement on the Sphe-
rical Surface in.NF. Report, RMI, 52p., Yerevan, 1981 (in Russian)
Founded the New Method of NF Antenna Measurements on Spherical
Surface (Spherical NF-FFl, 1980
1982 - Facility for Certification of Onboard Antennas in Flight. SU Patent
181719, 11.01.1982, Moscow
- Parallel Aperture Synthesis. Trans. of 14-th All-Union Confer. on
Radioastronomical Antennas, p.238-239, Yerevan, 1982 (in Russian)
1984 - Determination of Radar Cross-Section (RCS) of Objects by NF Measu-
rements. Proc. of III All-Union Conf. on Antenna Measurements, p.28-29,
RMI, Yerevan, 1984 (in Russian)
- Determination of RCS of Ball by NF Measurements. Ibidem, p.219-221
Founded the New Method of RCS Determination of the Objects by their
scattered Near Field Measurements, 1984
1986 - "Herouni Mirror Radiotelescope". SU Patent 1377941, 02.01.1986,
248
Moscow
1987 - Determination of RCS from NF Measurements. "Report of USSR Acad.
ofSci.", v, 292, No 4, p.849-853, Moscow, 1987 (in Russian)
1989 - The First Radio-Optical Telescope. Trans. of the VI Internat. Confer. on
Antennas and Propagation ICAP-89, v, 1, p.54o-546, IEE-URSI, U.K.,
1989
- Radio Flare on Etta Gemini Star. Trans. of the IAU 137-th Internat.
Symp. on Flare Stars, p.145-146, Byurakan, 1989
1990 - Near Field Measurements and Standard Antennas. Abstr. of URSI XXIII
General Assembly, v. 1, p.266, Prague, 1990
- Construction and Operation of Radio-Optical Telescope ROT-54/2.6.
Trans. of URSI Internat. Meeting on Mirror Antennas, p.34-41, Riga,
1990
- "Antenna Measurements. Terms and Definitions", 130p., RMI, Yerevan,
1990 (in Russian, Armenian, English)
- The Optical Telescope of ROT-54/2.6 using. Trans, of V All-Union
Confer. on Antenna Measurements, p.57-59, RMI, Yerevan, 1990
1991 - History of NF-FF and Holography in the USSR. Trans. of XIV ESA
Symp. on Antenna Measurements, p.5-18, ESTEC, Netherlands, 1991
- Radio-Optical Telescope ROT-54/2.6 and Radioholography. Reports at
the Colloquiums in Universities of Manchester (Jodrel Bank), Sheffield,
Cambridge (Cavendish Lab.), U.K., 1991
- The New Millimeter Wave Radiotelescope in Armenia. Reports at the
Colloquiums in Universities of Cornel, California (Berkeley),
Massachusetts and Radio Observatories in New-Mexico (VLA) and
Aresibo (Porto Rico), USA, 1991
1992 - Solar Power Station. RF Patent 2034204, 18.08.1992, Moscow
Founded the New Powerful, High Effective and Ecologically Pure Type of
Solar Power Plants "AREV" (the Sun), 1992
1993 - The New Millimeter Waverange Radiotelescope in Armenia. Report on
URSI XXIV General Assembly, Kyoto, Japan, 1993
- The RMI Achievements in Antennas and Radioholography. Reports at
the workshops in Thomson Corp. (paris), Medon and Nancies
Observatories, France, 1993
1994 - "AREV-I00" Project. 31p., RMI, Yerevan, 1994 (in Russian and
English)
- Solar Powerful Device. U.K. Patent Appl. 9412260.3, 18.06.1994 and PCT
Patent Appl. PCT/GB 95/01401, 15.06.1995
- Solar Powerful Rotational Machine. U.K. Patent Appl. 9412243.9,
18.06.1994 and PCT Patent Appl. PCT/GB 95/01412, 15.06.1995
1997 - Determination of Scattering Properties of Radar Objects by Near-Field
Measurements. Proc. of III Internat. Confer. on Antennas and
Radiocommunication Systems, v, 2, p.85-91, Voronezh, 1997
1997 - 98 - Carahunge - the Oldest Stone Observatory in Armenia. Report on
Internat. Confer. on Archaeoastronomy, Moscow, 1997 and "Proc. of IV
Congress of Astronomical Society", p.35O-362, Moscow, 1998 (in Russian)
1998 - Prehistoric Stone Observatory "Carahunge". "Reports of National Acad,
ofSci. of Armenia", No 5, p.307-328, Yerevan, 1998 (in Russian)
Founded the Research Showing that the old stone Monument near town
Sisian in Armenia was the large, developed and oldest in the World
249
1999-
2000
2001
2002-04
Observatory "Carahunge" with the age over 7500 years
- About Self Noises of Radio-Optical Telescope ROT-54/2.6 Antenna.
"Journal of Applied Electromagnetism", p.51-57, Athens, Greece, 1999
- Parameters of Large Antenna of the First Radio-Optical Telescope ROT-
54/2.6. Proc. of LV Sci. Session on Radiotechnique, Electronics and
Communication, p.61-62, Moscow, 2000 (in Russian)
Founded the Research Showing that the Evolution of Universe was
Without "Big Bang", 1988-98
- Herouni Methods and Facilities for Determination of Objects' RCS and
Antenna Parameters. Armenian Patent N. 1138,26.07.2001
- Carahunge - the Prehistoric Observatory in Armenia. Proc. of Internat.
Confer. on Archaeoastronomy, 9p., Sanremo, Italy, 2002; will be printed
in "Giornale di Astronomia", Roma, 2004
8. MAIN VISITS ABROAD
1958- China, for Sun Eclipse observation in waverange 50cm
1961- USA, report about Theory of The New Type of the Large Antenna System at
General Assembly of Internat. Astronom. Union (University of California,
Berkeley)
1962- U.K.., invited for 3 months at Jodrel Bank (Univers. of Manchester) and
Cavendish Lab. (Univ. of Cambridge) for joint observations and reports
about Theory of the New Type of Large Antenna System
1989- U.K.., report about ROT-54/2.6 at Internat. Conference ICAP-89 of
International Union of Radio Science (URSI)
1990- Czechoslovakia (prague), invited report on Antenna Measurements in Near
Field, at XXIII General Assembly of URSI
_ U.K.., invited report on Near Field (NF), University of Sheffield
Latvia (Riga), invited report on ROT-54/2.6 at Internat. Conference of URSI
1991- USA, invited reports on ROT-54/2.6 and NF-FF in Universities of
Massachusetts, CorneU, California (Berkeley) and in Radio Observatories
of New-Mexico (VLA), Aresibo (porto-Rico)
U.K.., invited reports on ROT-54/2.6 in Universities of Manchester,
- Warwick, Cambridge, York, Sheffield
Netherlands, invited report on Radioholography and NF-FF at ESTEC,
- European Space Agency (ESA)
1993- France (VIP), invited reports on ROT and NF-FF in Paris (Thomson
Corporation) and Observatories in Medon and Nancies
1994- U.K.., invited reports on AREV Project in London and Cambridge
- Russia, for AREV Project, St.Petersburg, N.Novgorod, Bor
1995- U.K.., invited reports on AREV and NF-FF in London, Cambridge,
Manchester, Malvern, (+Stonehenge)
Russia, Moscow, St.Petersburg (Sci. Confer. and AREV)
- F r a n c ~ Paris (Corpor. Thomson, SOFRATEV)
1997- Russia, Moscow, St.Petersburg and Voronezh (invited reports about RCS
and AREV at Internat. Sci. Conference)
1998- Russia, Moscow, invited report about National Standards for Antenna
Parameters at Sci. Conference of Commonwealth of Independent States
250
- Member of Scientific Council on Radioastronomy of Russian Acad.
ofSci.; from 1997 is the member of this Council Board, Moscow
- Member of a line of USSR Acad. of Sci. Scientific Councils and Inter-
Department Coordinational Councils (on Holography, Antennas,
Metrology and oth. problems), Moscow
- Chairman of Specialized Scientific Council in RRI on graduation of
Ph.D. and Dr. ofSci. Scientific Degrees, Yerevan
- Member of Editorial Board of Scientific journal "Measurement En-
gineering", Moscow
- Chairman of Armenian Acad. of Sci, Council on Radioelectronics
- Member of Euro-Asian Astronomical Society, Moscow
1985 -1992
1985 - still
now
1979 - still
now
1980 - still
now
1965 -1992
9. SCIENTIFIC - PUBLIC ACTIVITY
1965 - still
now
1990-1996
1998 - still
now
2000 - still
now
2001- still
now
2002 - still
now
- Member of Internation. Union of Radio Science (URSI), G.B., two
times: as the Representative of USSR (1990 - 93), then - of Russia
(1993 -96)
- Member of IEEE, USA
- Member of the Group "People-to-People Ambassador" (USA) inclu-
ding 30 the top scientists of the World, the Honorary president of
which is the President of USA
- Member of Editorial Board of the journal "Herald of IAELPS",
St.Petersburg
- Member of Scientific -Consulting Board of the journal"Armenian
Army", Yerevan
10. SCIENTIFIC - PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITY
1960 - 1963 - Lectures on Radiophysics (at first in Armenia) in Yerevan State
University
1963 -1990 - Lectures on Antenna Systems (at first in Armenia) in State En-
gineering University of Armenia, Yerevan
1970 - still - Prepared 24 Ph.D. and 5 Dr. of Sci., Yerevan
now
1983 - still - Head of Graduate School ofRRI, Yerevan
now
11. SCIENTIFIC - ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITY. HE FOUNDED
1958 - 1960 - Radiophysical Constructional Bureau in Byurakan Astrophysi-
cal Observatory
1960 -1968 - Armenian Acad. of Sci. Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics
in town Ashtarak
1968-1971 - Armenian Department in Yerevan of All-Union Physics-Technical
and Radiotechnical Research Institute (Moscow)
1971- still - All-Union Radiophysics Measurement Research Institute (RMI) in
now Yerevan, the name of which from 2000 is Radiophysics Research
Institute (RRI)
251
1972 - still
now
1975 - still
now
1978-1990
1979 - still
now
1983 - still
now
- Experimental Plant "Wave" ofRRI, in Yerevan
- National Standard Centre on Antennas of RMI, which now is Mount
Aragats Scientific Centre of RRI, Mount Aragats, near villages
Orgov and Tegher, on altitude 1720m., Armenia
- Periodical (once per 3 years) All-Union Conferences on Antenna
Measurements in RRI (VKAI - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5), Yerevan
- Specialized Scientific Council in RRI on graduation of Scientific
Degrees of Ph.D. and Dr. of Sci., Yerevan
- Graduate School in RRI, Yerevan
1983 - still - "Antenna Systems" Chair of RRI in State Engineering University
now of Armenia, Yerevan
10. AWARDS
1970 - Medal "For Prowess Labour", Moscow
1980 - Gold Medal of USSR All-Union Industrial Exhibition in Moscow
1983 - Order "Red Banner of Labour", Moscow
1984 - Silver Medal of Catholicos of all Armenians Vazgen I, St. Echmiatsin
1985- State Prize of Armenia (in the field of Science), Yerevan
1986 - State Prize of USSR (in the field of Radar), Moscow
1988 - Medal of Labour Veteran, Moscow
1991- International Prize of IEE-URSI for the work "The First Radio-Optical
Telescope", Great Britain
1997 - Bronze Medal of France Foreign Ministry, France Emb., Yerevan
2002 - Lomonosov's Gold Medal, IAELPS, St.Petersburg
2003 - Gold Medal of National Acad. ofSci. of Armenia
2003 - Gold Medal of Ministry of Education and Science of Armenia
2003 - Gold Medal of State Engineering University of Armenia
2003 - Gold Medal of National Council of Trade-Unions of Armenia
2003 - Order "The Star of Scientist", IAELPS, St. Petersburg
May 2004
Address of RRI:
Radiophysics Research Institute,
49/4 Komitas Ave.
375051, Yerevan
Armenia
252
Tel. & E-mail
Tel. (374.1) 234 990
E-mail: Herouni@sci.am
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( p m f m p q n u l l ° l n m l m l n ' m q t l b q c t m f l n n u ) d u m q u l I q d q g g l U f t l l u m t I b g m q m q q g n I q s - l L 6 1
m l u m q m n g q g m q m q q g n I q m t l l n w q g l 1 \ l l d q ' m g q 6 l 1 i 7 - 8 9 6 1
( l 1 1 u f m p q n u l l ° l n m l m l n ' m q q g n I q m m f l n n u ) l U Q m g q q t l q d q g g l U f t l l u m t I b g m q m q q g n I q s -
T } n U q g g m Y t l m n m g m l l m m i F b o f :
g m 1 } d q ' ? q d m p q g u q d p m g q f m b m d < < t I q b d m q m p m q g q f m g J l P f m
- q m g n » p l u g m d m n l m p m q g m q m m t I b m d m m d m 9 g m q m m q w - ? 9 t f i t - E 8 6 1
g m 1 } d q ' ( q f m q t l b q c t m f l n n u 1
p l U p ? U q 6 q _ ° t J o o o l i l d u ' g q d o g m d u p m n P - b . 6 q _ ° t l E 8 6 1 q n q ' g q d o g m ( g m 1 } d q J l P f m
g m q m g q t l l u t f i t m p m q q d q g p 1 m P m ? g m q m q t l b q < t m l b m u - ? 9 t f i t - 1 L 6 1
g l 1 \ l l d q ' g q d o g m q l l g l U J l g m p m d g m q m q f m q
q d q g p 1 m P m ? g m q m q t l b q c t m I U m u ' ( m p q n u . n ) g m q m g q t l l u t f i t
- m p m q q d q g p 1 m P m ? g m q m q q g n I q m u t l b m u l } g m q m q q g n I q m m q t l b q < t - l L 6 1 - 8 9 6 1
q m d m m l n ° l l ' ? q d m p
q g p m d ? t J " b 1 } p U Q b g m f t l l u m t I b I m h m l r q m q g q d o g m q m l u m q m n g q q f m q q g
- m I m q q q 1 } q f m q t l b q c t m f l n n u q f m t f i t q b m q m q d q g g l U f t l l u m t l - b - 8 9 6 1 - 0 9 6 1

' p l u g m d m m t l b t n l I m n m g m q m q t l b q c t m I m n m q g m q m d l u f u m q l n q f m I 1 U f d
g q f m d - u m q l m I m n g u q g m q m q t l b q < t m l b m u ' l m m m n I l m m t I b ' d q g q p g q m f l n n u -
m q m l l u q m c t
g m q m q q g n I q m m : { b m - u q m l u m q m n g q g m q m q q m q b d q g = I q f m p q n u l l -
i l 6 m I l n b g m p g m t I l t u l m q c " p O E O N q g m 1 } d q 1 1 q m d m p n
: l l l u c l q n m m n i l q d q n ? q 6 l u n l U ' l l
I U n m " ' \ d q
n q - L 1 q d q
d l l q m q q b
° 1
n h n m u l r q ! l 1 l " ' \ q I n I u I u q d q q n
l U
' 1 . Q
m 6 m n n I U l l m
m L t
° 6 Z 8 6 1 1 l I U n m " ' \ d q 1
1 q
6 m q
m l l ' 0
l r m d d q u h q ° 6 8 0 6 1
1 1 q l t n . Q ' ( n m r m m b n ) q n I m I q ? q n u h u q q L 1 , . m b q n
° 6 9 8 6 1 1 l 1 U n m " ' \ d q 1 1 q 6 m q m l l ' ( m q q 1 { l q l } ) ° h m c l
n 9 m ? ° 6 9 0 6 1 1 1 q l t n . Q ' q n I m I q ? q n 1 P l 6 1 T l J l q m m { n - = ' l J l t : : : T 1 d r l " = m = " " ' i
1985- .l.wJwumwUp Shqhp q]nUJ.11 tqunnqunlnp pUwqp!
1998- .l.wJwumwUp b1.Iwpp!Uhpp u]:UltPJwU lllwmqwqnp wG.qwu
2003 - Q.pmntPJwU qwumw1.Iwqnp qnpbp!, IAELPS, U.-lIlhmhppntpq
5. .9:}1mwywfi (mhuwywfi L. wumhphuhfimwu qnpbntfihntmntfin
bwhpuUhl t U}1zwpp w2J:uwphntUUnpqJ:1mw1.IwU nlllQntPJntUUhp, npnUIl wJdU 6wUw!qwb
hUL.qppwnqmu hUqwpqwgwb hP1ntUhpntu:
SbunlJJjwli wUUjwpbqnllI liw UWMubl t.
5.1. UUzwpct qIluwqnp hWJhlnq Uhb hP1.IhwJhIJ:1 wUmhUwUhpp mhuntpJntUl! L.
hwZqwpqp UhPI1IlUhpl! (1958-64),
5.2. Swpphp ntUhgnq wUgllhpp (pw9qw9IlUhpp) llPw qt1.ImpwuwqUpuw1.IwU
w1lJpUhpp mhuntpJntUl! L. hwqwuwpntuUhJll!, pU!lllhu UwL. qpqnqwb wU9llhpp
qwzmpg qhulJ:1 hbnwqnp qnUwJp JlWzmwUguwU UhpnqUhPl! (1963-65),
5.3. mwpwbntPJwU Uh2 JlWzmhpJ:1 npnzuwU UnpUhpnqUhp 6wnwqwJpnq
L.gpnq oPJh1.ImUhpp lInmp1.I qWZIDntU (pwgqwbl}p qnfnujnul) 1.InullllhllU JlWzmhpp !w$uwU
hqwUw1.Inq (1964-68),
5.4. UUmhUwUhpp hbnwqnp qnUwjntu pUntpwqphpp npnzuwU UhPI1IlUhpl! UpwUg lInmp1.I
qnUwJp JlWzmp !w$uwU hqwUw1.Inq(1967-70),
5.5. 6pnq oPJh1.ImUhpp pUntpwqphpp npnzuwU mhuntpJntUl! L. UhPI1IlUhPl! UpwUg lInmp1.I
qwzmp !w$uwUhqwUw1.Inq(1984-87),
5.6. UUmhUwJp hqphpntu qwzmp mhuntpJntU{!, hpp lntUwqnpqwb t Upw
pwgqwbl}p U}1 uwul! (1963-64),
5.7. UUmhUwUhpp UhmpnlnqJ:1w uw$wqJ:1mntpJntU); mhuntpJntUl! L. wUmhUwUhpp ptim-
pwqphpp tmwlnUUhpl! (1970-75),
5.8. Pwquw6wnwqwJPwJPU wUmhUwUhpp 1fl16w1.Iwqpw1.IwU mhuntpjntUl! L. UpwUg
pUntpwqphpJ:1 !w$uwU UhPI1IlUhPl! (1970-72),
5.9. UUmhUwUhpp pUntpwqphpp npnzuwU hqwUwtm (mhuntPJntfi L. UhPI1IlUhp) Upwg lInmp1.I
JlWZml! uw1.IhphupllPw !w$uwU U}12ngnq (1980-84),
5.10. Ub1.I wUzwpct 1.InIJ:1uwmnp ntUhgnq Unp mhuwqp Uphqw1.IUwJPU hqnp
qh1.Impw1.IwJwUp mhuntPJntUl! L. hwZqwP1.IUhpp UhPI1IlUhPl! (1991-95):
/JIuUjbpb1IblilDDllI liw.
5.11. bwIuwqbht, 1.Iwnntght, L. oqmwqnpbht t bp1.IhwJhIJ:1 UUmhUwU wUzwpct
qUuwqnp hWJhtnq' 5u. mpwuwqbnq, wJU ctwuwUw1.I w2J:uwphntU IunznpwqntJUl! uu 1.Iwp6
w1lJpUhpp mppntJpntU (1959-62),
5.12. bwIuwqbht, 1.Iwnntght, hwuWtphl L. oqmwqnpbhl t w2J:uwphntU wnw2}1U fi.wqlm-
-olllmp1.Iw1.IwU wumqwqlJ.mwtm (fl..OLl-54/2.6)' «.l.hpntUnt hWJhtwJPU nwIJluull1mw1.Iw>
(lllwmhUmp wUqwUntUID, npp Ubb UUmhUwJp (mpwuwqJ:1b{!' 54u) pUntpwqphPl!
qhpwqwUgntu hUw2J:uwphppnlnp Uhb wUmhUwUhpp pUntpwqphPl! (1960-88),
5.13. U]:umntu t (fi.<n-54/2.6-p uh$w1.IwU WIllInt1.IUhpp pwgwnp1.I gwbp uw1.Iwpqwqp
ZUnphp1{) wJuUJ.hu 1.In!qwb <<nhIJ:11.ImwJPU wn1.IwJntpJntfil! L. Sphqhppp etwquwU «Uhb
IIlwJPJntU}1» 1.InulInqnUpw1.IwU mhuntpJntUl! (1988-92),
254
5.14. t hqnp nwqlmpnfiltnui bpltqnpJwltfibpp Inmnui unnnq]; \fl1W, npI! ltwpupp
hultw t, npnfig \fl1W hqnp pnfiltnuifibpI! fiwIu4Pfinui huijtnti]; (1985),
5.15. Umwgbl t uwtImuifibpp UP2ngnq) wlIuwphnuI wnw2Pfi fl.wI]lmhnlnqpwddwfi (0.5 d
wfimbfiwJP pwgqwbpntd 8 dd wlPpp \fl1w):
5.16. "UwIuwqbbt L. ltwnntgbl t wlIuwphntd wnw2PfiI!' up 2wPP pwpc1p Uqmndwmplt
uwppwqnpdwfi hwdwlPPfibp unupphp mbuw4P wfimbfiwJPfi hwdwltwppbpp pfintpwqpbpp
lW$dwfi hwdwp fipwfig dnmplt qnfiuijnul, tnuipphp wlPl2fibpp \fl1W (1968-93),
5.17. "UwIuwqbbl L. ltwnntgbl t nt upltpnwlPl2fibpp wfimbfiwfibpp pfintpwqpbpp L.
tImtlbpp 2bIJ.dwfi wfiluwfi wlIuwphntd wnw2Pfi UqqwJPfi UltqpfiwJPfi mwufidblt tIDwlnfi-
fibPI! (1971-91),
5.18. wUlwpwmfibpp \fl1W mbIJ.wqp.qwb wfimbfiwfibpp pfintpwqpbpp hwdwp
(fipwfig nhuq pnpwp UlWJdwfifibpntd) umbIJ.bbl t uwppwqnpntdfibpp wnw2pfi hwdwlPPJ!, npfi
I!Ciqqpltntd t 18d tnpunluiqem] hunnmq wfimbfiw (1976-79),
5.19. "UwIuwqbbt L. ltwnntgbl t 32001I pwpc1pntPJwfi \fl1W umpup1J:1dbmpwJPfi mppntJPP (O,ldd-
3ud) bqw4P bPlthwJblP wfimbfiw' 3,2d mpwdwqbnq (1987-91),
5.20. Unw2wpltbl t finp mpUl1t pwpc1p wIUlJntfiwqbmntPJwdp L. tltnlnqpwUlbu dwpntp
UpbqwltfiwJpfi hqnp ttbltmpwltwJwfi (<<Upla» fiwIuwqpb) L. ltwnntgntd t fipw wnw2pfi
t!2uUlbppdbfimwl oppfiwltI! • 350 hqnpntPJwdp, Upwqwbp qpmwltwfi
ltbfimpnfintd 17500 pwpc1pntPJwfi \fl1W (1992-2004),
5.21. UUUlIlwqpmwltwfi dbPIlIlfibpnq wUlw9nt9bt t, np upupwfi PlUIlWpP dnm qmfiqnq
fiwIuwUlwmdwltwfi pwpb hnt2Wpc1wfifi ppbfipg fibPltwJw9pbl t wlIuwphntd wnw2Pfi, hqnp L.
pwpc1p qwpqwgwb UUUlIlWIJl1mwpwfi, <<Jhupwhntfi2» wfintfinll, npfi wltmpqnpbfi qnpbbl t
wqblP pwfi 7500 mwpp wnw2 (1994-2002),
5.22. "UwIuwqbbl L. ltwnntgbt t wnw2Pfi wfimbfiwfibpfi nt nwqlmI!(iqntfi1tlfibPI!'
50 ud L. 8 dd wlPl2fibpp mppntJpfibpntd (1957-62):
6. UywllbUbllnu Ill. nIfih 350 hpwU),wpwyywb qhUlwywfi
YUluwnlPJnIfifibp, WJIl pYnui' 243 UlU),wqhp, 3 UbfiwqpnlPJnIfi L. 23

"Uw pwqupgu blntJP t ntfibgbl fiwL. pbppbpntd L. wduwqpbpntd, nwqlmJnq L.
hannunnunnhumpjunlp, UlpDUlwqwCiqbtnq qpmwltwfi finpntpJntfifibPI!:
"Upw dwupfi bIJ.bt bfi 2wm hpwUlwpwltntdfibp finmwumwfip,
uU"U-p, :bpwfiupwJP, pmwlPwJP L. WJlbpqpfibpp qwfiqqwbwJPfi lPwmqwltwfi UP2ngfibpnq:
7. fipnz hhufiwywfi qhUlwywfi hpwU),wpwynIPJnIfifibpn:
"'np hhufiwmnlwb qhUlwywfi numnlPJnIfifiboo:
1957
1958
1959-62
1960-64
1964-65
- Unw2Pfi q)ntmp hWJmI!
- Unw2Pfi hpwUlwpwltntPJntfiI!
- 5 - dbmpwfip bPlthwJblP wfimbfiwJP (wtPPwJPfi dd - mppntJpp huuhup)
fiwIuwqbntdI! L. umbIJ.bntdI!
- Ilpeexr H pacser ceJ»epHqecKHx .lI.BYX3epKaJILRblX aRTeRR. «P8,lI.HOTeXBHKa
H 3JIeKTpORHKa» (P3), T. 9, .NU, c. 3-12, MOCKBa, 1964
- ,l(HeJ»eJ»paKD;HSI BOJIR H .lI.HarpaMMa RanpaBJIeBROCTH ceJ»epHqecKoii .lI.BYX3ep-
KaJILROii aRTeRRbI. "H3BeCTHSI AD ApM. CCP, 4lH3HKa", Epeaan, 1964
:?bdfilUIlPbt t Ubb UfimbfiwfibDbumbnWwfi finp nU\nntpjntfi, 1962
- DOJIe KpyrJIOrO H npSlMoyrOJILROrO oTBepCTHH B.lI.aJILReii 30Re. P3, T.I0, N!9,
c.1594-1599,MocKBa,1965
255
t U'nmbYnW2mn - Shnnt nW2m (lP1: - sq.) dL.wYmWliwfi mhuwywfi finn
nmuntpjntfin,1964
1968 - IIBTHMeTpOBaR cfJlepH'IeCKaR aHTeHHa MM C60pHHK <<AHTeHHLI»,

Umwght t Uwwhl.l wz1uwphntli wnw2hfi fi.wnImJmtnqnwlin (0.5 lihmpwfing uifi-
mhfiwJIt pwgtlwbpntli, 8lili - mltpntJPntli, 1968
1968-70 - H3MepeHHe napaaerpca aHTeHH B 30He HX paexpsrsa. BcecOI03HOi
KOHfJlepeHI(HH no MeTpOJIOrHH B c. 82, 1970
SblifiwIJ11bJ t L. Ufimhfiwfihvh pfintpwqnhnb bnhfig linmbY
qnfiwjntli 1WWliwfi (lP1: - sq.) finn lihpnnfihnfi nt uwpphpn, 1964-68
1971 - Methods of Information Processing by Coherent Optic Systems. Trans. of 11
Internat Symposium on Information Theory, Tsahkadzor, 1971
- YCTpoiCTBO H3MepeHHR napasserpea oCTpoHanpaBJIeHHLlX H3JIY'IaTeJIei.
SU ABTOpCK. 534128, 15.12.1971,
1971-72 - Ooecne'leHHe aHTeHHLlX H3MepeHHi B erpaae, Tp.I1 BCecoI03H.
KOHfJlep. no MeTpOJIOrHH HTO'lHLlM H3MepeHHRM, 6 CTp., TOHJIHCH, 1971
- roe. 3TaJIOHHLli I(eHTp no aHTeHHLlM H3MepeHHRM. Tp, XIX Bcec. KOHfJlep. no
TeoPHH HTexHHKe AHTeHH, 12 CTp., 1972
sblifiwIJllht t «Ufimhfiwfihnb 1wwwqbmntpjntfi» finn numntpjntfin, 1971
1976 - H cOBpeMeHHLle aHTeHHLlX H3MepeHHH. COOpBHK
- HaKYCTH'IecKaR rOJIorpa.HR», c. 85-97, «Hayxa», C.-lleTepoypr, 1976
1977 - AHTeHBLleH3MepeHHR. TepMHHLI Honpeaeaeaaa, 44 CTp., BHHHPH, Epeaan,
1977
1978 - llaHopaMHLli SU ABTOpCK. 123477, 02.02.1978,
- AHTeHHLI ecrpeaanpaaaeamae, H3MepeHHR napasserpoa B oJIH*IIei
30He (rOCT 8,309 - 78), 6 CTp., Mecxaa, 1978
1979 - AHTeHBaR CHCTeMa 18 M (PT-18). <<AHTeHHLle H3MepeHHR»,
Tp. I BCecOI03H. KOHfJlep. no MeTpOJIOrHH aHTeHH, c. 13-23 BHHHPH,
Epeaan, 1979
SblifiWJWlq t uWDPwt!npntlifihvh hwliwlhnb finn mhuwy' pnmn wUlwnwm-
fihvh tlnw mbIJ.y.ymt!wb" wfimhfiwfihnb pfintpwqnhnb 1Wmliwfi hwliwn. bnwywfi
pnbmb UlWjliwfifihpntli, 1979
- 00 aTTeCTaI(HH aHTeHHLI OCA-18, OCHOBaHHOM Ha p83Jl0XCeHHH
ee nOJIR no c.epH'I. rapMOHHKaM. Tp. BCecOI03H. KOH.ep.
H3MepeHHR», 2c., HOBOCHOHpCK, 1980
1980-81 - KOMnJIeKC «CcI»epa» H3MepeHHR napaMeTpoB aHTeHH Ha ccI»epH'IeCKOi
nOBepXHOCTH B 30He paCKpLlBa, OT'IeT BHHHPH, 52 CTp., Epesaa, 1981
SblifiwIJllhtt wfimhfiwfihnb pfintpwQllhnb 1WWliwfi finn lihpnn' fipwfig linmbY
qnfiwjntfi Qmfitlnn liwyhnhub tlnw lPl- - 1980
1982 - YCTpoiCTBO aTTeCTaI(HH OOpTOBLIX aHTeHH BnOJIeTe. SU ABTOpCK.
181719, 11.01.1982, Mocxea
- llapaJIJIeJILHLli anepTypHLli CHHTe3. Tp. XIV BcecoI03H. KOHcI»ep. «Paaaeae-
TpOHOMH'IecKHe aBTeHHLI», c. 238-239, Epeaaa, 1982
1984 - Onpeaeaeaae 3cl»cI»eKTHBHOi nOBepxHoCTH paeceaaas (3llP) 001»eKTOB no H3-
MepeHHRM B6JIH*IIei 30He. Tp. III BCecOI03H. KOH.ep. no aHTeHHLlM H3Mepe-
HHRM, c. 28-29, BHHHPH, Epeaan, 1984
- Onpeneneaae 3llP mapa no H3MepeHHRM BoJIH*IIei 30He. TaM xce, CTp.219-221
SblifiwIJllht t opjhymfihnb gnliwfi liwyhnhub n1ID2liwfi finn lihpmm'
finwfig linmwyw nW2mb 1WWliwfi bnwfiwynt!, 1984
1986 - «3epKaJILHLli Tepyaa», SU ABTOpCK. 1377941,
02.01.1986,
256
1987 - Onpeaeneaae 30P no H3MepeHHKM B 30He. AB CCCP»,
T.292, .N"!4, c.849-853, Mocxea, 1987
1989 - The First Radio - Optical Telescope. Trans. of the VI Internat. Confer. on
Antenna and Propogation, ICAP - 89, v.l, p. 540-546, lEE - URSI, U.K., 1989
- Radio Flare on Etta Gemini Star. Trans. of the IAU 137-th Internat Sump. on
Flare Stars, p.145-146, Byurakan, 1989
1990 - Near Field Measurements and Standard Antennas. Abstr. ofURSI XXIII
General Assembly, v.I, p. 266, Praha, 1990
- Construction and Operation of Radio - Optical Telescope ROT-54/2,6. Trans.
of URSI Internat. Meeting on Mirror Antennas, p.34-41, Riga, 1990
- AHTeHHble H3MepeHHK. TepMHHbI Henpenenenaa, 130 crp., BHHHPH, Epesaa,
1990, (Ha pyCCKOM, apMKHCK. HaHrJlHHCK. K3.)
- H3MepeHHK Ha OnTHqeCKOM Teneexone POT-54/2,6. V Bcec. KOH4»ep.
no AHTeuHblM H3MepeHHKM, CTp. 57-59, BHHHPH, Epeaan, 1990
1991 - History of NF -FF and Holograpy in the USSR. Trans. of XIV ESA Sump. on
Antenna Measurements, p.5-18, ESTEC, Netherlands, 1991
- Radio - Optical Telescope ROT-54/2,6 and Radioholograpy. Reports at the
Colloquiums in Univenities of Manchester (Jodrel Bank), Sheffield, Cambridge
(Cavendish Lab.), U.K., 1991
- The New Millimeter Waverange Radiotelescope in Armenia. Reports at the
Colloquiums in Univenities of Cornel, California (Berkly), Massachusetts and
Radio Observatories in New-Mexico (VLA) and Aresibo (porto Rico), USA,1991
1992 - COJlHe-lHaK 3J1eKTpOCTaHII,HK. OaTeHT PcD 203204, 18.08.1992, Mocxna
t finp mbuwbh. pwpc1p U>b!lmInl. t!lnlnqbwUJ.bu Uwant}l. hqnp
Upbqw!lfiwJbfi bb!lmpw!lwJwfi (lIPbY.'), 1992
1993 - The New Millimeter Waverange Radiotelescope in Armenia. Report on URSI
XXIV General Assembly, Kyoto, Japan, 1993
- The RMI Achivements in Antennas and Radioholography. Reports at the
workshops in Thomson Corp. (paris), Medon and Nansies Observatotories,
France, 1993
1994 - «APEB-lOO» Ilpoexr, 31 c., BHHHPH, Epeaan, 1994
- Solar Powerful Device. U.K. Patent Appl. 9412260.3, 18.06.1994 and PCT Patent
Appl. peT/GB 95/01401, 15.06.1995
- Solar Powerful Rotational Machine. U.K. Patent AppL 9412243.9,18.06.1994
and PCT Patent AppL PCT/GB 95/01412, 15.06.1995
1997 - Determination of Scattering Properties of Radar Objects by Near - Field
Measurements. Proc. of III Internat. Confer. on Antennas and
Radiocommunication Systems, v.2, p. 85-91, Voronezh, 1997
1997-98 - - KaMeHHaK oficepBaTopHK B ApMeHHH. Ha
Me2C,lQ'Hap. KOH.ep. no apxaeaerpcacsma, MOCKBa,1997 H IV
ACTpoHoMHqecKoro COI03a», c. 350-362, MOCKBa, 1998
1998 - ,u;OHCTOpHqecKaK KaMeHHaH oficepBaTopHK HaIl,HoH.
HayK ApMeHHH», .N"! 5, c. 307-328, Epeaaa, 1998
Sbufiwnnbl t hbmwgnmnlpjntfifibp;. npnfia wUJ.wgmgbt bfi, np
Uhubwfi awn. lInm qmfitlml hfiwqnlJfi awpb hm2wpc1wfin bnbl t wzluwphmu
wUbfiw hbfi, Ubb h qwpqwgwb (<J!wpwhm.hn1fi2» wfindintl UuUlJllllDbmwpwfills
npfi wbmbY qnpbbl t ubqwfibg wyblb awfi 7500 mwnh wnw2, 1994
1999-2000 - About Self Noises of Radio - Optical Telescope ROT-54/2,6 Antenna.« Journal
of Applied Eletromagnetism», p. 51-57, Athens, Greece, 1999
- llapaMeTpbl fiOJlLmOH AHTeHHbI Ilepeoro -Onraaecxere Teneexona
257
POT-54/2,6. TpYJJ;LI LV naysn, ceCCHH no paJJ;HOTexHHKe, 3JleKTpoHHKe H
CBH3H, c. 61-62, Mocxea, 2000
t hbmwqnmDllUntfi. nnn gntJg t mybt- np SbbqbWb gwngwgntUn
mhnb t ntfibgbl wnwfig «Ubb lIlWJlUntfib»,1988-98
2001 - qbqmpwuwqfi}1uwqwfi WWllfibp gpnq opbqmfibp}1 L. wfimbfiwfibp}1 pfintpwqpb-
p}1 npnluwfi b.qwfiwq (mwppbpwqfibp) 1!um L. wjfi }1pwqwfiwgfibtnt
uwpp (mwppbpwqfibp): tqunnbfhn 1138, 26.07.01
2002-64 - Carahunge - the Prehistoric Observatory in Armenia. Proc. of Internat. Confer.
on Archaeoastronomy, 9p, Sunremo, Italy, 2002; will be printed in «Giomal di
Astronomia», Roma, 2004
8. nmhpguhpu wpmwuwhuwu
1958 - Rbfiwumwfi, UpL.}1 Iuwqwpuwfi Illtmntufibp' 50uu w1lJpwj}1fi m}1pntjpDlU
1961 - Um." finp mbuw1t}1 Ubb bpqhwjbIP Ufimbfiwfibp}1 mbuntpjwfi uwu}1fi'
U}12wqq. UUUlIlwq}1m. UImtpjwfi <l-tluwqnp UuwuPtbwjntu (lnuIl$lpfi}1wj}1
hwuwtuwpwfi, PbpqIP)
1962 - Ubb Pnbmwfibw, hpwtUtpqbt t 3 wuunq5huylbt Pbfiq (lTwfi1.bumbp}1 hunluquur-
pwfi) L.lnuqbfiIlltll1 Lwpnp. (tIbuPP}12}1 hwuwtu.) hwuwmb.q Illtmntufibp}1 L. finp
mbuw1t}1 UbbUfimbfiwj}1 uwu}1fi qbqntgntufibp}1hunhnp
1989 - Ubb PPbmwfibw, qbqntgDlU fi.()q. - 5412.6 -}1 uwu}1fi U}12wqq. Q.}1mwqwfi
fi.w1Jlm UImtpjwfi (URSI) ICAP - 89 U}12wqq.
1990 - Rb}ynulnywhhw, (lIlpwhw), UJ.wmtUtpwb qbqntgntu' dnm}1q qnfiwjntu wfimb-
fiwj}1fi l.wtImtufibp}1 uwu}1fi ' U}12wqq. Q.}1mwqwfi fi.WlJlm U}mtpjntfi (URSI)
xxm <l-tlu. UuwUptbwjntU
- Ubb Pnbmwfibw, UJ.wmqbpnq qbqntgntu dnm}1q qnfiwj}1 uwu}1fi
hwuwtuwpwfintU
- Lwmtlbw (P}1qw), UJ.wmq. qbqDlg. fi.()q. - 5412.6 -}1 lIwu}1fi URSI U}12wqq.

1991 - Um." UJ.wmtUtpwb qbqntgDlUfibp' fi.()q. - 5412.6 L. dnm}1q qnfiwj}1 uwu}1fi
Ilunnugnutnnuh, lmpfibt}l, hwuwtuwpwfifibpntlI L. bjnt-Ubqu}1-
qn (VLA), Upbu}1pn (lIlnpmn - P}1qn) fi.w1Jlm wUUlIlwI1lJ.mwpwfifibpntlI
- Ubb Pnbmwfibw, UJ.wmq. qbqDlgntlIfibp fi.oq. - 5412.6 -}1 lIwu}1fi lTwfi1.bumbp}1,
qnptUt1t}1, qblIpP}12}1, 8npp}1, hWUW1UWpwfifibpntlI
- blmbmw6nfibp, ujunm], qbqntgntlI L. dnm}1q qnfiwj}1
lIwu}1fi' ESTEC-DllI, ESA (bttpnUJ.wq. S}1bqbpwq. Q.npbwqwl.)
1993 - :bpwfiuDw (VIP), tqunm], qbqntgntlIfibp fi.()q. - 5412.6 L. dnm}1q qnfiwj}1lIwu}1fi'
Cl>wp}1qntlI (lUnlIunfi qnpUJ.npwg}1w) L. Ubqnfi}1 m "Uwfiu}1}1 wUUlIlwIlltmwpwfi-
fibpntlI
1994 - Ubb Pnbmwfibw, UJ.wmq. qbqntgntlIfibp UPW bpwqp}1 uwu}1fi LnfiqnfintlI L.
qblIpP}12ntlI
- fi.lltuwumwfi, UPWbpwqp}1hwpgbpnq' U.-lIlbmbppDlpq, b.bnqqnpnq, Pnn
1995 - Ubb Pnbmwfibw, iqunm]. qbqDlgntlIfibp llfi.W -}1 L. dnm}1q qnfiwj}1lIwu}1fi'
LnfiqntfintlI, qblIpP}12DllI, lTwfi1.bumbpntlI,lTwtqbpfintlI, (+Umnntfihbfi2)
- fi.lltuwumwfi, lTnuqqw, U.- lIlbmbppntpq
- :bnwfiubw, Cl>wp}1q (lUnlIunfi qnpUJ.npwg}1w, SOFRATEV)
1997 - fi.lltuwumwfi, lTnuqqw, U.-lIlbmbppntpq L. qnpnfibet (iqunm], qbqntgntlI gpnq
opjbqmfibp}1 IlWlm}1 L. UPW-}1lIwu}1fi' U}12wqq. q}1mwqwfi
1998 - fimuwumwfi, lTnuqqw, iqunm]. qbqntgntu Ufimbfiwj}1fi Pfintpwqpbp}1 bnwtnfi-
fibp}1lIwu}1fiU bpqpfibp}1 q}1mwqwfi
258
6 S Z
l I r m q l l l n l < t m l b m - u = l J l 1 U ] \ ? U q 6 1 1 - ° d o o o z i l d u ' J l 1 u g m ' l d q J l P r m
g m q m g q E h m f i t m J l m q l I d q g J l 1 m f l m ? g m q m q t l b l l < t m l b m - u - ? g l l J 1 - I L 6 1
J l 1 u g m 1 \ d q i l ( l g l U J l
- g m p m d g m q m q r m q l I d q g J l 1 m f l m ? g m q m q t l b l l < t m l b m - u ( m ] \ q n u . n ) - I L 6 1 - 8 9 6 1
J l 1 u q m d m m l n 0 ( 1
i l m 1 u m l l m n g l l l I r m q l l g m I m q q q 1 \ l I r m q t l b l l < t m l b m - u n 1 > - 8 9 6 1 - 0 9 6 1
J l 1 u g m d
- m m t f b m l n n n m g m q m q t l b l l < t m I m n m l I g m q m d 1 u r ; : f 1 : f l l I l g m q m q t l b l l < t m l b m - u -
l l q g l l t l q m L 1 , .
i l g l U [ ( I l u q g U l Q d l f f i g m l l m 1 l n d q l l m l l b m l l - m m t f b ° 1 1
J l P r m
g m q d q ' d m ] \ m q q l I l I r m d 1 u m g m d t l f n n m - ? g l l J 1 - £ 8 6 1
J l P r m
g m 1 \ d q ' d u m q u b 1 \ 1 U Q m g q q s t z l I d q g g l u r s 1 u m @ = l l q m n m d m m w - ? g l l J 1 - o L 6 1
J l 1 u m l l u m l l m n g l l g m q m q l l g n I q m 1 { l u w l I g m 1 \ d q
p m b g m 6 m s g i l n m b g m q m n u n I m n m b d q b d m q m p m q g l l r m g q m g n - 0 6 6 1 - £ 9 6 1
J l l u g m d m n l m p m q g m q m m q w l I g m q d q ( p l u g m m
J l m b g m 6 m s g i l n m b g m q m n u n I m n m i I l I r m q t l b l l < t m l b m - u - £ 9 6 1 - 0 9 6 1
i l g l U ( i I l u q g U I Q d l f f i g m l l m p d m l i m l l g m l l - m m t f b ° 0 I
g m 1 \ d q ' p m b g m t l b d q d t I n I g m q m m t l - b l I d b m n p m « q m g m d -
b d 1 u d d q m q w - o n ' p m b g m l I r m t } b q l u q
g m q m d b m d J l n I l I d b m n p m g m q m q l l g n I q m - m m @ « 9 € H V W X H H . l 3 3 H » -
i l m g q f n l b q d
w
J ' l J l n = l g m g q l n l b q d l n d u ] \ m ] \ m m w l I d u ' 6 1 1 d q g g m q m g m @ g r l u b m d u l u n I
O £ l I q d m n I l m . Q m ] \ J l b m q ' J l m b g m ( J ' l J l n ) l I d J l n I « J o p u s s e q m v -
- i n n ' p m b g m ( a : a : H D l I m 1 u m l l m n
- g 1 . l l I d q g d q g q p g l l l I r m q l l g m I m q q q 1 \ l I r m q l l g n I q m m d m q q q -
( " S S 9 6 6 1 - £ 6 6 I ) l I g m m n m m u u n q l n d u
m l n m 1 \ ( " S S £ 6 6 I - 0 6 6 r ) ? 1 I 6 1 u 6 m r m q d q g n q l n d u . ] \ u m q 4 J l m p l u q d q
' l ' m b g m ( m l l g m m l l d ; : f . Q q f i ' I S ) l ( l ) g m r s l u t I n m l b m - u g m q m m l l 1 > -
m ] \ q n u . n ' p m b g m g m r s 1 m f i t g m q m m @ m l n n n n l I g m m n m m u u -
g m 1 \ d q ' q m b m n I m g t l b d q d u n I l I r m q l l g m I m q q q m l b m - u n 1 > -
m ] \ q n u . n ' J l m b g m
l I r m @ q l u q g m q m d b m d p n I l I d b m n p m g m q m m @ B 8 H " l I i . U H d a w £ w > -
g m q d q ' q m b m n I m g t l b d q d u n I . Q m ] \ 6 m m @ m g n m . n
1 I u q d u g l d q g g m g l l m n m g m q m m @ l I d u m q u b 1 \ 1 I 1 U . Q m g q q s l I d q g g l u r s 1 u m l l 1 > -
m ] \ q n u . n ' ( ] \ m I q 6 d m q l r m 1 \ g m r s 1 u m @ m t l t m c
' l I d q g m g q m g n p m b g m l I d q g t n h u q d u n I g m q m m l l 1 > l l d m l l I J 1
g u l l 6 m g t l b d u u q 1 \ l I r m l l J 1 q b m q m l I d q g g l u r s 1 u m l l 1 > -
b d 1 u d d q m q w - o n ' m ] \ q n u . n ' J l m b g m
l I m I 1 u r d t l b d q d U l \ l b r m - 6 1 1 - o S L 6 6 1 : p m b g m t l b d q d u n I g m q m m l l 1 > l I d q g p q l d m I l n
« g l u r s 1 u m @ m l n n n m m l b m - u » l I r m l l J 1 q b m q m l I d q g g 1 u r s 1 u m l l 1 > l I g m m n m m u u -
J l P r m
? g l l J 1 - z o o z
J l P r m
? g l l J 1 - t o o z
J l P r m
? g l l J 1 - o o o z
J l P r m
? g l l J 1 - 8 6 6 1
9 6 6 1 - 0 6 6 1
J l P r m
1

J l P r m
? g l l J 1 - o 8 6 1
J l P r m
? g l l J 1 - 6 L 6 1
i l g l U ( 6 1 u q g l U Q d I f f i g m l l m i j m d m n m q - m m t f b ° 6
1972-upfi1.
WjdtI
1975-upfi1.
WjdtI
1978-1990
1979-upfi1.
WjdtI
1983-upfi1.
WjdtI
1983-upfi1.
WjdtI
- «Ut1Jp» lImp6wpwpwqwfi qnpbwpwfi]! bpLwfinuI
- qpg UfiUlhfiwfihpp UlhUlWqwfi bnwtnfiwjpfi qhfiUlpnfi: UjdtI'
Upwqwb"p qIlUlwqwfi qhfiUlpnfi (Opqm] L. Sbqhpqp1UJ.hpp dnUl)
- IIlwpphpwqwfi (3 Ulwppfi Uhq) «UfiUlhfiwjpfi 1.wllmtdfihp» hwdw-
U}1ntphfiwqwfi qIlUlwqwfi ,2,3,4,5), -nul,
bpL.wfi
- Q.pmntpjntfifihpp phqfiwb"nt}1 L. qnqmnpp qIlUlwqwfi wUUlp6wfifihp Zfinpbnq
dwufiwqllUlWgqWb" [unphmpq bpLwfi
- UuUIPpwfimntpw bpL.wfi
- . «UfiUlhfiwjpfi hwdwqwpqhp» pwqwjpfi wdPlmfi]!
IIlhUlWqwfi 6wpUlWpwqllUlwqwfi hwdwtuwpwfintd, bpL.wfi
12. "lwpqufibpl!
1970- «lJlupwqnpb"WlluWUlWfipphunluip» lIbqWI, lTnuqqw
1980 -p fiuqh lIbqWI, lTnuqqw
1983 - UlluWUlWfipwjpfi lwlpupp I}I1I1lP Cpwfizwfi, lTnuqqw
1984- Udhfiwjfi lwlpmtllqnu qwqqhfi U-pUpbwpb dbJpuI, U. T:2upwb"pfi
1985 - IIlhUlWqwfi dpgwfiwq (qIlmntPJwfi wUUlwphqntd), bpL.wfi
1986 IIlhUlWqwfi dpgwfiwq (nwqlmtnqwgpWjP wUUlwPtKp:J.td), lTnuqqw
1988 - «UlluWUlWfipp qhUlhpwfi» dbJpuI, lTnuqqw
1991 - mE-URSI U}12wqqwjpfi dpgwfiwq «Unw2}1fi fi.wqlm-Q1qUlpqwqwfi UuUlIlWIJIJ.UlWq»
WlluWUlWfipp hwdwp, Ubb" {lppUlwfipw
1997- :bpwfiupwjp UpUlwppfi qnpb"ng fiw}uwpwpntpjwfi {lpnfiqb dbJpuI, :bpwfiupwjp qhu-
Ulwfintpjntfi, bpL.wfi
2002-lndnfinun1fl1 wfiqwfi fiuqh dbJpuI, IAELPS, U.-lIlhUlhppntpq
2003- Q.}1Ulntp. Uqqwjpfi wqwqhupwjp fiuqb dbJput
2003- tIppntpjwfi L. qIlmntpjwfi "bw}uwpwpntpjwfi fiuqh dbJput
2003- IIlhUlWqwfi 'l'iwpUlWpWqllUlwqwfi hwdwtuwpwfip fiuqh Uhqwt
2003- UpUlU}1ntpjntfifihpp UqqwJpfi IunphpIJIJ. fiuqh dbJput
2003- «Q.}1Ulfiwqwfip unnnn» Cpwfizwfi, IAELPS, U.-lIlhUlhppntpq
lTWjpU2004p.
fi.<HP hwughfi
bptawfi 51,
tInupUlWUp UlmplUlW,49/4
260
(3741) 234 990
E-JbwUUl
Herouni@sci.am
IIH<IlOPMAIIIDI
AKa,lleMHK IIapHc MHCaKOBHQ rEPYHII
(}reg: MHCaK MaTeBOCOBH'I Tepyaa, poa, B r, A'IH
(KHJIHKHH) B 1906r, CKOH'I. B Epeaaae B 1986r.
MaTh: Cena HHKOrOCOBHa Tepyaa (A3aTHH), poa, B
r, Hrnap B 1908r, CKOH'I. B Epeaane B 1982r.
OH 3CeHaT, HMeeT ChIHOBeii H
1. POJlHJICH 1933r. BEpeaane, B cesrse npenonaearenen. ApMHHHH.
B 1951 r, OKOHqHJI IIIKOJIy N!30 HMeHH B. TI. qKaJIOBa B Epeaane,
2. TpYJlOBaHJleHTeJIhHOCTh
1951 - 1957 - Pa.z.HoTeXHHqecKHii 4JaKYJlLTeT MOCKOBCKoro 3HepreTHqeCKOrO HH-
eraryra (M3H)
1957 - 1960 - Pa.z.HoHHX(eHep, HayqH. HaqaJILHHK
KOHCTpyKTOpCKOro filOpo 61OpaKaHcKoii ACTpo4JH3HQeCKOii Oficep-
BaTopHH, ApMeHHH
1960 - 1968 - 3aM. no HayKe H 3aB. CBq HHCTHTYTa panao-
4JH3HKH H 3J1eKTpoHHKH AB ApM. CCP, r. AWTapaK
1968 - 1971 - ,l(HpeKTOp ApMRHcKoro Pa.z.Ho4JH3HQeCKHX H3MepeHHii
(AOPH), EpeB8H, Beeeesosaere HHH 4JH3HKo-TeXHHQecKHx H
pa.z.HoTeXHHQecKHx H3MepeHHii (BHHHCI»TPH, MOCKB8)
1971 - no aaer, - ,l(HpeKTop, C1983 r, - reHepaJILHLlii BCecOlO3HOro HHH P8-
BpeMII H3MepeHBii (BHHHPH) B EpeB8He (e 2000 r, - HHH
Pa.z.H04JB3HKB - HHHP)
1983 - no aaer, - fi830BOii HHHP "AHTeHHLle cBCTeMLI" B
BpeMII BH*eHepHoM YBBBepCHTeTe ApMeHHB, EpeB8H
3.Y'IeHhIe CTeneHH H 3BaHHH
1965 - TeXHBQecKBX H8YK(Panaerexnasea, 3aUUlTBJI B Mecxae)
1968 - ,l(oneHT, EpeB8HcKHii nOJlHTeXHHQecKHii HHCTHyYT
1972 - ,l(OKTOp TeXHHQecKBX HaYK 3aUUlTHJI B Mocxae)
1982 - AKa.z.eMHH HaYKApMeHBH, Epeeaa
1983 - TIpocl»eccop (Pa.z.B04JH3BKa, BHHHPH)
1996 - AKa.z.eMBK HanHOHaJILHOii AKa.z.eMHH HaYK ApMeHHH, EpeB8H
1999 - AKa.z.eMBK HHX(eHepHoii AKa.z.eMHH ApMeHHB, EpeB8H
2001 - AKa.z.eMHK AKa.z.eMBH H8YK3KOJlOrHH H fie30naCHOCTH *H3He-
(lAELPS - MAH3li), C.-TIeTepfiypr
2001 - AKa.z.eMHK TexHOJlOrHQecKoii AKa.z.eMHB ApMeHHB, EpeB8H
261
4. IIO'leTHhIe 3BaHHH
1985 - llOqeTHLlii XGlTeJIL CeJIa Terep, ApMeHHH
1998 - llOqeTHLlii qJleH COlO3aXYJJ:O:arnHKOB ApMeHHH, Epesan
2003 - 3aCJIyxceHHLlii JJ:eHTeJIL HaYKH, MAH3.6, Cs-Ilerepfiypr
5. HayqHaH (TeOpeTH'IeCKaH H 3KcnepHMeHTaJIhHaH) lleHTeJIhHOCTh
OH OCHOBaJI pHJJ: HOBLlXHayqHLlx HanpaBJIeHHii, KOTOpLle ceiiqac npH3HaHLI H HCnOJlL-
3YlOTCH B PaJBHTLlX crpanax.
B meopuu 6b1Jlu C030anbl:
5.1. TeoPHH H MeToJJ:LI pacsera .60JlLWHX JJ:Byx3epKaJILHLlX aHTeHH C HenOJJ:BH:arnLlM
c«I»epHqeCKHM rJlaBHLlM 3epKaJIOM (1958-64),
5.2. Teopaa H ypaBHeHHH JJ:H«I»paKnHH 3J1eKTpoMarHHTHoro DOJlH Ha OTBepCTHHX
(pacxpsraax) paJJIHqHOii KOH«I»HrypanHH; MeTOJJ:LI nepexona OT B 0 3 0 ~ e H H o r o OTBepCTHH B
JJ:aJILHIOIO 30Hy (1963-65),
5.3. PaJJ:HorOJlorpa«l»HH; HOBLle MeTOJJ:LI onpeJJ:eJIeHHH nOJleii B npocrpaacrae nYTeM
R3MepeHHH KOMnJleKCHLIX nOJleii B oJlH:arneii JOHe (B 30He paexpsraa) HJJIyqalODJ.HX R
pacceaaaiomax OObeKTOB (1964-68),
5.4. MeToJJ:LI onpeJJ:eJIeHHH napasserpoa aHTeHH B JJ:aJILHeii JOHe no H3MepeHHHM nOJleii
BOJlH3H OTHHX(1967-70),
5.5. Teopaa H MeToJJ:LI enpeneneaas napaaerpcs pacCeHBalODJ.HX OObeKTOB PllP) no
H3MepeHHHM nOJlHBOJlH3H OTHHX(1984-87),
5.6. TeoPHH JJ:H«I»paKnHH BOJlH Ha KpaHX aHTeHHLI npa qaCTHqHOM OCBeDJ.eHHH ee nOJlHoii
aneprypsr (1963-64),
5.7. MeTpOJlOrHH aHTeHH, TeoPHH H 3TaJIOHLI napasserpee aHTeHH(1970-75),
5.8. CTaTHCTHqeCKaH Teepaa H MeToJJ:LI H3MepeHHii napasserpea MHoroJlyqeBLlx aHTeHH
(1970-72),
5.9. TeoPHR R MeToJJ:LI onpeJJ:eJIeHHR napasserpea aHTeHH no RJMepeHRHM nOJlR Ha c«I»epR-
qecKoii nOBepXHOCTH B oJlH:arneii JOHe (1980-84),
5.10.TeopRR R MeToJJ:LI pacsera HOBoro THna Momuoii COJlHeqHOii 3J1eKTpoCTaHnRH COAHHM
HenOJJ:BRXCHLlM c«I»epHqecKRM KOJlJlHMaTOpoM (1991-95).
B 3KcnepuMenme on:
5.11. CDpOeKTHpOBaJI, neerpoan H RCnOJlLJOBaJI )J;ByxJepKaJILHylO AHTeHHy co C«I»epRqec-
KRM HenOJJ:BHXCHLlM rJlaBHLlM JepKaJIOM (.l(AC-5) CJJ:HaMeTpoM rJlaBHOrO sepxaaa 5 M, B TO
BpeMR KpynHeiimylO B MHpe Ha KOpOTKHX MM. BOJlHaX (1959-62),
5.12. CnpOeKTHpOBaJI, neerpoan, HaJIaJJ:RJI R HCnOJlLJOBaJI llepBLlii B MHpe PaJJ:Ho-
OnTHqeCKHii TeJIeCKOn (pOT-54/2.6) - "3epKaJILHLlii paJJ:HOTeJIeCKOn Tepyaa" (HaJBaHHe
nareara), .60JlLWaH AHTeHHa KOTOpoii CHenOJJ:BH:arnLIM c«I»epHqeCKRM JepKaJIOMJJ:HaMeTpoM
54 M, HMeeTHaRJIyqWHe napaaerpsr cpena seex OOJlLWHX aHTeHH MHpa (1960-88),
5.13. Orpauaer, oJlaroJJ:apR RCKJIlOqRTeJILHO HHJKOMY YPOBHIO cooCTBeHHLlx myMOB
POT-54/2.6, HaJIHqHe TaK HaJLIBaeMoro "peJIHKTOBOrO «I»oHa" R KocMOrOHRqecKYIO TeopHIO
npoRcxoQeHHR BCeJIeHHOii B pesymrrare ".60JlLWOrO BJpLIBa" (1988-92),
262
5.14. 06HapY*llJI MOInHYIO Ha 3rra liJIH3HenOB, KpaCHOM raranre,
MOIl(llbIe BcnLIWKH Ha KOTOpbIX 6LIJIHpanee HeH3BeCTHbI (1985),
5.15. DOJIYIfHJI (H3MepHJI) nepayro B MHpe (KoMnJIeKCHOro nOJIH B
pacxpsree aHTeHHbI 0,5M Ha BOJIHe 8MM),
5.16. CnpOeKTHpOBaJI H nocrpean anepasre B MHpe neJILIH paa BLlcoKo3c1JclJeKTHBHLIX
ABTOMaTHlfeCKHX KOMnJIeKCOB annaparypsr H3MepeHHH napasterpoa AHTeHHLlx CHCTeM
pa3JIHlfHOrO THna B HX JOHe Ha pa3JIHlfHLIX BOJIH (1968-93),
5.17. CnpOeKTHpOBaJI H neerponn nepasre B MHpe HanHOHaJILHLIX
DepBHIfHLlX 3TaJIOHOB Ifapasrerpoa AHTeHH H YrJIa Ha CBq H MHKpOBOJIHax
(1971-91),
5.18. nepBLlH KOMnJIeKC annaparypsr C aHTeHHoH 18 M H3MepeHHH
napasserpoa 60pTOBLlX aHTeHH JIeTaTeJILHLlX annaparos B YCJIOBHHX HX peaJILHOrO nOJIeTa
(1976-79),
5.19. CnpOeKTHpOBaJI H nOCTpOHJI Ha BbICOTe 3200 MyHHKaJILHylO aaremry
cy6MHJIJIHMeTpOBoro naanaaoaa (0,1 MM- 3 CM), 3,2 M, (1987-91),
5.20. HOBLlH BLlCoKo3••eKTHBHLlH H 3KOJIOrHlfecKH IfHCTLIH THn MOrnHOH
COJIHelfHOH 3JIeKTpoCTaHnHH (npeeser "ApeB") H crpoar nepBLIH 3KcnepHMeHTaJILHLIH
o6paJen MOIl(llOCTLIO 350 KBT (1992-2004),
5.21. DOKaJaJI acrpoHoMHlfecKHMH IfTO ,l(OHCTopHlfeCKHH KaMeHHbIH naMHTHHK y
r, CHCHaH B ApMeHHH 6LIJI nepBOH B MHpe, 60JILWOH H BLlCOKOpaJBHTOH 06cepBaTopHeH
KOTOpLlH aKTHBHO 60JIee lfeM 7500 JIeTTOMY (1994-2002),
5.22. Bnepasre B ApMeHHH CnpOeKTHpOBaJI H neerpean aHTeHHLI H B
50 CM. H 8 MM. (1957-1962).
6. AKaJleMHK n. repyHH HMeeT 350 ony6JIHKOBaHHhIx HayqHblX pa6oT,
BKJIIOqaH 243 neqaTHblX, 3 MOHorpad!HH H 23 naTeHTa.
OH BbICTYnaJI TalOKe B raserax H*ypHaJIaX, no panao H C
npenaranaoa HaYlfHLIX 3HaHHH.
o HeM caMOM H 0 ero pa60Tax 6bIJIO MHOro ny6JIHKanHH B CMU CCCP, POCCHH,
ApMeHHH, CIDA, BeJIHK06pHTaHHH, HTaJIHH H erpaa.
7. HeKoTopble OCHOBHhIe HayqHble ny6JIHKagHH.
OCHOBaHHble HOBble HayqHble HanpaBJIeHHH
1957
1958
1959-62
1960-64
1964-65
- Ilepaaa JaHBKa Ha H306peTeHHe
- Ilepesse ny6JIHKanHH
- Ifpeeser H 5-MeTpOBOH c.epHlfeCKoH aHTeHHLI
,l(AC-5 MM
- Ilpeexr H paexer c.epHlfecKHX aHTeHH.
H 3JIeKTpOHHKa» (P3), T. 9, .NU, e, 3-12, MOCKBa, 1964
- ,l(H.clJpaKnHH BOJIH H naarpasoaa HanpaBJIeHHOCTH cclJepHlfecKoH
KaJILHOH aHTeHHLI. "H3BeCTHHAH ApM. CCP, Epeaan, 1964
OCHOBaJI HOBoe HanpaBJIeHHe B liOJILWHX AHTeHH,1962
- DOJIeKpyrJIOro H npHMoyrOJILHOrO oTBepCTHH B JOHe. P3, T.I0, N!9,
C. 1594-1599, MocKBa, 1965
OCHOBaJI HOBoe HanpaBJIeHHe npeo6pa30BaHHH nOJIH B lIaJILHee
nOJIe mD-llID, 1964
263
1968 - llHTHMeTpOBaHC«JlepHqeCKaH aHTeHHa MM naanasona, C60pHHK <<AHTeHHLI»,

llOJIyqHJI nepBylO B MHpe PallHOrOJIOrpaMY (nOJIH B 30He pacxpsma O,5-MeTpOBOH
aarenasr, B 8 MMnaanaacae .llJIHH BOJIH), 1968
1968-70 - H3MepeHHe napaaerpos aHTeHH B 30He HX pacspsaaa. TPY.llLl Bceeesomoa
KOH«JlepeH"HH no MeTpOJIOrHH B pa.llH03JIeTpoHHKe, c. 82, 1970
OCHOBaJI PallHOrOJIorpacbHIO H HOBble MeTOllbl H ycrponCTBa lIJIH H3MepeHHH
napaMeTPOBaHTeHH B30He HXpaCKpblBa mll-HID, 1964-68
1971 - Methods of Information Processing by Coherent Optic Systems. Trans. of 11
Internat. Symposium on Information Theory, Tsahkadzor, 1971
- YcrponCTBo .llJIH H3MepeHHH rrapasserpea ecrpoaanpaaneaastx HuyqaTeJIeH.
SU ABTOpCK. CBH,lleT. 534128, 15.12.1971, Mocxsa
1971-72 - 06eCneqeHHe e.llHHCTBa aHTeHHblX H3MepeHHH B crpane. Tp.I1 Bceeosoaa.
KOH.ep. no MeTpOJIOrHH H TOqHblMH3MepeHHHM, 6 crp., T6HJIHCH, 1971
- Foe, 3TaJIOHHblH nenrp no aHTeHHblM H3MepeHHHM. Tp. XIX Bcec. KOH«Jlep. no
Teopaa H TexHHKe AHTeHH, 12 crp., Mecxea, 1972
OCHOBaJI HOBoe HanpaBJIeHHe AHTeHH», 1971
1976 - Pa,llHOrOJIorpa«JlHH H ccepesrenusre MeTO.llLl aHTeHHLlX H3MepeHHn. C60pHHK
«Paaae - H aKYCTHqeCKaH rOJIorpa«JlHH», c. 85-97, «Hayxa», Cs-Ilerepbypr, 1976
1977 - AHTeHHLle H3MepeHHH. TepMHHLI H onpeaeaeaaa, 44 erp., BHHHPH, Epeaan,
1977
1978 - llaHopaMHLlH panaenexarop. SU ABTOpCK. CBH,lleT., 123477, 02.02.1978, Mocxaa
- AHTeHHLI ocrponanpaaneamae. Meron H3MepeHHH napasrerpoa B 6JIH*IIeH
30He(rOCT 8,309 - 78), 6 crp., Mocxaa, 1978
1979 - AHTeHHaH CHCTeMa .llHaMeTpoM 18 M (PT-18). «AHTeHHble H3MepeHHH»,
Tp, I BCecOI03H. KOH.ep. no MeTpOJIOrHH aHTeHH, c. 13-23 BHHHPH,
EpeBaH,1979
OCHOBaJI KOMnJIeKC annapaTYPbI HOBoro THna lIJIH H3MepeHHH napaMerpoB
60pTOBblX aHTeHH B YCJIOBHHX peaJIbHOrO nOJIeTa, 1979
- 06 O.llHOM MeTO.lle arreeranaa aHTeHHLI OCA-18, OCHOBaHHOM Ha pa3JloX(eHHH
ee nOJIH no c«JlepHq. rapMOHHKaM. Tp, BceCOI03H. KOH.ep. «Pa.llHOTeXHBq.
H3MepeHBH», 2c., HOBOCB6BpCK, 1980
1980-81 - KOMnJIeKC «C.epa» .llJIH B3MepeHBH napasserpea aHTeHH Ha c.epHqeCKOH
nOBepXHOCTH B 30He paespsraa, OJ'qeT BHHHPH, 52 crp., Epeaan, 1981
OCHOBaJI HOBLlH MeTOll B3MepeHHH napaMeTPOBaHTeHH Ha CcbepHqecKoH nOBepx-
HOCTH B HX6JIHX(Hen 30He(CcbepHq. 6ll-HID, 1980
1982 - YcrpOHCTBO .llJIH arreerauaa 60pTOBLlXaHTeHH B nOJIeTe. SU ABTOpCK. CBH,lleT.
181719, 11.01.1982,
- llapaJIJIeJIbHblH anepTYPHLlH CHHTe3. Tp. XIV BcecOI03H. KOH.ep. «Paaaoac-
TpoHOMHqeCKHe aHTeHHLI», c.238-239, Epeaan, 1982
1984 - Onpeaeneaae 3CJ»«JleKTHBHOH nOBepxHoCTH paceesnaa (3llP) 06LeKTOB no B3-
MepeHBHM B 6JIH*IIeH 30He. Tp. III Bcecoana, KOH.ep. no aHTeHHLlM B3Mepe-
HHHM, c. 28-29, BHHHPH, Epesan, 1984
- Onpeaeneaae 3llP mapa no B3MepeHHHM B MBX(HeH 30He. TaM X(e, CTp.219-221
OCHOBaJI HOBbln MeTOll OnpelleJIeHHH 3llP 06LeKTOB no H3MepeHHHM pacceHH-
Horo nOJIH B6JIH3H OT HHx,1984
1986 - «3epKaJIbHLlH pa.llHOTeJIeCKOn I'epyna», SU ABTOpCK. CBH,lleT. 1377941,
02.01.1986, Mocxaa
1987 - Onpeaeneaae 3llP no B3MepeHHHM B 6JIH*IIeH 30He. <<,ll;OKJIa,llLl AH CCCP»,
T.292, N!!4, c. 849-853, Mocxaa, 1987
264
1989 - The First Radio - Optical Telescope. Trans. of the VI Internat. Confer. on
Antenna and Propogation, ICAP - 89, v.I, p. 540-546, lEE - URSI, U.K., 1989
- Radio Flare on Etta Gemini Star. Trans. of the IAU 137-th Internat Sump. on
Flare Stars, p.145-146, Byurakan, 1989
1990 - Near Field Measurements and Standard Antennas. Abstr. of URSI XXIII
General Assembly, v.I, p.266, Praha, 1990
- Construction and Operation of Radio - Optical Telescope ROT-54/2,6. Trans.
of URSI Internat. Meeting on Mirror Antennas, p.34-41, Riga, 1990
- AHTeHHLIe H3MepeHHB. TepMHHLI Honpeneneaaa, 130 CTp., BHHHPH, Epeaan,
1990, (Ha pyCCKOM, apMBHcK. HaHrJIHiicK. B3.)
- H3MepeHHB Ha OnTHqeCKOM Teneexone POT-54/2,6. TpYJJ:LI V Bcec. KOHclJep.
no AHTeHHLlM H3MepeHHBM, CTp. 57-59, BHHHPH, Epesaa, 1990
1991 - History of NF -FF and Holograpy in the USSR. Trans. of XIV ESA Sump. on
Antenna Measurements, p.5-18, ESTEC, Netherlands, 1991
- Radio - Optical Telescope ROT-54/2,6 and Radioholograpy. Reports at the
Colloquiums in Univenities of Manchester (Jodrel Bank), Sheffield, Cambridge
(Cavendish Lab.), U.K., 1991
- The New Millimeter Waverange Radiotelescope in Armenia. Reports at the
Colloquiums in Univenities of Cornel, California (Berkly), Massachusetts and
Radio Observatories in New-Mexico (VLA) and Aresibo (porto Rico), USA,1991
1992 - COJIHeqHaB 3JIeKTpOCTaHnHB. Ilarear PCP 203204, 18.08.1992, MocKBa
OCHOBaJI HOBLlii BLlCOK03dubeKTHBHLIii H 3KOJIorHQecKH QHCTLlii THn Mom-
Hoii COJIHe"'Hoii 3JIeKTpoCTaHnHH «ApeB» (COJIHne), 1992
1993 - The New Millimeter Waverange Radiotelescope in Armenia. Report on URSI
XXIV General Assembly, Kyoto, Japan, 1993
- The RMI Achivements in Antennas and Radioholography. Reports at the
workshops in Thomson Corp. (paris), Medon and Nansies Observatotories,
France, 1993
1994 - <<APEB - 100» Ilpeexr, 31 c., BHHHPH, Epesaa, 1994
- Solar Powerful Device. U.K. Patent Appl. 9412260.3, 18.06.1994 and PCT Patent
Appl. PCT/GB 95/01401, 15.06.1995
- Solar Powerful Rotational Machine. U.K. Patent Appl. 9412243.9,18.06.1994
and PCT Patent Appl. PCT/GB 95/01412, 15.06.1995
1997 - Determination of Scattering Properties of Radar Objects by Near - Field
Measurements. Proc. of III Internat. Confer. on Antennas and
Radiocommunication Systems, v.2, p. 85-91, Voronezh, 1997
1997-98 - KapaxYHJJ:* - JJ:peBHeiiwaB KaMeHHaB 06cepBaTopHB B ApMeHHH. J(OKJI8,lJ: Ha
MeXCAyHap. KOHcl-ep. no apxaeacrponossaa, MOCKBa,1997 H«TpYJJ:LI IV C'Le3JJ:a
ACTpOHOMH...ecxorn Ceioaa», c. 350-362, MocKBa, 1998
1998 - J(OHCTOpHQecKaB KaMeHHaB oficepBaTopHB «KapaxYHJJ:xo). «J(OKJI8,lJ:LI Hanaoa.
AKaJJ:. HayKApMeHHH», .N"! 5, c.307-328, Epeaan, 1998
OCHOBaJI HCCJIeJJ:OBaHHB, nOKa3aBWHe, "'TO JJ:peBHHii KaMeHHLIii MOHyMeHT y
r. CHcHaH BApMeHHH fiLIJI fiOJILWoii Hpa3BHToii OficepBaTopHeii «KapaxyHJJ:xo),
HaHfioJIee ApeBHeii B MHpe, aKTHBHO AeiiCTBoBaBweii fioJIee 7500 JIeT TOM}'
Ha3aA,1994
1999-2000 - About Self Noises of Radio - Optical Telescope ROT-54/2,6 Antenna.« Journal
of Applied Eletromagnetism», p. 51-57, Athens, Greece, 1999
- Ilapasserpsr fiOJILWoii AHTeHHLI Ilepaoro P8,lJ:HO -Onrasecxcre Tenecxona
POT-54/2,6. TpYJJ:LI LV Hay-..H. CecCHH no p8,lJ:HOTexHHKe, 3JIeKTpoHHKe H
CBB3H, c.61-62, Mocxaa, 2000
265
OCHOBaJI HCCJIellOBaHHe, nOKa3b1BaIOlllee, "'TO B palBHTHH BceJieHHoi Re 6b1JIO
«60JILmoro BlPbiBa», 1988-98
2001 - MeTOllbl H yCTpOiCTBa Tepyaa lIJISI onpeneaeaas 3TIP 06'LeKTOB H napa-
MeTpOB aHTeRR. ApM. TIaTeRT N! 1138, 26.07.2001
2002-04 - Carahunge - the Prehistoric Observatory in Armenia. Proc. of Internat. Confer.
on Archaeoastronomy, 9p, Sunremo, Italy, 2002; will be printed in «Giomal di
Astronomia», Roma, 2004
8. OCHoBHLIe nOe3JlKH 3a p y 6 e ~
1958 - KHTai, lIJISI Ha6JIIOlIeHHSI COJIHe"'Horo laTMeHHSI Baaanaaoae BOJIR 50 CM
1961 - CIlIA, 1I0KJI8lI 0 TeopHH 60JILmHX aHTeHHblX CHCTeM aoeorn THna Ha
I'eaepansn, AccaMMee MeX\llyHap. ACTpOHOM. COIOla (KaJlH4»OpHHiicK.
yHHBepCHT.6epKJIH)
1962 - BeJIHK06pHTaHHSI, nparaamea na 3 MeCSlQa B )J;3COllPeJI 6eRK (MaH"'eCTepcK.
yH-T) H KaBeRllHmcK. JIa60paT. (KeM6pH3CcK. yH-T) lIJISI COBMeCTRLIX Ra6JIIOlIe-
HHB H 1I0KJI8lI0B 0 TeopHH 60JILmHX aHTeRH neaere THna
1989 - BeJIHK06pHTaHHSI, 1I0KJI8lI 0 POT-54/2,6 aa MeX\llYHapOllH. KOH.ep. ICAP-89
MeX\llYHapOllHoro Hay-mere P81IHO COIOla (URSI)
1990 - '1eXOCJIOBaKHSI (TIpara), laKa3HOii 1I0KJI. 06 AHTeHHblX HlMepeHHSlX B 6JIH*Heii
aone Ha XXIII Feaepansn, ACCaM6JIee URSI
- BeJIHK06pHTaHHSI, aaxaaa, 1I0KJI. 0 6JIH*Hei aoae, I1Ie4»HJIlICK. YH-T
- JIaTBHSI (Para), aaxasa. 1I0KJI. 0 POT-54/2,6 Ha MeX\llYHapOllH. KOR.ep. URSI
1991 - CIlIA, aaxasn, 1I0KJI81IbI 0 POT-54/2,6 H 6JIH*Heii sone B Maca"'yCeTCKOM,
KOpHeJILCKOM, KaJlH.OPHHiicKOM (liepKJIH) yn-rax H PallHo-o6cepBaTopHSlX
B HLMrMeKCHKO (VLA), ApeCH60 (TIOpTo-PHKO)
- BeJIHK06pHTaHHSI, saxasn. 1I0KJI81IbI 0 POT-54/2,6 B ya-rax MaH...ecrepa,
BOpBHKa, KeM6pHlI3Ca, HopKa,I1Ie4»HJIlIa
- HHlIepJIaRllbl, saxaaa, 1I0KJI81I 0 P81IHorOJIorpa4»HH H 6JIH*HeB soae B ESTEC,
Espon. KOCMH.... AreHCTBo (ECA)
1993 - «DpaHuHSI (VIP), aaxasa, 1I0KJI8lIbI 0 POT-54/2,6 H 6JIH*Hei aoae B TIapH3Ce
(xopnep. TOMcOH) H 06cepBaTopHSlx B MelloHe HHaHcH
1994 - BeJIHK06pHTaHHSI, saxaaa, 1I0KJIallbl 0 Bpoexre APEB B JIoHlIoHe H KeM6pHlI3Ce
- POCCHSI, no Ilpeexry APEB, C-TIeTep6ypr, H. Hearopon, 60p
1995 - BeJIHK06pHTaHHSI, 38Ka3R. 1I0KJI8lIbI 06 APEB H 6JIH*HeB sone, JIORllOR,
KeM6pHlI3C, MaH...eerep, Manaepn, (+CToyHxeHlI3C)
- POCCHSI, MOCKBa, Cs-Ilerepnypr (HayqHaSl KOH4»epeHQHSI H APEB)
- «DpaHUHSI, TIapH3C (xepnop. TOMCOH, SOFRATEV)
1997 - POCCHSI, MOCKBa, Cs-Ilerepsypr H BOPORH3C (laKa3R. 1I0KJI. 06 3TIP H APEB Ha
MeX\llYHap. HayqH. KOH.ep.)
1998 - POCCHSI, MOCKBa, sasasa, 1I0KJI. 06 3TaJlOHaX Ilapasserpea AHTeHR Ha Rayq.
KOH4»ep. CHr
9. HaY'lHO-o6meCTBeHHaH JleHTeJILHOCTL
1965 - DO aaer, - 'lJIeH Hayxaoru COBeTa AB POCCHH no np06JIeMe "P8lIHOaCTpOROMHSI".
BpeMR C 1997 r. - "l(JIeH 6IOPO arore COBeTa, MOCKBa, Cs-Ilerepsypr
1965 - 1992 - 'lJIeH pSllla HayqHblx COBeTOB AB CCCP H Me3CBelloMCTBeRHblx
266
lfJIeu ua)"luo - KOUCyJlbTanHouuoro COBeTa *YPUaJIa <<AiKaKau
liauaK», Epeaaa
- DO aaCT. -
BpeMB
- DO aaCT. -
BpeMB
- lfJIeu Mexmyuapo,!{uoro Haysnoro Panae COlO3a (URSI), BeJIHKOOpH-
TaUHSI, B ,!{Ba epoxa: KaK npe,!{CTaBHTeJIb CCCP (1990-93) H, 3aTeM,
POCCHH (1993-96)
- DO naer, - lfJIeu Mexmyuapo,!{uoro HUCTHyYTa HU)KeUepOB no JJleKTPoTexuHKe H
BpeMB anexrponaxe (IEEE), CIDA
- DO aaer, - lfJIeu rpynnsr «People-to-people Ambassador» (CIDA), cOCToSlmei H3
BpeMB 30 KpynueiwHx )"IeuLlx MHpa, llOq:eTHLlM npe311JJ:eUTOM KOTOpoi
SlBJlSleTCSI TIpe3H,!{euT CIDA
lfJIeu pe,!{KOJIJIerHH *ypuaJIa <<BeCTUHK MAH31i», Cs-Ilerepdypr
2000
2001
2002
1998
1985 - DO aaCT. -
BpeMB
1990 - 1996
Koop,!{HuanHOUULlX COBeTOB (no rOJIOrpa.HH, AuTeuuaM, Merpone-
rHH H np, npOOJleMaM), MocKBa
1979 - DO aaer, - Ilpeacenarem, Cueuaanaaapeaannere uay-lUoro COBeTa B HHHP no
BpeMB npHCYXCJJ:eUHIO )"IeuLlx ereneaea KallJJ:H,!{aTa H,!{OKTopa uaYK, Epeaan
1980 - DO aaer, - lfJIeu pe,!{KOJlJlerHH naynnoru xcypUaJIa "H3MepHTeJIbUaSl TeXUHKa",
BpeMB MocKBa
1985 - 1992 - Ilpeaceaarem, COBeTa no pa,!{HOJJleKTpOUHKe AH ApMeuHH, Epeaaa
lfJIeu Poccaacxern acrpoacaasecxcre oomecTBa, Mocxsa
10. HaY-IHO-neJlarOrH-IeCKaH JleHTeJIbHOCTb
1963 - 1990
1960 - 1963
pyKOBO,!{HTeJIb ACnHpauTYPLI BHHHPH-IIHHP, Epeaaa
- JleKI(HOUULli KYPC no Pa,!{Ho4»H3HKe (anepasre B ApMeUHH) B Epeaan-
CKOM rocy,!{apCTBeUUOMYUHBepCHTeTe
- JleKnHOUULli KYPC no AUTeUULlM CHCTeMaM (anepmae B ApMeUHH) B
EpeBaUCKOMnOJlHTeXUHq:ecKOM HUCTHyYTe
no,!{rOTOBHJI 24 KallJJ:lIJJ:aTa nayx H 5 ,!{OKTOpOB uaYK, Epeaaa - DO aaCT. -
BpeMB
- DO uaCT. -
BpeMK
1970
1983
11. Hay-IHO-opraHH3agnoHHaH JleHTeJIbHOCTb. OH OCHOBaJI:
- DO aaCT. -
BpeMK
- DO aaCT. -
BpeMK
- Pa,!{HO.H3Hq:ecKoeOKIi B IilOpaKaUCKoi ACTp04»H3Hq:. oocepBaTopHH
- HUCTHyYT Pa,!{H04»H3HKH H JJleKTPOUHKH AH ApMeUHH B r. Anrrapaxe
- ApMBUCKBi OT,!{eJI Pa,!{Hoct-H3Hq:ecKHX H3MepeUHi B r, Epeaaae, Bee-
coseaacre HHH 4»H3.-Texu. H pa,!{HOTexu. H3Mep. (MocKBa)
- DO aaer, - BCecOlO3ULli HHH Pa,!{H04»H3Hq:ecKBX H3MepeUHi (BHHHPH) B Epe-
BpeMK aaae, KOTOpLli C2000 r. UalLlBaeTCB HHH Pa,!{H04»H3HKH (HHHP)
OnLlTUo-JKCnepHMeUTaJIbULli 3aBO,!{ IIHHP "BoJlua" B Epeaaae
- 1960
- 1968
- 1971
1975 rocy,!{apCTBeuuldi JTaJIOUUldi nearp no aHTeUUaM npa BHHHPH,
asme - Aparal(CKHi uayq:uLli uearp HHHP, ropa Aparau, y CeJI
OprOB B Terep, ua BLlCOTe 1720 M Ua,!{ ypOBueM MOpSI, ApMeuHSI
1978 - 1990 - Ilepaenasecxae (pal B 3 rona) Beeemoaasre Kou4»epeUI(HH no Aarea-
ULlM H3MepeuHSlM B HHHP (BKAH-1,2,3,4,5), Epesaa
1979 - DO naer, - CnenBaJIH3HpOBaUULli uayq:uldi COBeT B HHHP no npHCYXCJJ:eUHIO
BpeMB )"Ieuldx crenenea ,!{OKTopa H KallJJ:lIJJ:aTa uaYK, Epeaan
1971
1972
1958
1960
1968
267
1983
1983
- no Racy. -
BpeMH .
- no Racy. -
BpeMH
ACnBpaHTYPY HHHP, Epeaan
1i830BYIO KafIJeAPY HHHP"AuTeHHLle CBCTeMLI" B roe. BH2KeBepBOM
YJlBBepCHTeTe ApMeBBB, Epeaaa,
12. HarpallbI
1970 - Me.z.aJIL "3a .z.OfiJIeCTBLlH Tpy.z.", MocKBa
1980 - 30JIOTaH Me.z.aJIL B,l(HX CCCP, MocKBa
1983 - Op.z.eB Tpyneaore Kpacaem 3BaMeBB, MocKBa
1984 - CepefipBBaH Me.z.uL KaTOJIBKOCa Bcex APMHB B83reBa I, CB.
1985 - rocy.z.apCTBeBBaH llpeMBH ApMeBBB (B OfiJIaCTB BaYKH), Epeean
1986 - rocy.z.apCTBeBBaH llpeMBH CCCP (B OfiJIaCTB MocKBa
1988 - Me.z.aJIL "BeTepaB Tpyna'", MocKBa
1991 - llpeMBH lEE- URSI sa pafioyY "llepBLlH ..ecKBH
Teneexen", BeJIBKOfipRTaBBR
1997 - IipoBJOBaR Me.z.uL MII)l; ePpaBQBB, llOCOJILCTBO ePpaHQBB, EpeBaH
2002 - 30JI0TaHMe.z.UL BM. JIOMOBOCOBa, MAH31i, C.-lleTepfiypr
2003 - 30JI0TaRMe.z.UL HaQBOBuLBOH BaYK ApMeBBB
2003 - 3oJI0TaHMe.z.UL MRB. ofipaJOBaHRR B BaYKHApMeBBB
2003 - 30JI0TaHMe.z.UL rocy.z.apCTBeBHoro HH2KeBepBoro yBBBepCBTeTaApMeBHB
2003 - 3oJI0TaRMeAUL HaQBOBuLBoro COBeTallpOfIJCOlO30B ApMeBBB
2003 - Opnea «3BeJ,lJ;a y-IeBOrO», MAH31i, C.-lleTepfiypr
Mal 20041'.
AJIpecHHHP
ApMeBBR, EpeBaB-51,
npocn. KOMBTaca, .z.. 49/4
268
TeJIecbOB
(3741) 234 990
3JI.-no..-ra:
Herouni@Sctam
CONTENT
Introduction 5
Acknowledgement 6
PART 1. Carahunge-The Prehistoric Wonder in Armennia...... 7
1.1. First Research ••.......•..•.....................••................................................. 8
1.2. The Site and Name of Monument •••.•••.••.••...•••••.•..•.•••.......•...•.•.....•..• 8
1.3. The Stones, of Carahunge •••.•.•.•.•••.•••.••...•.••••.••••..•.•..•.•.•...•.•••.•.•..•••.•. 9
1.4. The Central Circle •.•••••..•.••••..•.•••.•.•..•.•.•...•.••.••••..•............•..••....•...•.•. 11
1.5. The North Arm •••••••••••••..•••••••••••.•.•.••.•••...•••.••.••••...•.•••.•.•.•.••..•.••.•.•.•••• 12
1.6. The South Arm •••••••••••.•.••.••••••.•••••.•.•••.•.•..••....•••••••.•••••••.....•.......•.•..•.. 12
1.7. North-East Alley ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•.•••••••••••••••..•••••••••••••..•.• 12
1.8. The Chord ••••.••••••••.•••••••••••••.••••••••••.••••.••••••••••.••••••••.•••••.•••.•...••••••.•.•.•• 12
1.9. Separate Standing Stones ••••..•.•.••••••••••••••••.••..•.•......••••.•.•.•...••...•.•.•..• 12
1.10. A'bout Some Stones •••••..•••••••••••.•••..••••.••••••••.•.••....•.•.••..•••••••..••.•.•.•.•• 13
1.11. Some Particularities 13
1.12. Members of Expeditions ••.•••••......••••••••.••.••.••••..•.••...•...•.•.•.•.•........... 13
1.13. Our Guests' Findings •••••.••.....•••..•.•••.•••.•••.••.••......•••..............•..•...•.•. 14
1.14. The Holes in Stones •.•••.•........••.••..•••••••.••••.•.•••••••••.••..••.•••.......•..•.......•• 14
1.15. Stone Astronomical Instruments •..••••..................................••........... 2S
1.16. Single Stones with Holes ••.•••••••••••••.••.••••••••••••••••..••..••.••.••..•..••••.•.•••••• 26
1.17. The Oldest Calendar (AOC and AFC) 27
1.18. King Hayk's Calendar (HBT) •••••••.•.•.••.••••.••••••..•..••.....•..•..•...•.•.•....•. 29
1.19. Sundials and Sun-Calendars •.••...•••...•••.••••••..•.•.••........••....•..........••... 32
1.20. Earth Axis Incline •••••.••.••••.•••.•••.••••••....•..•••..•••.•.••••••.•••......•.......•..••.... 33
1.21. The Age of Carahunge. Method. Nt 1 •••••...••.•••.•••••••••••••••••.•....••.•.•••• 38
1.22. Earth Axis Precession ••••••.•••.••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••••.•.•.••.••.•.•..•••• 39
1.23. Star Observation. Periscope-Stone. Method N! 2 42
1.24. Star in Rising and Setting Points. Method N! 3 44
1.25. Stars Culmination. Method NI 4 •.••••.••••••.•••••••••••••.•••.•.•.•.•••••..•.•..••• 4S
1.26. Carahunge Date Conclusion •.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••.•••••.•••.•••..•• 46
269
1.27. Professor G. S. Hawkins ........•.•.•.••.•....•.•....................•..•..••.•...•.....•• 47
1.28. The Latitude and Earth Size. Three Stones Instrument 48
1.29. Planets. Heliocentric System ......................•••.....•....•..........•.•.•....... 50
1.30. University .••.•.•.•..•••..••.....••••..•.•.•.•...................•.....•....••..••..........••.....• 52
1.31. The Other Research of Carahunge ••......•.•.•.•..•..••..•.•••••..••.•.•••••.•.•• 52
1.32. The Carahunge Name •..•.••..•.•.•.•.•..•..•.••..•.•.••••.••.••••••••.••.•••.•....•..••.•• 53
1.33. Other Old Observatories in Armennia 54
1.34.. The Original Brain Centre •••.•.•.•.••...••..•..•...••••..•.•..••.•••••....•.•.••.•••.•. 55
1.35. The Great Sphinx •....•.••.••.••••.•.•.......•......••••.••••.•..••.•..••.••..•...•.•.•..•.•.. 58
1.36. Cosmology, Philosophy, Theology- ••.•..••••.•.••••••••••••••••.••.••••••••••••••••• S9
1.37. About Astronomy in Old Armennia •••••••.•.•••••••..••....••.•.••...•••.•.••.•.• 60
1.38. About Astronomy in Modern Armennia 61
1.39. Conclusion of PART l.
Carahunge - The Prehistoric Wonder in Armennia 73
PART 2. Armennian Language Analysis 77
2.1. Very Old Time •.••••••.•.••••.••••••.•.•••••.••••••••.••..•.••••••••.•.•••••••••.•••••.••••.•••••• 77
2.2. Armennian Alphabet ''Disappearance'' •..•.••.•.••.••••.•••.••..•...•••••••••.••• 80
2.3. Mesrop Mashtots. Armennian Alphabet and Written
Language Reestablishment •••.••••••••••.•••.••.•.•.•..•~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.4. Present Alphabet and Language. ••.•.•••••..•.•••••••••••••••••••.••.••.••••.••.••••• 87
2.5. Armennian Language Analysis. Method .NH 89
2.6. Elements (Letters) Dictionary (ELD) 90
2.7. ELD Using •.•.••.•.•••..•••.•••••••••••••.•.••••••••••••..••.••••.•.•••••••.•••••••••...••..••.••••• 95
2. 8. "Trees" of Letters. Method Ng 2 •••••••••.•••••••••••.•.•••••••••.••••••.•••.•.••• 101
2.9. Armennian Language Decoding ••••.••.••.••••.••••.•••••••.•••••••••••••.•.•.••••• 102
2.10. Armennian and Other Languages. Method.N'! 3 103
2.11. Armennian Old Preliminary and Developed Alphabets and
Figures. Method NI 4 •••••.••.•.••.•••.••••.•••••••••••.•..••.••••••••••.••••••••••••••.•...•..•.• 106
2.12. Figures Names Meanings ••••••••••..••••••.•••••.••.•.••••..••••••••••.•..••••.•••.••. 110
2.13. Medieval Figures - Letters ••••••.•.•.••.•..•••••.•••••••.••..••••••.••.•.•••••.•••••• 112
2.14. Armennian and Other Alphabets •••••••••.•.••.•••••••..••••••••••••••••••.••.•• 112
270
2.15. Armennian and So-Called "Aramaean" Alphabet.
Method N! 5 ••••••••••.••••••.••••.••.••••••••.••.•••.•..•.•.....•.•••..••..•.••..••••.••••..•••••.•.•••
2.16. Conclusion of PART 2 •••....••.••.•...•••..•.••.....•••••••••..•.••••.•.••.•.••.••••••
PART 3 History of Old Armennia
3.1. Introd.uction •.••.•...•.••.•.••.•.•..•....•.••......•.........•.•.•......•..•.•.•...•........•..•
3.11. Anthropological Data •.•.....••••.•.••••.•..••.•.•.•.•.•.•.•.••..•.•.••..•.•.•..•••..•
3.12. Territory of Old Armennia •.••.••.•.••.•..•..•.•.•..••••.•.•...•.•.•..••••••.••••..•
3.13. Natural and Climatic Conditions .
3.2. Armennia in Very Old Time (300 - 50 Thousand Years
115
118
121
121
121
122
123
in 23 - 10 Millennia Bc. .•.••••••••••••••••.•••
3.43. Kilikia ••.••••••••..•••.•••••.•.••••.•••••••.•••••••••.••••.•.•••.•••••••.•••••.•••••••••.•••••••••
3.22. Armennian Other Old God.s ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••
3.51. Science and Culture •••.•.••...•••••••.•••...•••••••••..•••.•••••••••••••.•...••••••••••
125
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149
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.............................................................. 3.44. Phoenicia (and Harries)
3.5. The Great Armennia
3.53. Armennians in Egypt ••••.•••••••.••.•..••.••.••••••.•.•.•.•.•••.•.•••.••.••••.••••••••••
3.52. Armennian Sumer (Junior Aram Kingdom) .
3.41. Armennian Mesopota.mia Kingdom ••.•.•.•.•.•.•..••.•••••••••••••.•••••.••
3.42. Komagena, Tsopc, Kappadokia, Armennia Minor .••••••••••.•.••.•••
3.3. Armennia in Old Time (50 - 20 Millennia Bc) .
3. 4. The Great Armennia in 40 - 23 Millennia Bc .
Ago) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••••.••
3.21. Ar-Father Main God and Haya-Mother Goddess •...•••••.••.•••.•
3.23. The Sanctuary in Kappadokia •.•.••..•••.....••••••.••.••....•....••••••••.....
3.54. Armennians in Ethiopia •••••••••••••.•••.•••••.••..•••.•.•.••••••••••.••••••••.•••••• 173
3.55. Armennians in The Northern Lands •.••.•.••••.•.•.•••.•.••.•••••••••••••• 173
3.56. Armennians in East •••••••.•••••.•••••••...•.••.•..•••.•.•.••••.•••••••••..•••.•.•••••• 175
3.57. Armennians in Iran ..•••.•............••.•.....•.........................•.............•• 175
3.58. Armennians in India ••••.•••••••••.•••••.•••••••••.•.••••••••••••.•••.•.•••••••••.••••• 175
3.59. Armennians in Middle Asia ••••.•••••..•••••••••.•.•.•••.•.••.•...•••••.•..••••••• 177
3.6. The Great Deluge ••.•••••••••••••.••.••.•.•••••.••.•.•.•••.••.••••.•.••.•.••.•...•••••••••. 179
3.7. The Great Armennia· in 10 - 5 Millennia Bc 181
3.71. Enigmas in World Old History •.••.•.••.••.•••.•.•.•.••••••••••.•••..•.•.••••• 181
271
3.72. Armennians in America •••..••.•..••.•••...••..•.•.....•..••••.•....•••.••••.••...•.• 183
3.73. Armennian Asia Minor: Hittitian Kingdom, Phrygia,
Lydia .•..•.••.••.••..•••.•.•.•.......•••..•..••...•.••.•.•••...••...••••....•..•....••.....••.•..••••••.•...•
3.74. Armennian Troy ••••.•••.•.••••.•.••.•.••••.•••.•.•...••.•.•.•.••.••.••••••••.•..••••••••..
3.75. Culture in Great Armennia ••.•.••..•••...•.••..•.••••.•...•.•••••..••.••.••••....•••
3.S. The Great Armennia in 5 - 1 Mill. Bc ••.•...••••.•.•.•••.•.•.•.••..••••••.....•
3.81. Armennian Kesar Hayk •••.•.•.••.••.•.•••••••.•.••.•••••.•..••••.•....•••..••••••.••••
3.82. Armennians in Babylon •••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••.••••••••••••••••.•••••••
3.83. Armennian Behayna Kingdom ••••.••..•••.•.••..•..•••••••.•.•.•..••.•.••••.•..•.
3.84. Armennians in Syria, Lebanon and Palestine •••.•..•.•••••.•••......•..•
3.85. Armennians and Jews ••••••••••••.••.•••.••.••.•.••••••••.•.••.••.•.•..•••••..•••••.••..
3.86. Armennians in Europe ••••...•.••••.•..••.••.•.••.•.•••••••••••.••.•...•.••.••.••...••.•
Greece ••••••.•••.•.••.•.••••.••••.•••.•.••••.•••.•.••••••••••••.•.••••••••••••.•...•••.••..••.•••••
Italy ••••.••••••.•••••.•••••••.•..••••••••••.••••.•••••.•••••.•••••••••.•••••••••••••••••.••.••.•••.••
Celts ••.•••••••••.•••••.••••.•.•••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••.•••••••••••.••••.•••••••••.••••.•.••
Germany ••••.•.•.•••••••••.••.•.•.•••••..••••••.•••••••.•••.••••••••••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••
France •••••••.••••..••••.••••••••••••••.•.•••••••.•••••.••••••••••••••••..•.••••••.••••••••••••••••
The United. Kingdom ••.•.••••.••••••.••••••••.••••..••.•.•.•.•..•.••••••••••••.••..•..•
3.87. Armennians and Slavs ••.•.••.•.•••••••.•••.•.••.•....•••••.••..•••.••••••.••.••.•••••
3.88. Culture in The Great Armennia ••.•••..••••••••.•.•••.•••.•.•••••••••••.••.•.••••
3.9. The Great Armennia in 1 Mill. Bc - 301 Ad •••••••••••••••••••••.••.••••••••
3.91. Armennian Kesar Artashes I The Kind ••••••••••..•••••••••.•••.•••••••••••.
3.92. Armennian Kesar Tigran Ii The Great; The King of Kings .....
3.93. Armennian - Parthian Union •••••••••••••••••••••..•.•.••••.••••.••••.•••••••.•••.•
3.94. Distortions of Armennian History •••••.•..•••••.•••••••.•.•••••••••.••••.••••
3.95. Christianity Adopting in The Great Armennia •..•••.••••.••.••.•.••.
3.10. Armennian Old History Chronicle •••••••.•.•••••••••••••...•••••••••.•••.•••••
3.11. Armennian Kesars, Kings and Dynasties Chronicle ...
3:12. Armennian Capital Towns Chronicle ..
Instead of Epilogue •..•••••.•••.••••.•..•.••••••••••.••••••••••.•••••••.•..•.•.••.•••.•••••.••••.••.•••••.
Information. Professor Paris M. Herouni •••.•••••••••..•.•.••.•.••••••.•.•••.••••.••••••••
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ISBN 99941-0-101-3
PARIS M. HERUONI
ARMENIANS AND OLD ARMENIA
2004
© All rights reserved by P. Herouni
heruoni@scLam
Published and printed by
TIGRAN METS
2, Arshakouniats Avenue
375023, Yerevan, Armenia
tel. (3741) 521 775
ISBN 99941-0-101-3 November 2004
Copies 2000
Pages 272
Black & white Figures 45
Colour Figures 62 (on 36 pages)
Tables 27
Error Under the Fig. 67a on page 142 it is necessary to read:
Matenadaran, the Repository, Scientific Institute and Museum
of Ancient Manuscripts in Yerevan

armtorrent.com

PARIS M. HEROUNI

ARMENIANS AND OLD ARMENIA

ARCHAEOASTRONOMY LINGUISTICS OLDEST HISTORY

YEREVAN, 2004
armtorrent.com

TO THE BRIGHT MEMORY OF

MY FATHER MISSAK HEROUNI (SACHIAN)
AND

MY MOTHER SEDDA HEROUNI (AZATTIAN)
THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED

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I am very grateful to Mrs. Zarouhi & Mr. Hrach Davidyan and Mrs. Elvina Makarian (USA) for their financial support in this book publication. Paris Herouni

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"If I were asked where one can see the most miracles on our planet, I would name Armenia• .•. I loved your country, her gifted people. And leaving from, I have left here my heart." ROCKWELL KENT 1962 [107]

INTRODUCTION
This book is about the Armennian" nation, its real prehistoric and ancient history recovery, about its language, knowledge, national state, civilization and development from the very beginning until 301 AD when in Armennia the Christianity was adopted as a State religion. The recovery of Armennian old history is very important also for all the World old history because the history of old civilizations on the Earth has now too many ununderstandable and unexplained facts and enigmas. The answers to many of them are in the Annennian old history. It seems this book is the first scientific attempt to demonstrate that Annennian civilization, arisen in the Annennian homeland, is the first in the World and the eradle of all other civilizations. I understand that this new concept seems very unusual (though it is not in contradiction with Bible) and it is too difficult to accept it, because the old history of the World is now very distorted and Annennian old history is made out by p0litical reasons mainly. Ambitions "to forget" the words Old Annennia, Annennians, Annennian language also continue now. For example, now instead of "Armennoid race" is often in use "Anterior Asia race", instead of "Annennian Culture" - "Cour-Aracsian Culture", instead of "Annennian Mesopotamia" - ''North Mesopotamia", instead of "Annennian ffighland" - ''Eastern Turkey", etc. Even there was an attempt to rename Mount Ararat But I believe that one day the truth will win. Someone must begin the fight for the truth and I am doing it, in spite of too much potential opposition from many sides. I understand also that the problem I want to solve is scientifically very complex. It is related to different specific directions such as history, archaeology, anthropology, linguistics, ethnography, astronomy, mathematics, geo-

• Today the form "Armenia" is in use, phonetic pronunciation of which is [armi:nia]. But it is wrong. The accurate pronunciation should be [armenia]. So in this book everywhere I have written double ''no'', Le. "Armennia", to show everybody the right pronunciation.

5

the oldest one in the World. It was necessary to collect data from them to one unit. my nation. I hope the book will be interesting for many readers in many countries. 1995) expresses gratitude to five researchers (giving their names) ''who saw that there was something very distorted in the World history. which are radiophysics. I have enough serious achievements in the area of large antennas. "Carahunge . but I aspired to make it at the same time as popular as possible. who have courage to stand against that their brain did not agree with.the Prehistoric Wonder in Armennia". about the big and developed Observatory. Sci.com logy. This process has begun now in Armennia.G. telescopes. But being an Armennian scientist. figures. etc.Martirosyan. in three main parts: PART 1. and also to my wife Angela Herouni for edition and grammatical correction of my English. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am very thankful to Dr. U.M. radar. Ph.D. I have read many special books and made many notes and calculations during the last 15 years. scientist Graham Hancock in the beginning of his book ''Fingerprints of the Gods" (Heineman. I hope this book can demonstrate the truth. antenna metrology. about the beginning of Armennian civilization in Armennia more than 40 thousand years ago and its development until the Christianity adoption in 301 AD. mineralogy etc. to make revolution in the history. the final will be achieved by scientists of new generation. In my main scientific directions. K. U. and initiated by this the evolution of basic knowledge which become already irreversible". J. to Dr. Fortunately I am not alone in my opinion about big distortions in the World old history. 6 . which was in active operation more than 7500 years ago. radioholography. PART 2. This book is scientific one. PART 3. important and interesting information which is kept in the language and comes from the oldest times. about large. The main and important of them are presented in this book. radiotechnics. the problem is too big and this book is just the first step on the way to its solution. tables. radioastronomy. . Writing this book I don't aspire to fame.) for discussing and editing my preliminary original English text of PART 1. member of the Armennian National Academy of Sciences.K. There are very many facts in honour of my concept. solar power units. I can not be apathetic to the present big distortions of truth about my country. London.K. Martirosyan for computer processing of the final text. Of course.. which are known in the World and in use in developed countries.Gallagher (DERA. S. I think.armtorrent. "Armennian Old History". "Armennian Language Analysis".

1). consisting of hundreds large standing Stones (Fig. There have only been just assumptions about these Stones containing likely religious [1].Khnkikian in 1984 [4]. where ancient sepulchres and a settlement dated Ill-ll millennium BC were discovered [1 .THE PREIDSTORIC WONDER IN ARMENNIA "Per Apera ad Astra" ("Through Difficulties to Stars") In Armennia. The flrst supposition about eventual astronomical function of the Monument (along with other surmises) was published by archaeologist O. 2). spiritual [2] or other significances. near town Sisian (200 km from Yerevan. 7 . Local resldents of Sisian call the Monument "Standing Stones" or ''Protruding Stones" and tell that it was built presumably for religious or fortification purposes and also that old people were looking at stars through the holes.com PART 1 CARAHUNGE .4]. But the Stone Monument itself was not investigated. Many of these Stones contain holes running through their upper part (Fig.armtorrent. Archaeological excavation had been carried out only near (around) the Monument. capital of Armennia) there is the prehistoric Monument.

THE SITE AND NAME OF MONUMENT The Carahunge site is on latitude of 39° 34' and longitude of 46° 01' on the mountain plateau having altitude 1770 m and occupies a territory of about 7 hectare on the left side of the Dar river canyon. A comparison of measured and calculated values was completed. to demonstrate the age of Carahunge. 11.12. setting and culmination were done.Main God of old Armennia. and also by archaeologists and different specialists during many years. It is also obvious for me that the Carahunge should be researched much more thoroughly. 9. Canada [13]. Argentina [17a]. Many observations of sky sources. the tributary of the river 8 . written language and art. 1999 and 2001. using the Earth axis precision and other laws. The detailed topographic map of the Monument. It will be demonstrated in this book that Carahunge Observatory was very developed and in active operation more than 7500 years ago (VI millennium BC) during more than 5500 years (I millennium AD). photo and video films of the moments of Sun and Moon rising.1. I have established the date of the Observatory. 16]. 1997. I decided to do my own investigation using astronomical methods. FIRST RESEARCH Believing to my supposition that the Monument was a very old and big Observatory. Italy [6. France [15]. I have undertaken (at my own expense) scientific expeditions (8 persons and 4-day-long each time) on the equinox and solstice days in 1994. Tir God . and of His "Secretary". 17]. Furthermore. 8. setting and culmination moments in the past. as well as the latitude. This book contains results of all 6 expeditions and of many computer calculations. so it is the oldest Observatory in the World. longitude. angular heights of ridges on the horizon. b) Large and developed Observatory and c) University.2. Russia [10. Many prehistoric Stone Astronomical Instruments were discovered and accuracy of them was determined. 1995.1. 1. 1996.patron of science. especially for stars rising. azimuth and elevation angles of the holes in Stones and other features were measured. The catalogue of 223 stones with their sizes and condition was completed and all these Stones were numbered. The results of Carahunge research are printed in Armennia [5. magnetic deviation of place. 7.14]. I consider now that the Carahunge Monument had three main functions: a) Temple of AR (Sun in Armennian) .

in Lernayin (Nagorni) Karabakh or Artsakh there are two another villages having the same name Carahunge. So the name "Carahunge" means "Speaking Stones". In the distance of 29 km (linear) to the East from the Carahunge Monument is the village Carahunge. Speaking Stones.Vorotan (at 2 km). 9 . the Chord (crossing the Circle) and Separate Standing Stones (see map. the word "hunge" or ''hunch'' . Gladzor. eroded by time and covered with moss and lichen of many colours. Shoushi. it drops down a fall of 30m. and now also tell us (and will tell) much new and unexpected information about old times. Having above-mentioned data I called the Monument "Carahunge". This name in Armennian means "Stone Treasure" or ''Foundational Stones". The underground river comes to the surface 5 km from the Monument and at 4 km. the South Arm.5 to 3 m (above ground) and weight up to 10 tons. etc. 4. General view of Carahunge central part from helicopter is shown in Fig. Indeed. horse). Stones were picked up from neighbouring canyon and lifted (hauled) by animals (bull. The heights of the stones range from 0. In the distance of 80-90 km to N-E. as some famous traditional early medieval universities and Christian old abbeys in Tatev. Near one of them there are holes in rocks (not investigated yet). The word "car" in Armennian is "stone". stone observatories. Then in the Observatory the holes in stones and astronomical instruments were made.THESTONESOFCARAHUNGE The Carahunge Monument consists. N-E Alley. near town Syunic or Sisakan (now Sisian) was a village Carunge [18]. There are also many broken and unnumbered stones. 3). old universities. 1~. They are basalt (andesit) stones.is ''voice''. In Armennia in total (including the Historical Armennia) there are many old megaliths. tombs and universities. near village Shakki. Le. menhirs. Armennian historian Stepanos Orbelian in his book "History of Syunic" (I-XII centuries) mentioned that in Tsluk (Yevalakh) region of Armennia. these Stones told old astronomers much interesting information about Space. Fig. of the following parts: the Central Circle. "sound". near new town Goris. the North Arm. The inside surface of holes preserved much better. Especially in region of Carahunge Monument there are many old megaliths. "echo".

+i1---+-I1------1-.2UPb'b~) 213 fJ N W"---'---E s 4--4---+-.SO m 75 ---f'--1'" 85 1: SOO Fig..2UPU~n~la (..CARAHUNGE (CARENISll) VI millennium BC ... The Map of Carahunge Monument 10 . 3.

He gifted life generously and unselfishly. to Armennians . THE CENTRAL CIRCLE It consists of 40 stones and is egg-shaped to the West.His children. Approximately in the middle of Circle there are ruins of perhaps some religious temple having proportions about 7 x 5. who created here civilization more than 40 thousand years ago (see below. The AR God was kind to nature.213 Total Total quantity with holes 40 20 70 80 8 5 223 Stan. 64a. There were no sacrificial altars (Stones) and sacrifice in Armennia. Table 1 CARAHUNGE STONES Numbers Central Circle Chord South Arm North Arm NE AUey Separate Stones Total 1-39 +29a 40-59 60-125. to people. built and used by Armennians. It is interesting that the same proportions has the famous ancient Garni Temple (20 km from Yerevan) of Sun God AR (see PART 3. Apparently the Central Circle and NE short Alley (directed to the sunrise point in Summer solstice day) served for solemn ceremony in honour of AR. Fig. native inhabitants. The information about quantity and condition of numbered 223 stones is in Table 1. PARTS 2.Standing Lying ding with holes 15 8 2S 28 2 1 79 Lying with holes 1 Declining Damaged 2 6 17 21 3 6 27 49 2 1 85 3 16 18 9 1 32 35 4 2 83 10 3 2 3 2 10 30 37 2 1 44 20 49 1. +9Oa. 11 .65a 126-196 214-222 197-199 208-212 200-202 207.3).4.The Monument was designed.+62a. 62). with sizes of 45 x 35 m.

THE NORTH ARM It goes to North from the Central Circle and consists of 80 stones (num- bered). 26 of which have holes. 1. It consists of 70 stones (num- bered). One of them (lying) has a hole. 12 .1. 6 of which have holes. The length of the Arm is 136 m and it has at the northerly end of the Arm western and eastern alleys of about 50 m length each one. The Chord includes 20 (numbered) relatively small stones. 1. There are minimum 5 of such stones.9. 1.7. The Alley includes 8 stones (numbered. including lying ones).8. THE CHORD Chord crosses the Central Circle and is as the continuation of North Arm pending to connect it with South Arm. SEPARATE STANDING STONES They stay at the East as well as at the West sides of the Arms at a distance of up to 90 m and more.5 m in height. After the end of South Arm there are circular tombs 3 m to 8 m in diameter. then turns approximately to WW-S and continues for 40 m more. All NE Alley is on bank of about 0. NORTH-EAST ALLEY It has a length of 36 m and width of 8 m and is directed approximately to the Sunrise side at the Summer solstice day.6.5. 1. Possibly Separate Stones have been used as Heel stone in Stonehenge (as bead on gun). 49 of which have holes. THE SOUTH ARM It goes to South from the Central Circle for 75 m. 2 of which (lain) have holes.

Safian.Hovsepian. Many stones are declined or lying extracted from ground.Safian. 7 some regular members of our expeditions are shown: (from left) camera-man M. Along paths in opposite side of Stones there are small stones. 92. Many stones are broken (especially their hole parts). driver S.10.Hovanesian. paved (covered) by stone plates (Fig.11.Herouni. mechanic V. historian P. tourist manager O.Tatevosian and many others. astronomer R.5 m in width. The lying stones KeN! 90.Nersesian. It was Dr. photographer G.Bagdasarian. which perhaps served as "seats" for observers. Many Stones look like men and animals (Fig. 1. consultant V.12. 85 have two holes each.1.Mnatsakanian. ABOUT SOME STONES Stones KeN! 50. programmer L. 9).Hakopian and M. 125 have holes pierced partially (are not finished) and these stones are not too mossy.Azoyan. P. MEMBERS OF EXPEDITIONS In Fig.Bakhshian. of History P. 71. 5). SOME PARTICULARITIES The North and South Arms have the slit paths of about 1-1. film director R.Manoukian. 13 . 8 a working moment of our expedition in Carahunge in 1994 is shown. This suggests that both sky observing and new instrument making work in Observatory were carried on simultaneously over a long period of time and were suddenly interrupted. 6).G. The seats probably had also a wooden superstructure to fix the head of observer. who first paid attention to the stones KeN! 207-222 at the North part of the Monument (Fig. In Fig. A lot of work was done also by topographers S. 1.Karapetian.

Bochkarev (astronomer). Some holes point above horizon and look up to the sky.12]. the reflected ray from the surface of which composes a definite angle with top of the neighbouring stone NI 69. They even allow to calculate the age of Carahunge Observatory (and of each Stone with Hole) with high accuracy. 14). OUR GUESTS' FINDINGS Dr.was the first main opinion of Professor Bochkarev. The surface of the inside of the Holes is clean and smooth as if they had been polished (Fig.Galoyan [75. With the 7500 years of Carahunge age agreed also Armennian historian Professor G. President of Euro-Asian Astronomical Society (Moscow). the specialist (studied also archaeology) from Switzerland. THE HOLES IN STONES The Holes all the way through Stones in Carahunge is a unique phenomenon in ancient monuments (observatories). 12). which was lying between other lying stones near South Arm Stone NI 90 (Fig. The long time stability of these stone astronomical instruments is even much more than of modern telescopes. He noted separately standing stone N! 200 that could be an analogue of the Heel stone of Stonehenge.1. p. The Holes are 4-5 cm in diameter and are located 15-20cm below the top of the Stones. Most of holes are directed to different points of the real horizon. From the both sides Holes are broadened conical to diameter about 12 cm. 10). The weight and hardness of the Stone make it a very reliable instrument for observing celestial objects over many centuries. In Table 2 the Azimuth and Elevation angles of unbroken (or almost unbroken) Holes measured by our expeditions in 47 normal standing Stones are presented. Some Holes in Stones are shown in Fig. as it is shown below.A. 13). 14. H.G.13. who took part in our expedition in 1995 (Fig. who took part in our expedition in 2001 with his two students (Fig. 14 . paid attention to the stone N! 68 having a bowl with water.Kleiner. 1. discovered another Periscope-Stone (NI 90a). He also found a little cutter made from obsidian (Fig. Holes had been made by instruments having obsidian enters put in fired clay. The Holes made in these massive Stones ensure the highly stable and accurate pointing directions.P. who further using other methods also came in 2003 to the same estimation of the Carahunge Observatory age equal to 7500 years and agreed that Carahunge is the World oldest Observatory [96]. The Holes in Stones are the clearest indication that Carahunge had the astronomical function. 11). "Carahunge is a very serious Observatory" .14. Professor N.

etc.5 4 33 18.is the North.5 10 5 7 10 13 7 21. 17. 5. 4. 21. 21. 16. 60 62 63 64 66 67 71 76 78 79 81 84 85 89 97 98 99 168 180 100 265 70 90 285 125 265 90 255 325 70 80 108 109 110 122 135 135 305 230 0 135 325 170 181 102 267 76 94 287 125 267 94 257 327 76 85 134 134 316 232 5 134 327 2. 20. 9. 18.5 24 2.5 5 7 4.3 50 3 5.5 N! N! 1 2 3 4 5 CHORD Azimuth (degree) Elevation Stone Number Compass corrected (degree) 40 90 94 1. 6. 20.5 20 15 10 3. 4. 10.5 25 10 6 2 18 5. 11. 5. 13. 6. 128 129 137 138 139 143 146 147 151 152 160 161 162 163 164 165 177 181 183 187 0 110 0 290 245 25 215 135 215 0 255 60 220 230 215 250 229 335 115 60 5 111 0 291 248 28 216 146 216 5 257 65 222 232 216 252 227 338 116 64 9 7 90 23 10 8 17. 14. 2. 9. 17. 12. 8.5 22.5 7. 11. 16. 7. 13. Az = 90° . 19. Table 2 NORTH ARM 7. 15.5 44 310 322 15 51 53 55 310 180 260 311 181 262 2.5 20 In the Table 2: Az = 0° .5 7. 43 6 126 40 SOUTH ARM Azimuth (degree) Elevation N! Stone N! Number compass corrected (degree) 1.Table 2. 14. 10. 15.5 10 5.5 16 Azimuth (degree) Elevation N! Stone N! Number Compass corrected (degree) 1. 18. 8. Azimuth and Elevation of unbroken Holes in normal standing Stones . 12. 19. 15 .is the East. 7. 3. 3.

such as Stmrise. Scheme of the Hole with pipe H the eye of observer ~ at a distance of 1 m from the external edge of cy6ndricaI part of the Hole. For the star and planet observation it was possible to use a thin yam cross in pipe and then the accuracy will be equal to 34' : 2 : 20 = 0. 67. from bamboo or rush having inside diameter about 10 mm) interposed and fixed in a Hole by means of clay (Fig.Moonrise through the pipe in Stone XI 79 on 21 September 1997. 20 . In Fig. 16).l5). Some of the results of our observatiom are given in Fig. The next day. 15. To work with said high resolution it was ~ry also to fix the head of observer (his chin and brow. Using a sketch as = = = 16 . it is necessary to correct the position of pipe. I presumed that this accuracy could be increased if to observe through a pipe (made. 16. from the same distance of 1 m. when the day hardens. it can be removed (with pipe) from the Hole for using again for the same event next days or year (years). Considering that position of the Sun or Moon may be fixed by the eye in the centre of the Hole with accuracy equal to its angular size (32').85' = 51" (or 3A sec.5' 30" (or 2 sec of time!). removed from the holes. 19."------1000 -----~I (Dimensions in mm) Fig. will be equal then to about (34-32) : 2: 2 0. of time). the horizon angular limit will be 34' and the accuracy of the Sun and Moon observations.5' (or 14 sec. In the autumn equinox of 1997 and days close to it we made ~ experiments with the pipes (having an inside diameter of 1 cm) for the Sun and Moon rNng and setting moments observation using the stones X!NI 66. For a particular moment. 18 presents three of our pipes in the day.Sunrise moment through the pipe in Stone XI 67 on 22 September 1997. eyes) using some simple wooden construction. Le. In favour of the pipes using in Carahunge times testifies also the important fact that the edges of all Holes are conical broadened. Fig. then the horizon ~ seen in angularlimit 286° 172' (Fig. This experiment shows the ~DiJity ofusing pipes in Carahunge many tbomand years ago. of time). Scheme of the Hole in Stone Fig. This can be done at the moment while day ls still wet. 17 the stoneXI 66 with the pipe in the hole is shown. Using the pipe. we achieve the accuracy of observation (or flxing) of their position equal to about (172-32) : 2 : 20 = 3. 79 and others. and in Fig. for example.

Carahunge (fragment). Stones with holes. 2. A line of standing stones. 1. Fig.Fig. Carahunge (fragment). 17 .

Carahunge. 4. 18 Fig. A view from helicopter. 5. The path along stones of South arm . central part.Fig.

dog. Stones like king and animals (bear. Regular members of our expeditions in Carahunge 19 .Fig. lion) Fig. 7. 6.

G.Fig. Member of expeditions PhD P.Safian near lying stone 20 . Working moment at first expedition in 1994 Fig. 8. 9.

1995 FigJL Small cutter from obsidian 21 .P.FigJ!h Our guest H.Kleiner from Switzerland in Carahunge.

Bochkarev from Moscow in Carahunge Fi2.12.G.13.Fi2. Our guest Prof. The new found Periscope-Stone No 90a 22 . N.

Stone No 66 (Eagle) with pipe in Hole 23 . 14.Fig. Holes in stones Fi2. 17.

Fig. 20. 5-pipe) 24 . 2-Stone. 4-the Moon. Pipes in clay. The Moonrise moment through pipe in Hole of Stone No 79 on 21. 19.09. 18.1997 1 2 3 4 5 Fig. removed from Holes Fig. 3-clay.09. The Sunrise moment through pipe in Hole of Stone No 67 on 22.1997 (l-sky.

Then 15000 years ago more complicated instruments were built. gives the possibility to be fixed in Hole for a wide angular directions and to use each Hole for different celestial sources observation or the same source for different moments of time. Especially when the moment you need will take place only after just one year (or more). which was very slow process and needed too much time. 1. to have high experience in methods of observations and calculations. stars. Every astronomer who makes observations using astronomical instruments knows very well the frequent misfortunes with clouds coming to shield the object of observation at the very important moment. even with more accuracy than it is possible to achieve by well-known Carbon method. Moon and stars. Thus. In Carahunge at present there are more than 80 Astronomical Instruments. to have written language. To project. At Carahunge we met also these obstacles during our observations of the rising. planets and others. so it was necessary to accumulate knowledge from zero. The presence of Holes with narrow diameter (4-5 cm and 10 mm) directed to definite fixed points on the Sky gives the unique possibility to make exact calculations of the age of Carahunge Observatory using astronomical methods. who were Armennians. such a pipe. which becomes bamboo) can be declined in Hole to the angle ±25° to any side from hole axis. Greece or other) required less than one thousand years only. 25 . single ones or groups of 2 or 3 Stones (including also some stones without holes) are the unique Astronomicallnstroments for different observations of celestial sources: the Sun. because they had teachers. build and use such stable and accurate instruments for different scientific purposes it was necessary to have the preliminary accumulated knowledge in astronomy. This was the main reason why the development of Armennian civilization required about 40 -10 =30 thousand years. At that time there was no one to learn from. having the high angular (and time) resolution for observations. This is the reason why Holes have been made with conic broadening in Stones. STONE ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS All Stones with Holes. The development of other civilizations (Sumer. So there are grounds to presume that astronomy in Armennia started about 25000 years ago. the Moon. which have been built and were in use from about 8000 up to 2000 years ago (see below). setting and culmination moments of the Sun. 16 we can calculate that the pipe with inside diameter of 10 mm and outside diameter of 24 mm (so wall thickness is 7 mm. Egypt.in Fig. mathematics and technology. for a long time of thousands years before building of Carahunge. and the first and simple work with simple instruments in Carahunge began more than 20000 years ago.15.

161. planets and stars observations.28). 79 for Spring and Autumn equinoxes days Sunrise and Sunset moments. for culmination declination () =+18.2 including Moonrise Stones N!N! 161. SINGLE STONES WITH HOLES Many Single Stone Astronomical Instruments were investigated during our expeditions. l1fI .ne lIbp b~: RW . b~. 55. which.7°. For the Moon observations there are 14 "Moon-Stones".18. Moon. I shall present below a few unique Stone Astronomical Instruments of Carahunge with the results of our observations and calculations for their age dating.11 . N!N! 108.I1Ii Iiwl1 . 187 for Summer solstice. do . nice and simple song. I am sure. This song indeed is nice and simple (i.uds. Moonset Stones N! 138 for () = +18.16.28.~bp. there is three-stone astronomical instrument. 26 .gbe In Carahunge. l1fI . 187. N!N! 97. ~ the Sun come. come b~. to the God.11. old) and at the same time is marvellous address to the Nature. N!l47 for () = +29°.7°. They were appropriated for the Sun.And at each that time I remembered the Armennian old. to make for Sun de . indeed. 63. where the Sun comes every equinox midday to the top of the main stone (see Item 1.11 ~ ~ ~ to my uf1-pnlli top come sto .Pl1u :m Clo .ar way.way UI1 . 67.DW gbe. 100 for Winter solstice.7°. 169. wl1 . including Sunrise Stones NIX! 65.e. and N!N! 40. was a song of old astronomers. 99 for Summer solstice. l1fI . Here is this song. 64. For the Sun observations there are 17 "Sun-Stones". 1. Melodically Armennian Old Song ofAstronomers ~: The Sun.~bp hb . 177 for Winter solstice. 98. Sunset Stones NIX! 52. N!76 for () = . About the Instrument for Sun culmination moment in equinoxes see Item 1.aI1w pw .uds go a .

09. And this is understandable because the Sun was the Main God. The value 22946 years comes from the supposition that these events took place 14 "Armennian periods" before Armennian King Hayk's victory in 2492 BC (14 x 1461+2492=22946). in Summer Solstice the star Sirius rises just before Sunrise. In Fig. 1. perhaps. which made one year. That time was. 51.1997 is shown. There is no data that the Moon calendar was ever used. NIX! 146.29.06. although it was known and the Moon period of rotation around Earth was not difficult to measure. Single Stone Instruments in Carahunge Observatory were widely used during many millennia. 1. in 22946 BC. Stars observation results see in Items 1.25.09.e.23. the year by Sirius also includes 365 days as • Perhaps at that time. So later Armennian period was called also the "Haykian period". 27 .7°. at days close to the equinox days. THE OLDEST CALENDAR (AOC AND AFC) In Armennia the Solar Calendar was in use for all times. about 23 thousand years ago when the Armennian Oldest Calendar (AOC) was established having the beginning of year on the Spring equinox day Areg 1 (now March 21)*. Prehistoric astronomers looking through any Single "Sun-Stone" Hole (or using other older simple instruments) could fix the azimuth (position on horizon) of Sunrise (or Sunset) point at any day and define (even without pipe) that this point moves along the horizon from day to day for value up to 30 arc min. i. It was also defined that once per year. when for agricultural and other work the calendar becomes necessary. Fig. 99 for ~ +29°.2001 is shown. 163 for ~ 18. and received very interesting and unique results.24. About planets observation see Item 1. 162. In Fig. 22 the Sunrise through Hole in Stone N! 63 at equinox of 22. =- = 1. which is almost equal to the angular diameter of Sun (32'). and comes back to the same first position (from the same side) after 365 days.1997. 23 the Sunrise through Hole in Stone N! 66 at Solstice of 23. We made preliminary calculations and a line of observations using "Sun-Stone" Instruments.17. NIX! 44. 21 presents the Sunrise moment when looking through Hole in Stone N! 67 at equinox of 22. the Armennian favourite old God Vahagn (fighter of dragons and evil) ''was born".NIX! 108. 151. It is obvious that such a simple observation could be done much earlier than the time of developed Carahunge. Here some of them are shown. 164 for ~ = -29°.

as Sosigen from Alexandria) on January 1. This takes place because of accidental combination of precession and self movements of Sirius. Using both AOC and AFC during very long time Armennian astronomers found out that the additional quarter day in year (365.25 x 1461 = 365. The festal days slowly moved along all year round (with period of 1461 years) because real Solar year includes about a quarter day more than 365 days (365. ** To turn to Old Style it is necessary now to add to the date 12 days.e. to "fIX" the festal days with the Sun real movement during the year. where Holy person is perhaps Armennian King Hayk.Solar year has. than Sirius year (365.002 %) because the Solar year has a little less duration (365. So at that time it was found out that Solar year consists of about 365. and the period of 1461 years was called ''the Armennian period".25 : 0. which is in use now)'". The developed Carahunge Observatory (7500 years ago) gave much better possibilities to make observations during many years and with much higher accuracy (30" or 2 sec. The ''fixed'' calendar. of course. It was corrected later that Armennian cycle and Sirius cycle have a little difference of 12 days. Armennia admitted the Julian calendar in 122 AD (by King Artashes D). It entered Europe by July Caesar (with the help of Egyptian astronomers. So to "stop" the ''movable'' calendar. 28 . The same duration has "Sirius cycle". This period of 1461 years (or 1460 for "fixed calendar") was called the "Armennian period" (or "Armenian cycle").25 days. 44).25) being accumulated in ''movable'' calendar gives one whole year after each 1461 years (0.25).25=1461). In Old Egypt there was a festal day "Siruhis" which in Armennian is "My beloved woman" (seealso Fig. 12 min. Thus the ''fixed'' (immovable) Calendar was invented and developed in Carahunge with the moment of year beginning at 6 o'clock in the morning (or in midday) of Spring equinox day. is more convenient in using. * Let me note that "Sirius" or "Sotis" means in Armennian "The loved one in the house of Holy person". i. Le. of time with pipes). or so-called "Sotis" •. 45 BC (so-called "Old Style") and later it was corrected by Pope Gregory DI (with the help of Polish astronomer Copernicus) in 1582 AD ("New Style". per year (0. Thus Armennian Fixed Calendar (AFC) was established in Carahunge.25 days). at Areg 1 (March 21). Armennians used both ''movable'' and ''fixed'' calendars in parallel more than five thousand years (up to the end of XIX century AD).242 days). it was necessary to add in Calendar one more day once per four years. This Solar AOC was so-called "movable". AFC as well as Armennian Cycle and Sotis were known and were in use also in Old Egypt [19]. and taught people of other countries these calendars. especially Sumers and Egyptians whose civilizations began in DI millennium BC.

December 9 .Armennian Basic Calendar (ABC) started in 2492 BC by order of Armennian King Hayk (about 24932444 BC. 3. 7 29 . or "Son of Sun" and representative of the Main God .Dec. killed the Babylonian king Bel (Nemrod) in battle and ordered to celebrate this day every year and to rename the months of year after the names of His sons and daughters [20]. The word ''kes'' in Armennian means "half'. As it was told by Movses Khorenatsi. "Half AR".Alishan wrote. "Caeser" (in Germany). Le. "Half Sun". 8 Tre (Spli. 2. Armennian famous historian of V century AD. As G..H. called "Hayots Boun Tomar" (HBT) . son). 1-30 -----------------------------September 10 . 1-30 -------------------------------November 9 .18. the Nakharar (King) Hayk worsted the Babylon army which came to occupy Armennia. New Style Navasard (lmnImumJlll. 9 Horri (~p. so 360 days plus 5 (or 6 once per every four years in fixed HBT) Additional days (the New Year celebrations). "Czar" or "Tsar" (in Russia).Sept.Armennian words. I have presented here the names of months of HBT and corresponding dates of present calendar: HBT(ABC) 1. The word "Kesar" later overpassed to Europe via Greece and was used as "Caesar" (in Rome and Byzantium). ABC) consists of 12 months 30 days each. daughter of Hayk). 8 Caghots (RmIlng. daughter). Armennian Basic Calendar (HBT.Oct.). so Kesar was "Half God". 9 Sahmi (UmhU}1. Armenian scientist of VII century AD Annannia Shirakatsi tells these names [22].Nov. that New Year (Navasard 1) in 428 AD by "movable" ASC coincided with August 23 by Julian (Hulian) Calendar (or with August 11 of present calendar).. 1-30----------------------------0ctober 10 . It was known. The date 2492 BC was recovered by Armennian historian of XIX century AD Ghevond Alishan [21]. daughter). but already in the meaning of "emperor". 1-30 ------August 11. KING HAYK'S CALENDAR (HBT) Much more information is known about Armennian next old fixed calendar. "Half God".30. the same figure of 2492 BC is shown by old authors Aphriakanos and Yevsebios as the date of Bel's death [21]. who had the title "Kesar". 1-30 -------------------------------. P. etc. Each month and each day of month. Using this fact and "Armennian Cycle" of 1460 years he calculated that 1460 .1.Father AR on the Earth. 5.Jan.428 AD = =1032BC+1460 = 2492 BC. as well as each of 24 hours of day have their own names . because Armennian King was in the same time the Main Patriarch. About Kesar Hayk see also Item 3. son of Hayk). 4.

10. Gisheravar (Cijlzlipunfmp) The beginning of day was 6 o'clock of morning (Solar time. 8.6. Aragats (Upmqmb") 21. 2. 7 9. son). Areg (Upliq) Brand (~mful) Aram (Upunf) Margar (Umpqmp) Ahranc (Uhpmup) Mazdegh (Umqq. Grgourr (q. 10 Additional (Avelyats) 5 days were named by names of 5 known at that time planets [19]. so 2 names retained their old names. of course). Margats (Umpqmb". Lousnak (lnlUumq) 25 Tsron (5pnu) 26. Mareri (Umplipp. 3. Ahekan (UhliI{mfl. 11. Mehekan (UlihliI{mu.February 7 .Aug. 6 7. 7. 5. 1-30 --------------------------------------July 7 . Tsmak (lnfmq) 24. The names of hours of day were also Armennian words: • It were renamed 10 names of months. 1-5 -----------------------------------.March 8 8. 30 . daughter). 12.May 7 10.Aug.) 16. Probably King Hayk had only 10 children. heathen temples and Gods: 1. 6.Kordouic {lJnp1pll}lp) 23. son). 15.Apr. 9. In ''fixed'' BBT one more day (once per 4 years) ofleap year was added to month Mehekan. Npat (lnqwm) 27. 13. old name) ·. old name). daughter). Hrotits (~mpg. 1-30 --------------------------------------January 8 .1-30 ---------------------------April8 . Vahagn ("t{mhmqu) 28. Sis (Ullu) 29. 5 13. 1-30 -----------------------------------March 9 . 14. The names of days of month were the Armennian names connected with the names of sacramental mountains. daughter). Assak (Uumq) 18.August 6 . Varag ("t{mpmq) 30. Arats (Upmb".lil}) Astghik (UuuulPq) Mihr (uphp) Dzopaber (Qmqwplip) Mourts (Unlpg) Yerezkan (bpliqqwu) Ani (Uup) Parkhar (IJl. Avelyats (UtPiumg). Manni (Umup) 17. 1-30 ----------------. 1-30 ------------------------------May 8 . Massis (Umupu) 19. Areg (Upliq. 1-30 ---------------------------June 7 .mp}ump) Vanatour ("t{muwUllup) Aramazd (Upmumqq.pqnm) 22.Febr.June 6 11. 4. Annahit (Uumhpm) 20.July 6 12.

Khothapheal (IlqamIl1liaJ}). Many people also celebrate the old New Year (August 11). Armennian Great Date) began from July 11 of 552 AD. (c¥l-).(db). 15-16 (doU). with the New Year (Navasard 1) at August 11 of Julian calendar.). Nobody annulled the king Hayk's order of 2492 BC.Saturday 2. 0'U). Let us hope this fact will be marked in many countries by the help of International Organisations. CfJwJlmbn 5.P). Mthatsial (If}CKUglimt). 23]. Aragot ~). 1. regular and exact Calendar in the VVorld. Kamavot (qtmfunImn). 10-11 (1:). 2008 it will be completed 4500 years of HBT. 8 -9 (f}. but had not names for days of month [19. Loosakn (lmumIPt). HourthapeaI (~JlFHIllItlimt). Loosaphayl (lmmmInn. 10. Aravot (UnanImn). "fixed" calendar of Armennian scientist Hovanes Imastaser. 23-24 19.P). Ecclesiastical Calendar. Khavarak (II.(do1U"). Shabavot (nrdnmImn).Monday Mars . 4-5 24. (aq. ~WUl 4. Thaghanteal (lO"wqmfJIaliml).Tsayg (5m. Shantharkogh~.unlwpmIV. 5. O'f}. UpnluJml:( 7. 3-4 23. 12 (1U").sharaveghial (CwnunUiqlimt). 11-12 7. 11.Friday Saturn . Night time 13. Phaylatsu (C1Jw. 4.Jt). 5-6 (U).Sunday Moon . 17-18 The seven-day week Belt-Calendar of IT millennium BC was found near town Sanahin in Armennia. Hrakath (~). 16-17 (d-.Jq).Agbjamoughj{lll]2un1'nu12).2-3 22 O'. (Q). 13-14 6. 8. and Saturday is connected with Saturn. 31 . began from 1085 AD.Day time 1.Tuesday Mercury-VVednesday Jupiter .PunImIImf1).0'). (. Moon and Armennian old names of five planets [19. (do!:). Arphogh {(. lnmpu 3. 9. 12-13 (C).Thursday Venus . Uph Sun . 2 3.Tcharagaytheal(~~9-10 (b). O'q. as Hayots Mets Thvakan (HMT. Besides HBT in Armennia other calendars were also in use after Christianity adopting. (d"'C).7-8 (q. 6-7 h. 19-20 15. bphml:( (l:(}1pml:fP) (lipl:(n1zmprap) (lipupzmprap) <!npupzmprap) (hpuqzmprap) (mppUlJCl) (zmpUlJCl) It is interesting that first two present English names of week-days are directly connected with Armennian names of the Sun and Moon. Bavakan (.Ayg(Ujq). lnmuramq 6.). HBT is the oldest. Old Egyptian Calendar (taken from HBT in ITI millennium BC) was like HBT [19].). 22-23 18.).Zoratsial (Qnpmglimt). 14-15 (do).21-22 17.0-1 20. 24]. 20-21 16. In August 11. 1-2 21.Jlmbm). Gizak (~.P).Yerkrates (bpInmnn1iu).Iptl:mrV. HBT is sometimes used in Armennia until now. (dQ). The days on this Belt-Calendar are called by names of Sun. 18-19 14.).

wtP) which means "shadow-meter". Old Armennian Sun-calendars were called "stverachaph" (umtIlipwl. In Fig. SUNDIALS AND SUN-CALENDARS It is obvious that in Carahunge Observatory the Sundials and Suncalendars were in operation from old time. in 1989 (4482 HBT) [5]. shadows of which show the months and (approximately) days of months. AD (15 km from Yerevan). 24 Sundial from the wall of Armennian church "Zvartnots" (VII cent. page 69). At the same time it is obvious that in Old Armennia Sundials and Suncalendars were widely used.by real solar months (Zodiac constellations). Sun-calendar shows on its scale the month of a year by the length of shadow of its rod. But they are not saved. vertical scale .1. May be they will be found in future. 38. It is possible to suppose that the Carahunge Stone Xl! 63 with Hole on its back was used as the Sundial (see also Item 1. AD) near Etchmiadzin is shown. All scales of them are calibrated from 6 o'clock morning to 18 in the afternoon. We designed and made two new type Sundial-Calendars (SDC. VII cent. Armennian old Sundials were called "gitsoh" (qlllngnq) which in Armennian means "knowing (one)". 32 .by Hayots Boun Tomar (HBT) and the spherical scale . Horizontal scale is divided (by titanium curve lines) to months by present calendar.28. Many of them were also found during excavations. There are many Sundials on walls and near the Medieval Christian churches till now [23]. Each of them has three main scales (horizontal.in front of the main building of RRI in Yerevan. "Gitsoh-Stverachaph") built from red colour tufT (volcano-stone).19. vertical and spherical ones) and one common rod (gnomon) declined to the angle 40° (equal to the latitude of place) and having three small crosses (for each scale). 24. Sundial from the wall of church Zvartnots. Sundial shows on its scale the time of day by the shadow of the rod (called "gnomon"). one in Aragats Scientific Centre (on Mount Aragats) of our Radiophysics Research Institute (RRI) in 1987 (4480 HBT) and another one . page 48 and Fig. Fig.

the longest day. 26) they could measure the height (elevation angle hI) of Sun in its summer culmination (in midday at Summer solstice. they had seen that during the year the Sun elevation (h) changes in limits hI> h > h 2 and declination . Using Fig. Earth Axis is inclined to --the normal to Ecliptic Plane for the angle e =&:. e = arcSin(CosA s . cp and Azimuth of Sunrise (Sunset) point As on horizon. June 22) and its height (angle h 2) in Winter culmination (in midday at Winter solstice. 1.in limits .4) Sine Coscp . Spring and Autumn (Equinoxes). All work was done in workshops of RRI.cp) and also for measurements of latitude (angle cp) of place is shown. 49/4 Komitas Avenue. h =90 . Yerevan. =0) for the angle e =§c Le. Coscp) * Below (Fig. is shown. (2) In case of solstice days. Then they could find the Sun declination (a) in culmination days (angle ac) as (1) Of course. 27 it is easy to find relation between e. see below) they had to understand that the Sun direction in Solstices is inclined to the Earth's Equator Plane (or Sky Equator. December 22)*.The project of SDC was done by me. Item 1.Panosian. because (see Fig. calculations of hour lines and month curve lines on scales were made by Dr. And this is the reason why we have on Earth Summer and Winter (Solstices). 25 the New Type of Sundial-Calendar (SDC) built in front of the main building of RRI. when e A = arcCos s =ac we have for the Sunrise point: (3. the shortest day.c < < + c • Reiterating these measurements many years and becoming sure that &: is almost not changed (and even did not depend on latitude (cp) of place. 33 . Armennia. In Fig. EARTH AXIS INCLINE Did Carahunge astronomers know the angle of Earth Axis Incline (angle e or Ecliptic Inclination)? Yes. V. It is the following: a a a a As =arcCos Sin5 Coscp .28) the Carahunge Three-Stone Instrument used for measurements of Sun elevation at equinox days (~ = 0.20. 35-37.Oskanian and ornaments on stone were chiselled by sculptor S.

~~..._&.44° li = 0 \. N Fig.I. Sun movement trajectories on Sky at: 1 .Equinox days...44° S -. _ _. K. 26..Azimuth of Sunrise point at Solstice 34 . The Sun culminations Zenith lie = +23......---be =-23.~.44 ~ \ \ \ \ S E Fig.__-""' Horizon . 27.44° Zenith Sky Equator li=O Winter Solstice lie = -23.3 .Summer Solstice lie = +23. 2.Solstice days As...

According to G. 26). This was a very good result because the actual value has been about 23.5' old astronomers theoretically could mark the shift Ms = 1. because the pipes had not so high time-stability.97° and if Ae = 0. with period of 41000 years. Le.013° (0.5° (Carahunge).00013° (0. So Axis Incline change law (sine-kind) acts an important role near arctic.018° or 1. Using equation (3) we can calculate.1' after 50 years. In fact in Carahunge there are indeed a number of stones approximately directed to the present Sunrise (Sunset) point at Solstices having some shifts between holes directions (which we measured). which are close to arctic zones. In the last 2000 years of this period ice melted very intensively and 12000 years ago the Great Deluge took place.2°). But this small change of e is very sensible for regions. 28 and explain it a little.5° with period of 41 thousand years [24]. with some azimuthal shift. Thus the Azimuth of Sunrise point at Solstice (As) also decreases and angle (90 .445°. 28).44° and latitude q> = 39. 28). According to Astronomical Yearbooks [25] the Ecliptic Inclination now is equal e =23.78') per 100 year. So we know the shifts between present Sunrise point and old points. because they knew that Earth has the Axis of rotation and even knew the angle (e) of its Incline and its Precession (see Item 1.5° [19].Did Carahunge astronomers know about Earth rotation around its own Axis? Yes.1' during 100 year. But using Holes even without pipe (and having the accuracy of 3. The last glacial period started about 32000 years ago and finished 12000 years ago (see Fig. to have Sunrise point again in centre of holes. Having accuracy of observations (with pipes) 30" = 0.013° then Ms = 0. As = 58. We can use also the value for speed A£ =0.5') they had to mark Ms after about 300 years (the stone instruments have very high stability). 35 .Tt was too dangerous for Mesopota• It is interesting to notify here that Armennian author of XVll century gives for this angle the value 23. that when e = 23. Let us return to Fig. subtropical and moderate zones of the Earth. After 1000 year the shift could be Ms = 0. but practically it was impossible.3° ± 1. because the Sun rays are coming with too sharp angles and this conduces to forming a large glacial covering in sub arctic zones.18° or 11' which is 3 times more than the accuracy without pipes. because we are now in linear part of the sine-kind law of Inclination changing (Fig. Hancock the Earth Axis Incline changes in limits from 22.44° and slowly decreases with speed 0. In the result the level of ocean rose up to 100 m.As) as well as Azimuth Shift (Ms) increases (see Fig.47") per year".2° (e = 23. These give a possibility to calculate the age of stones and of Observatory as a whole. It practically does not change a heat value coming from Sun to the tropic.1° to 24.22). they would make other new stone instruments for Sunrise (Sunset) in Solstice days directed to the new point. The variation of Earth Axis Incline is in limits ± 1. Finding this.

animals. rains. etc. but nothing dangerous for life of people. and flora.mia and other low altitude places but not for Armennian Highland with average altitude 1700 m (Mount Ararat 5160 m). Our Present time is on linear part of Axis decline changing law. lightning. Armennian Highland was the real Noah's Ark and the civilization here continued to develop. 36 . rough rivers. 28). There were clouds. so the beginning of the next Glacial period will be after 8500 years and next Great Deluge after 29000 years (Fig.

4 -12000 P IOX Glaciers melt GreatDelu e -9150 Armennian Alphabet Cl) ~ -11000 >- -7500 -6000 -4000 -2000 (BC/AD) Present 0 (2000) time +1100 +6500 +8500 -200 0.2•••9) -20000 0 bO tU rI) . Kingdom beginning Freeze beginning Intensive freeze -40000 -34500 -32500 Glaciers -25000 Armennian Sun Calendar and written language Armennian fi res (0. 28.--45000 Homo Sapiens Sapiens Armennian language beginning Armennian civilization towns. Christ born ical Era Present time Freeze beginning Intensive freeze Glaciers N (CP .The Carahunge Period) Fig. The change of Earth Axis Incline and Eras evolution 37 .14° Technol Carahunge Metsamor ramid Stonehen e J.1.

20) was used first by famous British astronomer N.5 r) AAz° (shift) c a b c a b C 1 40 90 -3 99 303 2 108 232 2 1 63 99 +6 52 302 1. calculated for present time) and measured directions of holes for 17 "Sun Stones" and 12 ''Moon Stones".1° or 0.Aut. After this the resulting possible error is equal to about ±O. Table 3 SUN Sunrise Solstice ~umrner Sunset Equinox 0 90+3=93 =93 c a b Winter Spr.4=230 309-2=307 1223-8=215 <230 >307 c a b >290 c a b <215 c a b c a b c a b c c a b c 4 161 62 1.5 0.5 169 233 1 0.44 122+9=131 >131 Solstice +23.5 97 133 4 b) HoleAz° 161 62 1 98 133 187 61. - 1 Decl.7 i'MlA /C AI /C. 29].5 55 260 7.44 302-1=301 >301 Summer Winter Solstice -23.5 1. In Table 3 the calculated present Azimuths (Az°) for Sun and Moon rise and set points are shown in line 2 taking into account corrections on real horizon heights. 28.. In column 4c the Azimuth shifts (AAzO) are put between Azimuth (cor- rected. which is very good (it had to be approximately 1850 BC for Stonehenge DI)[24.5° to 3°.5+6.4-5.7 2 63+0.5 116.Lockyer to calculate the age of Stonehenge in 1901 [27]. _'MV'l +29 -29 -18..Aut.5 >123 >135 a b Moonset -29 51+6=57 <57 a b +18.5 76 124 1 147 137 2 187 62 1.5=63.5 a 64 Spr.5 67 90 -3 177 231 3 79 90 -3 b c 264 3. Now ~o +23..21. refraction and Lunar parallax.7 235.1.18° =550 year. The correction required for magnetic deviation is put to hole Azimuth values (line 4b).44 59+4=63 <63 2 Az° Ancient 3 Az o was a c a b b a) StoneN 65 62.5=267.- 138 289 1 108 229 1 44 309 2 14li 214 1 163 229 1 51 309 2 151214 1 164 214 1 38 .5 100 130.7 +29 -18.5 MOON Moonrlse 1 +18.1° x 1000 : 0. His result was: between 1880 and 1480 BC.44 239-5=234 <234 Equinox 0 270-2. THE AGE OF CARAHUNGE.5 =267. Solstice -23. METHOD N! 1 The method of Age determination of Old Monuments (Observatories) using the "Azimuth Shift" (explained in Item 1.5 .5= 129+6=135 =123 3 <63. For stones with holes Azimuth shifts are in limits from 0.

100) having AAz = 0.5° x 1000 : 0. 39 . This phenomenon is called Precession (Fig.36 x 1000 : 0.37° x 1000 : 0.There are two main possible reasons for the presence of existing different Azimuth shifts.42° and the Age is 1. Nevertheless. the Age of Carahunge Observatory active operation is more than 7500 years (the middle of VI millennium BC). 30 the way of North Pole point on Sky during about one Precession period is shown. For 12 "Moon Stones" presented in Table 3 we have the average AAz = 17° : 12 = 1. The second reason is. is 0. socalled Equinox Anticipation) and the Sun moves among stars on the Sky with speed 360°: 25920 year = 83.36°. see Item 1.42° x 1000 : 0. it is dangerous for our problem not the parallel shifts (along or across of hole axis). so we have 17-6=11 "Sun Stones".5 min per 100 year. Except 2 stones with AAz = 0. and one stone with AAz = 3° as extreme values we have for 8 "Sun Stones" the average AAz = 11° : 8 = 1.18° = 7640 ± 550 years. For the second reason. In Fig. There are no Az shifts for Sunrise (Sunset) points at equinox days.37° and the Age is 1. As a result of Precession the stars positions (co-ordinates) on the Sky are slowly changing. Then the Age is 1. So Carahunge Observatory was in operation during more than 5500 years. landslide. ete. The Sun slowly moves on the Sky along Zodiacal constellations in the opposite direction to its annual motion along them. (mentioned above. So work was continued before that time.10). that some shift could take place following the natural conditions (earthquake. Thus. from more than 7500 years ago until less than 2000 years ago. 1. but was suddenly interrupted. EARTH AXIS PRECESSION The Earth Axis (inclined now 23. The Age of two ''youngest'' stones (X!Xt 65.18 = 7575 ± 550 years.18° = 7870 ± 550 years.22. 29).18° = 2200 ± 500 years.5° each.) during millennia. Taking all these into account we have (in Table 3) for 11 "Sun Stones" (except 6 equinoxes) the average AAz = 15° : 11 = 1. One is.44°) makes a slow conic movement with period 25920 years. being in each Zodiacal constellation 25920: 12 = 2160 years. How long Carahunge was operating? The ''youngest'' stones were in operation about 2000 years ago. to minimize this second reason we average the shift values. that the Observatory (the Instruments) was built continuously over different times. As the result the Spring equinox moment comes each year a little earlier (5. This is also told by three lying stones with holes pierced partially.5°.3' per 100 year. but just the hole rotation around any vertical axis (the probability of which is low).

.../ Fig.. ... . .( Equator '-(OIlP turn prr Dill" yrar) . ~ _ per 26000 )"l'BI' . The travel of North Pole point on the Sky 40 . ont ttun // ..Ecliptic Pole direction '. Earth Axis Precession • • • • Fig... 30.>: --- -- :'lorrnlll to /Ecliptic Pole . 29..

Jla. also the present position (co-ordinates) of stars and their proper motion it is possible to calculate the position of each star for any past time (as well as for future). ± T .is the time in Julian centuries.018'" . Le. T 2 + 0.0. I think it was done in Armennia even 11-13 thousand years ago. where (at what point of horizon) it rose (sat). T 2 + 0. T 2 . Sunset. <X2.)+ SinB l ·cose] . to say.7"'· T + 1. Using equations (2) and (5) it is possible to calculate the azimuths of 'given star rising Ar and setting As moments in the past: SinB A 0 = arcCos C 2 and A s = 360 _ A 0 • 0 r r oso 0 (7) 41 . This shift has the value 50" per year (83.3' : 100 x 60 = 50"). etc. thousands years ago. and Midday moments at Equinox or in other fixed moment).042'" . CosB2 (5) (6) where: Bl = Bo + 100J.is the proper motion of star [25]. T 3 e = 2003. called also the "Space Great Clock". T 3 z = 2305.is the position of given star in past (future) time.Could the Carahunge prehistoric astronomers espy Precession? Yes.0. The generations of astronomers searching the Sky during hundreds and thousands of years could know Precession even many thousand years before Carahunge. J. ~ . Knowing the Precession laws.427'".7"'· T + 0.1a . T.87'" . a l = a o + l00J.095'". because they could measure the shift of the Sun position regarding stars (for example in Sunrise.018'" . CosBl · Sin (a l +'") a 2 = z + arcSID .302'". T 3 where: (10. Bo .15 . was known to civilized people on Earth of yore. which they could measure in Carahunge during about 7 months.15 . So the Precession. where was each given star. where culminated. - ab Bl is the present position of star with proper motion addition.is the present position of given star (rectangular equatorial co-ordinates) [25]. These calculations we can do using the following equations [30]: B2 =arcSin[CosB l • Sine· Cos(a l +". T '" = 2305. T .

31). And bright stars. This bowl with water was a level to check and to control the vertical axis of Periscope during millennia (Fig. STAR OBSERVATION. it were stars. I researched the potentiality of 21 brightest stars of our Sky to cross the Zenith point of Carahunge at some time in past. 32). =90+<p-3 2 when So e and h. 1.2 m (see Fig. METHODNt2 In the North Arm of Carahunge there is another unique Instrument.The star swell angle (h). Using given above Earth Axis Precession laws we can find. h 2 = 90° (~::::: (8) <p). the Stone Nt 137. What were they observing in zenith when the Sun and Moon never crossed zenith point in this latitude (at least during last 10000 years)? Of course. because the mirror was not very good. = 90-cp+ 3 2 when 3 < cp. because the height of the Stone is 1. 42 . Its hole does not go through the stone rightly but at half way turns up and comes out from the top of stone. It proved that four of them had crossed the Zenith point (seeTable 4). h. This was our Method Nt 2 to calculate the Age of the Observatory. or its height over horizon (elevation) in culmination is: h. =cp+3 2 -90 when 3> 90-cp When star-crossed zenith point. PERISCOPE-STONE.23. whether this occasion took place in some day in past or not (the probability of which is very low). very comfortable to observe Zenith point while sitting. If to put a piece of mirror (of black obsidian) in place of turn it will be a periscope. On the opposite side of stone (of observer side) there is a handmade bowl about 20 cm in diameter.

It is calculated also. ao =310°36'. They were in region of Zenith point at a distance ± 0. that the next 43 .Table 4 STARS.Stone No 137 Prehistoric period Years ago Declination 39' 34' Altitude 90' 00' aCyg a Boo aLyr aAur 7630 3480 3000 39° 35' 39° 35' 39° 35' 90° 00' 90° 01' 90° 00' 2330 The first of them was Deneb (a Cygnus).3000 years ago and CappeUa (a Aur) 2330 years ago. J2000. Years ago 7400 7500 7600 Periscope-Stone N! 137 &t =45°28'. which crossed Zenith point 7630 + 10 years ago. Then Arcturus (a Boo) 3480 years ago. 35° 10' 34 47 34 23 3415 Declination 39° 03' 39 16 39 30 3934 Setting Azim.5° during a period of about ± 100 (up to ± 300) years. Table4a DENEB. cp =39°34' Rising Azim.5° near Zenith point took place during about ± 200 years. Star name Deneb Arcturus Vega Capella Constellation Periscope . 324° 49' 325 12 325 36 32544 Altitude 89° 29' 89 42 89 56 9000 7630 7700 7800 7900 39 44 39 58 40 13 33 58 33 32 33 05 326 01 326 27 326 34 90 10 90 24 90 39 We can see toot Deneb position shift in the iimits ± 0. The Altitude shift of Deneb position from zenith point in function of time in Table 4a is shown. Vega (a Lyre) . it was enough time to make instruments and observe them. Le.

Vega and Cappella is not so important for us in this context of Carahunge dating because there are many other stones with age more than 7500 years and it is also known that in Armennia 4492 years ago there was started the new accurate solar Calendar (HBT. see above. It allows to date Carahunge more than 7600 years. Here are 31 Stones. 12 Stones .25). The rising and setting Azimuths of nine bright stars in Carahunge sky (4500.22). Having accuracy of observation 30" they could espy the star position shift after 1. Their Numbers are shown in Table 5. Item 1. because their Holes are directed to the given (calculated) corresponding Azimuths in angular limit ± 2°. These calculations are not completed and here we can just say that Carahunge was in active use during the period 7500-4500 years ago.star. some of which were used 2-3 times (for different stars) and they were in use for more than 50 purposes. At the same time it gives us another possibility (Method Kt 3) to determine the Age of Carahunge using Precession equations (5-8.7 year. 44 . 1.18).6000 and 7500 years ago) were calculated and Stones directed to these Azimuth points at those times were found. METHOD Kt 3 In Carahunge Observatory the star systematic observations at their rising and setting points on horizon using Single-Stone Instruments were undertaken.24. Canis Major stars (12 Stones for two stars) including star Sirius (5 Stones). This gave another possibility of maintaining the Calendar and calculating Precession. which will cross the Zenith point in Carahunge. Table 5 shows also that Carahunge astronomers had special high interest in the Orion constellation stars (14 Stones for 5 stars). after 640 years. The time of Zenith point crossing by Arcturus. will be Vega. It will be shown below that the real period of activity is 7500 . So more important is the time of Deneb -7630 years ago. Carahunge astronomers could see the slow shift of star position from Zenith point and understand Precession. Nine Stones were in use 4500 years ago. STAR IN RISING AND SETTING POINTS. Item 1.2000 years ago (see Item 1. star Deneb (6 Stones). when Observatory was in active operation.6000 years ago and 15 Stones were in use 7500 years ago.

9 248.4 132.3 239.4 39.1 325.5 225.9 227.110 44.9 38.9 213.2 135.110 - 108 162 51 161. We can see that using six Stones shown in Table 6 the observation was done 45 .2 258.122 55.99 84.8 286. STARS CULMINATION.7 120.25. The research shows that these types of work in Carahunge were also undertaken.3 109.0 236. the Age of Carahunge (Method .4 253.5 234.5 63.2 96.8 101. did Carahunge astronomers make Instruments and use them to observe stars in their upper and lower culmination moments? At the same time we can calculate the time (in past) of these observations.1 321.7 239.8 224.1 112.164 - 1.6 124.160 139 163 - - 177 - 98.4 250.9 34.7 120.5 125.110 147 177 177 151.1 147.N'! 4 Using Precession laws we can answer the question.0 242.6 107.6 320.85 98 147 40 71 - 151 78 160 183 126 126 - - 76 129 98.110 76 98.TableS STARS Star name. METHOD.5 134.6 109. Constellation Sirius aCMa Cappella a Aur Rigel J3 Ori Betelgeuse a Ori Deneb a Cyg Bellatrix '1 0 ri Alnilam e Ori Alnitak ~ Ori Mirzam J3 CMa Years ago 4500 6000 7500 4500 6000 7500 4500 6000 7500 4500 6000 7500 4500 6000 7500 4500 6000 7500 4500 6000 7500 4500 6000 7500 4500 6000 7500 Prehistoric period Rising Azo SettingAz° 117.1 132.8 263.0 Stone N Setting Rising 183 98.0 118.0 241.7 51.3 146.e.2 73.4 235.N'! 4).7 132.0 123.3 308.3 239.187 66. The Table 6 shows another group of eleven stars that crossed the local meridian of Carahunge in prehistoric times at the definite elevations. i.5 296.7 250.6 227.7 213.3 120.3 227.

Alioth. a Ori 180 -50 62 In the result we can say that Carahunge was in active use during the period of 7500-2000 years ago. Zenith point star crossing (Table 4).2 5. CARAHUNGE DATE CONCLUSION We considered four independent astronomical Methods of Carahunge age determination: the Sun and Moon rising and setting Azimuth shifts (Table 3). a Boo POri eUMa aUMa l1UMa eOri ~Ori Years a20 7500 7500 7500 7500 2000 7000 7000 6500 5000 6000 3500 STARS Prehistoric period Azo Culmination Altitudeo Lower Upper Lower Lower Lower Upper Upper Upper Upper Upper Upper 0 180 0 0 0 8. Carahunge was in continuous operation more than 5500 years. Alnilam. 1.6 18.during the period from 7500 years ago down to 2000 years ago (four Stones of them are 7500 years old). more than 15000 years ago. The high attention was paid again to Orion (4 Stones) and also to Ursa Major (5 Stones) constellations.6 9. Rigel. The accuracy of Stone Hole axis directions to the calculated star Elevations in their culmination moments is ± 10 • Table 6 Star name Arcturus. Star rising and setting Azimuths (Table 5) and Star culmination Elevations (Table 6).26. Sirius. Alnitak. Mirsam. Obviously the building and operation of Carahunge started much earlier (having more simple instruments).6 10. Alkaid. It is very interesting that all four Methods of dating have given the same result: Carahunge Observatory was built and operated more than 7500 years ago (middle of VI millennium BC).6 Stone N 128 60 109 152 128 aCMa ~CMa 180 -22 53 aCMi Betelgeuse. Dubhe. Procyon. up to 2000 years ago till perhaps 301 AD when Christianity was accepted as the 46 .

47 . and the Avenue at Callanish. S. Urfa) by King Abgar V (12-50 AD) who in 33 AD delegated his secretary and artist Hannan to Jesus Christ with letter (inviting Him to Arpha) and received His reply letter and His portrait (the famous so-called "Mandilion") painted by Hannan (See PART 3)." [31]. which I am doing now with pleasure: "The menhir-lined Avenue leading from the stone circle (of Carahunge. Hawkins.27. Callanish and Carahunge. In Fig. The former points to the midsummer sunrise. Hawkins (Washington D. In his letter of May 18.C. 33 is shown a photo of Professor G. • At first. S.H. and I have some thought to share with you. S. Let us recall that it is considered that any civilization did not exist yet neither in Mesopotamia.) is similar to the Avenue at Stonehenge. 1999 he answered me the following [31]: "The Carahunge site is very interesting.) who is the top specialist on old monuments dating by astronomical methods and asked his opinion. Hawkins is also painter. In Fig.1999 he wrote that I can publish his comments in my next publication.Edessa. and hope that the result will ultimately get recorded in the literature". 1." and then. Hawkins sees the parallel between Stonehenge. In his letter of June 28. and the latter to the extreme point of the setting of the moon. the Avenue is the most distinctive architectural feature of the monument. Both date to the third millennium BC. Professor G. As the Stonehenge and Callanish. At Carahunge the arrangement is similar.5000 years ago. I am very thankful to him that he kindly agreed and has done a lot of work to check my results and gave a high estimation. now .Mesopotamia) with capital Arpha (later . Carahunge certified that in Armennia was high civilization much more than 7500 years ago. in 33 AD Christianity was accepted in Armennian Pharam Aram (in Armennian: ''The country of Aram's junior brother". HAWKINS In February 1999 I sent all my Carahunge materials including the Age calculations to Professor G."1 am most impressed with the careful work you have done. Egypt nor anywhere else before 5500 . by King Trdat m the Great". It is very interesting that Professor G. PROFESSOR G.State religion in all Great Armennian Kingdom. S.. S. 34 his painting "Stonehenge" is shown. P. The Avenue from the stone circle points to the extreme northerly rising of the moon in the third millennium BC.. .

5 0 • = 48 . equal to the latitude of place. During our IV expedition at equinox September 21. 1994. Thus. 35.22).) either in the midday or at the moment of Sunrise using the Hole on the back of Stone N! 63 directed to Sunrise point in equinox. 38) and reflected Sun spot which moved more than 4 cm per min. It is the ensemble of Stones N!N! 60. Besides these they could even during one year measure the Equinox Anticipation (0. Safian is shown in Fig.25 days and made corrections of calendar (for the day. using this Instrument. So they could find out that year consists of about 365. month and year duration) and came to the ''fixed'' one. the Carahunge astronomers measured the geographical latitude of place (with accuracy 30"). better on distance of ± equal angles Aq> from the Carahunge latitude q> 39. Le. which we have not found yet (or they were destroyed)" A fragment of Carahunge stones painted by Spartak G. The Stones N! 60 and 62 have Holes directed to different elevation angles and through which the top of the Stone N! 63 is visible (Fig. how the Sun came to the top of Stone N! 63 exactly in midday. They also measured the beginning (on March 21) of the year (with accuracy 2 sec. 62. Carahunge astronomers knew that Earth has a ball-form. 25a. 1997. the prolonged stability of which was very important. To be sure for 100% they had to measure the latitude also in other latitudes. THREE STONES INSTRUMENT Another unique Astronomical Instrument in Carahunge attracted my attention since first expedition.83' per year) and find out Precession of Earth Axis (see Item 1. The Stone N! 63 (which is apropos alike the Aries) at the said moment acquired the head! The direction of Hole in Stone N! 62 to the top of Stone N! 63 makes the angle about 39. 63 standing along NS direction and located at the beginning of the South Arm. So it was possible for old astronomers to measure the Sun movement with good accuracy by Right Ascension (angle a) and Declination (0). The Stone N! 60 was used to help to fix and maintain the position of the top of Stone N! 63. on a screen at a distance of 10m from the Stone. THE LATITUDE AND EARTH SIZE.1. a piece of mirror was fixed (by clay) in the Hole on the back of Stone N! 63 (Fig. during the f-st expedition. Sure enough.28. in Carahunge there were special Sundials and Calendars with gnomons. 36. 37). when we made observations through Hole in Stone N! 62. Stone N! 63 perhaps was used also as Sundial and Sun-Calendar.5 0 apropos of vertical. It was in equinox day.

So. N 63 62 60 I Fig. mathematician and philosopher of VII century AD Annannia Shirakatsi (Fig. ± 16° (see below. 35. Three-Stone Instrument. and people and animals live on all its sides [22].s .. The famous Armennian astronomer. Item 1. 39) in his book "Cosmology and Chronology" writes that heathen Armennian philosophers affirmed that Earth is ball-formed. about V millennium BC.33). 49 . The information about Earth's ball-form came to Europe first in Medieval period from Pythagoras (VI century BC) who till his age of 50 years lived and learned knowledge in Armennia and only after that came back to Greece [33]. carved on mountain rocks near Lake Sevan. A very interesting illustration of this old knowledge is one prehistoric engraving in Armennia. 40 [32]. Armennians knew the ball-form of the Earth more than 7500 years ago. see Fig. for A<p equal up to ± 10°. Scheme of operation There are facts that they did it.

which were excavated in Karmir Blour near Yerevan [69].01 % (and better) using clay disks with diameter about 1m. 40. HELIOCENTRIC SYSTEM In our research of Carahunge Observatory we did not study the problem of Planets observation or calculation. Engraving on rocks near Lake Sevan (about V millennium BC). 1. old Armennian scientists could measure also the size of the Earth. because I am sure the Carahunge old astronomers were interested in the Planets. Five planets (Mercury. Saturn) were known and had Armennian old names which were presented in Item 1. Being able to measure latitude and knowing the ball-form of Earth. The value of 7t = 3. It is necessary to do that in future. Mars.Fig. The Earth is ballformed and people live on all its sides. Jupiter. say in limit Acp = 10 (or about 110 km)" with error ± l' (or about 2 km) which is about 20/0.14 they could find experimentally with error about 1%**. For this it was enough for them to measure the length of meridian part. 50 . • The old length measure in Armennia was "armung" (elbow) about 0.5 ID • •• Armennian mathematician V. Venus.19. which is very good result (the real value is about 6370 km).29. PLANETS. Then they could calculate the Earth radius as: 360 x 110 : 27t ~ 6300 km ± 3% ~ 6300 ± 190 km. Mirzoian confirmed that value of 1t was measured in Old Armennia with accuracy 0.

The Sun is the Main God. travel crossing constellations. Their brightness changes much so they are sometimes at more and sometimes at less distance from us.5 months.29. Mercury and Venus are nearer to the Sun than the Earth. The Armennian word for "planet" is ''molorak'' (I1ntnl1wll) which means "errant" or "spinning one". so they perhaps rotate around the Sun. and they do not blink as stars. Period of Mars is equal to about 1. than the Earth.5 years.9 months.8 years. but are illuminated by the Sun. Old astronomers knew about planets the following (even without using any instruments): 1. perhaps. but many people can see twice better). so they are further from the Sun. Their velocities on sky are much more than stars velocities. and then supported by observations of G. 3. they knew about the Sun influence on nature. saw the unusual (related to stars) movement of planets. of Jupiter is equal to about 11.Old astronomers. as the Earth and Moon (the angular size of Venus and Jupiter sometimes comes up to 40"-50". of course. At dark nights in mountains. Carahunge astronomers knowing all these (and supporting it by observations with instruments) could suppose that all planets rotate around the Sun. 5. because period of their rotation around Sun is less than Earth period. 51 . sometimes in the morning before Sunrise and sometimes in the evening. 4. 2.9 years. Planets have different movement than stars. So to understand their real way it was not so easy. equal to one year or 365.Copernicus in XVI century AD. and their orbit planes are almost parallel to the Ecliptic plane of the Earth. of Venus . so they sometimes outstrip stars. AD). Jupiter and understand that planets have not their own light. it was possible to see the phases of Venus.7. sometimes move to opposite direction. 7. 8. so they are much closer to us than stars.25 days. of Saturn . 6. They could also associate 11-year period of Jupiter rotation with 11-year period of the Sun activity. It was proved by N. theories of I. flora. They are visible from different sides of the Sun. AD). Thus the Heliocentric Solar System becomes at first known (as hypothesis) in VI-V millennium BC. fauna and people on the Earth much more than we know now. after Sunset. Periods of planets rotation old astronomers could measure in Carahunge using Stones with Holes directed to their rising (or setting) points on horizon. they move sometimes to the back direction. the normal average resolving power of eye is l' = 60". so it is natural that everything around is in His ascendancy and influence. I think. And indeed.Keppler (XVll century AD) and I.Galilei (XVll cent. and sometimes stay on one line (''parade'' of planets). Period of Mercury is about 2.Newton (XVll-XVIII cent. and has to rotate around Him.

including pipe (with crossing lines). even if knowledge was passed just to limited circle of people (from father to son). chronology and Armennian language was also taught. and by systematic work of many scientists.31. took samples of some Stones and about half year researched them in physical and chemistry laboratories. needed many high quality specialists. They could not. because the development from zero level up to high one (7500 years ago) needs much more time than learning the knowledge given by ready teachers.more than 25000 years ago. In Carahunge they had to teach observation methods for the Sun. i. "counting". particularly hundreds observers. the recording of observation results and their fixation. mathematicians and service personnel. stars. 52 . of course. Because under condition when all around there was not any civilization to learn from them. Thus the Carahunge (and Armenian language. Armennian astronomy . Both Holes look almost to the same point on the top of nearby hill where there would have been a stone used as an object of observation. figures. it was only possible to accumulate (beginning from zero) such a high knowledge over many millennia. define the absolute age of Stones. the determination of their accuracy (metrology). see PART 2) confirms that close to nature Armennian civilization came from very very old times.e. One confirmation that Carahunge had also been a University centre is the Stones N! 160 (having height of 1. So Carahunge had to be also a teaching centre. for teacher and pupil. This word means in old Armennian: "It makes the beginning. more than 30000 years ago.THE OTHER RESEARCH OF CARAHUNGE Having my approval Professor H. UNIVERSITY Such a large Observatory as Carahunge. In old Armennia the decimal counting system was in use with "zero".1. Moon. of course. 1.9 m) and N! 161 (height 1 m) standing close together. and also about the existence of a stable state and order during many millennia. philosophy etc. The presence of such an Observatory tells us about the existence of written language with Alphabet.30. astronomy. mathematics *. but making physical and chemical experiments with samples they found the relative ages (or difference between ages) of Stones. mathematics etc.Babayan from Stone and Silicates Institute in Yerevan with his colleagues went in 1999 to Carahunge.G. The results * "Mat-a-mat-ika" means in Armennian: "Finger follows finger". The cosmology. but is not material" (deep philosophy!).

it was called Carahunge. Carahunge means "Resonant Stones" or "Speaking Stones".32. The is• I don't agree with some authors (as [29]) trying to explain "henge" as "hang". they had much to tell to old astronomers and have much to tell us. because there are too many coincidences: 1.Khnkikian and dated IT-ill millennium BC [4]). ''voice''. Armennian historian of Xll century Stepanos Orbelian in his book ''History of Syunic" (I-Xll centuries AD) notes that there was a village Carunge near the town Sisian (together with names of other existing now villages) [18]. In Ireland a similar Monument dated 2500 BC is called New-Grange. Indeed. near present town Goris. The "car" and "stone" are a stone. In NW Scotland. "Cal or Car" is almost the same word and in Armennian is "stone". There are many ''henges'' in Europe [29]. Evidently it is the same village (settlement) just near Carahunge Monument which was excavated (by O. because the analysis of the Armennian word "hntU2 = h • m • U • 2 = h • u • n • g" gives: hwOh1lt t wJU m pwpdp = It is nice and high (see Table 10 in PART 2). Stone Marker). "Hunge" (hunch) means a "sound". and at old times. THE CARAHUNGE NAME I am sure the Monument in old time was called Carahunge (also Carenish). on the Outher Hebrides there is Monument like Carahunge (but smaller and without holes in stones) called Callanish (about 2000 BC). and two others (60 and 90 km to East). Stonehenge doesn't have any relation with "hang". in Artsakh (Nagorni Carabakh). perhaps. Thus. but what is ''henge'' is unknown. found out that the distribution of natural magnetic lines inside Central Circle has spiral form. This name is saved in the names of three villages Carahunge which are not far from the Monument. Callanish means "Stone Sign" (Stone Mark. Another group of researches using sensitive magnetometer. "echo". 1. 53 . Le. there is not the word ''henge'' in English language". "Car" in Armennian is "stone". There is an interesting analogy between words Carahunge and Stonehenge. The name crossed all over Europe and was saved during millennia! But could this coincidence be by chance? No. And perhaps the population of Carunge migrated after 301 AD to the East and founded above-said three villages saving the name Carahunge. So the name Stonehenge is the same "Speaking Stones". 2. Le. the same ''henge'' (hunge). The word ''Dish'' (which is also absent in English language) in Armennian is "sign". One of them 30 km to East.were interesting: these relative ages are concurred with age differences found by our astronomical methods [14].

etc. Carnak or Carnish . 54 . 1. In the NE of France.also "Stone Sign" in Armennian.Ra (the Sun God) which is also called Carenish. 4. in Vardeniss mounts (Fig. Item 1.Carnikh". An Observatory with figures carved on rock in Vardeniss mounts near Lake Sevan [32. 41) [32]. i.land (where Callanish is) is called "Lewis" ("light" in Armennian). in Agarak (at the foot of mount Aragats). and near it there is a peninsula called ''Harris''. in Brittany is a large stone Monument dated about 2000 BC which (together with the nearest town) is called Carnac. in Syunic. In Egypt also there is Carnac.Leo and "Artsiv" . but also many other connections (see below.34). which is not only the first Zodiac constellation. whose children were Armennians. but this big. In Armennian "Arris" is "Aries". OTHER OLD OBSERVATORIES IN ARMENNIA Now the Republic of Armennia is a small country in South Caucasian mountains at the North part of the large historical Armennian Highland.Eagle beginning from letters AR) symbols of the old Armennian main and very kind God "AR" (the Sun). There are many other examples. This word in Britton language was written and spoken as "Cagrneagh . nice and proud rock goat was also one of three (with "Aryuts" . where is a temple of Amon . 41. Nevertheless in this small Armennia there are very many petroglyphs on rocks (see for example [49]) and old observatories near lake Sevan.48]. Fig. in Metsamor (Ararat valley).e.33. And these Monuments have not only linguistic analogy. 3.

the place of which is unknown yet and which researched almost all Planet and gave the knowledge to other nations [24]. Stonehenge. more than 6000 years ago? In connection with this extraordinary map of 1513 AD G. 42. Sphinxes and other big old Monuments in Europe. 1. My friend from Holland G. are shown in Fig. I am sure that many old observatories are in Armennian Highland (now in Turkey). 43c) [35]. to the West from the Big Ararat. for what purposes they were built. For example. Fig. There are also many other enigmas and questions in human old history having no answers. But where from exactly and who really designed and built them is unknown yet. The Carahunge type standing stones with holes are near village Kazan . 43b) and with carved old crosses (before Christianity) and pyramids (Fig. or Kaghzvan (now in Turkey). 43a).Corbin in 1998) of these standing stones (Fig. / 55 . 42 [34]. In town Van (near Lake Van) there are Standing Stones of different height.34. more than 6000 years ago on the Earth was a high developed civilization. who could make the map of Antarctica without glisters.Aalten sent me photos (made by B. THE ORIGINAL BRAIN CENTRE Many scientists write that the Great Pyramid. "Fiancee and Fiance". so called "Fiancee and Fiance". who could build them with so high accuracy. perhaps from East.Hancock (and other scientists) thinks that in very old times. from the Mediterranean sea basin. Two of them. some of them with holes (Fig.It is very interesting that another old Observatory like Carahunge (but smaller) is in 30 km from town Goris near village Khndzoresk [106]. America and other places were not the culture of local population (at that time they had not such high level of knowledge) but were introduced from outside. why the big Monuments were built in their present places (for what it was necessary to carry many stones 50 tons each and more from distances of hundreds km). Egypt. Standing Stones near town Van [34].

We can answer to these questions because Carahunge proves that in very old times the necessary knowledge (to design and build so big and accurate Monuments) had only Armennians. The Hayk constellation always was (and is) accompanied by Sirius (Alpha of Canis Major or "Big Dog" . But at that time the Orion constellation was called the Hayk constellation [19] and Great Pyramid was built at the time of Armennian King Hayk (2493 . where is the Great Pyramid. cp = 30°) nobody was interred.Sirius shaft is !:!: actly equal to Carahunge latitude 39. 44 [36].5°! It is possible to be only on latitude 30°. Three Big Pyramids [36] The Great Pyramid and Stonehenge are on latitudes.5° (at that time). Nevertheless. see Fig. 45. see Fig.. which are almost at equal distances from Carahunge latitude (39.-. 45 [36]."The loved one in house of Holy person"). Inside of Great Pyramid in Egypt (2450 BC. As it is shown by R. N s ! N Great Pyramid Fig.5° of queen ..Bauvel. 44. Orion (HaJk'5) constellation S . Let me tell about some of these facts.. And from the chamber of queen there is another shaft directed to the Sirius star culmination altitude 39.2444 BC). The next important fact: the altitude 39. 56 . There are the facts that many of old Monuments have real relation to Carahunge. bright star (to its culmination point at that time). the disposition of three Big Pyramids in Giza iterates the positions of three stars in Orion Belt.5 ± 10°). The Great Pyramid [36] Fig. inside of it from the funeral chamber of king a narrow (20 x 25 cm) shaft is made (in process of building) directed to the Orion belt . and were conceived and planned here.

5° ± 10° and 39. or 15 arc. Earth ball-form. in order the elevation of Sirius extreme to be equal 39. Of course.51° = 39° (difference about 0.e.5° = the latitude of Carahunge). The difference was 39. is almost equal to 1 period of human heart rhythm.). etc. and its latitude is about «p = 55. Callanish and Asuan) were built on specially chosen (by somebody) latitudes and are closely connected with Carahunge (39. the minute to 60 seconds (12x5= 60sec = 1min). 57 . the hour to 60 minutes (12x5=60min=lh. sextant. where (and only here) the four points on the horizon of the Sun and Moon rising and setting in their extreme positions form a rectangle [28]. The Stonehenge (2000 BC) is on the latitude cp = 51°. They were the first who divided the Sky into 12 parts (Zodiacal Constellations) and 360 degrees (12x30=3600). Besides. The oldest Egyptian Observatory near present Asuan" is on latitude about «p = 23. long before the Pyramids were built (see Tables 5 and 6 in Items 1. and Great Pyramid was connected with that interest.5° + 9. i. Le. mathematics. thereat 1 sec. perhaps. per second.5°. that these four old Monuments (Stonehenge and Great Pyramid. where the building of different Monuments was planned.4500 years ago. they measured preliminary the latitudes of many places. there was English Channel (La Mansh). divided day into 24 hours (12x2=24). earlier was another Carahunge.24 and 1. Earth) rotates with velocity 15 degree per hour.25).5° (55. It was decided in OBC to build at first the Great Pyramid at latitude «p = 30°. easy to remember.5°.5° . All these tell us that it was in old Armennia the Original Brain Centre (OBC).5° (23.16° = 39.Carahunge astronomers had much interest in Hayk (Orion) and Canis Major (with Sirius) constellations during 7500 . of water.30° = 9. its sizes. In the result the Sky (i.5° . the altitude of the Sun in Stonehenge at noon of equinox days is almost equal to Carahunge latitude: 90° .5°). protractor and others. there were taken into account for Monument place choice also other important conditions: climate. or 15 arc. Callanish is on latitude which is Arctic Circle for Moon [28]. There are deep (30 m) wells close to Stonehenge and to ruins of VII century Armennian round temple Zvartnots (near Etchmiadzin) which.e.5° = 49° was impossible because unfortunately. sec. So they de• "Asu ean" in Armennian means "speaker". To build Stonehenge on the same latitude shift. Of course.5° + 16° = 39. on latitude 39. technology of stone treatment. presence of many workers. • "corn" (kohm) in Armennian is "side" (qIlIlU). as Carahunge latitude.5° = the latitude of Carahunge).5° ± 16°). etc. and had necessary enough accurate instruments including compass". minute per minute. There are underground rivers near Stonehenge and Carahunge. It is obvious. They knew astronomy. "speaking one".

Hancock thinks that Sphinx was built in Precession epoch of Lion constellation. My opinion is the Sphinx was built to perpetuate the another great scientific discovery. Le. and built the Great Sphinx.35. had no written language. the symbol of Armennian main God AR (the Sun). the Ball-form of the Earth! They were clever enough to understand that many scientific knowledge could be forgotten. Also. to inform the far future generations about the great scientific discovery they knew. the circles near Goseck.Gilbert write that about 1000 years after Pyramids building it was unfortunately forgotten who built them and for what purpose [36]. I can add: "And to the Sun. at these places at first simple observatories were built by them.5 -10 = 39. to bring.Bauvel and A. the phenomenon of Earth Axis Precession. twice per year!". Indeed. I think. Then the place latitudes for Callanish and Asuan Observatory. as for example. Le. 1. the main purpose of Great Pyramid and Stonehenge building was to tell.cided to go to cp = 51° where were good conditions and another connection with Carahunge: the equality (approximate) of Sun elevation at equinox noon to the Carahunge latitude.5°. to the point on horizon. 48+51 = = 99: 2= 49. about 12000 years ago.5°. where the Sun rises each equinox day. The Great Sphinx is Lion. He says: ''The Lion was looking to the Lion!" [24]. and it looks exactly to the East. by G. And they were right. latitude about 50°) [104]. to lead.Hawkins the real history of Stonehenge was forgotten [28]. 58 . the places were chosen by this way. Why was needed this orientation? G. the latitude of Carahunge. although to build Monuments in these places it was necessary to do the titanic work to carry very big stones for Stonehenge and Great Pyramid from the distances of hundreds kilometres. It is interesting also that Carnak (latitude about 48°) in Britain (France) was built almost at the same time (2000 BC) with Stonehenge and the middle latitude between them is equal to 39. perhaps. as 39. R. Germany (4900 BC. the Great Space Clock of Equinoxes. Le. had no long time memory. THE GREAT SPIDNX At the first time Armennians were in Egypt much earlier. Why did they decide to build so big Monuments. for what main purpose? I think.5° ± 16° were chosen. because population on Earth at that time generally was not yet civilized. Of course.5 ± 10= 49. between 10970 BC and 8810 BC (about 13000 -10800 years ago).

perhaps. Philosophy and Theology together were developed.West in his book ''The Serpent in the Sky" said that Egyptian civilization possibly is not the result of development in limits of the Nile Valley but is the heritage of much earlier. So the Great Sphinx is looking indeed to the very far future! To the question ''Who built the Sphinx?" many modern scientists answer that it was done by some very old and great civilization on the Earth.36. There is also another old Armennian word for Universe. "The clot (quintessence) of the Universe (matter substance)". I think that the said ''unknown yet the Oldest and Great Civilization" might be only Armennian Old Civilization in Armennia. It is UULn (Ast) which means "The home (place) for beautiful life". the place of which is unknown yet.Hancock tells that French mathematician R. So the Universe was in close connection with life. was for people life. "Roi de la theocratic Pharaonique" (XX century AD) noted that the science and culture in Egypt were much more developed and complicated than the modern scientists think [24]. And G. be- 59 .Shwaller de Lubich in his books "Temple de I'Home".Hancock said also the opinion of the famous American geologist R. so people are the part of Nature and live in all the Universe.Tiezzerc) means in Armennian "Edges of people home (place)" (see Table 10). He tells also that well known geologist John A. This very old opinion shocks. more great but still unknown civilization which "outstripped dynastic Egypt and all other famed civilizations for thousands years" [24]. especially some words.Astgh) means "The clot in the Universe". doesn't it? • The word Star (UULnI1 . because there is the developed Carahunge of 7500 years old and there are no other variants. 1. G. which leads me to the dedication that Sphinx was made much earlier than it was deemed" [24]. preceded Great Deluge. because the stone material of Sphinx is much more erosioned than stones of Pyramids or temples near them [24].A. COSMOLOGY. And he said also that the Great Civilization. older one. which allow to suppose that Sphinx already existed at that time [24]. This is possible to explain using Armennian Language (see PART 2). which is perhaps. for example: • The word Universe (S~bqbI1R .According to modem data the Great Sphinx was built much earlier than Pyramids (more than 6000 years earlier) and may be even before the Great Deluge. Let me add that next Lion epoch will be between 14950 AD and 17110 AD. Schoch: "I am going by the way of the science. I am glad that there are such opinions. PHILOSOPHY. THEOLOGY In Old Armennia the Cosmology.

language and culture in Old Armennia. used till now.Mounder also writes: ''Egyptians.Astvats) means "Omnipresent".. told the truth that they had taken their knowledge about stars from the Chaldeans (= Urartians = Armennians.. but in Armennian Highland (in Valley of river Euphrates) and around Mount Ararat.H. are ancient Armennian hieroglyphs for Zodiacs which are saved in Armennia till now. [39].Yough" is ''butter'' which is clot of milk. and that process was completed in DI millennium BC. in Metsamor Monument (big metallurgical plant and observatory in the Ararat Valley.lutwa . as in words "1'J. So the God is the Substance spread all over Universe or Omnipresent.gh" is clot of different substances. Scientific Institute and Museum of Ancient Manuscripts in Yerevan. on whose ancient monuments twelve Zodiac signs were found out. • Matenadaran is Repository. Main God of Old Armennians was the All Universe.widespread".(jwa . This was an Armennian old sign of Earth: the ring with man on the top which was simpler and earlier than petroglyph shown in Fig. etc. The same structure have the '6. Zodiac signs. see below. in rock petroglyphs [32.standing". "u. 40. 67a on page 142). not in Babylon. on pages of Matenadaran" manuscripts. The planet Earth (with human population) is denoted in present astronomy (from old times) by ring with cross on the top. famous British astronomer and historian of astronomy W. All Nature. lived not in Egypt.nL[wa . the capital of Republic of Armennia (see Fig. for example. ABOUT ASTRONOMY IN OLD ARMENNIA I am not sole in opinion about the presence of developed level of sci- ence.Maunder and archaeologist Swarts [37]. V millennium BC).. perhaps. At the beginning of XX century well known German historian E. 32a]. According to W. which is (one of) His main quality. AREV) was the Main God of Earth or. as for example "SnLI1.). .cause "Ast" is Universe and "11.. and they in their turn were teachers of Greeks at the times of Phales and Pythagoras" [37].put".A1cott these conclusions are agreed also with historical and archaeological data. Deep philosophy! • The word God (Uuuutwa .37. because "Ast" is Universe and ''vats'' or "ats" in Armennian words show the position state of the object. for the all Solar System. at latitudes from 36° to 41°. 60 . E. "~w(jq.Alcott [38] wrote that the first people who divided the sky to the constellations and named them. Thus the Main Deity. P. . The Sun (AR. 1.

carved ornaments on thousands Armennian famous Cross-Stones made before (Fig. 43c) and especially after the Christianity adopting (Fig. 94). French famous astronomer and philosopher K.Flomarion [40], British scientist A.Berry [41] and others noted the high level of astronomical knowledge in prehistoric Armennian Highland. American scientist, the well-known researcher of Stonehenge and CaI lanish, G.S.Hawkins in 1970-s wrote to V.H. Hambartsumian, President of the Armennian National Academy of Sciences, that Stonehenge is not alone and it should be expected the presence of such astronomical culture in Armennia [3,31]. Carahunge and this PART 1 are bright confirmation of his rightness. Carahunge is also confirmation of other above mentioned statements and opinions about developed astronomy and culture of Old Armennia.

--1.38. ABOUT ASTRONOMY IN MODERN ARMENNIA In the present Republic of Armennia Astronomy is also developed. In famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) led by director V.H.Hambartsumian the high level scientific results were achieved by him as well as by Professors B.Marcarian, G.Gurzadian, M.Arakelyan, L.Mirzoyan, E.Khachikian, PhD H. Baddalian and others•.The interesting results were achieved thanks to cooperation with Foreign Member of the Armennian National Academy of Sciences Ye.Terzian (Director of Astronomy Department of Comell University, NY, USA). In BA 0 the Star Associations were discovered where stars are born also in present time; the new type of galaxies with ultraviolet superfluity (Marcarian galaxies); the activity of galaxy nuclears; the first space telescope "Orion" was made, etc. The first in Armennia radioastronomical observations were done in BAO in 1950-es led by PhD-es V.Sanamian and PhD E. Mirzabekyan. In Yerevan State University Professors G.Sahakkian and D.Sedrakkian received important theoretical results about neutron stars, Prof. B.Toumanian made interesting works on old calendars, etc.
In Yerevan Physics Institute (Yerevan and Mount Aragats) led by director A.Alikhanian the new types of telescopes for space high energy particles were made and many interesting results were achieved.

61

In Radiophysics Research Institute (RRI), founded in 1968-71 and heading by the author of this book, with RRI Experimental Plant "Wave" (Yerevan) led by director M.Khorasanjian, and RRI Aragats Scientific Centre (ASC, 100 hectare, Mount Aragats) led by director Dr. V.Oskanian (present director T.Tonoyan) there has been worked out the theory and projected the large radiotelescope with the Large Antenna of the new type having fixed (in ground) spherical main mirror and movable correcting secondary small mirror [42-44]. In 1960-62 was projected and built the working model of Large Antenna 5 m in diameter (0.64 m secondary mirror) for mm radio waves [43]. It was, at that time, the biggest Antenna in the World for short mm wave range. In 1960's and 70's the entire project of large Radio-Optical Telescope with the Large Antenna and all systems was completed in RRI. The building of the first in World Radio-Optical Telescope ROT-54/2.6 had begun in 1976 in ASC of RRI on altitude 1700 m. The main building and construction work were done during 1976 -1986 by big staff of RRI (with more than 850 persons). The huge work was done by specialists of RRI: A.Antonian (building), R.Adamian, E.Kazarian, A.Pogosian (design), M.Khorasanjian, O.Dolbakian, Dr. H.Bagdasarian (technology, manufacturing), Dr. M.Arakelian, Z.Astvatsatrian, G.Aslanian (montage, adjusting), Dr. S.Sarkisian, A.Nersesian (28 control systems making and adjusting), Dr. N.Khachatrian, N.Yeolchian, (radiometric receivers for 2, 3, 8 mm, 3, 10, 20 cm ranges), Dr. V.Oskanian (optical telescope design), G.Utunjian (300 tons antenna aluminum surface melding), V.Hovannesian (turner and welding master) and many-many others. The main building, preparation and montage works, as well as all infrastructure: electrical grid, telephones, water and heating supply, laboratories and control buildings, hotel etc, were finished in 1985. Also the first observation of radio sources was done in 1985 [46]. During 1986 - 1987 all systems adjustment work was finished in ASC and ROT - 54/2.6 with Large Antenna 54m in diameter and Optical Telescope with 2.6m in diameter were ready (Fig. 46a,b,c). In 1988 parameters of ROT - 54/2.6 were measured and observations started. The measured parameters of the Large Antenna are presented in Table 7 and its comparison with parameters of other large antennas in the World is presented in Table 8. ROT - 54/2.6 Large Antenna parameters are better than parameters of any large antenna in the World, especially in mm wave range (until now). This is the most accurate, short wave, narrow beam, high gain, low noise, high sensitive and high speed large antenna in the World. Using this unique modern Astronomical Instrument we (with Dr. A. Sarkisian, Dr. V. Oskanian. Dr. Panchenko, Dr. N.Khachatrian, A.Oskanian and others) made first observations and discovered the bright flare on Etta Gemini red giant star. Such a powerful flare was observed for

62

the flrst time for red giant type stars. The new radiosources in mm radio wave range were discovered. It was also demonstrated (thanks to very low level of the Antenna Self Noises, 2.8K) that the ''relict'' background emission (of 2.7K) in Universe is absent, so the present cosmological theory of the Birth of the Universe by Big Bang is wrong [45-47]. In RRI other radio telescopes were also built: RT-18 with parabolic antenna 18 m in diameter for 3 cm - 1 m wave range; RT-3.2 with spherical doublemirror antenna 3.2 m in diameter (accuracy 7 micron) for submillimetre (0.1 mm :- 3 cm) wave range, which is put on Mount Aragats on altitude of 3200 m, and others.

ROT· 54/2.6
The Results of Measurements of ROT Main Parameters Table 7
N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

~
Parameter Beamwidth Effective Area, m~ Gain Area using factor Self Noises, K Sensitivity (Eff. Area I selfnoises) Field of view, square degree

200 25' 560 2xlff 0.7 5 112 2.8

30 3.7' 560 8xl06 0.7 4 140

8
l'

3 22" 520 7xl011 0.65 3 173

2

1 (expected)

540 lOll 0.67 2.8 193

14" 7" 482 350 1.5xl0' 4.4xlo' 0.6 0.4 not measured not measured not measured

(±1 0 x 10 beamwidths)

63

The ROT Comparison with the World Other Largest Antennas Table 8
Antenna Parameter

E-4

E -e
54 32 804 0.08 150 0.6 482 16 3 161 14 196 1514 120 40 -35 +85 120 8 2 2.6
~

~

~ .~ i~ Z~
45 45 15 90 0.2 3.3 9.4 0.4 63 6 14 35 18 17 28 9 78 0 12 0 36 -24 +7 5
99

"'" •~ t:

=

as

::
;> .... t: Cl
~

as

~

~

~

IS:~

l:S

~ If:

"'" t: ~ l:S
~~

E ~

...
,.Q

Cl

·C

<;;;;)

~~

-....
Cl

as

~S
70 70 3848 1 30 1 0.4 1539 2.3 35 44 103 1060 9 21 0150 45 -30 +90 120 8

!.~

~

:c' NI
~

...

"'0 "'" ~ ~ ~ ~
NI

~ as .Si
Cll:ll:::

-e

Z

::s

E-4=~ ~=::s \Cl:lI:::

.Si

1. The full diameter, m 2. Using diameter, m 3. Using Aperture, geometrical Area, m 2 4. RMS of mirrors, mm 5. Shortest wavelength, mm Max. frequency, GHz 6. Effective Area factor (at shortest wave) 7. Effective Area, m2 (at shortest wave) 8. Electrical diamll03, I.. (at shortest wave) Self-Noise Temper., K 9. 10. Sensitivity, mZJK (Eft. Area / Self-noise) 11. Beamwidth, arcsec. (at shortest wave) 12. Beam cross (cut) section, arcsec' 13. Gain /106 (at shortest wave) 14. Sky coverage, degree 15. Latitude, degree 16. Declination of visible sources, degree 17. Sky coverage along source declin., degree 18. Duration of source observation, hour 19. Tracking accuracy, arcsec, 20. Parallel OpticalTelescope diameter, m

30 30 707 0.13 3 10 0.4 283 10 35 8 24 576 395 120 37 -24 +75
99

100 100 7854 1.2 30 1 0.4 3142 3.3
40

305 260x213 43514 7.5 37 0.81 0.5 21760 6.4 35 622 41x34 1095 200 22 18 +24 +46 22 1.5 10

64 64 3217 1 30 1 0.4 1287 2.1 35 37 112 12544 18 150 56 -19 +90 109 7.3

7.4x580 74 x 320
2368

1 30 1 0.4 947 0.25x11 50 19 22x900 19800 13 150 44 -30 +90 120 8

79 72 5184 44 120 50 -10 +75 85 5.7 10

6.6 2

6.6 2

?

?

?

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

64

Fi2.21. The Sunrise moment through Hole in Stone No 67 on 22.09.1997

Fi2. 22. The Sunrise moment through Hole in Stone No 63 on 22.09.1997

65

G.Fragment of Carahunge stones.06. 23.Safian 66 . 25. The Sunrise moment through Hole in Stone No 66 on 23. The New Type of Sundial-Calendar in front of RRI main building Fig. 25a. Painted by S.Fig.2001 Fig.

Fi2. Periscope-Stone No 137 Fi2.31.32. Bowl with water in down part of Stone No 137 67 .

Stonehenge. 34. Painted by G.Fig. Professor G.Hawkins Fig. 33.S.S.Hawkins 68 .

Bagdasarian 69 . 37. Sun reflection from a mirror Put in Hole of Stone No 63. 38. Two main Stones ofTSI Fig. Three-Stone Instrument (TSI) Fig. 36.Fig. Photo by H.

Statue of Annannia Shirakatsi. AD. Armennian old astronomer and mathematician of VII cent. 39.Fi~. with the model of ball-formed Earth 70 .

Stones with engraved old crosses and pyramids Fig.a .General view b . Standing stones near Mount Ararat [35] 71 .Stone with hole c . 43.

a - General view from helicopter

b - Secondary Mirror

c - View at night
Fig. 46. Radio-Optical Telescope ROT-54 /2.6 72

1.39. CONCLUSION OF PART 1 CARAHUNGE - mE PREHISTORIC WONDER IN ARMENNIA Carahunge is the prehistoric stone Monument in Armennia, near town Sisian. It consists of hundreds Standing Stones (also lying and damaged ones) from which 223 are numbered by us. 84 of them have accurately made holes, 4-5 cm in diameter, going through stones and looking to different directions, mainly to the real horizon. ~ In the middle part of the Monument Stones form the Central Circle with sizes 35 m x 45 m, from which to the North and South directions the Stones Arms are going as far as 110 -150 m as well as the short NE Alley. The territory occupied by Monument is about 7 hectares. Beginning from 1994 we are researching Carahunge using astronomical methods. Our conclusion is the following: 1. Carahunge was very old Temple (Central Circle) of the oldest Armennian Main God AR (the Sun), very large and developed Observatory (Arms) and big University; 2. Carahunge consists of about 80 Stone Astronomical Instruments the accuracy of which is up to 30" or 2 sec for the Sun and Moon, and 51" or 3.4 sec for stars and planets observations; 3. The name "Carahunge" means in Armenian "Speaking Stones"; 4. Using the Earth Axis Incline changing and its Precession phenomena laws and our observations results of the Sun, Moon and stars rising, setting and culmination moments using old Astronomical Instruments, as well as our calculations results of the used four independent astronomical methods we believe that: - Carahunge Observatory had developed scientific level and was in active operation more than 7500 years ago, - It was in continuous operation during more than 5500 years, perhaps, until Christianity adopting in Armennia as the State religion in 301 AD; 5. Carahunge is the oldest and biggest Observatory among all known old ones in the World. It is older than Stonehenge for 3500 years, than Great Pyramid for 3000 years and than the beginning of the oldest civilizations in Sumer and Egypt for 2500 years. Armennian civilization is the oldest in the World; 6. In Carahunge time prehistoric Armennian scientists knew the following: - the Earth is ball-formed and its radius is about 6300 km; - the .Earth rotates around its own Axis with period of one day, and around the Sun with period of about 365.25 days; the old "movable" calendar (coming from about 23000 years ago) was corrected to the first "fixed" one; the Armennian Circle of 1460 years was corrected to 1461 years; - the Earth Axis is inclined for the angle about 24° from the vertical to the ecliptic plane and this angle very slowly changes in small limits;

73

- the Earth Axis makes also a slow conic movement (called now Precession) with period about 25920 years, in the result of which the Spring equinox moment comes each year earlier for about 50" (or 3.3 sec.), so-called Equinox Anticipation; the Sun slowly moves (in relation to stars on sky) with velocity 83' (or 5.5 min.) per 100 years, Le, lies in each Zodiac constellation for 2160 years. The Precession was, perhaps, found out in Carahunge much earlier, about 12000 years ago (so-called "the Space Great Clock"); - Carahunge astronomers have had special interest and made long time observations of stars in Orion (with its Belt) and Canis Major (with Sirius) constellations, using many specially made Stone Instruments, holes of which were directed to the rising, setting and culmination points of said stars at period of 7500 - 4500 years ago; they found out also the Sirius Cycle (Sotis) which is very close to the Armennian Cycle (difference is 12 min. per year); - five planets were known with their periods of rotation around the Sun: Mercury - about 3 months, Venus - about 7.5 months, Mars - about 2 years, Jupiter - about 11 years, Saturn - about 30 years. So the Heliocentric Solar System was known in Armennia more than 8000 years before N.Copernicus, G.Galilei, I.Keppler and I.Newton; - Carahunge demonstrates that 7500 years ago in Armennia were developed mathematics, technologies, written language (alphabet) as well as the state (kingdom) with law and order during millenia; 7. We understand that such a high knowledge, which had Armennian Carahunge Scientists, was achieved by systematic work during many thousand years. In Carahunge we have found developed Astronomical Instruments built 7500 years ago and designed using already high special knowledge. This means that before these Astronomical Instruments, there had been simpler ones. When was the beginning? To answer this question it is necessary to take into account that being the first civilization Armennians could not learn knowledge from anybody else because there was not any other civilization. It was just one source - Nature. They were children of the Sun, of the Nature and accumulated the knowledge little by little, starting from zero. Of course, this is a very slow process, requiring many thousand years. Probably, Armennian language, settled life, agriculture, state, i.e. civilization began about 40 thousand years ago (which will be proved also in PARTS 2 and 3); the first sky observations and calendar began 23 thousand years ago; the first Observatories, Precession discovery and preliminary Alphabet - about 15-10 thousand years ago. 8. There are a lot of indisputable facts of analogy between Carahunge and other old monuments: - Stonehenge and Callanish have Central Circles, NE Alleys and Arms (Callanish), as it is in Carahunge; - Stonehenge and Great Pyramid are built in latitudes which are about ± 10° from Carahunge latitude (39.5°);

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- Callanish and oldest Egyptian God RA (AR) temple and Observatory (near present Asuan) are built in latitudes about ± 16° from Carahunge latitude; - The narrow shaft inside the Great Pyramid (made during Pyramid building), going through Pyramid from king's chamber to its South side, is directed to bright star of Orion Belt in its culmination at that time, about 4500 years ago, when Orion was called Hayk constellation (by name of famous Armennian King Hayk, about 2493-2444 BC); - Another the same type shaft going from queen's chamber is directed to Sirius (which is near Orion) culmination point (at that time) and its inclination angle is 39.5° which is exactly equal to Carahunge latitude. This can be so only at latitude 30° where the Great Pyramid was built; - In Stonehenge the inclination angle of the Sun at equinox days noon is also equal to about 39.5° which is latitude of Carahunge. This can be so only at latitude 51° where Stonehenge was built; - Callanish was built on latitude about 56° which is approximately North Polar Circle for Moon; Old Observatory in Egypt (near Asuan) was built on latitude about 23.5° which is close to North Tropic Circle for the Sun; - The word "Stonehenge" is the same as "Carahunge" because "car" in Armennian is "stone" and "henge" (the word which is absent in English) is very close to "hunge". So Stonehenge means the same "Speaking (singing) Stones"; - The word "Callanish" is very close to Armennian word "Carenish", where "car" is "stone", ''Dish'' is "sign". So Callanish means "Stone Sign", "Stone Symbol". The island where Callanish was built is called "Lewis", which in Armennian is "light"; - Camac in Brittany (France), the name of which in old Briton language was written as "Carnikh" or "Carnish", is the same "Stone Sign". The same means Carnac in Egvpt; 9. These above mentioned facts (there are also others) tell that analogies between Carahunge and other old monuments are not accidental, which means that almost all old monuments were planned in one "Original Brain Centre", in Armennia. For what purpose? There were two main purposes: - the first one was to perpetuate the Great Scientific Discoveries. The Great Sphinx was built (about 12000 years ago) in honour of Precession phenomenon discovery, and Great Pyramid and Stonehenge, as well as Callanish and Asuan, were built in honour of Earth ball-form discovery; - the second purpose was the great and noble mission of Armennian civilization - to civilize other tribes and nations. Armennians were never aggressive. They were kind and gifted knowledge bountly and unselfishly as their Main God AR gives life. 10. There is a line of almost the same old legends of many nations (as Sumerians, Egyptians, Greeks, all nations of Central America) telling that in

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very old time came white and bearded kind Gods and taught them to be kind, do not make human sacrifice; they knew everything and taught them knowledge. The name of leader of Gods who came to Sumer was Ovannes, which is Armennian male name. Armennia gave knowledge to Sumer, Egypt, Babylon, Crete, Mycena, Delphi, Greece, Iran, India etc. (see PART 3); 11. My present research of Carahunge is the first and, of course, it is necessary to continue it. I am sure Carahunge is very interesting and complicated object and many new results will be achieved by many other specialists: astronomers, geologists, historians and archaeologists. 12. Carahunge belongs to all mankind as a certification of its high knowledge coming from very old times.

P.S. According to the Government decision No 1095-n of Republic of Armenia, dated 29 July, 2004, the old stone Monument near town Sisian in Armenia is named "Carahunge Observatory". This Decision is affirmed by the President of Republic of Armenia Robert Kocharian at 11 August, 2004.

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to tell about his feelings to others. He was clever and emotional as we are. when his conscious was just awaken. stone tools and crockery were found during excavations in Armennia (present and Historical lands) [34. his Father. The Sun was his kind God. 77 . And I am sure. 2. many camps and inhabited caves with firesides. He saw and felt all Nature around: the Sun.he is powerful and beautiful" 'rudnlJq . "The God's" language.68. The main source of creational forces was the Sun. after just a few generations they had enough good language. warmth and life. in contrast to animals which can utter just some separate sounds. air etc. respected and adored Him. He wanted to exercise his ability. giving light. VERY OLD TIME The early Paleolithic culture (500/300-50 millennia ago). He loved the Sun (AR in Armennian). could not speak. in PART 2. such as Azokhians and Cromagnonians living in Paleolithic time in Armennia were the ancestors of Armennians (see PART 3).1.93]. felt all positive and negative forces. water. the Moon. you are mistaken. Let us imagine the first man. The beginning of Armennian language has the same age. The people. rainbow. So. he was Aryan ("Ar·yan" in Armennian means: "From the Sun land". He was a particle of Nature.com PART 2 ARMENNIAN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS "Steed . "Sun people"). which I shall show you here.armtorrent. and he was His child. Armennian nation began to form with emersion of Homo Sapiens in Armennia about 50-45 millennia ago. the careful analysis of Armennian language can give many marvellous and unexpected results. If you think that Homo Sapiens had no language. woods.iuu DldlirJ t b qlirJligftll' It is not well known that inside language much information about old times is saved. This is right especially for the Armennian language which is very old and is the first language. mounts. stars.

78 . symbols.bnLl) ~l1w~ Russian 3eMAJI (wap) B03. umuiqunnn (sail). uipqtnnn (art). wpm (pasture). uiprpnp (righteous). wpnp (plough). (h) 0'1 (h) oil (h) oLl (h) run (h) um. was in use during many millennia. 3. 50]. from the very beginning there were many very important words beginning with "ar": Up (Sun). 48. "Omnipresent"."concentration of space (substance)". Table E Four ~nl1u SWl1bl19 Main Elements of Nature 4emblpe cmuxuu Four Elements English (g)round (Earth) air (sky) water (sea) Armennian Old Present hnq {bl1 ldlp} oil (bl1~f'I[j9) 2nLP (hnLl. ''born in Sun land"). hieroglyphs) arose in Armennia about 25000 years ago. There are many very old petroglyphs on hundred kilometers of rocks in Armennia. wJP (man). Also English ''who come" in Armennian Artsakh dialect is the same ~nL 9Jwl1b = who come. Even now they are present on old monuments [32. If to add the half-sound "h". WPWPP! (creator). 39. Later the concept of these four Elements were transferred to all other countries and nations.First Armennians determined four main Elements of Nature. 2. Just two examples: "Star" . Even in old times Armennian language was rich and included words having deep scientific. They named them by simple first words. Up eoaa (Mope) hmn (wplL) fire (Sun) oroas (CoAHue) Armennian language intensively developed and. of course. This sign with a point a little upper of the stick (i) is saved in European languages. urpjmfi (blood). it will be "hai" which in Armennian is "Armennian". wpqwfitl (womb). wpwhbm (way). wpf'l {noble}. English pronunciation is "ai". etc. "I". 4. "God" . wpwqpt (stork).ayx (He60) 1. philosophical and spiritual meanings. 49. English "I am" in Armennian is the same bu bl1 ="Yes (I) am". It was ''man''. The first Armennian written language (pictures. wpf'lwgf'l (aryan. uqnlunn (root)."spreaded in all Universe". "one". ''me''. And these words came to the present Armennian almost without changes (Table E). One of them is a vertical stick with the point on the top (I).

all three begin in Armennian with letters "ar". because this beautiful big animal stood immovable on the top of rocks and was not afraid of lightning. Aros (AnNak). Arabkir. male names: Annan (Ar. etc. 47 a.*. Old Armennian Signs Armennian language confirms that Armennians in Armennia lived and live during all times. Aragats. Ararat (Ar • ar • at . Artashat (towns). ArshaIuys. "AIyan''). ~."extra created" or "God's life place"). This comes also from the fact that very many geographical names.Artashes.+. Aris became also the name (and sign) of the first Zodiacal constellation and the form of its horns became in Armennia the spiral ornament and the sign of Life. Ara (Arayik). Armavir. Aracs. Arpi (Arpiar). Aratsani. Armenouhi. ia .~. ete. but during (after) Great Deluge the Aris was added. For example: geographical names: Armennia (Ar • men.''Sun man". I. etc. Eternity c) Aries Zodiac constellation Fig.Later the symbol for ''man. Sun."Sun people (Aryan) country"). Annenak. Annen. names of men and women begin with letters "ar". Artsakh. It seems to me. Eagle and Aris (Aries).man.. Sun and Eternity (Fig. The first (preliminary) Armennian Alphabet including 19 letters arose about 15-12 thousand years ago (see below). that at first there were two symbols: Lion and Eagle. c). Am. female names: Arev (Arevik). Arsham. 79 . According to anthropological data Armennian names (and family names) were not changed at least during last 9 thousand years [51]. Artak. Aragatsotn. And three symbols of AR (Sun God) arose: Lion. Arsen. Artavazd. Artin. From that time "three" came to us as a sacred figure and sign "w" became the first letter of Armennian Alphabet (letter "a"). 47. Armorika (lands). Arminne". Arsbak.W which are the praying men. one" was developed to these: . Arpha (rivers). Aregnaz. a) Spiral ornament b) Life. Areguni (mounts). Areg. Aracs. b.

Armennian Alphabet was 80 . 48) [52].The Developed Alphabet with 34 letters existed in VI millennium BC. all books were burned and abolished [20. The same opinion (particularly about consanguinity of Armennians and Celts) is given also by European scientists. ARMENNIAN ALPHABET "DISAPPEARANCE" Straightaway after the Christianity adopting as State religion in Armennia (301 AD) the big disaster took place: all Heathen temples (except one .Ivanov write that the supposed cradle of Indo-Europeans and Indo-European languages was located in Historical Armennia. Thus the basis of Indo-European family of languages began about 7000 years ago. from where they propagated to different directions (Fig. The Moscow linguists T. It was all-Armennian Alphabet. . OXA PI1A • HPAU . the summer residence of the King) and Statues were destroyed. 18). 57]./lA PQ Fig. It was Armennian language and Armennian Alphabet.. Tables 5. 2. This Alphabet served as the base for all world Alphabets (see below. for example. by D..~~~ 9· ( .Gamkrelidze and V. 48.Garni. Phoenician and other Armennian Kingdoms (see below). used also in Kilikian.2. MO XEHl l>+<o. r: \.Lang in his book "Armennia. 54. The Cradle of Indo-Europeans and their Languages was in Armennian Highland [52]. Cradle of Civilization" [53]. 9.

All these (especially destruction of temples. who were Parthians (not Armennians) and who coming to the top lordship in Armennia divested Armennian nation of their own Great Old History. of course. 54. Here the shortened and edited version is presented. Armennian Alphabet was reestablished in 406 AD by Mesrop Mashtots according to the order of King Vramshapuh and Catholicos Sahak. textbooks. so called Danielian Alphabet) [20. Unfortunately all these distortions of reality continue until the present time and even such a known Soviet linguist as H. And all these gave possibility to many not honest foreign ''scientists" to speculate and distort Armennian history (see below). BC and later). In all these there is.3. 81 . The statue of Mesrop Mashtots in Yerevan is shown on Fig. In reality Mesrop Mashtots performed titanic work to restore and reestablish Armennian written language. that this was a new Alphabet presented to Armennians by Jesus Christ. which was a continuation of kind AR God (the Sun) religion indeed. culture. 1be work was based on old sources only [20. encyclopedias is said the same. 2. although Armennian letters were chiselled on rocks from the old time and it was (and is) known that Armennian Alphabet existed before Mashtots (as for example. ARMENNIAN ALPHABET AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE REESTABLISHMENT* H you ask now somebody in present Armennia (from children up to Professors) ''who was Mesrop Mashtots?" everybody will answer: "The creator. the inventor of Armennian Alphabet". science. because in all books. But it was said to everybody. especially of the first Christian King of the Great Armennia Trdat ill and the first Catholicos Grigor. They until now are proud that Armennia is the first Christian country. But this didn't remain unpunished: later Trdat ill was poisoned (in 338 AD) and Grigor ended his life in mountain caves (in 332 AD). all books and monuments in 301 AD and later) were (and are) the dreadful shock to the Armennian Old History. 49. • The material concerning t:Jm Item was written in 1987 (30 pages in Russian). MESROP MASHTOTS. 57 and othersl. but was not published. During about one century only the Greek and Syrian Alphabets and books were used in Armennia although Greece (and Syria) adopted Christianity after Armennia and their Alphabets were taken from Armennian Alphabet (in IX cent. Christianity is the Great religion of civilized nations and Armennians never were against Christianity. a big fault of Armennians. 55. But the problem is that the Old History of Armennia has to be reestablished. But it is wrong.Acharian writes that before Christianity Armennians had no written language [56].disallowed as a heathen one. These facts were mentioned almost by all Armennian ancient historians. 55].

Mesrop Mashtots (with pupil) near Matenadaran in Yerevan.Fig. 49 The statue of St. 82 .

son of Khosrov I became Armennian king.. wrote [54. . etc.) to Artashat to destroy there the temple of Goddess Anahit". economical and social roots and reasons. There was a constant threat to Armennia from all sides so it was necessary to think about safety. In the beginning of DI century AD Roman Emperor Caracalla decided to vanquish Armennia.". Besides. . In 252 AD Shapouh I worsted and put his son Ormouzd as king of Armennia. and Khosrov n the Great. destroyed and shattered all around. the secretary of the King Trdat ID and a witness of Christianity adopting events. etc. rout. In 215 AD he invited Armennian King Khosrov I Arshakouni. Armennian nation was ready to adopt Christianity as continuation of their kind Sun-God religion (see PART 3). lords and army. fully annul and obliterate blandishment that nobody would interrupt and interfere the achievement of celestial freedom. In 230 AD King Artashir Sassanid invaded Armennia but was defeated. trophied gold and silver. deep political. He was killed in 298 by Partevs (Parthians) and Trdat III the Great (298330·AD). So the decision of Trdat ID to adopt Christianity at 301 AD was one of the big events which had to border Armennia from threat and ensure safety.H. Trdat ID gave the Church large rights and lands (more than lords had) to be powerful and able to support the central lordship. culture and written language took place.]: "Then [Grigor] with king. shattered unless demolished it. Moreover.. Iranian Arshakid dynasty consanguineous to Armennian kings Arshakouni was overthrown by Sassanids. received for general pacification the advice of approval (means from the God. became the King of Armennia.The Christianity adopting in Armennia is a very big historical fact (event) and had. 786.First they came to heathen temple of Tir God and the heathen school of art and interpretation of dreams.. not so powerful as in other slave-holding countries.. The famous.H. P . subvert non-gods called Gods by old ancestors and by him. 778. the King.. his son. • The head of this statue is kept in the British Museum. indents 777. But legions were defeated. son of Trdat 11. became the King. But as a result of Christianity adopting in Armennia another big disaster for Armennian old history. But in 279 AD Armennia worsted. And then king immediately ordered (with general approval) to give to blissful Grigor the duty to bury in oblivion. and began to destroy.252AD). P. From Iran. Another threat came from the East. Iranian state religion was also changed to Zoroastrianism. Then the king himself with all his army moved from Vagharshapat (now Etchmiatzin.) to destroy. 83 . then calcined. Armennian historian of Ill-IV century AD Agatangel. of course. where in 226 AD change of dynasty took place. Trdat 11 (215. Armennia was a feudal country and the central lordship was weaker. disloyally put him to jail (where he died) and sent to Armennia legions headed by Folhokrit.

But they could not use it because didn't remember phonetical sounds of' many letters. 55. studied Greek. Koryun was the pupil of Mashtots. 84 . Cathedral in Etchmiatzin. which was brought from Syria. Koryun says: ''Mashtots looked for. Armennian Alphabet and written language were abolished. . Sahak and many others in Armennia knew very well these languages and Alphabets. But after one hundred years the King of Armennia Vramshapouh (389-417 AD) became sure that the State can not function normally without its own written language. Koryun** wrote [55] that Mashtots at first even tried to write. They of course knew that Alphabet existed from very old time. Koryun [55].Why? . had many difficulties but did not find". taking from those the best. from Bishop Daniel [20. On the foundations of destroyed famous Pre-Christian Temples the Christian Churches were built. In Armennia there were Greek schools and • After Christianity adopting Grigor invited to Armennia four hundred Greek ana Syrian monks.That is nonsense. looked for. who was the personal translator of the King. including for prayers in churches*.Why did Mashtots.. 57]). I asked historian Professors in Yerevan: . But unfortunately all of them were burnt 100 years ago. So they decided to restore Armennian written language (but to say to everybody that it has been gifted to Armennians by Jesus Christ). they had it (plus one more copy. but could not find What? Koryun didn't say "a book".The same was written by Armennian historians of V century AD: Khorenatsi [20]. after that the Greek and Syrian ones were put in use. And Catholicos Sahak became sure that people did not understand Christianity well because services in churches were conducted in Greek and Syrian languages. But as exception one book could be secretly kept by somebody. but could not.Because Mashtots. gave them titles of bishops and put them over all armennian churches. because might not. and I am sure. he was not allowed. including the Central. translate and teach Armennian language. to ''invent'' Alphabet. . Byousand [57] and others. He went to big foreign towns with big libraries as Eddessia. to restore Armennian written language. • • Koryun was the pupil of Mashtots. Mashtots sought for it in different regions of Armennia with big difficulties. They entrusted Mesrop Mashtots. I said: .I shall explain you. the possible existence of Armennian books was a big secret. Armennian old culture was destroyed. It is obvious for me that to recover phonetical pronunciations of the letters it was necessary to find just one Armennian book. Syrian and other Alphabets and. for more than two years. created Armennian Alphabet. go abroad? And why did he travel with the group of his pupils? Let him sit at home and invent! The answer is: . etc. And nobody from present historians thinks and understands what Mashtots sought and could not find in Armennia.

. -Why? . mathematicians. perhaps. eyewitness of Christianity adopting in 301 AD. Agatangellived in ID-IV centuries and was. because Armennian books were not burned there as it was done here. Koryun tells that in Sammosat Mashtots saw in his dream Armennian letters carved on rocks** (Mashtots and Koryun knew that the letters are carved on rocks in Armennia from the old time). . Then in IV and V centuries in ''unlettered'' Armennia (with "not" any scientists before Mashtots) many famous scientists (historians. He could not flnd any Armennian book in Armennia. Then he gave letters to one calligrapher in Sammosat to amend a little their configurations. 85 .? (silence) . "History of Armennia". Agatangel. "Edessa and Sammosat were old Armennian towns in Armennian Mesopotamia Kingdom and Komagena (see PART 3).Mashtots graduated from one of them. including Bible. . because it is an important and famous book telling about Christianity adopting in Armennia. as he wrote. the Catholicos and people.Which book? . ' . When Mashtots came back to Armennia he was triumphally met by the King. The Armennian written language schools were opened. so having the decision of the king and the Catholicos. (Table 9). philosophers. Read Koryun! One hundred year four hundred Greek and Syrian bishops read in Armennia their books in their languages. found the book in town Sammosat". translation of many books. etc) suddenly appeared. . So it was not necessary to go abroad (and with a group of pupils) to study these alphabets. he went abroad with pupils to find a book in big libraries.It was. I even know which book he found. .But there is even an opinion that Agatangellived in V century AD. And he~.4.Because he needed to understand the phonetical pronunciations of all Armennian letters and for this he needed to find just one book in Armennian. This is also the reason why Armennian Church kept it during 1700 years rewriting it almost once per century and why this book now is translated into many European languages. It was in 406 AD. •• I think Mashtots had with him Armennian Alphabet taken from Armennia (with Daniel's letters copy) and also a copy of Armennian letters carved on rocks in Armennia at about III millenium BC and presented here in next Item 2. Because the book by Agatangel is an excellent confirmation that Alphabet and written language were present in Armennia for about one hundred years before Mashtots. That is the false opinion of the false "scientists" who tell that Armennian Alphabet and written language were absent before Mashtots.I know why he went abroad (and with pupils).That is wrong opinion. was done.

11. There is the opinion that these letters were in so-called Aramean language.) to the God Dionysus" [57a. 4. besides the ''nuisance'' that from that time until now people think that written language and Alphabet in Annennia were absent before Mashtots. and over edges there were Armennian words with letters h. Ul. 9. including about 100 thousand old coins collected in Asia Minor. 6. and Armennian King Artashes I the Kind (189-160 BC) on his boundary stones in Armennia wrote inscriptions in 86 . that so called Aramean (or Aramaean) language and Alphabet in reality were Annennian ones. and found there 12 types of coins of Roubennians (Annennian Kilikia dynasty) with legible Armennian letters lI.) the art of written language was propagated in Annennia. IS and others. But it is wrong. 1. There are many other historical facts which confirm that Annennian Alphabet and written language existed before Mashtots and before Christianity adopting. because (see next position): . inviting him to go and live in his capital Edessa. historian of emperor Carracalla.11.22.the portrait of king. historian and musicologist Minnas Bjshkian (17771851) found in one of Armennian churches placed in South part of Odessa town (founded on seaboard of Black Sea by Armennians came from Edessa Annennian Kingdom) the book with Annennian letters ofVll century BC [600]. 239-240] wrote that in 1788AD he saw the collection of Inzle. The king of Annennian Mesopotamia Abgar V Yervanndouni (12-50 AD) sent a letter to Jesus Christ. Palestine (Israel).Everything in the result was all right. Khorenatsi [20] and others confinned that before Mashtots there was Armennian Alphabet.19. 215-252 AD. even in Syria. It is known that Hyksoses (who were Annennians) had the Alphabet (with letters almost similar to Armennian ones) in xvn century BC. pp. p. The letters were in Annennian. ti. Here are some of them. P. 5. Armennian historian Engikkian [66.R. 1.15. on which it was written in Armennian: ''From the Annennian King Arshak (127-114 BC. etc. Ul.7S] that in the same famous collection ofInzle he had seen hundreds of coins of Annennian King Partev Arshakouni (113-114 AD. Koryun [55]. using Annennian Alphabet. Agatangel [54. 298-330 AD or Trdat Il. This Alphabet is not kept. On the one side of coins there was an altar with fire. 2. 7. at Bishop Daniel. Philostrat (175-249 AD). in his book ''Dianna of Apollo". Annennian linguist.). on the other side . 8. P. 66]. lI. §189] tells that at the time of King Trdat (means Trdat m the Great. so different authors give different figures of quantity of letters in Daniel's Alphabet: 17. who "created" letters.H. English ambassador in Istanbul (at sultan Hamid I).H.24. 3. Historian Vartan (page 50) wrote that Armennians had Alphabet consisting of 22 letters at the very old time [56]. I show in Item 2. and 29. Engikkian also wrote [66. P. tells that in Armennian Tauros mountains was caught a big panther with golden collar. 1. and received His answer (see PART 3).

Armennian language with Armennian letters about 600 years before Mashtots (but not in so-called Aramean.TTF w P Cl Il b q t n p et }1 tlu it q h d Il li 11 J fi l n1 11I2D U qmpg nllPIl 1. also Phoenician of 13-9th century BC [60] and so-called "Aramean" of 10th century BC [56] Alphabets are shown. Parthian-Armennian Arshakids-Arshakouni Dynasty in Armennia (62-428 AD) brought Armennia not only to loss of her Old History but also to loss of her independence in 428 AD when the Great Armennia was divided between Iran and Byzantium (just 22 years after "Alphabet creation" by Mashtots). as having meaning of "(heathen) soul" and superseded by letter "n".59]). as the wrong opinion dictates). but Mashtots excluded it. We can see that all letters are the same or have almost the same structure".0 ~ UP~~bate~upLbnq~~~rra~c no~~nU~SPBn~~~O~ 87 . PRESENT ALPHABET AND LANGUAGE. 0. In Table 9 the present Armennian Alphabet (with transcriptions [58. Table9a Font name: Aramian. so-called Aramean (semitic) language and Alphabet never existed and all "Aramean" inscriptions (there are many of them) are in Armennian with Armennian letters. File name: ARAMIAN. ~) which were put later at the end. he replaced also the letter ''(1'' from the second POSition in old Alphabet as important part of the word "UI' (the Sun)" to the fifth POSition from the end in his Alphabet. and thousands years old Armennian letters carved on rocks [48. M.4. The independence of the Great Armennia was reestablished in 885 AD by the King Ashot I Bagratouni (885-890 AD). 49]. S. Analysis shows (see below) that letter "0" was in Armennian old Alphabet. Present Armennian Alphabet is the same Mashtots Alphabet of 406 AD and has 36 letters plus three additional letters (LL. • Dr. so 39 letters total. of Sci. Thus. Armennian Alphabet is rich (39 letters) and represents many phonetic sounds (so it could be used also as international transcription). 2. perhaps. Martirosian in printing this book found out that in ''Word'' program of computer memory under the title of ''Font name: Aramean.. TTF' there is the same present Armennian Alphabet (see Tables 9 and 9a). Filename: ARAMIAN.

(10 BC} cent.~ !!ver ran t 0 0 f 0 ~ 26 f I~ ~ - .W .. }1 L.v e - 't S blI. It - 2.w A. word ID BC} millen. r .- .4 ~.4 8 .(\ l}.t z e - Y l( 0.a P."Araclan mean" on pre..1.transsent nunc. ~ h Hh J!.4 ~IJ.Z .0 3>.n 'l et . q Arm had lot !li!l Uw p w If 4 B.q t. n.Ul ~ P dl.h 4 cI>.. ~ A ~L4f - e. fi C. L 9 v t r I kh leg loulh [(Irish) Iu.- it 36 men lJ S 39 - 28 - 88 .p 8... (1 IT. b nt li OO t~n lJ y ~ it 1 '0 Q.]! @".n red curreDt IOD yaD 0tJ n.9 fit.2.If} n - ? - '\ n 'AJ t~ h . rocks sent criplet.proletters letters pre. BC) BC) BC) li..Table 9 ARMENNIAN ALPHABET ~o gliphs Phoeni."Araclan mean" on proletters letters nune. ters III word millen.as in (from (13-9e. b ts k h dz gh tch m boo)s hat Iv It " ~ S.lu U.trans. petro gIiphs Phoeni.j Y D sh vo ch le5 !!i!!e ship !!!id cheep 3 11 b g d ye r <1 ~ J ~ 11.p a th zOh) i About !en p u. u. D1 green tsetse pyll Ren ~o~k r '1 f 5 fl > S 'r Jl 1 :# tS U.m P. - ~ - ~ 4. rocks as in (from (13-9e.. d P.p Q.$ ph (l)ep 4( 0 Q.o.l ll. u ~1J S sit p L~ ~ r .1.crip.ab <g tr~ . tI}.h . (10 letters tion tion BC) cent. It yev 0. I .1l b. iam ..

old) words with given letter and find out the main similarity between these words. Even some of dialects of Armennian population of Anatolia (Asia Minor) are almost forgotten because of the genocide of Armennians taken place in Turkey at the end of XIX and beginning of XX centuries AD. Some dialects now are almost forgotten. So the development of language was going on according to definite laws ''from simple to the complex". so "ar" is the main root of Armennian words. METHOD . There is an interesting book by M. dwqwp (funnel) 12. od (snake) 9. This book consists of many examples of words identical in Armennian. Let me show here an example of this Method for the letter d (dz).NU Armennian language at first stage of development. uwfid (bridle) 15. So new words were formed on the basis of available words with more simple phonetic sounds. ARMENNIAN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS. dop (gorge) 8. beginning with "ar". verbs have 14 tenses. dWJfi (sound) 4. we can (going back in time) find out the etymological sense of parts of many present words and even of each letter. For example. dllIl (stick) 5.Present Armennian language has been developed during many thousand years (it began more than 40000 years ago) and is rich. dOlq (fish) 6. about 3 % of all words [72]. make a big part. was the only one. during many thousand years. ]!fidoUllD (giraffe. Armennian grammar is also rich. We can take a group of words with this letter: 1. being already in use and signifying simpler notions. There were not other languages around to adopt from them foreign words. dnl (egg) 3.e. dqbl (pull) 10. printed in Russia in 1993 [64].e.5. now in Turkey) dialect.Zourikian about almost forgotten Arabkir (the big town. the meaning of the given letter. Le. dp (horse) 2. The main Method of determination of Armennian letters' sense (meaning) is to choose some quantity of mainly short (i. etc. lf all these are right.e. It has many thousand roots. 2. The words. i.M. dbnp (arm) 7. l. dofi (ode) 11. nouns have seven cases. I attempted to do this and the results were excellent. 150000 words and about 60 dialects. long camel) 14. Russian and English. pwpdp (high) 89 . lDwfid (pear) 13. The process of consecutive development was going on. the sense of the first simple sounds come from old time.

was developed independently and many Armennian words were adopted by other languages.What common. long-kind. tells us that Armennian language is very old and developed consecutively from the simple elements (sounds) to more and more rich words. ELEMENTS (LETIERS) DICTIONARY (ELD) The found meanings of all Armennian letters and combinations of some two and three of them are presented in Table 10: Elements (Letters) Dictionary (ELD). hole". wll (am) Sun child (son of Sun). The fact that all letters have meanings. the meaning of "wll" (am) is "eat" or "baby".6. the horse. the meaning of ''wy'' (ak) is "source. unique and marvelous. so the name of Table 10 in Armennian is "Suipphp]. corrected and expanded in future. to find out etymological sense of many-many words. Of course. Indeed. So the meaning of letter cl (dz) is ''long. For example. which is possible to find out using the same Method. wu (am) = "cut to eat". plus 86 combinations of two letters and 37 combinations of three letters. for example. We can do so and find out the meaning of each letter. ELD includes all 39 letters of Armennian Alphabet. long. oblong. bpqWpnlq". eye. Then we can understand that giraffe in Armennian means "long camel" because "nLI\Ul" in Armennian is camel. word: "imnpp" (tarr) and ''mwn'' (tar). . general quality or' meaning have these words. to explain. ELD and its use confirm that Armennian Language is very old. ELD is favorable first of all for Armennian old words (which make majority in present Armennian) and not good for modern-made long words and for some words adopted later (beginning from I millennium BC) from foreign languages. Upwll (Aram) Up (Ar). i. long-shaped. = = 90 . the meaning of "UN" (liz) is "pure water. Combination of some two or three letters also gives a new meaning. long body. it has long face. long kind". these subjects? What is their main similarity? You can see that the main meaning is "bpqwp. long neck. the meaning of "WUl" (at) is "cut". etc. Pwnwpwfi (SP)". is long-kind animal. names. total 162 positions. source". long legs. so the word "wUlwll" (attam. This is the first edition of ELD and it could be. tooth) means "to cut to eat". ring. For example: WUlWU (tooth) = wm (at) . ELD is wonderful. The words "element" and ''letter'' in Armennian are almost the same . It allows to understand.e. circle. of course. long tail. 2.

1PInl (total). wJli (it.wm(bad).1jJ. l!limpl1. lizwli(D (sign(D) nut (force). qpn (zero) (liwL. l1.pn (your) liw (he.(soul). w6bt l1.wli:qw4mpJmli (contents) 91 . wpp (come). pmli (nest). m. tmpJDlli (entity) ulJ. pnmligp (fist). like). not) qtnp (round). qbIJ. nqIJ. pwpAp wmnp6wli (high degree) b"Pt(sprout). hW2DJlll (next) nllibliwt (have). hwlIwp (for). hbpnu (hero). uiqunn (free). pwpp (kind).bp (grow up) lIwu (part). 1jJ. l1. (down) zwm (many. unlpp (holy. qblipp (zenith) twq (entity). tWJli (wide). hW2nJlll (next). npqll (son) 1lmJlp (little). (powerful). m1lJwt (given). longkind). pp (his). nib). nl (no. lJ. mDlli (home. (be able).Table 10 ELEMENTS Letter w p ~ETTER~ DICTIONARY ~LD) Meaning tuwlip (life). tqunnpuium (ready). lumwgl1. 1I}1wupli (together).••). plIu (my). 1J1n1l (empty). llmIlP (tittie). 1Itlibt (to be). btp (exit).wq (closed). \JIwpmJP (spiral). lIMp (we).). uiju. \JIWZmbt (adore). 1Ibb" (big) lInmpq (close). standing) p 9 h hwpbt. wnm2lill (first).JU (tight). (beautiful). b"wb"ql1.mpJmli (ability). pit) wl1.wb" (chosen) J G q z n q b J1buIl1 (to the•••). 1Ibb' (big). lIWJlll(man. 1PPl! (full) lIWJlll(man). 4bq (one). l1.pu (bad). qpw (on the••. pmJl (weak). pwpbqwlI (relative) mliwq. lizwli e (signa) bu (I). mwpwbp (region). lizwli G) (signG) 1fl16wq(condition). (until). pwli (thing). ~li (background). lilIwli (like) bpqwp (long). uPPbt (love. that). qWJ1DIl. JmJ1. t (is) l!liqbp (friend). puwli (man). ltwJD1li.wpml1.wb" (completed) wlibt (do.pbt(bear. pbPbt (bring). see IDD qtnp (round). l1. \JImIDJm(turn over). 4bm (point).wJP (place). she). qnppq (nucleus..bt(more). concentrate). np\JIbu (how. lImmp (input). qbm (river). op (day). It. U\JIwnliwt (threaten) lIwJlll.lIW}lIl(man) pbpp (harvest). qw (there is). hmuw1It (hopeful). much) hnqIJ. 1I}1PN(a bit). carry). face). lIwp1I}1li (body). hmqhpd (eternal). ltwliqliwb" (stable. nHilil (nothing).). wl1.mOO!h see also ID bmL. plid (me). mbp (lord.:qw6. mdbIJ. to the. as) hplIp (base). mlip (has). qmjq (pair) 1I}1lilL. qwl1.IpmI (slow). dqmbt (aim). 1Ibb" (big. wpwq (quick1Y). lP2W\JIWmDllI(encircled from all sides). pwp}Jp (good). $lIwg (opposite). mwp (warm). uppm (heart) IlbUIlt (to the.wm. lIwu (part). pntnp (all). pW2 (brave. PP4mlip (rear).wb" (covered). pwli (thing) ID q t 1! P d 2 n u hw6b1P (nice. wnwl1. she. mint. Ipl1 (you). IlUl1nl (straight).wuwp (equal) wlImp (hard). plUJ1! (one from pair). qmJCll11IbJm. qbp (food).um (quiet).b1It (more). ubp. unquihm] (safe). hwl1. tJD. qump (piece).llblIp (person. lizwli E9 (sign E9) Letter Meaning hu (I). (back). make).wq (child). plI (my). qwJ1DIl. qWJnlli (stable). wlizwpd (fixed). mj (and) hwlIwpJW (almost). mwp (warm). o (mbu IDl. wl1.bp (up). 1Ib2 (inside).61J2m (right).wbp (compact. lizwli ~ (sign~) t twll (good). \JIOO (as).. owner). saint). pleasant) hwliqIJ. lubtwgp (brainy). uw (this). house). great). pwpdll (high). b"wJP(point. pwpdp (high).bt (moreover). (spirit). qbpwqwlig (excellent). person). 1Ibq (one) L.bg}1lJ. uppmli (beautiful).:qbUIlt (trend.l1qp (beginning). qtmlu (head). qbu (half). b"wqbt (rise). hlnn (with). libIWL.pnlJl(weak). 1Ib2 (into). bpqnl (two) qbIJ. plI (my). pliPl! (he. hardy). wnw2 (fore).bgpq (lovely). mwt (give). enjoyable. pnl1. bpqwpmq (oblong. lizwli ~ (sign~) qblimpnli (centre). plid (me). it).

mwp}l (year). bplUtp (country) hnqu (care) Wll.JDlP (source). hpbu (here) wJD (yes). she) bu (I). she. nUlqmpJDtli (direction). llPwqwli (positive) wqnmp (prayer) qbpwqpbt (suckle). qntliIl (ball). wmmI (atom) pW pq pq pfi PU pt! pm pp lW lh [nn. (way). dbb (big). DIJ2 (all). bpqmlilIwlilibp}lg dbql! (one of two equals) wJumbq.Q. hwm. tnnp (round). hbmp (trace) lUtli (woman).. wlIwlI (eat).. qmpp (little). qfi qp qntp (you). bIJ. lIwu (piece. q}1mbtlw (knowledge) qliwl wnw2 (go forward) qbp (fat). see]. he. liw (that. plintpJDtli (nature) q}1p (written language). mw1llwq (flat). ~ (whole).lI (side). hpbl (monster). 19libl (pour in) lubt(hear) lqwl (wash). Jwli. pwgwuwqwli (negative) llPwqwli (positive) Unl JW In jm qp. Jwg (their) pwp}l (kind). lqUljbwn (bright). lIWJlll. qn hw ho UW Ut Wp wg pW pp pfi Up. UImDtJm (rotation). qnpbbJ. lwm (many) pmli (nest). q}1pp (book). (to act) qwlu (fear). lIwlIw (mother) }lli6wli}lg (from me) lImq (dark). side). tl}l6wq (condition) uJWqp. }luwli (man). pwp6p (high) bpqm (two). hnubt (flow). dog (little friend) qbu (half).Table 10 (continuation) Letters wq WU Wl w}u wb" wq wh Meaning wnw2lJ. $). wpU(Sun). qmwliq (peril).11lUJl1bt(live). mm~ (food) bum npW: WDWpqW (any object). qllIJ. pwli (thing). jmp. (able). person).11}J. clean) ntmbl (eat). JW. qwm (bad) tumW91lwb' (clotted). UJIUllI1N (creator) hwg (bread). bpqwPbt (prolong) wJD. lImp (murky). lIwpmp (pure. part). mbp (lord) hwm}lq (pip. 1pIp.uph(world). it) pnlibt (jump). llntmp (input.pwlum (luck). uw (this). }l2libt (descend) 2mp (qwliqliwb) (water (still». wz1m.g) hbmp (trace). wli}nl (wheel).}llI (my) PWJlbt (walk). wlpnfip (beginning). lIwh (death).bm (master) Imli (qmpp l!liqbp). pn (your) qmliIl (sphere).wq (become) lDDtliqWl (come home). qlnp (round). bplUtp (country) (mbu!:. lIwJP.. mwp (hot) 1llJ2m (grief). lqUljbum (bright). (thought. 2Pbl (to water) qwPllIJ. hwulibl (reach) lwq (good) w6lit (grow). lImwbnrJ. ubqlIqwb (compact). qpbl (write). JPllPIl (worry) wpqwb (made). qpqliwlUt (twice). qp}l! (pen) ctlumbt (disavow).}lq (nucleus). thinker) }lpwqwmbp (rights owner) lllnpp (little) gwbp (low).firsQ lwq (good). WU wJ wfi WU! W2 wn WU Wt! 1P lU It! qw qt! qp unn lpnPbt (cut).li (first). 1llWJl(sparkle). qbIJ.lI (side). ww (eye).bg}lq (beautiful) tl}1wgmlI (union) pwp6p (high) qwp1I}J:p (red). }unubl (speak). granule). upnpq (clear) lIwIUl (man. wnw2liwJ}lli(ace. JWli (from. llU I I)ll nu (OU) pwp6p (high). hnl (whirligig) I}1wpctbp (valuable) nl(OV nq [on) oqwq (ring). J11. bu (I). entrance) bu (I). wJli. wligp (hole). hnq}1u (my soul) 92 . qmnp. qmwb (purified). }lliPl! (he. wqq (nation) gwbp(low) Letters ht! hm t2 t!fi dui Meaning qmlIwp (sum. wqwm (free). qllIJ. qliwl (go) tl}1mp. qliwl (go). lllIIP. bpbluw (child). Jwli. qWPUJ.

qlipwoIUlP (godson) mwlibt (carry) wowpqUlJ}1 $6'wql!' llPqwb'. wli2wm (separate) 2nqwb' (chosen) qblip nlllIlqwb' WOUl2 (weapon directed forward) pWliUlq(army) WIJ. (narrow).> jwu ll. gntpm (cold) tp}1q (all. llluI (against) pwupwb' L.lW ll. qmlibt (find out). bIt bn Ym> bpbp (three). complete).1t1iq (solid).speak). 101uwqnp (bright) h}1uliwqwli (basic) l!liqlib1 (fall) born (curve). [unj. pwpdpwliw1 (get up) (mbu Mm. create) q01Jq (pair). gwq (ache.tunub1(tell. big hearted) nmp}1pWPl! (foot) UJ.l wum WpW hpq qunn liwlu (before). bulL.Wp (dance) libIJ. qmUUlP (sum). :1101 (you) b1libt (rise). q101lu (head).U}1g UJ. WUPDI1. w1Imp (tough). horse) U1}1bqbIw (space).:tnfi (background). ywb'.lwm upnp nu nm ll. hard) mju PUlpdp (high) I am sure that ELD was known in old Armennia. pain) qWJP (place). see wum WUll. 9}1q1 (cycle). land. bwW (fold) wub1(say. see wb'.2}1q (girl) qW1(come). ywb') 101Ju (light). qbm (spot) nlJllul (direct. 1:wq (essence) WU01P (tough. boq (sea) hbIJ. qwpbp (hard) 1ntuUlpwg (early morning) hwm}1q(particle) hWJp (father). (round castle wall) hUlqWPbt (collect) nIUJl1 (son). UlIJ. u1}1nqwb' (condition of object: placed. country) !opu qDIJ. (ball-formed) wUbli}1 h}1uPl! (base of everything) m] (011) 2ntp (zwpctqDIJ.rpn hl hplpn. q}1liqwb' d}1 (saddled and armed steed. wlibqp. qWJP}1 (wild) wli!w$ (infinite). hunimfi (ripe) wJl.lnl 001 -.WUWPll (man.lhl UWU uhl qwb" qIlIl inhp uiqh blinIJ. qnp (arch) pwpdp (high). brought. see hwqbpu wlib1 (always do.speak) mwp (warm) uWJP (mother) hu wlibu (I do). rpnpu (outs'Ide). ntp}1z (other). (back). op (day) (water (moving». male) ll. UJ.wp}1uUJ. straight) qw mp pW nq qllu qnp MW pqw 1llq 1llq 1llq bwu qwp qwu hunn hlnn nlq nut nlU nuq nm nlU mp op UJ.wmwb'mwpwbp (place surrounded with wall) UJ. wJb' (goat) (mbu wb'. (boundless) wow2linPll (leader) qpuwUJ. it was buried in oblivion.wmqbp (pattern) 1qw9tlb1 (bath). qpqliwqp (two. full. pbpqwb'. uwqbp (hair) qDIJ. Later as the secret of heathen priests. especially after adopting Christianity in Armennia as State religion (301 AD). double). wtlw (wave). wzluntJu (spicy. active) (mbu wu.U (side. 1qwliw1 (wash) bpqwp (long) UW um !MW gwbp (Iow). stretched) qliqUldL. UUlJP (mother) WW WIlh wlm WJW WJP mpp D1JP pwp wUbli}1 mbpl! (lord of everybody) UUlPll (man). 2nqb1 (select) UUlP01P 201P (pure water) llbUp (face).ntq qwp (liquid (milk» Ubbwhnq}1 (generous.2 (whole). (parent). hhnm (far). 93 .UlDtJm (semicircle).

antenna.nd. town) = 1}1wnp (ll) • [iq = "The way of glory". L. Armennian meanings of these words are presented in Table 11.n Ll1qw (tiquwUlliU1) LI1-q-w UWflewfll1U1 (Uwflqn) dWfl-ewfl-I1-U1 dwplidwU1l1~w hlinl[l1g liflLLwgnq «(iwl[11 pWfld (w(iwLI1) 2f111 wdw(i dU1wl[nl"! l[lilP LI1(inq ~liU1 point finger comes to finger (count) giving the beginning (but) not corporeal upper water life (clean. honest woman) (she) lives in sea stone home mathematics zero Liza (Elizabet) Marcaret (Manw) dWU1B. The above said means that this role in more old time played Armennian language. These words were formed from Armennian using ELD. often took (used) these Greek or Latin words. For example: ''Paris'' (Pharis. At the same time many words and names of Indo-European and other languages may be decoded by ELD. technologists and others). LI1 .iece.Ii .fI .. dWU1f1(i qw wzl[I:iU u~l1ali U1l[nq (pwJg) w (iJnLpwLjw(l l[lifll1(i 2f111 ~Jw(ie (dwenLfI dWflll) iJnl[11 eWflli U1w(i wUlflnql! These (and other) old Armennian words and names shown in Table 11 were adopted first by Greek then by Latin languages. u = "(He) becomes the first person (God)".U1 . "Zevs" = q. So.ELD and its use confirm that Indo-European languages adopted many words and roots from Armennian. zenith.dWU1 -11~w qjm. q . particle ("om' is the endinL added later by Gree ) seen from far away (mast of ship) container for fresh water it is the supposed upper antenna liter zenith w(iU1Ii(iW. astronomers. WU1 . p. For example. q . but opposite process in old time almost did not take place. ~U1n~ dWU(iI1~ l[lifl2wl[nflnLPJnL(i ) ~wJdl!) cut. zero. Then the medieval and last centuries scientists (physicists.fI qli(il1p. atom. are really old Armennian words. Thus the situation (which seemed too strange at first) when ELD gives the Armennian meanings of ''not Armennian" words becomes understandable.(i -11 U1 dWU1 . adopted from European languages. etc.t . old Greek and Latin languages played the role of ''termin suppliers".=.hliU1w~ nL(iW\w ~U1I'!WiJ. It means that these words were taken from Armennian language or were constructed using ELD. litre. looking for names for their new findings or inventions. mathematics. Unfortunately Armennians don't know that many foreign words (and names) in modern Armennian. 94 . Table 11 English atom Armennian wumd. wJ(i U11i(iW LI1U1f1. hWU1 meaning In Armennian English translation (nlJ.

"Jupiter" (God) = B . or possibly from the middle. .ther.2 .UJ. (pfi!UJ. 2. mo .IJ.P .u . wppwgp (man. the same in English: fa . ELD USING 1 shall show here a line of examples of ELD using. pleasant child hqpuijp (brother) = hIJ.hu L.P -11-P = n@ mqnq (nqlmpnq) Ilh\lll1 pfid = (he) giving me encouragement mqur (son.first man (who) made (this) coming" (perhaps. also old measure of weight = 30 kg = 60min • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9S .ther. a. . "America" = U-u-h-p-pqw = "I .w = tuwfipp qhfimpnfiwqwfi hpup = central base of life lpltump (daughter) = 11-nt . the words of Columbus.7.p = mtlJwl mwfi mppn2 upphlllfi = favorite of lord of given house WIJ.P. person) = u .wpmU uWpIl. boy) = m . aryan) = wp . -wfi -11 = hpqnq (UJ.m .q = uwpntp. it means that this word is not old Armennian. Human Beings uwpq (man.wfiq (talent) =mWIJ. H interpretation of some word gives rambling (incoherent) result.wp -11 = wPLPfi dqUlllIl Uhqt! = one aspiring to the Sun wJP (male. "ther" (mhp) in Armennian is "lord") qwqwq (child) = q -ui -q-w -q = wWpu tUtW tuwfipp uqqppg = (they are) my love (from) life beginning nJllll1 (son) = n . because now we use another disposition of letters. .inhp = "I (am) lord of big region people" (imperial ambitions of Roman Empire). female) = uij -P = hu wfihu = 1 shall do uipji.ljznp hpfi !w$ = 30 qq= 60 U}1fi) = singer (dancer).wJP = pwpdp uwpq = high (top) man.p = UP-p uwpq (wqfiqwgbq) = the Sun man (noble) = w -p -p = tuwfip mqnq uwpq = life giving man huijp (father) = h .2pq (girl) = WIJ. hwlihlll qmpppq = pure. it is known that on his ship there was one Armennian monk and a few merchants). Some old words or part of them is necessary to read (interpret) from right to left. pwpp wJP = pure. kind male pmjp (sister) = pm -JP = hnunuj]i uwpq = reliable female' mWIJ.male uWJP (mother) = u-wJP = Uhb (pu) uwpq = (my) top female (the same structure of words h-M!Jl! and U-M!Jl! tells about equality of man and woman in old Armennia. -p -wJP = uwpntp.m .

p= qhqhgpqlJ. wm • wq = (dp) qwpp wllPJntppg qmpwb = (horse) cut (from) milk source uwmwq (horse) = u • unn • wq = Ubb (wqUpq) uwup (ghr}}1) uqpqp (hpuUUllJ11p) = source (founder) of big (pedigree) part (sort) qwuppq (horse) = q • uni • p • pq = WDw2pU mum phPIlll. et • mj • q = Uw ntethq t m qhqhgpq = he is powerful and beautiful unnq (horse) = wu • \ll = uw tqunnpunnn (pwupwb. first.• • • • • • • up.u. There are ten words for horse because it was first tamed in Armennia.1I2np hpU !wt!J. UdntJq (steed) = U.p. first. = 0. q}1Uqwb) = it is ready (saddled. pmmuq (stallion) = pm • nuiq = uqqppg wupwgIlll. Animals.q = wllfllllIll1 (UWPl}IU) up hpuUwqwU uWut! (GntJU\llhu hpqwpmpJwU hpU !wt!J. p • hl = uiju UWplpUU qhp hwUhl = to elevate this man (woman) uipjmfi (blood) = w • p •J • mfi = pu lJ.l! = (it) gives basis for my life unnqlnn (knight) = wU\ll • iqlnn = pwupwb. u • pU = Ubq UWpIl. nq. single. = 0. b.5 qq = one.5 m) . alone. Birds dp (horse) = d • P = hpqwpmq uwpuUnq (\Ih(iqwUp) = oblong body (animal).jwUp qWPIlll.I! = my sun uhpm (heart) = u.m = mhq (np) qpmu t UUlPl}IU uhpg = place carrying human love uPphl (to love) = u • p.5 kg) JWP (beloved) = J •wp = pu wpL.u -mp -m » q = unnfi Ub2 hqwb qmpppqI! = little horse which is at home 2npP (mule) = 2 -np • P =.5 u) = one of main parts of man (also old measure of length = 0.opqw hwOhIltqh(iqwUp = pleasant daily animal WDJntb (lion) = w • n • jm • b = IpU lJ.ntU.jwUpp hpup mqllIl. wnw2pU. upwq.jwUpq uifinul (qwpmu) hu uiqunn = you lead your life freely Ulp2 (bear) = wp • 2 = w\1UUUl hwOhIlt = living pleasantly qwqp (tiger) = q • ui « q. q}1Uqwb d}1nt tnhp = lord of saddled and armed horse wpUntUq (elbow) = wp. armed) hppqwp (horse) = hp •p. upU (one. = (horse) me down-maker hmlunnuiq (horse) = h. alone) = u • p. = leading beautiful life qnq (cow) = q • m] = hhqntq ntmhIltp (\Iwp mqmU = liquid food (milk giver) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 96 . also old measure of weight = 0. qwp = pUd gwb qgIlll. = becoming stronger umpmq (young female horse) =. tq (hl}}1 dp) = female with first foal (pregnant) pnmpq. upwJUwq (pU!\llhu L.p.

mwp b"mquwfi opt! = bright and warm in rising day Ilpmujuil. (hurpunl) = to the Sun (South) hnppqnfi (horizon) = h -np .m = pp qhppfi pfinlu wtUut = growing (in) its upper nest znlfi (dog) = Z -mfl = zwm hpufiwqwfi (qhfiIlwfip) = very basic (animal) hun] (hen) = h .wq = UlWjb"wn (l1tfiDI}) qluthgpq q1np bright beautiful disk lnlupfi (Moon) = jmu -pfi = fiw pu 1nljufi (t) =it (is) my light un1npwq (planet) = Un1np .) (Sun. (as) sun over my head b"pm (bird) = b" .) = wp . crown) p -ui -q = (fipw) qtIup hunhnp hwqhpa for (his) head forever = = = = = 97 .q .wq = hpL.}1 pn!nlfi = sun bird wpwq1l1 (stork) wp -ui -q .P . sci.p= umwqnp fiw qhPt! l1tfinqfi t = it is supposed to be upper (point) fiWllPP (nadir) = fiw -Il.b" -n = $wj1nlfi 11.fi = IlhUJl1 ghphqqw lPpq fihppL.u -m = uw tuwfipp (hunlhpd) mlutt! (Sphqhpp) = this (is) place of (eternal) life (Universe) unnnq (star) = unnn -Il = mphqhppp (fijmpp) lumwgqwbp = concentration of Space (material) qhfipp (zenith) = q . Astronomy Up (Sun) = w -p = tuwfip mqnq = life giver Up.Ii .P -p = fiw pp IJ:l1uwgp (fip) qmjqt! = pair of its opposite (point of Zenith) qhp (acme. wpL.• • • • • • • uippu (oven) wp -[m = (llfi!Ulhu) pu upphl1t wpLt! (as) my loved sun Ollwfi (qhm) (whale) = oi] -wfi = bnqwjpfi qhfiIlwfip = sea animal wpb"pq (eagle) = wp .wp = IlhUJl1 wpL.}1 m.}1pwpdp wWt! = I am high eye of the Sun UUUlIlPq (Venus) = wUUlIlP -q = wUUlIlP qhut! = half star Lmuuiphp (Venus) = 1nlu -ui -php = jmju (ghphq) phJUlIlt! = (who) brings light (day) ~pwm (Mars) = hp (hmp) -unn = qpwqp qmnp = piece of fire Lnunlpuiq (Jupiter) = 1nlufi -puiq = light corona bpL.wq (Saturn) = hplun . (Venus) = wp -mu -j -wq =hu wpL.h .) ZWPdllnq (plljUp) WllPjnlp = source (of light) moving by curve (by loop) <l>wj1wbn (Mercury) = $Wj1-W .P .pq -n .b"pq = wpL.P -1 = 6}1zm pu qtIupfi up.h . above.wq = un1np (-wdL.w q1npnq (wfipqnq) = (is) seen (with) ring (or wheel) wum (space) = w . overhead) q -hp = IlhUJl1 hpqpfip up to the sky qwp (bottom) = q .hqwq (qhm.un] = hWJUlIlmppn2t!= close to master = = = = • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • c.I1Pfi = to the bottom line (of the) full day puiq (corona.

uw -Ilw .p = unlmp (bpqwp) tuwfip ntfibgllIl (it) has hard (long) life 2ntp (water) = 2 -m -p = hWQntJP ntfip inuq (hwQntJP Ulwm6UlJ1ll1l) = giving joy 1116 (lake) = 1ll. very many in Armennia) qp.pwp .p-m = uWPJlDt lDDtfil! uppntfiwgfillIl = it makes man's home lovely wUluIulPwfi (obsidian) = wUl . Armennian male names Upwu (Aram) = Up -wu = UP-p qwqwq child of Sun (Aryan) = 98 .wfi = uwmwfiwJpg IpltpU pnwb" (uwmwfiwJp hqntfiq) = jumped out of satan (nail of satan) lDDt~ (touf) = m -m -~ = bwb"qqwb" mhqntu t = (is) in covered place uiqunn (agate) = w -q -unn = hwqhpd qmjflhp qmpqwbpntu = eternal colors in cutting (pare) qupnt}um (emerald) = q .wfipm (granite) = q . because "2" has a meaning ''nice''.m = bnlllt pwph mwfi (unqpnq) uwpU}1fi body (living) in sea stone home wq.u .wuwfill (diamond) w -11 .• J!wpwhntfi2 (Carahunge Observatory) = purp -h -m -fi -2 =hfi~llIlpwphp qwu Ionunq J!wphp = resonant stones or Speaking Stones.w .h .wfi -11 = fiw dqlDllIlllhUJlt hwqhpd mwppfihp = it aims to eternal years qnhwp <lllIlwqfi. flux) dWJfi (sound) = d -wJfi = hpqwp t wJfi = it (is) long (prolonged) bnq (sea) = b" -m] = uiqunn 2ntp = free water oqqhwfi (ocean) (b")ntlP .wq .n .pmhnn = qhqhgqwgfintU t UWPJlDt wpmwppfil! = makes beautiful man's appearance uwppwppm (pearl) uwp . but "~" has a meaning of negation. PPPlllwfim) (brilliant) q .w .qpp = lihq tnunu! (who) carries us uwp (mountain) = u -ui -p = uppntfi tuwfip mqllIl = (it) gives beautiful life pwp (stone) = p .wu .b" -wfi = pu uimug bwqwb" (UP) wqwm pwfi =something free rose in front (01) me puiqurpn (basalt) p .wfi . Nature bpqpp (Unlnpwq) (planet Earth) h -p . d.p .t -wJfi = bntlP (bnqhp) t wJfi it is (many) seas b"pwbwfi (rainbow) b" -p.p . It is probable that Armennian word "hntfi~" (sound) in old time was written with letter "2" (hntfi2).6 = qwfiqfiwb"2pDq lllPl! full of stagnant water qlnn (river) = q-bm(p) = qhqhgpq hlnnp (hnup) = beautiful mark (motion.wp = qhqhgpq hnq}1 fiuwfi wpL}1fi beautiful soul looking like Sun • • • • • • • • • • • = = = = = = = = = • • • • • • • • = = = = = • e.uq v tn = ghI}l1 pwpdp mwp lDDtfi (pwpwJP puiquqjnh OwJnbpntu) high and warm home of tribe (grotto in basalt rocks.

UptItllfib (Arphi. unnp L. Arevik) = Up . UpUllq (Armine. = the rose Sun Upmu.P = Ullzm pWPll1ltfibl qwpnq able to be always kind "Uwp (Nar) = fi -uip = fiw wpL. Arusyak) = Up . leader = = = = = = = = = • • • • • • f. Armennian female names UpL. ullpb1lt = Sunny life.q .wfi . UpL.U = wpLnm tuwfip.bq = bwqwb UpL. Ilptupujui (Aracs.h .llq (Arev.hu = fiuwfi 2pWjllfi (bnqwjllfi) (libb) qbfiqwfinl = like water (sea) (big) animal ~wpbp (Habeth) hw . over the Sun) Upllfiw (Arina) = Up -11. warm and lovely UpUllfib. Arphine) Up . !WPll n!fi!wgfimlill = (he is) going against peril of life (hero.nq.qfi = qbUJ11 qmwfiql! (fipw pmfiill qfiw9llIl (hhpnu.q = UP (-11 fiuwfi) 1ltfibl q1lllb91lq = to be beautiful (as) Sun UpwuwCJ)llu (Aramayis) = Up -unl -ui -llu = llu tuwfipl!' UP-ll qwqwlWg my life (comes) from child of Sun Upmwqwqq (Artavazd) = Up .U .Ull.mun] .fib = fiw llu wpL.tIt -11 = fiw hunhupjui wpL.w . Aracsia) =Up .q people of Sun (Aryans) Upw (Ara) = Up .wfi = UP-ll uwpql! man of Sun (Aryan) Uplibfi (Armen) Up .wh .mu = Up\41 mullfi (wn2\419) = on Sun's shoulder (Venus.P . wnw2finJ1lPlll = he (is) Sun. UpmUjwq (Arus.w = UP-ll (mqwb) tuwfip = life (given) by Sun Upbq (Areg) = Up .fiw = fiw UP-ll uwpq = she (is) the Sun human being UptIt1l.wh . fighter of evil) U}1fiwu (Minas) = U}1fi -uiu = uipumtljuq jununq (fiwtuwqwh) = speaker Uqwm (Azat) = uiq ..qq = qm UP-ll mqwb wnw21lfil! =you (are) first given by Sun Upzwq (Arshak) =Up -Z . Armik) = Up .wfi = fiw uwpqqwfig mmfil! (tuwfipill q1lllbgqwgfiml uwpq = (he is) man (who) makes beautiful home (life) of people ~\fi1p (Davith) = q -w -q-ll-p = mfiwq uwpq IlUl1nl tuwfipll Uh2 =able man in straight life 'iwhwfi (Vahan) = q ..w .unn = 11 uqqpwfib wfi2wm (wfiqwtu) = free (independent) from the beginning ~nqwfibu (Hovannes) = h .p .libfi (P) = UP-ll uwpqp.b = qbUJ11 qmwfiql! blfiml (unnqlnn) (he) rises against peril (knight) 'iwhwqfi (Vahagn) = q.l! = she (is) my Sun = = 99 .b .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Upuwfi (Arman) Up . she almost Sun Ilpurpu.11 .wh .wq = wpLnq1lt ww =the eye full of Sun Sllqpwfi (Tigran) = m .wfi = fiw qbUJ11 qmwfiql! (lllWZmlllWfi) = he (is opposite) to the peril (soldier.w .p . protector) 'iwhb (Vahe) q.

hgqwgwnu t UP-p (uwpqqwfig) luwfiPl! =it makes beautiful the Sun (people's) life 100 . mother of child lTwppfih (Marina) =uwp • p. Narine) = fi • wp • w = fiw wPLP bUntfiq = she (is) the Sun born "Uwppw (Naira) =(iw • p • p • ui = Ihu 'uwfip wfimJ. (bn1{11fiwp) daughter of sea (Tsovinar) lTwppwu (Mariam) uwp • p • unl = bn1{1111umhp qw1{wq. uWIUl = she life-doer woman fc)-wuwp (Thamar) = p • unl • wp = qmpppq wPLP tqhu = as a little sun = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = • • • • g. m = fiw 'uwfip t pwpdp uWp1p1t mwfil! she (is) life at home of high man (top person) Iliup (Mar) =u • wp = UpLP uWJPl! (bnl{.w uppm] htw1{llhUIlt 'uwfip (she) came to life with love lpqw. (bwppfih) (Nara. awpnthp (Zara. Elisabet) =l1t. Zaruhi) = q • wp • w = uqqpp (bwqnI1) wPLP 'uwfip initial sun's life Ufiwhpm (Anahit) =wfi •w • h • p. w = fiw ntd'brJ. qmpppqp uWJP child of sea daughter.1U water life (flower) awpw. Uh1m she is one (who) powerfully rises up Ufintl (Anush) wfi • m • 1 = fiw ntfiplwm (pwqgp). fiw = fhu bn1{11 (bn1{wJpfi) qpfi =she (is) sea woman "Uwpw. Lilia) l1t • w = 2PwJPfi 'uwfip (bwrl1J. fiw lwm pwqgp t she has many (sweet).w = 1{hppfi (uwpntp) 2PP (Ulhu) 'uwfip = upper water life (life as clean water) lTwppwppm. bnuunqtnn (Liza. she (is) very sweet Ljnu.1! (she) lives in sea stone home Ufid'htw (Angela) uifl • d' • ht. ocean) lTwph (Mare) = uwp •h = bn1{11 twq =entity of sea lTwpp (Mari) uwp • p = bn1{11 rpmnnp. Margo) uwp • pwp • p. m = bn1{11 pwph mwfi wUJIlllI1. lpl1tw (Lia. o1{qhwfi) =mother of Sun (sea.h . Geographical names in (old and present) Armennia UpUhfipw (Armennia) =Up • Uhfi • [nu = UpLP uwpqwfig Jwfi (WUJIlhtw1{wjp) = The Sun men country ~wJwumwfi (Hayastan) = ~wJ • unnmnfi = hWJhpp hpqpp = Armennians' country Upwpwm (Ararat) =wp • wp • unn = umbrJ.ll. lTwpqn (Marcaret.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ut1{WIUl (Alvard) = wt •1{wIUl = Wt1{wIUl = red rose Uqfip1{ (Azzniv) = wqfip1{ = honest. noble Ubqw (Sedda) u.q. (1{hp) htfimJ.ffilwb" hunnmq = created exclusively Upwqwb" (Aragats) = wp • w • q • wb" = Iiui qbrJ.

Jq (qwqUmt).• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Upwqwbnmfi (Aragatsotn) = wpwqwb" • mnfi = Upwqwb'}11}1hZhp (ZP2wfiJ!) = foots of Aragats (its region) 'bufi (Van) =q • w • fi = fiw tuwfipp Uh2 (1:) = it (is) in life Uhqwfi (Sevan) = u • h • qwfi = fiw tuwfipp hw2llPll u}1pm]! = it (is) next heart of life lnnupnmwfi. qhU]! tuwfip (gwuwp) = (my) half (is) water (sea).ljll. (wp1. Aracs) = wp • uiq = (hnU1lI1. Upwpu (Araz. (the river of life) Spqppu (Tigris. my beautiful place Upwq.pp mbqhp]! (tbnfiwZIlPw) = it carries the places of life (montain ridge) qlt1Pljllw (Kilikia) = ljll • 1P • ljll • w = (llU) qhU]! 2DlP (bnlJ). 8.pqpp) hwqwuwphgfiJlll. J • m • fi • P . qbqhgpqpu mbq = my lovely (one of) pair.a. The specific ''trees'' (just one "arm" of them) are presented in Table 12 for the letter "q" (z) and in the Table 13 for the letter "q" (k). ''TREES'' OF LETTERS. ntpupw (Kaputan. 101 . (luwfipp qlnn) = it links parts (of country).fipljllw (Phoenicia) = 1}1. Aracs) = hp • wu • [u = uw hpqwp m qbqhgpq (qhm) = this long and beautiful (river) Upgw]:u (Artsakh) = wp. w = fiw qwupnJm up tuwfip mfihgllll. w = hunlunnnp hu mfihu' wJfi (bnqwJPfi) qhU]! la. l}hull1) WDW2lJ. mp « up. (qWUJ. (uJmu) qhU]! tuwfip (gwuwpn) = I have equally: the (sea) half and (other) half (is) life (land) 2. METHOD NI 2 Method NI 2 of Armennian Language Analysis shows that the main part of Armennian words were developed beginning from simple voices (separate letters) to more complex words.hW) = (flux to) first Sun (to East) bpwulu.np uwp = it (is) nice round mountain tnppwm (Euphrates) = h . We already know the meanings of each letter and some of two and three letters together (Table 10). • wfi = pfip]! uppmfi In. Upwpu (Eraskh. wfi. Now we can see the development of words from the very simple to the other more complicated ones by adding other letters.llIb upwgfimI) hw.1}1p • unn = uwuhPl! (b. Urmia) = qwupn(1)m. river) = m • p • q • p • p • u = u}1phtP pu qrn. half (is) life (land) <l>JlD.= it has one blue life U}11}1wfi (Sipan)= u • p • UJ. gw]:u = urphmn wfimwn = sunny wood Upmwzwm (Artashat) = wp • m • w • zwm = zwm uiphmn tuwfipp mbq = very sunny place of life Upuwtfilp (Armavir) = wp • U • w • tfilp = wptap uwIUl4wfig tuwfipp qwjp = the life place of Sun people SwtlP (nu) (Tavr (os)) = m • w • q. p = (llp) qpw t tnunu luwG.fi wpla.

Table 12 6 qwGqwq qwGqwqwmnlG q (steeple) (bell) qwGq qwG. because they were absent. have) qwtllID qwq (clay) (chalk) 5 qwpbPD (opinion) qWPht (dribble) qwnnnq{l1) (forceful) qwq6mn (marred by chalk) uwqwq (little quantity) uwqwqwPInl (low number) This procedure is possible to do with each Armennian letter. 11. consecutive and alone evolution of Armennian language and its very old age.(first) (multifarious) qwqwG (beast) qwqwqwG qwqwqwGwlptp ning) (cane) qwqwGwGng (zoo) (canehandle) 1~ 2~ ~ ~ 5~ Table 13 1~ 2~ 3~ ~ qwp (seam. half) (there is. I even called (just for myself) ELD a ''Magic Dictionary". 102 . beginning more than 40000 years ago. 12 and 13 confirm the logical. 2. volition) qw~ q (k) qw «(I) qwn am. And Armennian language will be acquired.or) (part. So the Armennian is the oldest language on the Earth. I had constantly an unusual feeling that I am rl~coding very old manuscripts or petroglyphs. when Homo Sapiens emerged in Armennia. ARMENNIAN LANGUAGE DECODING When I was working out ELD and its use. At that time (many thousand years ago) it was not possible to adopt any words from other languages.bell) wq.qw qwGqqwb qwGqqwbwJ}1G (z) (mass)-noun (mass)-pronoun qwGwqwG (begin.9. joint) qwp (milk) qwpbp (hard) qwpltt (drop) (will. Tables 10. which are very important and magic.qwGbt (bit) (tang.

These words were adopted from Armennian. spoke with their main God AR (Sun) and with their other Gods in Armennian language. czar. Many Armennian words were adopted also by not Indo-European nations. mathematics. which was formed by many words adopted from Armennian. etc. zero. names. ELD and its use makes understandable very many things: all words. li- ter. atom. soap.6. it means all these languages adopted these words from one of these languages. Turkish and other nations. 11. mother. the mind and feelings of people from Paleolithic and Neolithic time (the stone age) until now. 12. hero. Some of words of Table 14 were decoded above. car. cat. Aryan. because many Armennian words were adopted by Indo-European languages. Ethiopian letters are almost the same as Armennian ones till now. 2. METHOD N! 3 Armennian was the basic language for all Indo-European family of languages. their love for the beauty and kindness. in Items 2. 13 confirm that Annennian language and Alphabet are the first. In Table 14b some Jewish names adopted from Armennian ones are shown. their relation to Nature and to each other. developedalone (there was nobody to adopt words from) and arisen from the very old time. In Table 14a some European names with their Armennian interpretation (etymology) are shown. * It is pity but I know only the said three languages.10. In Table 14 some words are presented which are the same in Armennian. IC some words are the same in several languages. From which one? From the language where these words have meaning. which is the oldest language on the Earth. carpet. which comes from Etruscans (who were Armennians) and from old Greek language. which comes from Celts (who were Amennians. see PART 3) and 10% from Latin. Tables 10.Indeed. Arabian. Armennians from the very old time spoke and speak until now to each other. antenna. old Egyptian. is God's language.) of Table 14 are the same also in many other languages. for example. But I know that many words (as ocean. and 2. For example. Table 14 is not strange. English language adopted 55% of words from French language. ARMENNIAN AND OTHER LANGUAGES. which gave the beginning to all Indo-European languages and alphabets. English and Russian* and were adopted from Armennian.7. 103 . So there are many hundreds of words which are the same (or almost the same) in these languages.

rpnuinp daughter 12.N'!! Amennian English Russian OKeaH . qUlJlll 24. unnml 27. bom xosmac KpUBaR 104 . ~wp stone. AUMepa AUTp AU3aTh KpOKOAJIA n 33. qbuwp 7. 55. qpfi queen 14. R 47.li}1 52. :qnm 19. UIlllmqbp pattern. qbpn zero ryM6a tomb 42. Ollqbwfi ocean (nu) 2. qnq 18. Ur1PImfi apxu ••• arch••• 38. Ilwpmbq 23. wlibfi [capora] orphan 40. qWPUlbm carpet 15. fiwqwqfiw.Iam eCTh blI. uwmwfiw satan IOAa 44. hard) 22.navigation gntpJntfi 3. qt!qnt cocoo napK 46. llt (2ntp) 28. mntfi 20. ~wpwfi Man [orenl repoii qaph epapaoH naTpuapx OKO (OKRo) ChIll 34. bubl1(wJ eom. finp 31. l1wpWwm}1qw 25. aMUHh amen 39.N'!! Amennian Table 14 English Russian new cat cotton HOBwH KOT BaTa 1. qp. hbp(hwJp) father 5. UIDpm 51. 53... pbpI} Albion !AAL6UOH 37. uwfi}1q son 11. l1wJP mother 4. lJIWUlpll1llN! patriarch eye 9. qnp}1q core 49. qwqp AoqJ» apueq JKeHIqUHa KOBep KapMHH MRCO KopOBa ABeph AOM (JKeAYAoK) KapaT (xapaKTep) KapTa KapeTa MaTeMaTHKa aHTeHHa aTOM AUBeHh. lltmp 29. 57. wq(fi) 10. qwpl1}1p carmine 16. ~l1fiwgmJg compass curve 60. wN! . portrait fort (berth) epOPT 36. UlWPq park eChM. l1}1u meat 17. lympli litre lick naaara~R 30. lWllWP l1wpl1wp I}hq fiwli}1 bpbp qb1}1Jnm Ulntm amen port wine (gin) sugar marble devil nanny ether zephyr spot aMHHh nopT BUHO caxap MpaMop A'hRBOA HRHR 3epUP 3eepup nSITHo 59. wlibfi 50. wp}1wg}1 aryan 13. lltqbt cow door town (home) stomach carat (Chrracter chart car mathematics antenna atom liquid.. 58. qnqnJllll1t u crocodile tiger THrp nopTpeT 35. 1}1wpwqnfi pharaoh 8. umwlInpu 21. 56. npp (wfi) sepo 41. qwmm 32. 54. pntl1p carana 43. hWJ li1I) KOCTOllKa 48. hnj to hole Kyt<ymKa 45. wfimbfiw 26. hbpnu hero caesar 6.

P -P = able man in straight life h -wq -n -p = (he) adore source of kind soul u -ui -u -ll.wfi = he almost soul of our home q . 10.u .fi = he comes (as) beau- 2.ppqnp (Grigor) Ufiwhpm (Anahit) 7.WU11lWp (Gaspar) Q.t . 4.l.fiw= it is she bIt.wtUtp (Davith) .q .wp = he (is) beautiful as Sun q -p -p -ll-q -n -p = (the) man making love with excellent soul w .u = beautiful life comes to him q . bnuunqlnn (Yeghsapet) btbfiw (Yelena) lTw~wppm (Mar- carit) tiful Sun wfi .t}. 14. -uw . 15.u .11Ibm = she (is) chief of nucleus (purity) bl .fiw = go to her (she was good) uwp -I!WP . Ufifiw (Anna) 13.b -l}1 .w .P -tn = (she) life in sea stone home 105 .b .ph . 3. 9.111 .fiw -h .Jack Samuel Stephen Casper Gregory Anna Ann Elisabeth Helen Margaret and hard (as) rising Sun (he) has sunny house wp . 5.wqnp (Hakob) Uwullbl (Samvel) Umbl}1wfi (Stephan) Q. Ilpmmp (Artour) Upubfi (Arsen) Ulbylbwu (Andreas) .wfi = he beautiful Table 14a European names Alexander Arthur Arsen Andrew Grant David Jacob.pwfiq (Hrand) 6..wu . 12. 8.p -wfi -m = you make him (to be) high q -ur -ll. .bl = (he) beautiful life arose for us u -m . Armennian names Utbl!uwfi (Alecsan) Etymology (see Table 10) wp -b -I! .N! 1. 11.l.P -tn = her life trends to my home wfi .

A.w .Levan Aaron Ephim. getting high results which require centuries of observation. Uwhwq (Sahak) 3. generous. 11. Uhwpnfi (Aharron) w -hur fe . lTnqubu (Movses) 5.nfi =he (has) holy.h . ~$p d-n -q-u .wq = m life adores the source =I adore the un 2.11. 106 .P. Unqndnfi (Solomon) 8.b -d = (the) man coming to do equal entity q -wp -w = life as rising Sun 12.bt= (the) man making rising I} . to accumulate knowledge and to reach high level of knowledge. METHOD K! 4 Carahunge confirms (see PART I) that more than 7500 years ago there was written language and alphabet in Armennia.p .p -p = able man in straight life u -1lIl .bu = I with love to the holy man }We.fi = he (as) holy. mppbd (Ephrem) ~pw. lpww (Lia) 13. Without them such a big and developed Observatory as Carahunge could not operate for a long period of time.fi = he become as (right) holy -n 9. lpw. ( ra) awpnthp -R b -1}1. . Abraham Isahak Iakov Moisey Israel David Solomon Levon. lbqnfi (Levon) -u. Efim Sara Lia Ira IIwhuitt(Ab ) U . wide heart t -bq-n .nd .wd = son of kind life leader (Abrarnraluun u . It was impossible without written language to fix results.p .w (Davith) 7.==~e} adore~the)source a onng the un 4. ARMENNIAN OLD PRELIMINARY AND DEVELOPED ALPHABETS AND FIGURES.P -ui . pppfiw (Ira) W-ui = water life (water flower) p -p -w = woman leading life 2.rmennian names uni I Their interpretation meanings (see Tablelb ) Jewish names Abrarn. Ppw. making positive 10. ~wqnp S (Hakob) h -'!1~-n of km sou -t.Table 14b N! 1. pupwJbt (Israel) 6.

"p. ID. sh. which give additional more than 35 words and names. U. ck) adding more than 120 words. ID. p" (g. The first letter should be ''01'' (a). one" (see Table 10). These are: "q. ts'). 0. etc. b. this Alphabet after about 7000 years grew to Developed Alphabet with 34 letters (VID millennium BC) and was in use at Carahunge time (VI millennium BC). 3. th) giving additional more than 40 words. "d. "n. ts. 5. It. In Armennian Alphabet there are few groups of letters by three ones in each. 1. 1" (z. The letters ''p'' (r). huijp (father). For example: hWJ (Armennian). I formed many words using different next letters to find out the necessary order of letters. wpw (do it). L (g. eh). 0. I think. '1!h.Of course. q.I}. wh (fear). These letters are shown in Item 2. These letters are the following: ui. the first Alphabet was much earlier of Carahunge time and was simple. which are phonetically close one to another. Doing this. then letter ''ID'' (t) with close sounds ''. with minimal quantity of letters. because it means "first. this was the necessary reason of new letters arising. p. giving possibility to signify just main concepts. h. Z. ck). J. "d. 2. We could keep the following main principles (Method N! 4): 1. U. fi. g" (dz. then letter "If' (k) with sounds "q. 107 . ~ (b. We can take middle ones. ''t'' (I) and ''n'' (rr) have close pronunciation. then letter ''tt'' (m) adding more than 50 words. Each next letter in Preliminary Alphabet can be chosen depending on maximal quantity of words which could be formed by adding the given letter. It. because with ''01'' (a) it gives UP = AR = Sun = wp (ar) and this pair is the most spread in Armennian language (about 3% of all words). k. Then it was proved that these two letters (sounds) with another two letters (half-sounds) ''h'' (h) and "]" (y) give about 30 words (and "important" ones). Old letters had to be almost similar to letters of Developed Alphabet presented in Table 9. 2. ]!. UJ. 2· I put them in two lines of 10 and 9 letters (see Table 15). ph). The next productive letters were "t (h)" (e. tu. It.U" (u. Then. WJP (man). The second letter was ''p'' (r).jwpw (wound). so it could be one old letter. it is a vowel and wide spread in Armennian. hw (yes). 4. g. uij (I). etc. This Preliminary Alphabet was born perhaps about 17 thousand years ago (XV millennium BC) and had less than 20 letters. v. developing step-by-step. ye) and "fi" (n).. Can we restore that Preliminary Alphabet? Let us try. p" (d. I took 19 letters which form thousands of words (a whole language!).4 (Table 9) and are on rocks in Armennia (dated III millennium BC). p. p" (d.jwp (lover). tq. th). Position 4 was the most difficult. 4.

.. This means that these letters were used also as figures. 2. All these confirm the following: 1. evolution of which gives the present configuration of the figures. see Table 12) is right. his entity is my base and pair (essence) of my soul.of soul sence) p 1lt PdWIUlqwfig people et d 9 q u nt q ~ to the n It}1wgdwfi union tu fizwfit! sign 2 d" 2 1.bnpJOLGl! entity mbli adore n tuwG» UI h}nJpfit is base }nt(h) qrn. see Table 15. Table 10) is right. Method Xl! 4 and restoration of Armennian Preliminary Alphabet is right.. 4. Method X! 2 (''trees'' of letters. • The love springs of all people . whole phrases in Armennian (see Tables 10 and 15) which in English will be the following: I adore the life giver (the Sun). to love.Table 15 ARMENNIAN PRELIMUNARY ALPHABET (and FIGURES).6 hw6btlt nice - pntnp all u}1pn ~}1thpt! springs of love IlbuHt zwm very After doing this I was very surprised by two flndlngs. Perhaps. 10 millennium BC 1 ID 2 3 4 5 6 7 ID 8 9 0(10) 0 P t mllmJPfi giver J B bu I h h fi II 6pw his U P q q p (i) the life t lJlUlZ. coming to us from the distance of 12 thousand years! @ The configuration (structure) of these letters is almost similar to the configuration of present ten figures (0. 3. Method X! 1 and the interpretation of Armennian letters meanings (see ELD. by Greeks in I millennium BC) and then decimal 108 . Present figures and decimal counting system (with zero) were born in Armennia about 10 thousand years ago. 2.•9). 1.to (are) the sign of very nice union. to unity.JQ1! hnqLnp my (and) pair(es. this was kept in secret and was not adopted (say. • <D These two lines of letters mean two This is indeed a marvellous appeal to kind God.

It is good that this word was not forgotten. which is easy to understand. learn. So perhaps they were used as a table like it is shown here in Table 15a. 0 upwllnplibp units lDwuliwllnplibp tens hWP6n1pWllnplibP undreds hWiliwpwlln£libP t ousan s ten thoUsands 0 0 0 0 0 1 w wo 111 1110 1110 0 2 p 3 J JO b bo 4 h ho u uo uoo 5 h 6 6 60 1! 1!0 1!00 Table 15a 7 8 9 m mo 10 d do 2 20 q qo po ho q qo qoo P ho hoo 2 20 loo 1000 ~. and was again invented later in Medieval Europe." for@(see Table 10). the following letters were used: "q" or "ln]" for Ea. "I}" fore. "p" for c and "1. thereat these letters are absent in Tables 15 and 15a. Table 15 demonstrates that in Preliminary (12 thousands years ago) and in Developed (VI millennium BC) Alphabets the same letters as in present Armennian Alphabet were used. 5. The decimal counting system was forgotten for a long time. remember and use. perhaps. that at the very beginning the letters as figures were used. Arithmetical operations with this Table 15a are easier than with Table 17 shown below. For operation signs. Table 15 also tells. boo 20 0 20 0 109 . which consists of 19 letters.system with zero was forgotten in Christianity time. Let us remind that children learn to count using ten fingers and the word ''mathematics'' in Armennian is ''tiwm • h • dwm • pqw".. and figures from 0 to 90000. which is ''finger comes after finger". "d" for 0. Meanwhile it was (and is) very simple and convenient system.

Table 10. ''Figures names meanings". These Armennian old names of figures are possible to decode using ELD. The similarity between letters and figures is present not only for the first line of letters but also for the second line (see Tables 15 and 15a). sense which is shown in Table 16.12. And the result is very interesting: the names indeed have their own meaning. This circumstance again confirms that the present figures have Armennian derivation.2. FIGURES NAMES MEANINGS At first. the line of Preliminary Alphabet of the first ten letters was used as a decimal figures system (see Table 15a). 110 . At the same time initial figures received the names. which are in use until now. Later the configuration of figures changed a little (to be the difference between figures and letters) and figures have gotten the present form. about 10000 years ago.

n~lil point.li\uwm) this not complet yet to e five fingers) UWmt qlluh liuwli (wllwpmllwb) li e human's head (completed) pu hW2npq (dbnpp) j\Pw on my next (liand UW~lt hnqm hwuwp 1J. 2. for 1000. moreover). its name qebpen--+ uebeq bpq emeu bpebep meaning of figure name uqpqp m~JlIl1!. wnw2Pli one. Mesrop Mashtots perhaps knew something about old meanings of letters.wtli) giving the begmmng ut) spiritual (non-material) pu Wlip \biP (hu P~u) bemy a (myse {mJq mlibgwlip oompq (4:d.cJbr). letter ''6'' (wnwqlq. letter ''ri' (UhCt. letter "d" (m. not ing llliq. big. bubu lam wJli it hpup base uwpq man uwu part lllib big 3 4 leopeu h epli e q t h (11) (n) 5 u ID 6 ll eb eg 7 Jenep mep Qu) or human soul U b' 8 (uui) ntli~ qw~mpJmfi (it) as a ility thn UW~t ~li~pfi (1:) it (is) nen 0 man q (q) 9 peliet! n (0) meweu peueweli hn ebu e mfi 40 10 pu luwlip~ mntfit!(wllw£mwb) house 0 my life (comp eted) liw luwlipp qWllw~ (t) ~wJmfi it (is) stable chi d of ife bpbp ~WUliJWW bu mlibgw t ree (tens I have lnpu ~mwuliJw1U bu mfibgw our (tens) I have (fiw) hpliq qWllw~(mwuliJwq) mfip (he) has five c ildren (tens) hwpnq dbp wpupli trend to your Sun (life) hwpnq wq~ ~UPfi trend to nation s un (life) Notes 1.bm.•. 1be first thing we can see in this Table 16 is that the meanings of all figures were chosen with main purpose to make the learning and remembering of them as easy as possible.Table 16 FIGURES NAMES MEANINGS basic meaning of letter letter (see Table 10) 0 (n) figure. for 100. great). powerful). because using letters as figures he put for 10. first qntJq pair 0 (I) ID (w) 1 2 P (b) a J h (u) (4) bU~hqWp~r) I 0 long hwpbtIlblij}l trend to the . (pwJg~ hnqLnp (w li)m.wb) we) have close pair (toget er) hW2npqli ~1l wupwgliml next ma es harder uw (:qbn) nl ~1l (hr. 20 30 pwn ewu e mli hp e u e mfi h ewp e jmp h ewq ewp 50 100 1000 111 .

For high culture and alphabet development and accumulation from zero. This shows that old Armennian decimal system with zero was forgotten indeed because Table 17 is more complicated in use than above Table 15a. 36 of Mashtots' Armennian letters and their use as figures from 1 to 9000 are shown. From early Middle Ages up to now (sometimes) Armennian letters instead of figures were used. High culture and alphabet are not able to arise in small countries or islands. 2. ARMENNIAN AND OTHER ALPHABETS Everybody learns at school and university that all alphabets were taken (adopted) from Phoenician and some of them also partly from so-called Aramean. In VII century AD the first tables of addition.13. MEDIEVAL FIGURES . great experi- 112 .R It is evident that this system of figure -letters had no zero and is ''nine- mal" (not decimal) which is more difficult in use.14. And almost all countries quickly adopted Phoenician alphabet during I millennium BC. In Table 17. more over during a short period of time. multiplication and division were constituted by Armennian mathematician and astronomer Annania Shirakatsi [22]. 4 LIIu 5 b 6 7 8 9 lU U eT £1 1I l: ~ e :J III tens L n -'l.LETTERS. And everybody learns that old Greek high culture comes from Crete-Mikenian culture.2. subtraction. Q hWPJnfuwqnpfi p hundreds hwqwpwqnpfibp thousands ti IT a '-l "U c P n B 0 n U S n~ Cl> . many thousand years.. Table 17 1 upwqnpfibp units unuuflunlnp 2 p p 3 q. The same was in Europe.

technology.ence of great nation with high knowledge. Kilikian. alphabet took place only in Old Armennia with its many kingdoms. The fact that Phoenician Alphabet is the same Armennian Alphabet is shown in Table 9. Hittites and Halides (Urartians) who were inhabitants of Araratian kingdom [61]. technology. Carahunge. Armennian Language Analysis and many other factors (see PART 3) confirm that necessary conditions and evolution of knowledge. I think it is right because Kilikia is closer to Greek than Phoenicia. are necessary. and Kilikian Alphabet was the same PhoenicianArmennain Alphabet. that Greek Alphabet was adopted from Kilikia [61]. 113 . etc.Rimshneider tells that all Greek culture was taken from Kilikians. In Table 18 the evolution ''tree'' of Armennian and Other Alphabets is shown. dialects. German historian M. M. Phoenicians. including Araratian. 12 letters are similar (46%) and only 2 letters are different (8%) from Armennian letters "q" (z) and ''u'' (s). From 26 Phoenician letters 12 are the same Armennian ones (46 %). Phoenician and many other kingdoms. Armennian Alphabet arose in the Great Armennia about 15-12 thousand years ago.Rimshneider also tells. All these four countries were Armennian kingdoms (see PART 3).

BC European Alphabets f- Etrusks ~ ID cent. Evolution of Armennian and Other Alphabets Armennian language began 45000 years ago Armennian written language 25000 years ago (pictures. BC Arabian Asian and African Alphabets All All Alphabet VII cent. BC Jewish I-square ~ letters Alphabet XVI cent. BC Alphabet X cent.BC ~habet Latin • .B~ (beforexmcent. BC Brahma Alphabet V cent. BC ("~') Alphabet VIII cent. BC ~ ~ Old Egyptian Alphabet XVII cent. BC Old Latin - 28 etters before IV cent. B~ Jewish Annennian Annennian (Hiksosean) The same The same Alphabet XVII cent. hieroglyphs) ! Armennian Preliminary Alphabet 19 letters and 10 figures X millennium BC Armennian Developed Alphabet 34 letters VI millennium BC Armennian Present Alphabet 39 letters (recovered in 406 AD by M. symbols.Mashtots) - The same Armennian Alphabet of Armennian Kilikia and Armennian Phoenicia (beforexvm cent. BC Sanskrit IV cent. AD Al~habet -114 ID· cent.Table 18. BC Indian - Greek Alphabet 24 letters IX cent.

514] and was very surprised. I found "Aramaean" Alphabet in some books. Why was it done? There are two textbooks for universities "History of Armennian Nation". And the result was excellent. but Great and old Armennian kingdom had not? I think. Armennian language and Alphabet. 43] and in Russian [62. naturally. In table of letters "Aramaean" letters which are identical with Armennian ones 115 . They were Armennians living in Armennian kingdoms of Anterior Asia and used. p. But the results of excavations of Hittites capital town in Anatolia in 20-es of last century confirmed that their language was Indo-European. who returned to his old fatherland after Carthage downfall (146 BC) by Romans. in Armennian [63. Nevertheless in XIX and the beginning of XX centuries the opinion was that Hittites language was semitic. It was strange to me why did Armennian king inscribe on stones for Armennian people of Armennia in foreign (so-called "Aramaean") language? It was impossible. In Aramaean language". that "Aramaeans" never existed. Artashes I the Kind was Armennian king of Great Armennia in 189-160 BC. In literature it is said that all Alphabets come from Phoenician. including "Armennian written language" of H. The letter which is repeated more than others could be "a" because it is specific for Armennian language. The impression is that "Aramaeans" are prepensely concoct tribes with their semitic background and language. He built capital town Artashat (188 BC) near river Aracs in Ararat valley and a citadel with the help of famous marshal Hannibal. Who were Arameans (Aramaeans)? It is said [60] that they were semitic tribes coming from Arabia and in XIV-XI centuries BC lived in Anterior Asia. p. Phoenicia as well as Kilikian.2. Below those photos it is written: "The boundary stone of Artashes I. I rewrote the stone letters (as they were) and saw that many of them are alike Armennian present letters. p. Hittites kingdoms and many other countries in West Asia and Anatolia were Armennian Kingdoms and from very old time spoke Armennian language and used Armennian Alphabet.Acharian [56. To confirm all these I decided to try to read those inscriptions on stones in Armennian. where there are photos of two different boundary (lands dividing) stones with chiselled inscriptions.15. METHOD X! 5 Table 18 shows that all Alphabets come from Armennian Alphabet. Why did historians believe that some "Aramaean" tribes (existed only 3 centuries and even did not have a country) had Alphabet. including socalled "Aramaean" Alphabet [60]. 38]. But "Aram" is typical (very old and present) Armennian name ("Son of Sun") and Armennians lived (and spoke Armennian) in Armennian kingdoms of Anterior Asia much earlier than so-called "Aramaeans". ARMENNIAN AND SO-CALLED "ARAMAEAN" ALPHABET..

against "q". . . p. h. I understood why this confusion was done. In Fig. present Armennian and English translation. . p. ''It'' against "h". 51. ID. p. tl (two vowels).against "a". and in Table 19 the text of inscription is presented in old Armennian (inscriptions are 2200 years old). tu. I put "Aramaean" (and also Phoenician) letters in a table accurately against similar Armennian letters (see Table 9 in Item 2. ''t'' is put against ''It''. UJ.The same letters: w. n. n.were put not in line with the corresponding Armennian letters but in lines of other letters (not similar). ''1}:1'' and ''ID'' . U. 11. 50. G. g. but chiselled inscriptions on stones were impossible to damage everywhere. It was said from the beginning of Christianity adopting that Armennians had no written language (before Mashtots) and Armennian books were burned.Different: p. After this I easily read these inscriptions (of 11 century BC) in Armennian! In Fig. 51 the photo of another stone from the book [63] is shown and in Table 20 the text of inscription is presented. u (no vowels). t. Here are these Armennian letters to which correspond "Aramaean" ones: . Fig. J. etc. 0 (four vowels). For example. Z. "Aramaean" letter "tq" similar to Armennian "u.Similar: 11 h..7 are similar (25%) and 4 are different (14%). 116 Fig. et." is put against Armennian ''11''. q. "p" .4) and espied that from 28 "Aramaean" letters 17 are the same Armennian letters (61 %). L q. So the "Aramaean" (semitic) language was devised and letters in Alphabet were purposely confused to make impossible to read Armennian old inscriptions in Armennian. q. Inscription on stone from the book [63]. 50 the photo of stone in that book [62] is shown. Inscription on stone from the book [62].

and old letters on rocks and stones were outside for a long time and are very suffered. ''the end" means Lake Sevan. 117 . 51) Old Armennian .bW) hnIlbpG (hG) pwqwqnp}1 English translation From (this) standing stone until the end" (East) are lands of the king . qbp2 (wpL. because this stone is put in the basin of Lake Sevan. Thereat.a**lln}1bG m}1 wqbW q hn[IlJbp qwhwlllwGllw Present Armennian (UJu)qwGqGwb"llwp}1g U}1G1.L.. Comparison of present Armennian letters with old Armennian (Phoenician and "Aramaean") letters (Table 9) shows that most of them are the same. • The meaning of letter ''p'' is "standing" according to Table 10.Inscriptions decoded: Table 19 (see Fig. All these mean that Armennian written language (Alphabet) existed about 600 years before Mashtots (about 2200 years before us). 50) Old Armennian Uq Il* Ilnn}1bG Present Armennian English translation Beginning from (this) standing stone untilArtait.160 BC) with inscriptions are in Armennian language with Armennian letters. •• I think. and all socalled "Aramaean" inscriptions are Armennian ones in Armennian language. (the) lord of this land is (the) king bap lJquwb" (uiju) qwGqGwb" Ilpunulnn' un] Ilwp}1g Ilpunupm' mbpG tbmllt WJU quihunqtufl hunq tbmllt uiju pwqwqnpl! hunu Inscriptions decoded: Table 20 (see Fig. it is necessary to remember that present letters configuration has been corrected few times. Boundary stones of Armennian King Artashes I the Kind (189 .

hieroglyphs) arose about 25 thousand years ago. It developed step by step from simple sounds to words. All these are confirmed by Armennian language analysis. as well as many Armennian male and female names beginning with "ar". Preliminary Alphabet (19 letters) arose in Armennia more than 12 thousand years ago (in X millennium BC). The first written language (symbols. The Developed Armennian Alphabet (34 letters) arose in VI millennium BC and these letters are in use until now (with some correction). Together with the first Alphabet arose and were in use ten figures (with zero). The fact that the cradle of Indo-Europeans and Indo-European languages was Armennia (Armennian Highland. Mount Ararat). pictures. signs of Zodiacal constellations).45 thousand years ago. This is also confirmed by the presence in Armennian language of many words which have meaning. reckoning). which confirms the priority of Armennian written language. Later the decimal system and zero were forgotten and were invented again in Medieval Europe. CONCLUSION OF PART 2 Armennian language arose in Armennia beginning from the time of Homo Sapiens. Le. the name of old Main God of Armennians). and that from the very old time (more than 7 thousand years) there was a developed astronomy are confirmed by many European authors [52. All other Alphabets in the World came from this Alphabet (Table 18). It was the first Alphabet in the World. sense in Armennian and which are in use (adopted) by many other languages (see Table 14). decimal reckoning and mathematics (this word means in Armennian ''finger comes after finger".2. 118 .16. The fact that Armennians have lived in Armennia for all times is confirmed also by many geographical names in Armennia.37. All Armennian main names came without any change from Paleolithic time (more than 10 thousand years).53. main of which began (and begin) from "ar" (the Sun. etc. The first. Many of these signs came to us and are in use in Armennia and in other countries (for example.] and also by Carahunge (pART 1). 40 .38.

So-called "Aramaeans". two examples of which are given in Tables 12 and 13. Then. This is confirmed also by Table 16. It is said in different books that these inscriptions are in semitic Aramaean language. and later were forgotten. I was also able to read in Armennian the inscriptions on land boundary stones of Armennian King Artashes I the Kind (189 -160 BC). his entity is my base and pair of my soul". formation of new words by adding a new part (parts) to the existed word. 19. All these conflrm also that Armennian language and Alphabet are the first which were developed alone (from nobody it was possible to adopt words) and came to us from very old time. I think. "Aramaean" language and Alphabet were in reality Armennians. The reading of inscriptions in Armennian language confirms that: . which is shown in Table 10 ''Elements (letters) Dictionary" (ELD).11) coming from X millennium BC (Table 15). Armennian language and Alphabet (Tables 15.. and that present figures and decimal system of counting with zero come from 12 thousand years old Armennian Preliminary Alphabet.In the life of this Alphabet there was an intermption for one century after Christianity adopting in Armennia as state religion in 301 AD. so present Armennian Alphabet includes 39 letters. . All these demonstrate also that the letters used in Preliminary and Developed Alphabets were the same as the present Armennian letters. perhaps. The analysis of Alphabet and Armennian language shows that each Armennian letter has also a definite sense. meaning (coming from old time). And this means that independent Tables 10 and 15 are right. All these confirm that Table 10 (ELD) and 15 are right. Le. Later three more letters were added. The Method of ELD composition is shown in Item 2. These were very big surprise for me. I was able to restore the Armennian Preliminary Alphabet with 19 letters (see Item 2. 119 .5. Consistent and logical development of Armennian language.Armennian Alphabet existed before Mashtots (for about 600 years as minimum) and . The meanings of letters were used in Armennia and other countries.to the sign of a very nice union". until I millennium AD. Using of ELD shows that almost each Armennian word becomes understandable (even many foreign words and names).3. The next 9 letters gave another sentence: ''The love springs of all people ..0 (10) which we are using now. is confirmed by ELD and presence of ''trees'' of letters. because the names of present figures have definite meanings (explanation) in Armennian. The second big surprise was the analogy between letters (of the first and second lines in Table 15) and figures 1.20). in 406 AD Mesrop Mashtots reestablished the written Armennian language with the existed Armennian Alphabet of 36 letters.2. First 10 letters decoded by ELD gave the sentence: ''I adore the life giver (the Sun).

Armennian Language was the first language in the World, the God's language, the basis of all Indo-European languages and the International Language until IT-I millennium BC. Armennian Alphabet was the first alphabet from which all other alphabets were adopted.

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armtorrent.com

PART 3
HISTORY OF OLD ARMENNIA

"Ex Oriente Lux!" (Light From East!)
3.1. INTRODUCTIONHistory of Christian Armennia with names of kings, patriarchs and scientists is illuminated and widely represented in many manuscripts, books, documents and monuments. But History of Old Armennia is illuminated very weakly and with very big distortions. This book may be the flrst attempt of short scientific recital of real History of Old Armennia from the very beginning until the Christianity adopting as state religion in 301 AD. The main basics of this PART 3 are PART 1 (Carahunge), PART 2 (Armennian Language Analysis), many results of excavations, results of other scientific directions and opinion of many other specialists.

3.11. ANTHROPOLOGICAL DATA Russian anthropologist V.V.Bounyak in his book ''Grania Annenica"· (Annennian Granium, P.H.) 1927, [65, p. 263] wrote: "Armennoid type (race) is known from the most early time and has wide dispersal in all regions of Mesopotamia, beginning from its South part up to source of Tigris and Euphrates, and further until West end of Anatolian peninsula, from the one side, and until inside regions of Iran - from the other side. There were not any other race elements in the oldest population of Anterior Asia. Formation of this type was finished in Anterior Asia before emersion of European and Asian tribes (Thracians, Ellines, Turks) who apparently had not made an influence on anthropological type of population and were dissolved in stable formed Armennoid race". Other anthropologists Ya.Ya. Roginnskiy and M.G. Levvin in the book "Antropology", 1978, [67 p.528] (see also [51, p. 28,29]), wrote: "As it is known, Armennian Highland is one of the places on Earth where the process of formation of present man took place. Apparently in Neolithic time the Armennoid race of

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man was fonned in Anterior Asia and Caucasus. This is proved by results of excavations in Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and other regions. At IV millennium BC and, perhaps earlier they had abruptly expressed features of Europeoid race". N.H. Cochar in the book "Anthropology of Annennians", 1989, [51, p.92], wrote: ''Time restoration for •.• Annennian population showed that Annennoid race was already fonned at the minimum 9000 years ago ••. in Annennian Highland and then propagated to the territories of Anterior Asia and Caucasus". Mentioned in PART 2 M. M. Zourikkian [64, pp. 25-28] tells about the opinion of J. Mallbert who, based on archaeological data, wrote in his book "The Oldest Civilizations of Old East" [81, pp. 79-109] that prehistoric culture arose in Turkish Mesopotamia (must be Armennian Highland, P.H.) and in South part of Anatolia (i.e, in Kilikia, P.H.). The Neolithic civilization discovered in Chattal Hyouk he calls ''the supernova in pale galaxy". In Soviet Encyclopedic Vocabulary (Moscow, 1987) it is said: "Armenoid race - Anterior Asia race, which accentuated by some anthropologists inside the big Europeoid race for the population of Armennia, adjoined part of Small Asia and also Syria. Peculiarities: abundant growth of beard of males, cambered back of nose, almost flat nape" [87, p. 76].

3.12. TERRITORY OF OLD ARMENNIA The native territory of Old Armennia included: 1. Caucasus, with South Caucasus (Trans Caucasus) and lands around mounts Ararat, Aragats, Syunic, Artsakh, Vardenis etc., mount ridges Small Caucasus, Armennian Par (dance), Geghamma, Aregouni, etc., lake Sevan, rivers Aracs, Cour, Hrazdan, etc, and seaboards of Black and Caspian seas. 2. Annennian Highland, with mounts Sipan, Nemrout, Marouta, Npat etc., mount ridges Carouta, Tayk, Cardouka, Annennian Tauros, High Annennia etc., lakes Kapoutan (Urmia) and Van, rivers Euphrates, Aratsani, Tigris, Aracs, Chorokh, etc. 3. Mesopotamia, with rivers Euphrates, Tigris, lands of Babylon, Sumer, Phoenicia, seaboards of Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea. 4. Asia Minor (Anatolia), with High Annennia, Annennia Minor, Kilikia, Kilikian Tauros mounts, seaboards of Black, Mediterranean and Aegean seas. 5. East side of Mediterranian Sea: with Pynikia, Palestine, Lebanan, Syria. Armennians (Armennoid race) arose in Armennia first around Mount Ararat, lake Sevan and in Armennian Highland with lake Van, then propagated in all Caucasus, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor and were the single population of all these territories from the very beginning (50-40 thousand years ago) until IV-DI millennium BC.

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In all these territories Armennians live until now. The territory of present Republic of Armennia is too small- about 30000 sq.km (about 5% of historical Armennia). In present time there are many terminological distortions in use. For example, Armennian Mesopotamia with capital town Arhan (Urpha, Orran, Eddessia), known as Armennian Kingdom from the old time until the historical period of 312 BC • 216 AD, now is called North Mesopotamia; Armennian Highland is called East Turkey (they wanted to change even the name of Mount Ararat); instead of Armennoid race now is in use Europeoid, Caucasian and even Anterior Asian race.

3. 13. NATURAL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS The development of human population, especially in early period, depended on surrounding environment (conditions). The geographical latitudes of Old Armennia were in limits from about 41°N down to 300N. In early (the first) period Armennians lived in South Caucasus and Armennian Highland in latitude limits from 36° to 41° and in longitude limits of about of 37°· 49° with total territory of about 400 000 sq. km, which is now called Historical Armennia and where Armennian kingdoms were developed (see also [93, p. 117] ). Historical Armennia is the upland with average altitude about 1700 m and with many extinct volcanic mountain ridges. Armennian Highland is the geographical name (term) of separate mountainous territory between Black, Caspian and Mediterranean seas, which is towering above surrounding territories. The NW part of Armennian Highland includes the mountain ridges of High Armennia and is going until the seaboard of Black Sea; the North and NE parts include Ararat Valley and Armennian Par (dance) ridge and are going until Rion and Cour rivers and Caspian sea; the SE part (with lake Urmia) is going until Iranian Plateau; the SW part is going until North (Armennian) Mesopotamia; and the West part is going until Asia Minor Plateau. The highest Mount is Ararat (Big Ararat or Masis with altitude 5165m and Small Ararat • 3925m) which is beautifully towering above Ararat Valley (about 900m) with river Aracs, and which is at almost equal distances from lakes Sevan, Van and Urmia, and also from Black, Caspian and Mediterranean seas. Mount Ararat with Ararat Valley is shown in Fig. 52, 53 and 54. The sky in Armennia is usually blue, with the Sun. There are often the beautiful Sunsets, as shown in Fig. 55.

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There are also many other high extinct volcanoes such as Mount Aragats (4095m, with four tops and a huge crater in the middle of them), Sipan 4434m, Khachkar 3937m, Kapoutjough 3917m, Gemagan 3609m, Ishkhanasar 3552m, Tondrak 3542m, Artos 3475m, Rmbasar 3373m, Mravasar 3343m, Samsar 3285m, Khustup 3216m, Sarmants (Byourakn) 3189m, Mndzour 3188m, Maimekh 3109m, Nemrut 3050m, Maroutasar 2967m, and many others [68]. Armennian Mountains consist of huge quantity of useful stones (granite, basalt, tuff, obsidian, agate, etc.), metals (iron, copper, gold, tin, molybdenum, etc.). There are also many big and small rivers, many springs of cold and pure water. There are large forests in valleys, slopes of mountains, and many flowers. Let us remember that here was the Biblical paradise. The climate is temperate with not very hot Summer (20°- 30°C), and snowy but not very frosty Winter (_5°, -15°C). The air is clear, there are many sunny days (about 360 days per year) and clear sky (starry) nights. There is the reach animal kingdom: lions, tigers and jaguars (in past), deers, bears, foxes, goats, harts, wolves, etc., also eagles,. storks, cranes, swallows, pigeons etc. Many fishes are in lakes and rivers. Historian Kh.Samouelyan tells that at Stone Age (Paleolithic) in Armennia there lived even mammoths, bones of which were excavated in Lorri, near rivers Debbed and Phammbak confluence, in Gyumri (see Fig. 56 and 57), which are kept in Yerevan Geological Museum, another skeleton was excavated near village Khnus, which are kept in British Museum with name "Elephas Armenniacus" [34, pp. 108,109]. Nature of Armennia with mountain relief, variable climate (SummerWinter), rich natural resources and other conditions were favorable for life and development of Stone Age Man and forwarded the fast evolution of his culture.

Fig. 56. Skeleton of a Mammoth excavated in Armennia [34].

Fig. 57. Picture of a Mammoth painted by Stone Age Man [34].

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ARMENNIA IN VERY OLD TIME (300 . 125 . Excavated in Armennia obsidian tools of Stone Age time [34]. In Fig. Archaeological excavations. found many camps and settlements of Stone Age Man with his thousand stone (obsidian.50 THOUSAND YEARS AGO) The territory of Old Armennia and particularly of Armennian Highland was one of the places where the Stone Age Man arose and developed with his culture. Excavated in Armennia stone hammers of Stone Age time [34]. 58. 58 stone hammers found in Old Nakhichevan salt mine are shown and in Fig. Fig.3. clay dishes. 59 obsidian tools (instruments) excavated near villages Cham-Megri and Khphchag are shown [34]. particularly in present Armennia. bones etc. Fig. These instruments were in use in Stone Age time of Armennia. 2. fire-places. done in this territory. 59. basalt) instruments.

465. pp. The main finding was the lower jaw of Stone Age Man who lived 100-50 thousand years ago. [71]. pictures on walls. villages Lousakert. 123. Lousakkert. v. In Historical Armennia such settlements were excavated in basin of lake Van. in valleys of rivers Euphrates and Aratsani. many clay dishes and decorations. etc. many fire-places. m near village Azokh with the big camp of Stone Age Man was excavated (7m depth). Azokhian is very interesting because he is the transitive man from Sinantrop (400 thousand years ago) to Neanderthal man (200-35 thousand years ago). Armennian historian She Mkrtchian tells about excavations in Azokh. Aregouni Blour.21. Jrabber. Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon men (Homo Sapience) who was the ancestor of Armennians. AR-FATHER MAIN GOD AND HAYA-MOTHER GODDESS From the very beginning (50-40 thousand years ago) Armennians felt very well that they are living among Nature. and from Neanderthal man to the Cro-Magnon man (50-40 thousand years ago) who is the man of present type (Homo Sapience) [71]. in Hrazdan gorge near towns Yerevan and Arzni. beginning from very old time (more than 300 thousand years ago) and down to 50-40 thousand years ago the Stone Age Men lived: Sinantrop. on slopes of Armennian Tauros ridge. on mount Artin (SW slope of mount Aragats). Harravvayin Blour.Many of such settlements with Stone Age Man Paleolithic culture were excavated in present Armennia in Ararat Valley. in Armennia. The huge cavern of more than 3000 sq. also near village Azokh in Nagorni Carabakh (more than 300 thousand years ago) [70. [68. Being in close contact with Nature they felt its kind and cruel forces all the time. UK and Italy. 5].I. Besides that in Azokh cavern there were found more than 20 thousand bones of 43 types of different animals. p. In 1979 by the group of international archaeologists he was called "Azokhian" and it was said that Azokh is "The famous finding of the place of human oldest civilization" [71]. Before this the remains of Neanderthal man were found out in four places: Morocco. 122. The kindest and joyous phenomenon in their life (as well as in life of all animals and plants) was the Sun. in valley of Carbert. Germany. are a particle of Nature. Karmir. in cavern Azokh. trimmed stones. etc. Thus. giving the light and warmth on which 126 . 3. about 6 thousand stone instruments (tools). 1974]. Shannidar etc. According to Armennian Encyclopedia the camps of Ashellian culture (500-100 thousand years ago) in present Armennia were excavated in places Satani Dar.

say 15 . as the kind.10 millennia ago).LtuwLlnp UumLlwb) and Armennians were His children. Other Armennian Gods arose much later and were the children of AR or His Assistants. when Armennians understood that there existed the whole Universe. According to old legends. Armennians believed that they were created (born) by Universe-AR-Father GOD with (and) Earth-Water-Mother GODDESS. the Sun-Father Main God (lW-=lwJP q. Armennian historian L. The full name of the Sun God was "THE GREAT AND ARYAN AR-FATHER GOD" (UbtTh ru. asked Him to help. Shahinian writes that AR was the Creator of Sky and Earth. is the Main God. Uhfi· [nu) = the country of Sun (AR) men" and "Haya-stan (~wJw • umwfi)= the Earth (Mother) country". They spoke with the Sun in Armennian which was the first language. This is one more demonstration of the equality of man and woman in Armennia from the old time until now. the God's language. the part of which is the Sun. Her name was "=lUaU=HAYA [haja]". p. which in Armennian means: "Areyan"= (the people) from the Sun country. From the old time Armennians called their own country of Armennia (and its inhabitants-Armannians) by two equivalent names: Armennia (Armennian) and Hayastan (Hay=Hi).. This is illustrated by the old Armennian word "Astvats" = God.upp ur-euer. Their respect and love to the Sun grew into a belief and worship of the Sun as the GodFather. where "Ast" means ''the Universe" and ''vats'' means "spread". so the Sun is the Creator of all Earth. So these names came from AR-Father (Fatherland) and from Earth. freehanded and unselfish Creator. Unfortunately. after the accumulation of knowledge about the stars and constellations (perhaps before the time of Carahunge. the AR. They also knew that the Sun gives light. the Main God and Father of other Gods. the closest and powerful representative (object) of the Universe. animals and plants. In fact. when there were difficulties and were thankful to Him.depended their life. It is necessary to note here that later. many authors have a wrong opinion. 127 . 4]. or "Hay-ya-stan = my Armennian country".Mother (Motherland). Armennians always believed in one God. they extended the concept of God over all the Universe. So it is naturally that they respected and loved the Sun as their father. warmth and life to all people.uus-utm. In Armennian this name means: Hay-ya [haj-ya] (hWJeJw)=I am Armennian". that Hayastan is the proper-name used by • The pronunciation of the word "huij = Annennian" is as in English pronunciation of the word ''high'' (or ''hi''). They talked with the Sun (AR in Armennian). The Sun-God was the Father of Armennians. These names mean: "Ar s men cia (Up. Aryans. as Armennians believed [77. so Astvats is the essence "spread in (all) Universe".

because all people saw every day that the Sun sets into the Atlantic Ocean. In reality the Sun cult lives also now. UpL. as it was. were not any sacrifices or wild dances. who until now swear by the Sun with words ~pu wpL. whose Son was Jesus Christ with His kind homily. I want to explain and to tell the historical truth. long time and deep roots and sources and Christianity was born from the Armennian Sun-Father-God old and kind religion. (to my father's Sun). ocean. their own names. c) so these names came from the country in language of which the words (names) have the meanings. could not arise in one day. b) all other countries could not use the same name. and Armennia is the name used by peoples of other countries. Thus. Armennia and Hayastan are Armennian words. both names have convincing explanation in the Armennian language. Godanimals. It was human and kind religion of old and civilized nation . It had a big.Armennians only. And until now in Christianity the God-Father is the Sun (AR). "Ar-mor-ika" in Armennian means "The Sun goes to Mother". For Armennians the concept of Mother was so high that even the Sun after each day in Sunset went to rest to His Mother Le. The kind Sun-God religion Armennians propagated later to many other tribes and nations during many thousand years. but could use different. All these do not mean that I want to return the Sun religion. the old Armennian name of the Brittany Peninsula in NW of France. because: a) both names came from Armennian old Gods names in Armennian language. (to my mother's Sun). The adoration of Great and Aryan Sun-Father Main God AR was in Armennia during about 50 thousand years. it means that the name was taken from one place (country). etc.. So. this great and civilized religion. Armennians. because in Christianity the Father-God is the same Armennian old the Sun-Father-God. can be explained. where the Sun means also their life. English historian Archibald Says writes: "The adoration of Ara (AR) was 128 . as it was shown above. From there came also the word "Armorika". Christianity. ''Yeva'' (Eve) in Bible. The high respect and love to father and mother Armennians keep until now and it is one of the main Armennian traditions. so if everywhere is the same name.u tlqw (my Sun is witness). where lived Bretons = Celts = Armennians (see below). fire. Later the name Haya was transformed to Armennian name Gayane and in other languages as "Geya". beyond Armennian mountains or into sea. Unpu wpL. may be. (the Greek Goddess of Earth). Thus to call the Sun religion ''heathen'' or ''pagan'' (hbpwGnuwqwfi) is not correct. AR was the main God in all Armennian kingdoms and then was adopted by many other countries. In old Sun religion there were not idols. are the sole nation in the World. Jesus Christ was (and is) Armennian. fetishes. d) as it was shown above. Armennians kept the Sun-God religion until Christianity adopting as the state religion in 301 AD. etc.Armennians. It is a mistake.

the chief of all Gods. ARALLI in Georgia. ete. 129 . Another rock-carving art center is also near Sissian. Particularly more than 2000 decorated rocks were discovered at mount Oughtassar near Sissian at altitude 3300m. BC with the most animals of old time. Mexico. ARES.) is "strikingly similar" and has "a common source". gazelles. Arpa. p. Greece. But now this name is used with some distortion. 11]. AARA in Assyria.q= admirers of the Sun =Armennians. Iran (at m-n millennia BC) [73.Karakhanian and P. There are also many carved pictures and scenes with the rising Sun. the self name of Armennians living around lake Van (Armennian Highland) was HARD which means: H·AR·D = ~. pyramids) of different countries (Egypt. Assyria. p. scenes of hunting.73]. mouftlons. Now in different parts of Old Armennia the name of Main God AR is also distorted. as goats. American researchers Lytle Robinson and Edgar Cayce think that old culture (sphinxes. Greece. APPOLLO in Greece. Aragats. Vorotan etc. lions. 61. as Hald or Chald and many authors use it also as the name of Main God of Chaldeans. In the book of L. ARIA in Babylon. Persia. Indeed. p. Syunic (Zangezour). dogs. the same source of their culture. Here we can see the carvings of V . Yucatan. The results of research show that Indo-Europeans had one. panthers. 60. bears. etc. wolves. etc. the main Gods in other countries were: RA in Egypt. He may have come from Caucasus"[74. in sources of rivers Yeghegis. ALLAH in Islam.Satian presented 342 Tables with groups of rock-carvings in the book "Rock-Carvings of Syunic" [49]. jackals.formed in Armennian Highland then propagated to many tribes and nations of the Old World" [73. Armennian historians G. ARAMAZD (ORMOUZD) in Iran. aurochs.H.13]. In present Armennia there is a huge quantity of Rock-carvings in the regions of Vardenis mountains ridge. deer. BC) as a model of the Sun picture. 60 and 61 tells the supposition that the wheel was invented in Armennia (much earlier than V mill. Robinson it is said: "The name Re or Ra was attached to the Sun God. YAR (YARILLO) in Slav countries.ID mill. This similarity in its turn confirms that Aryans from the Armennian Highland propagated to Sumer (at IV millennium BC) and to India. etc. The comparison of these two Fig. see Fig.G. Iranian "Avesta". horses. Indian Vedas. For example. This is supported by the similarity between the old Armennian Epos "Sasna Tsrer".Up. Maya. on mount Djermadjour.

5 Fig. Rock-carving with the Sun-rising process (two moments) (V mill. Rock-carving (IV mill. BC) [49]. BC).60. The cart with four wheels pulled by bulls [49]. 61. 130 .U 2. Fig.

In Armennia there were also many Sun God Temples in Etchmiadzin. 63 the picture of the AR God standing on the Lion is shown. In Fig. all Temples were destroyed after Christianity adopting (except Garni). p. More details about this Monument see in Item 3.23. In Fig. where the center of the main Priest was. human religion of the civilized nations was adopted by Armennians earlier than by other nations because it was the continuation of their Sun-Father kind and human religion. In Fig. 64 the Heads of these sculptures are shown [68. similar to Him KESAR (title of Armenian Kings). of the God TIR and also of the AR God symbols: the Lion and the Eagle. The destroyed unique Armennian Monument in kappadokia (now in Turkey) with Heads from right to left of the God AR. of the Goddess ANNAHIT. 62 the AR-Father God Temple (1-11 cent. The main Temple was in Darrannaghiats region in Ani fortress. Zvartnots. Garni etc. Fig. 64. 131 . Unfortunately. To the West of lake Van. Unfortunately this unique Monument was destroyed. and on their foundations the Christian Churches were built. This painting was found during excavations and restoration works on one of inside walls of Errebouni (Yerevan) old castle (VIII cent.21]. 9 m height sculptures (sitting on the thrones) of the Armenian Main God AR. Lion [68]. AD) in Garni (present Armennia) is shown. Eagle. of the God VAHAGN. Christianity as a kind. BC) [73]. the KESAR. the Goddess ANNAHIT. near river Euphrates. Eagle. the God VAHAGN . Carahunge. and also because the God-Father in Christianity (still now) is the same Armennian SunFather main God AR. on the slope of Mount Nemrut in Kappadokia (now in Turkey) there is a unique old Monument with big.

Feeder". To Her in "Vardevvar" festal day roses were presented. Leader". "Nanne (Nanni)" means: "Mother. "Astghik" . The supposing date of His "birth" is 22 946 BC Areg 1 (March 21). The sculpture of VAHAGN in Yerevan is presented in Fig. before the Great Deluge."little star". Grand Mother". Lightning and Battle (later). the brightest object on the Sky after the Sun and the Moon. the Daughter of AR and Wife of VAHAGN. Ilpnn = the Throne of Annahit". 67. the Daughter of AR. • This word is necessary to read as Vahhaggn. ASTGHIK Goddess (UulJ1l1l1q) (wumtlwbnthp). in Vaspurakan and in High Armennia. near Lake Van. love and beauty. 66 is shown (see also page 15. perhaps. Armavvir and other places. 65. Her main Temples were in Yekkeghiats region of High Armennia. Her Head. She was very lovely Goddess of skylight. also in Artashat. He was very lovely Armennian God of Courage. in Yerizavvan (now Yerznka). kept in British Museum. The old sculpture of His Head (made. ANNAHIT Goddess.1). wuUUJ. 132 . VAHAGN *. Heroism. the Young and Hardy Vahagn (J!w2fi ~whwqO). "Nar" in Armennian means "Leading. Her Temples were in Ashtishat in Taron region and on bank of Lake Van. "The Goddess of Maternity". 64 (the younger God). The painting of the moment of His birth in Fig. ARMENNIAN OTHER OLD GODS The adoration of the Great and Aryan Sun-Father Main God AR arose in Armennia about 50 thousand years ago. Baggarran. also "Feeding.3.22. see Item 3." (the clot of space matter) means "star". the daughter of AR. NAR or NANNE Goddess. she was named also the "Golden Mother" and "Golden Birth". the Fighter of dragons and evil. in Ashtishat of Tarron (to the West of lake Van)· where was "Ilfhnhjnn]. Power. He lived with His wife ASTHGIK in castle on the bank of Lake Van.17). the part of Her smashed sculpture.19) is shown in Fig. when the first Armennian Calendar (Solar) was begun (see PART 1. water. Her name in old Armennia was given to the planet Venus. Her Temple was in town Thil of Darrannaghiats region. "Ast" in Armennian means "Universe". the Goddess of wisdom. Besides AR and Haya Armennians had also other old Gods. She was very respected and loved in Armennia. is shown in Fig. His main Temples were in Ashtishat (in Taron region). Item 'J1. "Astgh.

ARAM (Are am = the Son of the Sun). Hayk and Ara the Beautiful were deified: . the God of fecundity. Ishtar. At least three Kesars: Aram. Issida. His Temples were in Baggaritch of Derdjan region in Armennia Minor and in other places. . hospitality. Kesar. He had ''white'' and "black" big books where He fixed the good and bad actions of people. and also to the international words as "astronomy". TIR God. Kaghzvan. "star". Van. Protector of equity and truth. The photo of the Hayk Kesar sculpture in Yerevan. He was ''the first man". 68.HAYK [ha:jk]. . Babylon Tower and the Great Pyramid builder. The presence of old God TIR also tells about the existence of the written language in old Armennia. vine. 133 . created by God-Father on Earth (Adam by Bible). victor and powerful archer is presented in Fig. at each New Year. In Armennian the word "star" (unnnrp-astgh) came from ASTGHIK (or vice versa). the Son of the AR. the God of light. grape. the Writer God. VANATOUR God with AMMANNOR festal day (the New Year). who fell in action against Assyrian army with their cruel and dissolute queen Shamiram (Semiramide). Armennians were also deifying some of their loved and heroic KingsPriests (Kesars). the first King (Kesar) of Armennia in about 40 millennium BC. The names of all Armennian old Gods are kept until now also as the first and family names of Armennian men and women. harvest. who came to occupy Armennia (11 millennium BC). the victor of Bel (Nemrod) who with Babylon army came to occupy Armennia (2492 BC).ARA GEGHETSIK (Ara the Beautiful). and art. He also understood dreams. Aragats. His Temple was in Baggavvan of Bagrevvand region. By His name was called the Hayk constellation on Sky (now Orion). Protector of written language. science. This festal day was celebrated in each home. Protector of Fatherland and Family. flre. or afterwards ARAMMAZD (=Areameazd=the first Son of the Sun). MIHR (Mardouk) God. His Temples were in Yerazzamouyn (Zvartnots) of Artashat region. gladness (joy).Her name was adopted by other nations. in Carahunge. His cult arose perhaps in the beginning of ill millennium BC. the Secretary of the AR. etc. also proceeded to the names of their Goddesses as Astart.

Annahit (Artemida). Astghik (Aphrodita). For example. in Fig. The East and West parts (terraces) of the Monument are almost similar. KESAR . their faces damaged. Lions and Eagles. 74 the same Lion barrelief with damaged face and body (photo 1996) is shown.the young God. in Egypt AR (RA). Tir (Apollo). 72 the West terrace with empty thrones and damaged Heads of the AR. TIR . Haya (Isida). Fighter of evil. There are also the stone bar-relieves. Some Heads are put separately and were shown in Fig. and also (sitting on smaller thrones) the Symbols of the AR: the Lion and the Eagle. ANNAIDT . similar to the AR. For example. In Fig. VAHAGN . 134 . in Greece AR (Zeus). Vahagn (Herald). the West and the North ones. Aramazd (Ormuzd).the Image of Armennian Kings (Kesars). More information about the present condition of the Monument we have taken from the Internet [lOO]. the Sanctuary of old Armennian Gods with big. In Fig.the Daughter of the AR. near old town Sammosat (near present Adiyaman. 71 another photo is presented (made in 1995) of the same East terrace where the Sculpture of the Annahit Goddess with Her Head is already absent. 70 it is presented the photo (made in 1883) of the East terrace where the Sculptures of the Gods are damaged. Unfortunately the process of the Sculptures damaging continues also at present time. 73 the bar-relief of the Lion on the West terrace (photo 1883) is shown and in Fig. in Palestine Vahagn (Vahhal) and Asghtik (Astart). THE SANCTUARY IN KAPPADOKIA In Kappadokia. "Secretary" of the AR. on the slope of Mount Nemrut (height 2150m) which is on the right bank of river Euphrates. 3. The scheme of the Monument is shown in Fig. but the Sculpture of the Annahit Goddess still had the Head. 9m Sculptures (sitting on thrones). In Fig.Armennian Old Gods with their names (or distorted ones) and their functions proceeded afterwards to the God pantheons of other nations. They were the Sculptures of Gods: AR (SUN) . They consist of 5 big and 4 smaller thrones each for the sitting big Sculptures. in Iran Aram. Orion). Vahagn and Tir are shown. Unfortunately this unique Monument now is terribly destroyed: all Heads of Sculptures are picked up. 69. now in Turkey) there is the stone big old Monument. Five thrones for the Gods and four thrones for the Symbols of AR. etc. 23.the young God. There are three parts of the Monument placed on three big artificial terraces on slope of Mount Nemrut: the East. etc. Hayk (Osiris. Aram (Gor). 64.the Main God of Armennians.

Monument m Kappadokia 135 . .The scheme 0 fthe • Fig. 69.

or "equal to the Sun".10). one more Symbol was added . by Armennians. 3. supposedly.All historical material about the Monument on Mount Nemrut (Fig. So we can suppose that the Monument on Mt. as Armennia. The names of Armennian old Gods are changed into the Greek old Gods names. but in I century BC it was taken back into the Great Armennia by the Armennian King Tigran 11 the Great. or "Half-Sun". Antioch I would never dare to make his statue and face almost identical with AR (or Zeus. in n century BC. as it is in above said information from Turkey). To be similar with AR could be only Armennian Kesars of the Great Armennia who were the Kings and in the same time the Main Priests. The word "kes· ar" -s in Armennian means "Half-God". AU these are wrong. because: 1. 2. of course. that it is Antioch I (king of Kappadokia). Later. 4. Nemrut was built before the Great Deluge and. Kappadokia was the part of the Great Armennia from the very old time (see Item 3. 64-69) is also distorted. during the Great Deluge. As a region of Roman Empire Kappadokia was for a short time. 136 . It is said about the Kesar Sculpture.the Aries (at the same time the name of the first Zodiacal constellation). The Lion and the Eagle were the Symbols of the AR in old Armennia only. and that all the Monument was built as if by Antioch in I century BC. To make this unique and huge labour-consuming Monument it was necessary to do very big earthwork which at that time could be done only by powerful King of a big country.

View from Armennia Fig. Ararat. 52. View from Armennian Capital of Armennia 137 .Fig. 53. Mount Ararat (still in Turkey) and Ararat Valley.

Painted by P. 55. Painted by P. Ararat and Ararat Valley from Mount Aragats. 54. Herouni Fig. Morning. Herouni 138 . Winter.Fig. Sunset on Mount Aragats.

6 3. AR-Father God Temple in Garni (15 km from Yerevan) Fig...Father God on Lion. 62. BC) 139 . AR.Fig. Painting on wall of Erebouni (Yerevan) old castle (VIII cent.

in British Museum) 140 . Armennian old Goddess ANNAHIT. (Bronze copy . The head of the golden sculpture. 6 5.Fig.

The sculpture of VAHAGN in Yerevan 141 . The birth of the God VAHAGN. Painted by P. the Fighter of dragons and evil. 66. 67.F i 2. Herouni Fig.

BC) 142 . Painting on wall of Erebouni (Yerevan) old castle (VIII cent. AR-Father God on Lion. 67 a.Fig.

Armennian Kesar HAYK.Fig. 68. Sculpture in Yerevan 143 .

Painted by V.Fig. Gharibian 144 . the King of Kings. Armennian King Tigran 11 the Great. 68a.

Head 145 . 70. but the ANNAHIT Goddess Sculpture still on throne and had the. The East terrace.Fig. The Sculptures of Gods are damaged. Armennian old Monument in Kappadokia (now in Turkey). photo 1882.

Fig. The East terrace. The Head of ANNAHIT Goddess Sculpture already absent 146 . photo 1995. 71.

VAHAGN and TIR 147 . The West terrace with empty thrones and damaged Heads of the Gods AR.Fig. 72.

74. photo 1883 Fi2. The bar-relief of the Lion in the West terrace.Fi2. 148 The same Lion bar-relief with damaged face and body.73. photo 1996 .

the last parts of the words "Armennia" and ''Hayastan''. During this process the experience. who was also the main Priest. In about 40 millennium BC Armennian nation with its language. The double name Armennia-Hayastan (and Armennian-Hay) comes from the very old time from the names: AR-Father Main God and Earth (Water) . i. Marzpetouni. "Armennians country". Amatouni. to dry fruits. About 45-40 thousand years ago the Armennian (Armennold) race was formed. In Summer people knew that further again will come Winter. MovsesMovsesian. Rshtouni. They were already not tribes. For example. firewood. It was the first civilization in the World. Also live-stock and agriculture were developed. also language and human relations were developed. preserve meat. etc. Armennians began to live in settlements and villages. ''ia'' (side) and "stan" (country) were • The word "Armenia" is necessary to pronounce as "Armennia" [arrmenis]. Aram-Aramian. It means "he has" and comes from lords and kings family names. coming to settled life.3. Later. Gregor-Gregorian. Soon many of them learned to do definite work better and quicker. etc. side is the given person.e. which shows from whose land. The last part of word "Armennia": ''ia (ian)" became the last part of almost all Armennian family names?" (put after the Armennian first names). around Mount Ararat and Lake Van (Armennian Highland). The word "Armennia?" in Armennian means: "Ar-men-ia=Sun people country". Tigran-Tigranian. so it was necessary to make preparations: to make warm clothes from skins of animals. experience. but communities joined into little states having top leaders: lords. The State ARMENNIA-HAYASTAN arose on territories of South Caucasus. knowledge. to build warm and more convenient habitable houses. after many thousand years. social and human relations. etc. and cultural. Arshak-Arshakian. as Bagratouni. •• The word ''Hayastan'' is necessary to pronounce as [hajasta:n]. The word "Hayastan"?" means: "Haya-stane Earth (people) country". technology. ARMENNIA IN OLD TIME (50 . technology.3. tools and instruments. ••• There are some Armennian family names the last part of which is "ouni". At that time there were not any other races all around. It was too much work which was necessary to do for many people. 149 . then King.Mother Goddess (see Item 3.5). culture and country was formed and the formation of the Armennian State (the first on Earth) was completed.20 MILLENNIA BC) The favorable natural and climatic conditions in Armennia contributed the fast development of people with their knowledge.

2492+14 Armennian periods (2492+14xI461=22946 years). India (or Hndkastan in Armenian). Australia. the Armennian old name and the name of Armennian first Kesar. poems and dances (ritual and folk) arose and developed. that in Sumerian legends the name of the first man is III or HAY which in Armennian language is the word "Armennian". The process of the Sky (stars) division to the Constellations was begun. came to occupy Armennia.e. The first King (and main Priest. culture and the first written language (pictorial. odes. The Zodiacal constellations were espied. Bulgaria. It began approximately at Areg 1 (March 21) of 22946 BC. Moon and stars were begun from about 25 thousand years ago. where are the sources of four main rivers: Arraks (arvak-s = beautiful source of the Sun = going to beautiful East). etc. the first Sun-dials were built. development of knowledge. Let me add. Chorokh (or Gallis=coming) and maybe also Tigris. These works were completed in Armennia during 8-3 millennia BC (see PART 1). and is lovely present Armennian name (and family name . Brasill!!. It was the first big war in the World. led by Bel. Kesar) of the Great Armennia was. Afghanistan. i.e. This army (of giants) was shattered by Armennian first organized army led by Kesar Hayk (in 2 492 BC) and Bel was killed by Hayk. Italjg. for example: Britannl!!. perhaps. at the end of 23 millennium BC. Also the astronomical observations of the Sun. symbolic. The Armennian First Calendar (AFC) was established. equality. Armennians in their State lived in atmosphere of kindness. Aram (Arram). which in Armennian is "Hay-o-mard = Armennian holy man". ARAM I (Ar s amethe Son of the Sun) and Arramian Dynasty existed from 40 up to 10 millennium BC. which by Bible was also in Armennia. About 10 thousand years ago Armennians had the first Alphabet (see PART 2).Arramian). Also in Zoroastrian religion (Iran) the name of the first man is HAYOMARD. Arratsani (the tributary of Euphrates). i. According to the legends at the 150 . came to us. freedom and development.25 days in a year arose in Armennia about 8 thousand years ago (see Item "Calendar" in PART 1). BC) also the songs.adopted by many other languages to designate the name of their countries. perhaps. More exact "fixed" Calendar with 365. Euphrates (called also Armennian river). Pakistan. near lake Van. It was the first Calendar in the World. At the old period (50-20 mill. which took place near Lake Van. during the long period of 40-3 millennia BC Armennians were busy just with creative work: villages and towns building. It was the Sun (Solar) calendar with 365 days in a year. the name of the first man created by the God (-Father) in Paradise. so it was so-called ''movable'' calendar. This name is in Bible as Adam. live-stock and agriculture. hieroglyphic). It was a long period of peace from 40 millennium BC until the middle of ill millennium BC when the army of the new forming Babylon. All these coincidencesare not accidental. Thus.

He was the lovely young God. Aflame beard had. The stem ofreed ejected smoke. and he found out that the words of "Birth of Vahagn" comported with the words and melody of the sharrakkan "The Great Sacrament"! So the Great Movses Khorennatsi could keep for us also the melody [78]. These lines are in "grabbar" (Le. In labour was the apricot Sea. 151 . the fighter of evil and dragons. The eyes his were the Suns! Movses Khorennatsi wrote also that he heard as the folk singers (ashoughs in Armennian) sang this verse as the song. perhaps. the lines about the Birth of the God Vahagn. The famous Armennian historian Movses Khorennatsi (V century AD) in his book "History of Armennia" [20] kept for us eleven lines from the very old ode or epos. These very beautiful old lines I tried to translate (for this book) in English: In labour was Sky. 75. in labour was Earth. The sculpture portrait of Movses Khorennatsi (standing near Mattennaddarran in Yerevan) is shown in Fig. but are understandable also in present Armennian. Armennian poet and publicist Levon Mirriiannian compared these lines with the old Armennian sharrakkan (ecclesiastical song) "The Great Sacrament". In Sea a soft red reed In labour was also.same time with the first Calendar the God Vahagn was born. written also by Movses Khorenatsi and performed traditionally until now in favor of Jesus Christ Birth. And the red kid Inflame was running! A fire head he had. The stem ofreed ejected flame. in old Armennian). at Areg 1 22946 BC.

who spoke Armennian language. Komagena. Tsopc. of course. Phoenicia.Fig. then wrote. direct all big regions from one place. The new kingdoms were formed. Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. South Caucasus) to the Black. Old Sumer and other ones. one capital town. All population of these new kingdoms were. Everywhere they were the only population. Armennia Minor. using Armennian Alphabet. Armennian Highland. Kilikia. Mediterranean. only Armennians. 75. Caspian seas. at that time. Beginning from the period of 23-20 millennia BC Armennians began to propagate from the Great Armennia (around Mount Ararat. Kappadokia. 152 . lake Urmia. because it was impossible at that time to lead. In parallel with the Main or Mother Great Armennian Kingdom there were formed the new Armennian kingdoms in Armennian (or North) Mesopotamia. The statue of Movses Khorennatsi in Yerevan.

Babbert and Trabzon (in High Armennia ). 76 and Fig. including lakes Sevan. Gougarc with Javvakhc. to the South from river Cour (Kura). All this is big lie devised just not to use the words Armennians and Armennia. 153 . 4. Armennians . Mokk (at South of Van). Armens. Syunic and Paitakkaran (in East part). etc. Kilikia and Tsopc with Sasoun (in West part). Karrin (Erzeroum). 77 the views of Lake Sevan is presented. i.e. Including also Kilikia. In Great Armennia from the very old time Armennoid race. Aghdznik. Yervandashat. Ardahan and Kars (in Tayc). their State (Kingdom with dynasties) from 40 millennium BC. Van Arshammashat (in Tsopc). Tarron (at the West from Van). towns. Shoushi (in Artsakh).Lake Van. in latitude limits about 35° . Nakhichevan. In Fig. Van and Urmia. The main towns were: Artashat (in Ayrarrat). 78 . knowledge. Utic and Artsakh (in NE part). and their first Kingdom arose in 11 cent. South Caucasus and Armennian Highland. Vaspourakkan and Shirrakkan (between Van and Urmia). ErrebouniIYerrevvan. Armavvir. Ayrarrat with Aragatsotn and Turuberran (in the middle. The Great Armennia included the countries: Tayc. Vannadzor (in Gougark). Vagarshappat. Tigrannakert (in Utik). Baggarran. THE GREAT ARMENNIA IN 40 . of course. Bitlis and Moush (in Taron).e. Gandzak. between the Black and Caspian seas and by the longitude to the East from river Euphrates. Tigrannakkert (in Aghdznic).Aryans lived and arose their nation with developed culture. between Lakes Sevan and Van). All these are necessary to correct. the cradle of Armennians was on the territories around Mount Ararat. From the old time all over the Great Armennia poetry. (in Vaspourakkan) Ashtishat. and in Fig. • All these names of countries are given here. Arustan and Korchayk-Korduk (in South part)". Chalds. Unfortunately in human old history all these were terribly distorted and said that Armennian nation arose after so-called Urartu in V cent. Horrites. BC (only!) from the tribes of Haisa. songs and dances arose and developed based also on the rituals in honor to the ARFather Main God as well as on the folk traditions.23 MILLENNIA BC The Great (Mother) Armennia.3.4r. i. BC (only!). Sis (in Kilikia) and others. in the form as they came to us. High Armennia.

After the funeral of his father in Harran. Arrnennian. But its old history is almost unknown yet. According to Bible the forefather of semits Abraham with his father Farra came from Chaldean Ur· to Harran. 213] and writes: " •. Edessia) [p. p. 227]. very old Armennian King and Dynasty.ia = the country of the same Kingdom".3. the Dynasty of the Great Armennia.e. Harran was very old and big town on the crossing of the EW and NS ways (tracks). Gilbert wrote that Abraham came in 1680 BC to Harran perhaps not from Ur Chaldean (Ar Armennian.the name of the first. so Padam Aram means "Junior Aram or Junior arm of Aram (Adam)" .394]. Christianity was adopted (by Armennians). 154 . A. Abraham (75 years old) went to Hannahan with his wife Sarra.ar .an town of the Sun worshippers).• So Edessia became the first veritable Christian town in the World" [33. = = = • A. Edessia) was also founded in old time (with Harran) by Armennians much before the Great Deluge.41. Paddam ''pa-d-am the step to junior" (in Armennian). Gilbert thinks also that the true Ur Chaldean is Urha (i. having also other names: Harrannian. which had also posterior names: Arha (Urha. The present name is Urfa (in Turkey). Here ArmenniansHorrites lived. English historian Adrian Gilbert agrees with this. Paddam Aram Armennian Kingdom. 392. He repeats the expression ''Edessia is the eye of Mesopotamia" [33. P. P.). ARMENNIAN MESOPOTAMIA KINGDOM The old Armennian name of Mesopotamia is Paddam Aram (tIllWlwu Upwu). later the capital of Assyria. Afterwards. It was in about 1680 BC· [33].) but from Edessia and he was Horritean [33. at first in the World. The capital town was Arhan (arvh-anetown of the Sun worshippers). according to the name Orran the country was called also Osroen. Orran ("cradle" in Armennian) and Edessia (ed-es-Iaethls is my land). (i. 252].H.H. what in Armennian means: ''mi . p. Armennian Kingdom of Armennian (or North) Mesopotamia was called also Mittannia (22-13 cent. then Edessian Kingdom. existed from about 23 millennium BC until VHf century AD. Arha (Urfa. Arhan. At about 3 AD Edessia was rebuilt into the big castle and the second capital town of Great Armennia by the King Abgar IV Yervandouni to hinder Roman armies to strike across Euphrates. pp. Mtsbin (m-ta-b-In = they are our next kind people) and Ninnve (n-In-v-e = they are people as me). But he does not say that Edessia was Armennian capital town and country with Armennian population and Abgar Kings were Armennians of Yervandouni. BC).tan .e. In the same time Edessia is famous town (and country) where. Urfa). Other big towns were Harran (h .

the lames to walk. pp. to You. The letter of Jesus Christ to Abgar V ''The one is fortunate who believes Me. pp. The texts of these letters are in the book ''History of Armennia" by Movses Khorennatsi [20. Edessian King Abgar n in 63 BC was admitted also by Rome as the King of Edessia (Osroen Armennian country). Who delegated Me. son of Arsham. As people say. they believe Me and find a life. you have written to Me to come to You. but who has not seen. After My Ascension I shall send you one of these My pupils to cure your illness and present life to you and to them who are with you".Abgarian which was the junior arm of the Dynasty of Yervandouni (the Kings of the Great Armennia). About that. [SO. The letter of Abgar V to Jesus Christ "Abgar. Abgar n allured them to Armennian town Harran and then the joint army of Parthia and Great Armennia defeated Roman army (in 53 BC) and Krass was killed. because it is written about Me that who saw Me they do not believe Me. • These texts are also in [33.According to Syrian chronicles "••• before 130 BC (when Armennian army routed army of Antioch Soudet after what Seleucids never tried to come to the East-side of Euphrates) the dynasty of Aryans came again to the Edessian throne". I must do here everything for what I was delegated. The Great Armennian King Abgar V (12-50 AD). That is why I have written You beseeching to cause inconvenience to come to me to cure my illness. When I have heard all these about You I understood that there is one of the two: either You are the God. 40-41] and in other publications. When I complete all these. the Benefactor and Our Saviour Jesus appeared at Jerusalem country. wrote to Him the famed letter and received His answer in 32-33AD. banish evil spirits and dragons. pp. 12. but I have the little and nice town which is enough for both of us". as well as You vivify the deads. cure the exhausted with long illnesses. I shall ascent to Him. You make the blinds to see. He played the important role when Roman triumvir Mark Krass with big army came to Roman province Syria in 54 BC with purpose to occupy Parthia and Armennia. or You are the Son of the God if doing all these. Indeed. Who descented from the heaven and is doing all these. regards. it was in 163 BC when after a short interruption to the Edessian throne returned the Dynasty of Yervandouni . pp. while staying in Edessia and knowing that Jesus Christ is in Jerusalem. 177-178]*. 222-223]. I have heard about You and about Your doctoring skill made by Your hands without medicine and roots. You clean the lepers. though he does not see Me. 85-86. 155 . the King of the country. Also I have heard that Jews are murmuring at you and want to torment you.

regards. As I argued in Item 2. Be healthy. Thus. wrote in Armennian also. Your friendly letter was read for me". to my lord Tiberri. the Earth shifted and reeled.The question is in what language were these important letters? There is the opinion that it was so-called Aramaean. The letter of Abgar V to Roman Emperor Tiberri "Abgar. but as your friend I can tell you more with this written message." The letter of Roman emperor Tiberri to Abgar V "Tiberri. of course. as well as cured illnesses of all Edessian people. You have to know these are not actions of usual man but of Gods. • The expression ''was read for me" tells that the letter of Abgar V to Tiberri was also in Armennian language. regards. to Edessia and cured his illness (headache) as it was promised by Jesus Christ. living in Palestinian province. In reality it was Armennian language and Alphabet. Kesar of Romans. So I also decided to do so as you thought. 156 . to Armennian King Abgar. What happened after the letter of Jesus Christ? After His Ascension in 33 AD apostle Thaddevos came to Armennian King Abgar V. revives. Because when He was crucified the Sun eclipsed. in spite of His great boons He has done in their presence . as all Armennian kings did. At that time Israel was in Palestinian province of Roman Empire and Abgar V sent another letter to Rome. But it is a mistake. in Armennian written language. using Armennian Alphabet. because Jews. got together and crucified Christ without any guilt. and to write to all World to adore Christ as the truthful God. and many people have seen as He being dead for three days. And Armennian King Artashes who lived more than two hundred years before the King Abgar V. After his marvellous recovery King Abgar V adopted Christianity with all his family and population of Edessia in 33 AD. Abgar V became the first in the World Christian king and Edessian Armennia became the first Christian country. Although we have heard about that from many persons but Pillat clearly reported to us about His marvels and that after His Ascension many people believe that He is God. At present and in future now your power knows to tell (you) what is necessary to do in connection with Jewish people who made that thing. King of Armennia.15 so-called Aramaean semitic language and alphabet never existed. even vivifying the dead. Kesar of Romans. And now everywhere His name by means of His pupils makes the great beauties as it was done with me. So I am sure that the King Abgar V Yervandouni deserved the title ''the Great". Although I know you are already informed. these two letters were.marvels and beautiful things. Thanks from us for it.

will be my close natives also by soul". and will show the way of life. But one of his main friends by the name Simmon is sent to your land. and we impend death to them who will backbite about Christian peoples.. One of His main pupils.. and he was sent to Armennia land. The letter of Abgar V to Nerseh. He will cure all illnesses and will show the way of life. as it was his lot. discharged Perroz from fetters and excused his fault. you and your brothers and everybody who unaskedly submit you. But you. In connection of Jewish people who crucified Him.D.). find him and he will cure all ailments and illnesses in your side. King of Assyria and Babylon "Abgar. to my son Nerseh. Who is more powerful than fire and water. be pleased to send another man to Jerusalem instead of Pillat in order to remove him with ignominy from the post which you gave him. to my brother Artashes. regards. he was not a doctor with human art. King of Iran. so if it fits you. as well as your Artashes father. King of Armennia.•" This letter of Tiberri was the very beginning of the process of Christianity adopting in Rome.We ordered that each one who wants can deem Jesus also in line of Gods. by the name Simmon. I shall investigate this case and requite them according to their deserts. the Son of the God. Whom Jews crucified. Look for him. to Iran. regards." The letter of Abgar V to Artashes. to my lord. appoint him the ruler of Ninve (the capital of Assyria. King of Iran "Abgar. Kesar of Romans. about Whom I heard He did not merit crucifixion and death. King of Armennia. my relatives by body. but honor and adoration. is in sides of your country. because he performed the will of Jews and crucified Christ without any guilt and without your order. regards. Who died and then resurrected and sent His pupils to all the World to teach everywhere. King of Armennia. From the second letter of Abgar V to Tiberri "Abgar. the creator of the fire and water. 157 . Because I shall enjoy. but he was a pupil of the Son of the God. I have read the hails in your letter. It is known that PiUat was relayed. Coming to the subject you asked to send you that doctor to see and hear him who makes these marvels and preaches another God. . P. lord.. if you. Believe him. Tiberri. Be healthy". as you want. I know you have already heard about Jesus Christ. So look for him. find him and you will hear from him.

Abgar V died in 50 AD [33. Christianity was adopted in Armennian Mesopotamia (Edessia) again in 207 AD by the king Abgar VIII the Great (177-212 AD). TSOPC. KAPPADOKIA.great role in Christianity adopting and propagation.221]. Armennians put them inside the stone laying (masonry) in the Edessian town gate (about 220 AD) where they were until 525 AD when a big flood took place and holy relics were found again [33. In old period Komagena and Kappadokia were inside the larger Tsopc region of the Great Armennia. p. Annan brought the answer letter of Jesus Christ and also His portrait [79. Abgar V deserve the title "The Great". • At that time the good artists were in palaces of kings.178]. p.60 AD). 3. one of which is kept in British Museum. After Abgar V to the Edessian throne came his son Annanne (50 . 179-182]. According to A.e.53 AD) and nephew Sannattrouk became the king of the Great Armennia (50 64 AD). p. KOMAGENA". or with him was a good artist"). Thus.The texts of above five letters of Abgar V are also in the same book of Movses Khorenatsi [79.Gilbert. Manouk VI (53 . i. Abgar VUI the Great had also the title "King of Kings" and in 197 AD he got a luxurious reception in Rome [33. Afterwards copies were made. Khorenatsi wrote also that Abgar V kept all (these seven) letters in his archives in Edessia. the brother of the Great Armennian King Tigran IT the Great. ARMENNIA MINOR These four countries (regions) were the Armennian Kingdoms from about 23 millennium BC and they had sometimes the common Kings. •• This word is necessary to read as Kommaggenna. Afterwards his archives were transported to Europe.42. so-called "Mandillion". pp. After Annanne to the Edessian throne in 53 AD came the next son of Abgar V. Abgar V was the first in the World Christian King and played a . who did not like Christianity and returned to the old Gods in 57 BC. the letter of Jesus Christ and His portrait (and all archives of Abgar V).227]. the son of Arsham. 158 . But Armennian population of Edessia (and all Osroen) remained Christian. To keep the holy relics. famed and single portrait of Jesus Christ. Movses Khorenatsi wrote also that the letter to Jesus Christ Abgar sent to Jerusalem with his devoted secretary Annan (who perhaps was also a gifted artist.227]. p. "King of Kings". Coming back to Edessia. I think. Staying in Edessia he was also the King of the Great Armennia (12-50AD).

Kings Dynasty of the Great Armennia: Sammos (middle of Hl century BC). put. perhaps. stand" in English. and along the river Aratsanni (tributary of Euphrates). especially at last period when the Roman Empire and Byzantium arose. Komagena Komagena was to the West of Osroen (Edessia). Tsopc The name Tsopc in cuneiforrns is Tsup (Tsoup). Being in the West of Euphrates. At the West part of • ''To put" is kept in Indo-European languages as ''to collect" in Armennian. which was in the West from the Lake Van till the river Euphrates. ''to set. Let me show here the short list of some kings of Tsopc who were (as in Edesia) the junior arm of Yervandouni. region of the Great Armennia. place. Artannes (end of n century BC-94 BC). and by the NS direction .at= separate holy song or chorale". Zarreh (190-175 BC). in ancient sources is Sofena. the more old name of which was Carput=Car-p-u-t= the place having stone wall". The Kings of Komagena were from Yervandouni Dynasty of the Great Armennia. c.bert= "stone castle" in Armennian. on the right side of river Euphrates. The old name of Sammosat was.between Armennia Minor and Kilikia. Tsopc in belated period was called also Sophena. Main (capital) town was Sammosat on the right bank of Euphrates. Csercsess (end of ill century BC). Arkathias (middle of n century BC). In Tsopc there were the big towns Kharpert or Carbert =car . Komagena was sometimes incurred to occupation from the West. 159 .os . Kappadokia** Kappaddokia was to the West of Euphrates (in Asia Minor). Saghm(os)at which in Armennian means: "saghm . Arsham (240-220 BC). In Sammosat (as in Edesia) there were big libraries. b. Mehroujan (end of n century BC). •• This word is necessary to read as Kappaddokkia.a. Tsopc (also Shaouni) was to the North of Osroen (Edessia) and to the West from Taron.

43. 3.0 . which also came from Armennian old word ''kes .z . including riverhead of Euphrates. Armennia Minor Armennia Minor was from the South of Black Sea.k . The mountain regions of Kilikia were the Armennian 160 .mireefruit bringer". About the Sanctuary in Kappadokia it was said in Item 3. The main and old town of Kappadokia had the old name Maihak (or Mshak) which in Armennian is: ma . According to Movses Khorenatsi Kings of old Gammirc were from the Great Armennia Kesar Arram (Son of the Sun) Dynasty. The capital town was Ani-Kamakh. half people on land (mounts)"• Kilikia was a big Armennian state (Kingdom) from about 22 millennium BC until I century BC and then from XI until XIV centuries AD (1080 .1375 AD). Another main town of Armennia Minor was the port Trabzon (Trapezund). The Armennian old name of Kappadokia was Gammirc (Q. There were also the old towns Ardassa= ''this is the life directed to the Sun" and Nlkepolise ''n-ik(a)-o-polis= it becomes the holy town". This name in Armennian means ''tr . 70-74). Afterwards.wuppp) which means "ga .23 (see also Figures 64. KILIKIA Kilikia = ''k . and Kesaria means "The place (side) of Kesar". Afterwards at the North part of Armennia Minor emerged (for a short period) the Pontian Kingdom. Between the Armennia Minor and the Great Armennia is the mountain ridge ''High Armennia".i -Ii .t . until Kappadokia.i-a = half people (near) water. Sochi (Russia) and other sides. After the genocide of Armennians in Turkey (1915) the main part of Armennia Minor population (from Trabzon and other towns) migrated to the East Bank of Black Sea.ar"=''half God"(the old title of Armennian kings).a . The name of another big and old town was Sebbastia= "se .ak=''the source of force and life".as . dependent on the Great Armennia.b . to the Sukhumi (Abkhazia).iaethe place and town of the kind love".Komagena there is the lake Tuz (or Thouz) which means ''fig'' in Armennian.z . d.n=it gives the beginning of the constructive life".b . at the belated Period the town was renamed to Kesaria (Kessarria).

79. where from the West to the East goes the mount ridge Armennian Tauros. The warm climate and other natural conditions are advantageous for development of people's culture and economic structures. Kapan.territories until the end of XVIII century AD [64. c. Annazarba. 79) and Syrian Gate. where until now is the Armennian Patriarch. almost to the longitude 30oE. For irrigation the mountain rivers Pirram. Berdous. and to the West till half of Asia Minor (Anatolia). Kappan. The natural conditions of Kilikia divide the country into two parts: Mountain Kilikia. Zeytoun (Ulnia). Marrash. Kolonop (on the bank of the sea). Skevvera. Korikkos. Hajen. p. Kilikian Gate in Armenian Tavros mountain ridge. Annazarba. Kidn (Tars) and Kallikkadn were used. Drazzark. These gates and other places were secured by castles: Lambron. 28]. d). Mousaller and others. laying along seaboard. Sar. The capital town of Kilikia is Sis. when the genocide of Armennians in Turkey began. Korrikos. b. 161 . Kilikia is on the NE bank of Mediterranean Sea including Cyprus Island. Berdus. Le. Addana (on river Sar). Other old and big towns are: Tars. 80a. Kilikia is around Armennian Bay in NE of Mediterranean Sea and lies to the North from sea up to Kappadokia. Romkla. Selleukia. The ports-towns are: Hayas and Aleksandretta (in Armennian Bay). Transit to Kilikia is possible only through some mountain gates as Kilikian Gate (Fig. Vakha. Catholicos of Kilikia. Fig. Levonkla (Fig. and the Plane Kilikia.

80. Kilikian castles 162 .a) Lambron b) Vakha c) Korrikas d) Levonkla Fig.

Rimshneider [61] that Greeks adopted Phoenician Alphabet from Kilikia (See PART 2) is fully right. he wants to return and to see Kilikia again. Some Kilikian (old Armennian) beautiful songs came to us.44. Armennian language and Armennian Alphabet" when it arose". •• Beginning from 10 thousand years ago (see PART 2). 1'111 the 20 the = • This is affirmed also by Armennian letter inscriptions on coins of Kilikian Kings. of course. Archaeological excavations are almost not done in Kilikia. For belated period all kings of two Armennian Kilikia Dynasties: Roubinnians (1080-1225 AD) and Hetoumians (1226-1875 AD) are known (see Table of Armennian Kings). because he was born on seaboard and all his life spent in sea as his father and brothers. The main old towns were: Tir ( m ep e p = uWptlqwfig mhIt wfinq) the place given for men. Now some of their big ships were found in Egypt (Giza. built big (even up to five decks) marine ships and together with Phoenicians (another Armennian great marine country) they sailed across seas and oceans to the far ''terra incognitas". In song "Kilikia" author tells about the beautiful Armennian country Kilikia. Being out of the country and homesick. which gave him the Sun (means life). Phoenicia was an Armennian State (Kingdom) from about millennium BC until I century BC. 3.ship leader) is about the captain of fisher-ship. luwfiPt! (gwuwp{!)) is in Armennian: ''I have equal: (sea) half and the life (land)". the country. Lebanon and Israel. who is a bold man going to the sea in front of the storm and being not afraid. using growing here the best wood-material. So the opinion of M. The same were Phoenicians. because Kilikia is closer to Greece than Phoenicia. Kilikians were Armennians and used. into the sand). Levvon VI (1374-1375 AD) died in 1393 AD in Paris and was buried in Saint-Denis Basilica (Tomb N55). Palestine. Phoenicia was at East bank of Mediterranean sea in the place of present Syria. 163 . The song "Captain" (Nav-a-var . Kilikians.Kilikia was a great marine country. Alexandria. PHOENICIA (AND HARRIES) Phoenicia (CI>Jnlfip1Jl1w =tPeJ-rllfiepeqepew= hunlunnup hu nlfihu' (bnqwJPfi) qhut! L. up to America at old time. I shall just say about two of them: "Kilikia" and "Captain". The last Kilikian king. so about old time history we have not real information.

Jerusalem was established at VI millennium BC by ArmenniansHarries (hari h-wep-p the Sun adoring men) who came from the Great Armennia and lived in the South part of Phoenicia. Bibl (p-pep-. on the territory called Harit = the place of the Sun adoring men. Such facts are also the ruins of very old temples and pyramids in Central America and towns as Machu-Pikchu. Further this town with its lands grew and became a big state.Sidon (u·p-Il-n-fi = fiw umpp mhq uWJUllltfi dnmpq) = it is holy place close to man. of course. the age of which is more than six thousand years (so. in human old history there are many problems. because the Phoenician one was the same Armennian Alphabet and Phoenicia was just a part of the Old Armennia. using big marine ships. Phoenicians (and Harries) were Armennians and used. = lwtl pwppp uWJUllltfi phpntl) good property-bringer to man. and nice. Armennians. Armennian old history is thrown out from all-human old history.h.. when there are facts.p. hntppmfihp) is not right. = = = = Phoenicia and Kilikia were the Armennian great marine countries.25). researched overseas far lands. In Central America they taught local tribes culture. even America and Antarktida at VIII-VI millennia BC. Jerusalem = h-ar-i-sa-gh-e-m = (hewp-p-uweq-h-u) = wpLt! lllwlUlllIl uWIUlqwfig tntpJwfi uw Uhb qhfimpnfi) this is the big center of the Sunadoring men entity. Incas). which do not have explanations. Their hardy sailors and scientists.fi = pwpp tqhu hwtlhpd"fit qhqhgpq hqun] fiw = it became eternal as stone. Afterwards Phoenicians built also another famous town Carthagen in the African bank of Mediterranean sea. The opinion that all other Alphabets of the World came from Phoenician Alphabet is right. who were living in Harrit (hwppfihp. It is necessary to call them Harries. Therefore. built there the Sun-God temples and ziggurat-type pyramids (see Item 3. unqpnq ~wppmntu). The word Carthagen means: pwp. the Armennian language and Armennian Alphabet. 164 . So to call them Horites (hwppmfihp. but it will be more correct to say that all other Alphabets came from the Armennian Alphabet. much older than civilizations of Maya.w-q. Aztecs. Le.

Armennians invented and used powerful machine cranes to elevate heavy stones and developed the technology of houses and temples building. searching the Sky during thousands of years. THE GREAT ARMENNIA IN 23 . Le. We can deem conditionally that all these events took place in 22946 BC. There were the instruments of much higher quality than excavated thousands stone instruments having age of 300-50 thousand years. We can suppose that as the beginning of the year was chosen the Sunrise moment (6 o'clock) on the spring equinox day (March 21). in technology of stone treatment and its using in houses and temples building. They also began to use the metals. Stellar Sky and their motions attracted Homo Sapiens's attention even from the very beginning. constellations). Moon. one year. had to descry that the Sun slowly changes its position relatively to stars (with velocity 2160 years per each Zodiacal constellation). accumulated during thousands of years. wood. using simple astronomical instruments. 3. The food and clothes production technologies were also developed. This is the most probable variant. clay and other materials. Technology Armennians had a big progress in building of houses. gave the possibility approximately in 23 millennium BC. Astronomy The Sun. consists of 365 days and to establish the first Armennian Calendar (see Item 1.22). found in meteorites. The knowledge.10 MILLENNIA BC. We can also suppose that one year was divided into 12 months and the stellar way of the Sun was divided into 12 parts (Le. Armennian astronomers. They made good instruments from stone.51. settlements and towns. 5. technology and culture. accounted as 14 Armennian periods (1461 year) before Kesar Hayk's victory in 2492 BC (14 x 1461+2492=22946). in the 50-40 millennia BC.17). Step by step their knowledge grew and accumulated. Le.3. Armennian civilization arose in about 40 millennium BC. they knew the phenomenon of Earth Axis Precession in about 11 millennium BC (see Item 1. bolides and in mountain quarries. SCIENCE AND CULTURE At the period of 23-10 millennia BC Armennians already had enough developed science. to define that one circle of Sunrise point motion along the horizon. 165 .

because any other nations and civilizations were absent yet. cow. agriculture and house building. which after 10 mill. more developed carts were in use (Fig. until III millennium BC. BC was in use also (in parallel with Alphabet) for a long time . bull. --- Fig.Agriculture Besides apple. All these were the first in the World. pig. cat. Domestic Animals Apart from sheep. grape (vine). dog. hen. in 111-1 mill. 81). . Developed cards of 111-1 mill. symbols. goat. apricot Armennians began to breed the wheat and had the technology of bread baking. 61). in Ararat Valley [92]. Afterwards. There are many petrogliphs (carved pictures of IV mill. BC. BC.. So Armennia is the homeland of the wheat. So Armennia is the homeland of the domestic horse. Armennians used horses and bulls as powerful draught force in farm.. Armennian cavalry was well known everywhere as the best. etc. the big metallurgic center (3600 BC) at distance of 25 km from Yerevan. Beginning from 111-11 millennia BC. excavated near lake Sevan. Iran and other countries purchased tens of thousand horses in Armennia per year. etc. when wars arose. then hieroglyphs). Armennians domesticated also the horse. 81. using the inside surface of the big clay cylinder called "thoir" in Armennian. All these were at first in the World. Written language In about 23-22 millennia BC in Armennia the first written language arose (pictures.. BC) in mountains of Armennia with two-axis carts and harnessed bulls (Fig. as it is on rocks in Metsamor. It is interesting that till now in Armennia three types (from four known in the World) of the savage wheat are growing.- . 166 .

Afterwards (and until now) Armennian poetry. 167 .11). Scotch. Irish and Welsh folk music. Technology. coming from the old Preliminary Alphabet (X millennium BC). Culture. . Somewhere in 23 millennium BC arose the Armennian Epos (also in songs) about the God Vahagn. and then were adopted by many other nations. I have found out 19 letters of Preliminary Alphabet using the requirement: each next added letter has to form maximal possible quantity of new Armennian words (see Item 2. Indian old Epos "Rammayana" begins as the said Armennian legend about Tsovinnar. In Carahunge time. In the beginning of this Epos Tsovinnar (c)m. songs and reels have been very developed in Armennia. Armennian Alphabet became more developed and included about 34 letters (see PART 1 and 2). 2. took two palms of water from the spring in sea.• 9. 3. 82 is shown.Armennian Alphabet Armennian Preliminary Alphabet arose at 12-10 millennia BC. as well as Armennian old State (Kingdom) with Laws and Order. I put these letters in two lines with 10 and 9 letters in each line (Table 15). fighter of evil and dragons. = It is obvious that the fast development of further civilizations in the World was under influence of the Armennian old civilization. Culture From the very old time began to develop Armennian Poetry. which were much more developed.the figures 1. including its Astronomy. For example..3. Mathematics. eleven lines from that Epos about birth of Vahagn were shown. 0 are Armennian figures. the daughter of Armennian King. about the hero who protected Armennia.[ -11-liwl1 The leader of sea people). His sculpture in Yerevan in Fig. and was very surprised receiving two old sentences and finding out the similarity between the forms of letters and figures. These two results mean that: . drank it and gave birth to two heroes: Sannassar and Bagdassar.the finding of 19 letters of Preliminary Alphabet is correct. Agriculture. In Item 3. the sources of European ecclesiastical and classical music are in Armennian ecclesiastical and folk music. music. We can suppose that somewhere in 10 millennium BC arose the beginning of the famous Armennian Epos "Sassountsi Davvith" or David of Sassoun. songs and reels are very close to Armennian ones. VU-VI millennia BC. Songs and Dances.

Batsaev and A.u=the place of Sun people (f:plupu=Up-P-Il-Ilt=UpLP uWIUlqwfig qWJPt!). Erridou=Aridou=Ar .3. 52. carpenter. Erridou. where according to Haldean historian Beros ''The tarn Gods came to the Sumer country at very old time. 7778]. according to famous English archaeologist L. Not Sumerian were also the names of professions in old Sumer: farmer. His teaching was so universal that from that time it was not necessary to add something more vital" [24.0 . which means ''h . The name of their leader was Oannesh.d . Kish. He gave to Sumerians the knowledge of literacy. He taught them agriculture and humanism. explained them basics of geometrical knowledge. Nippour. Hancoc tells very old legend. Batsaev and A.ak=the source filled up by Sun 168 . ARMENNIAN SUMER (JUNIOR ARAM KINGDOM) In about 14 millennium BC (and earlier) Armennians came to the South of Mesopotamia.. Larrak. pp. Varrakkin write that the excavations of Sumerian towns show that their culture was based on the high culture of other prior nation which was not Sumers and whose high culture. existed before the Great Deluge [82. These are the names from the radically other language. They followed agriculture.Larrak=L . to form laws." Indeed. p. .es = I am worshipper from holly Van". merchant. I can add here that the name Oannesh is the Armennian name Hovannes. 19]. Varrakkin write also: "Presumerian inhabitants of Mesopotamia could bring Sumerians from primeval condition to high civilization. He taught them to build houses and temples. who were those old and high.ar . Who were those high-civilized people? V. Voulli wrote about that old nation: ''It was their culture who lived before the Great Deluge••• With many other values they gave Sumers also the legend about the Great Deluge" [82. and founded the Junior Aram Armennian Kingdom (or Armennian Sumer) in the place shortly called also Sumer (su-mer = sa-mer = uw Uhpfi (t) = ''this (is) ours" in Armennian). science and of different arts. G. because only Armennians at that time had necessary high level of civilization and the names of all seven Sumerian main towns have easy explanation in Armennian.. It was they. had many domestic animals and built towns. CntUhpp uWJPWpwllwPl!>. and not Sumerian were the names of Sumerian towns: Ur. The Russian archaeologists V. Urouk. Let me show this (see Table 10): Ur=Ar=the Sun (the capital of Sumer) (ntp=Up=Upu. who changed stone instruments to metallic ones and made luxury objects•••Today we know exactly that these people were not Sumers. L. p. from the Lake Van in Armennian Highland.i .van .civilized people and what language did they use? They could be only Armennians.Voulli. 19].

Where was Arrata? There are opinions that it was in Iran. e. the "bread-winner" place (it is possible to have three harvests per year). Assyrrian language instead of Armennian. as it is known. (mn) t). Armennian researcher V. their own (l. We know that Armennians were the Sun worshipers and traditionally had the high agricultural technology. Afghanistan or Armennian Highland. Wlln1fill). Let us remember here again the words of great English poet lord Byron. Urouk=Ar-ak= eye of the Sun (filpDlll=Upewll=UpLP wW). Let me also say that in the example of this explanation of town-names it is also obvious the systematic mistake of many scientists who read Sumerian. Nippour=N . In the six town-names (from seven ones) there is word AR (Sun). etc." Living in Armennian abbey on St. one of the oldest in the World. I.sh=the feeder of many people (lIP2=1l-P-2=2wm lIwPJlllwfig llbpwtuuuu!).e. Five of them contain the name "Aratta" for the land from where the ancestors of Sumers came.i .P . who said: ''It is impossible to study the history of East without knowing Armennian. Perhaps this comes from reading of old words (including Armennian ones) in . which is Harrit.(lwpwll=tewpewll=UpLnq 1lJ. We can see that the Armennian explanation of Sumerian towns names is not only the literal translation but gives also the deep understanding of natural feature of Sumer country: the very sunny place. Movsessian cogently demonstrates that Aratta means Ararat and Aratta land is Armennian Highland. includes nine epic songs based on historical events of the 28-27th centuries BC. Armennian) Alphabet {84]. Armennian historian A. Urartian and other words using sound (pronunciation) "ou" instead of sound "a" (not "ay". Lazar island. before 10 millennium BC) Armennians came to the land Sumer (South Mesopotamia) in about 14 169 .varvsaethls is the good Sun (Sunny) (Lwpuw=t-wp-uw=uw lwq wpL. Larrsaed. but as the middle sound in word "sun"). its part to the SE from Lake Van. The Sumerian epos.ar=it is the sunny place for man (people) (UP11In1P=fi-PlIllIewP=fiw (uw) UWPJlDl hwllwp wpLnm mwpwbpfi t). Thus. Kish= K • i . the country of Harries (Horites). Saffarian successfully read also old Sumerian pictorial texts in Armennian and he thinks that the right reading is possible only in Armennian language [83]. This error gives the mistakes as "Urartu" instead of "Ararat" (Arrarrat). before the Great Deluge (Le. Armennians who at that time (the end of ill millennium BC) had. he learned Armennian and formed the first English-Armennian dictionary and grammar.

looking exactly to the East point of horizon. p. Armennians for the accumulation of knowledge (say up to Carahunge level) spent about 30 thousand years. could have legends about the Great Deluge. high knowledge and kindness. More details about these you can see in Item 1.35. The main reason of this is that Armennians during 30 thousands years were alone and did not have any teachers. that Sumers (and Babylonians) have had legend about Great Deluge a few millennia earlier of the Bible [82. where twice per year. The main purpose was to research new lands and to build a giant monument in favor of their new and great scientific investigation of the phenomenon of the Earth axis precession. agriculture.53. IndoEuropean culture and language as bounteously and unselfishly as their ARFather God presented them the life. partially mixed with local tribes and the Sumerian-Babylonian-Armennian people were formed. Smith (in 1872) and A. Historians G. Pebel (in 1914) demonstrated. told the local tribes about Armennia. 3. light and warmth. kindness. there was not any country at that time). etc. and propagated everywhere civilization. might be in IX-vm millennia BC. And they built the Great Sphinx. Above said seven towns were rebuilt on the same places on the thick (19m) coat of ooze after the Great Deluge.3000 BC. science. The new stream of Armennians came to Sumer after the Great Deluge. 18]. perhaps. These two names together are very close with Armennian name Minas. the big lion with lion face. Now it is understandable why Sumers. taught them culture. Approximately at eleven millennium BC Armennians came to Egypt (of course. Everywhere local tribes deified them for their humanity. "The Great Sphinx" (in PART 1). but other nations (at ID millennium BC and later) to achieve the same level of knowledge spent about just one thousand years or less. Armennians came to Egypt again at 3500 . and collecting there different local tribes founded the first Egyptian State. Armennians presented to other nations accumulated during millennia high knowledge.millennium BC (or earlier) and formed the New Kingdom. practiced agriculture. Afterwards these Armennians. ARMENNIANS IN EGYPT During XV-IT millennia BC Armennians researched the near and far lands and seas. about Great Deluge. architecture. After the Great Deluge and during the period of draught in Egypt. which in 170 . knowledge and belief to the AR kind God. built towns. rises the Sun being in the Lion Zodiacal constellation at that time. In books of old history it is said that the name of the first Egyptian king was Menes or Min. at equinox days. the Sun kind religion. living thousands years after the Great Deluge.

The local tribes met Armennians kindly and deified them for their kindness and high knowledge. Thou Lord who livest and art established. XIII-XVm dynasties. • The word "Thou" is singular form of the word ''You''. 171 . VII-X dynasties when in Egypt were Hotites-Aryans (Harries-Armennians. 0. from about 3100 BC until 1600 BC. 2200-1800 BC). 0. my Lord! 0. Second Intermediate Period (1800-1600 BC). Belated Period (11-6 century BC). the Goddess of the knowledge and science. of kesar Hayk constellation (now star Alnitak of Orion constellation). Thou who art crowned the King ofthe Gods! 0. and "You"· is "doukh" (I}Iltp). The word Egypt in Armennian mean: "eegeyepet =he qe pel. Lord ofthe Gods. [88] Beginning from Minas all Egyptian kesars (pharaohs) and the top caste were Armennians for the long period of I-xvm dynasties. ''Thou'' in Armennian is "dou" (rpn). Seta (Zet) was at that time also the name of the brightest star of Hayk Belt. Le. XX dynasties. the first kesar (or pharaoh)! It is very important to say here that Armennians did not occupy Egypt but founded in Egypt the first State of Egypt. when in Egypt were Armennians-Hyksoses. First Intermediate Period (2300-2000 BC)..: Ancient Period (2800 .2800 BC) when was the first Egyptian State established by Kesar Minas of I Dynasty. who built the capital town Avaris. New Period (1600-1100 BC). In 2490-2480 BC was Kesar Hayk (Armennian Kesar in 2493-2444 BC). One of the old Armennian hymns to AR God is retained in Egypt. XIX. XI and XII dynasties. Thou" who art beautiful at morning and at evening. who founded Egyptian the IV Dynasty and built the Great Pyramid. They also adopted from Armennians the adoration to the kind main God AR (RA) and to the SETA (SET).ll em = hqwfi luhtwgp uwPJl11q t!fimpwb' mlum = the clever men came to (the) chosen place". 0. Medial Period (2000-1800 BC).Armennian means: ''meieneas =u·pefiewu = Uhb' UWIUlt! fiw wnw2llfi =he (is) the first great man".2300 BC) when was the Kesar Jesser (= 2ebeubp =jeeeser =came (the) nice love) of III dynasty. Thou only one. then 11 Dynasty came. Early Period (3000 . Le.. The history of Egypt is divided into some Periods. which is used in English to address the God. when was the kesar Armenni and others. There are a few lines from this big hymn: 0.

Kesar of the Great Armennia Hayk (about 2544-2444 BC. It is interesting also that the names of many Pharaohs (especially of "Armennian Dynasties") have Armennian interpretations (meanings).."Cananites" had resided in this part of Lower Egypt in the early second millennium BC. kesars. place).Occupation of Egypt by Persians (6-4 century BC). Hancock and R. Beginning from XVI century BC instead of word "Kesar" the word ''Pharavon'' was in use in Egypt. Probably she was Armennian because it is known her letter to the father sent to Northern country. upp.universe.30).Jwanp aZwa. ser -love). Bauvel in their book "The Message of the Sphinx" wrote that Egyptologist Selim Hassan during his excavations in 1930-40s ". he was in the Sky as Hayk-Arian (later Orion) constellation. adopted Armennian (monotheistic) Christianity. BC) = bW mwa mppn2 ppqntana hqun] = She became the rear of home lord. -His sit is in big house. They were from the sacred city of Harran •.. came to Egypt and built the Great Pyramid (in Giza) in about 2490-2480 BC (see Item 3. Amenkkotep IV (XIV cent. by Rome (30 BC . about 2000 years. and by Arabs (from 639 AD until now).e. uncovered evidence that a colony of foreigners . umpp mbIJ. 4-1 century BC). At any rate artifacts and commemorative stelae prove that they 172 . They were in the same time the main priests of Egypt. then by Ptolomeans (or Hellenistic Period. Let us remember that Armennian word "Kesar" means "half Sun" or "As the Sun". Le. Macedonian (in 332 BC). and they may perhaps have been pilgrims. Hu-Fu).a hqwq mpphg= He became the sign of large life and came and held the holy site. he was the God Osiris (and Ceops. by Byzantium (395-639 AD). which are identic with Armennian words. after the building of Babylon Pyramid (Tower) in about 2526-2495 BC. BC) = S -nt-m -u (nu)= Uhb" mwa ntap mbIJ. where she asks to give (send) Her metals as a part of her dowry. Ramses 11 (XIII cent. Thus. from the very beginning. Nefertiti (Xm cent. the kings of Egypt were Armennians. BC) = Uplat! Ubb" lInmpq hlwq pad = The Great Sun came close to me. hwg (hats bread). There are also many words in Egyptian language. Present remnant Egyptians (so-called Kopts) living now in Arabian Egypt are Christians. unnn (ast . BC) = bW hqun] Ubb" 4. He was for Egyptians the Son of AR (RA). uhp (sir. For example: qwIUl (vard . For example: Toutmos 11(XVI cent. G. i. from the first King Minas (5500-5000 years ago) until the end of XVIII Dynasty (1600 BC). This word has Armennian interpretation: ~pwqna = $-wp-w-qen-a = bW umpp nUJ1ul (tuwan) uWIUl UpLP !w$ = ''He holy straight life (person) as the Sun". Kesar in about 2493-2444 BC). by A.rose)..395 AD).

55. The word ''Hwl'' (old name of Sphinx) in Armennian means ''h-w-I =worshipper to (of the) Light (means the AR)". at the first time Ethiopia was inside the first established Egyptian State and then became independent State. Item 1. from the old time. There were in Armennia Observatories.lived in the immediate vicinity of the Sphinx. Probably. 54.34). destroyed by Rome at 146 BC). Let me add that "Cananites (Harranites) from sacred city of Harran" are Armennians from Armennian famous town Harran = hear-an = the town of Sun (AR) worshippers. the ascendancy of Armennians to Ethiopians and communications between them is obvious. Calenish and Ammon-RA Temple with the oldest Egyptian observatory near present Assouan in Egypt were built by Armennians in about the middle and the end of ID millennium BC in honor of the great scientific investigation of Armennian old scientists about the ball-form of the Earth (and of it sizes). which was built by Phoenicians (founded in 825 BC. North Caucasus and Crimea. Stonehenges II and Ill. The Great Pyramid and Stonehenge. In the Great Armennia from the old time until belated medieval period Ethiopian women were deemed as the best child nurses. 3. Still now the Ethiopians use Alphabet. ARMENNIANS IN ETIDOPIA Armennians came to Ethiopia approximately at the same period (after the Great Deluge) as to Egypt. the letters of which are almost Armennian ones. as was Carahunge at the period of more than 7500 years ago until about 2000 years ago (see PART 1. worshipping it as a God under the name Hwl" [95. as Phoenicia. Kolhida.4]. in Virc. 3. In any case. Ethiopians were in close contacts also with other Armennian kingdoms. They lived in the palaces and castles of many Armennian kings and lords. the Sun-God Temples and Universities. and later also Camak. 173 . ARMENNIANS IN THE NORTHERN LANDS Before the Great Deluge Armennians propagated and lived at the North from the center of the Great Armennia. They lived also in Carthagen. p.

founded the town Odessa on the North seaboard of the Black Sea.Virc or Upper Armennia Virc or Upper Armennia was the northern part of the Great Armennia. 174 . who were under the King of Kings of Great Armennia). During the whole time the lords of Virc were Armennians. Armennia Minor and Virc came along the seaboard of Black Sea to the North. At VI-ll centuries BC the Kolhidian Kingdom arose [87. which now is called Abkhazzia with main town Sukhumi [85. p. p. According to literature. came also to the North Caucasus land and Crimean peninsula. In 1001 AD the brother of the Great Armennian King of Kings Gaggik I Bagratouni (9891020 AD). 33]. the North bound of Great Armennia was along Caucasian Ridge even at the end of VI century AD [85. They built towns and temples (later Christian churches). North Caucasus and Crimea Armennians.4]. p. to Kolhida (K-o-I-h-i-d-ar = part of holy God people adoring the Sun). in 1915. There are now many Armennian old churches in North Caucasus and the North seaboard of the Black Sea. Kolhida Armennians from the Great Armennia. going ahead to the North along seaboard of the Black Sea and then to the right and left sides. 39]. because present "Georgians" came to Virc much later and were just a little part of all Virc population (10 % in 1 921 AD) [85. lord of Virc Gevvorc Bagratouni became the King of Virc (one of about 10 Armennian kings of different Armennian regions. Now in Abkhazzia Armennian population is about 60% of all population. The explanation of this high percentage is also the immigration after the Armennian genocide in present Turkey. 605]. Armennians. and live here until now. the son of Gevvorc Bagratouni (the king of Vier) became the king of Kolhida. p. saying "Vratsi" we understand "Georgian" which is a mistake. p. became the King of Abkhazzia (Sukhumi) which initially was called Kolhida [87. p. 605]. It is known that in 1001 AD Bagrat Bagratouni. In Armennian language Virc ('-Q1PIl. Bagrat. 38]. qlipllfi) means ''Upper'' and Vmtsi (~wg}1) means ''the inhabitant of Virc" or "Armennians from upper side. In present Armennian. son of Gevvorc. where the present Georgia is. came in I-ll century AD from Edessian Armennian Kingdom. Virc". [86. the places to the North and NW from the river Cour (Kura). on all the territories inhabited by Armennians including former Armennia Minor (town Trapezund and others).

kindness and Sun religion. Later Iranian people became the arm of Aryans. ARMENNIANS IN INDIA Armennians at first came to India presumably before the Great Deluge.428 AD). Armennian (i. taught local tribes the humanity. India. Pamirian. At the DI millennium BC the flrst Irannian State was formed. Armennians played also an important role in the history.56. The Armennian name of Iran was Arran Arean the Sun (sunny) country.224 AD) and Arshakouni in Armennia (62.3. Phoenicia. BC bringing aryan world outlook and civilization (with epos). ARMENNIANS IN EAST Before the Great Deluge Armennians propagated not only to the South direction (Sumer. Kurdish. Kappadokia.e. In the beginning of I mill. during 224-62=162 years. and all life of this Dynasty was 250+428=678 years. Some time the kings of both countries were even from the same (parthian) dynasty: Arshakids in Iran (250 BC . Le. Osetian. BC the Brahma written language arose on the 175 . Tadjikian. = = 3. culture and science of all these countries (as well as in Western countries). but also to the East direction (Iran. Crimea). Everywhere Armennians taught local tribes culture. Kilikia. Middle Asia) and to the West. forbade the human sacrifices. Avestian and Scythian languages were formed. Later Armennians came to India in Ill-ll mill. Egypt. North Caucasus. to whole Asia Minor (Armennia Minor. ARMENNIANS IN IRAN Iran is the land which abuts on the Great Armennia from the East side. The Great Armennia almost all the time was in close contacts with Iran. At the II millennium BC the Old Persian. And the formation of Indo-European population in India (Armennlans plus high caste of local tribes) began. 3. Ethiopia) and North direction (Kolhida. Farsi (Dari). knowledge. Troy).57. Afghan (Pushtu). Hlttite. Lydia. BC the first Indian State arose in the North part of the country and in VIII-VD cent. kindness and high knowledge. Indo-European) language. Talishian and others. Beginning from 9-8 centuries BC the New-Iranian (Indo-European) languages existed: Persian.58. There are many Armennians in Iran also now. Indo-European people.

base of Armennian Alphabet.n . qWJp).) = the town (place) of the Sun worshippers (UP-pfi hpqpUJ. At 19th century AD India became the Brittannian colony. India. which in Armennian means: Bvh-ur s at = (P-h-Wp-WUl) = the life place of the kind worshippers of Sun (UP-p ptup].0 . 83. Fig. Armennians live in India until present time (mostly in Calcutta). In 1950 AD the independent Republic of India was established. This word in Armennian means "the Southern" (~wpwtUwfi) civilization. half (part) of the Sun.ar . 56. as well as in other Eastern countries. 83 the facade of the Sun God Temple Konark in Orissa is shown. which means in Armennian: Hvar s an. Indian old epos "Ramayana" begins exactly as Armennian epos "Sassountsi David". BC and played important role in India until XIX cent. In Fig. Sanskrit arose on the same base in IV-I cent.k) means in Armennian: he half holy. A facade of the Sun God old Temple Konark in Orissa. The pre-Vedic culture in India had genetic relation to the preHarappian culture [105]. and also comes from the name of Armennian old and big town Harran (in Armennian Highland). AD. 176 . ~-wp-wUJ. where the Princess Tsovinar drank two times the water from spring in sea and gave birth to two powerful sons: Sannassar and Baghdassar. The oldest civilization in Indus Valley was called Harrappian civilization (III-II millennia BC). Konark (k . In the Indian main and old (also present) Hindi language (Indo-Aryan group of Indo-European languages family) the word India is Bharrat. Hs ar s ap (~-wp-wfi. hpqpUJ.wqntlfihpp tuwfipp qWJPt!).wqntlfihpp pWllwP. The big states Magadha and others arose in India in the second half of I millennium BC. see Fig. It is interesting that the Sun is presented here similar with the Sun descriptions in old Armennian engravings on rocks (as a wheel).

But about it there is too little data. beginning from I millennium BC.Here are some interesting facts. and later also he. Probably. 3. AD.g qWJP (hplWp). Domingo Pires . 2. Toharian language is the group of extinct languages of IndoEuropean family. so from Armennia). prominent poet and singer. In xvn century AD the Emperor Shah Jahan from the Great Mongol Dynasty (the grandson of above-said Akbar) married Armennian lady Heghine (Helen)-. present Tajiks and Afghans arose from Tohars (Armennians) and Iranians. hplWp.interpreter and others [102]. 177 . 5. where archaeologists found the developed old settlements and irrigation channels. 7. It is known that: 1. married Armennian lady Mariam Zamani Begum (Queen). 3. as: Mirza-ZulQuamain. from the Great Moguls' Dynasty. Both words Bactria and Tohar have Armennian interpretations showing that these people came from outside (from the country of the Kind Sun worshippers. were buried [103. There are Toharian manuscripts of 5-8 cent. 6. p. There was an old state called Baktria. and North of Afghanistan) was called Toharstan. ARMENNIANS IN MIDDLE ASIA Armennians came to Middle Asia in old time. lady Julianaroyal doctor (later she got married to Prince Philippe Bourbon de Navarre). After her death Shah Jahan built in her memory the world famous Mausoleum Tai Mahal where she. In Emperor's Court there were many Armennians. 213]. Tohars were the people living in the Middle Asia at n century BC until I millennium AD. Abdul Hai . 4. The territory (region) on the South of Middle Asia (South of the present Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Armennians in old Middle Asia lived in mountainous part and also in oases. Tohar in Armennian means: T-o-h-ar (S-n-h-wl1) =the place of sons of the Sun worshippers =Up-}1 hpqplllwqnqfihp}1 nJUlD. adopted son of Akbar. This word has Armennian background and in Armennian means: B-ak-t-r-ia (P-wq-mep-}1w) =the country giving kind beginning =pwp}1 wqndi~ mqllIJ. • She is known as Mumtaz MahaI. As we know Taj Mahal was built by Armennian architecture and masters. Bactrians or Tohars routed the Greek State in Bactria in n century BC.59.Chief Justice. In the end of XV century AD the Emperor Akbar.

178 .About the presence of Armennians in Middle Asia say also the old architectural monuments as the castle "Ark" (the half-Sun in Armennian) in town Bouhara (Pentehewp = pwp}1p ndip up-pa UlwZlJlIlIffi =well being has the Sun worshipper). the medieval (1428 AD) observatory near Samarkand and other historical monuments. which is known from 329 BC as Markand (lIewpeQewaell = aw :qbutlt 1Ihp Upht! bwqtUl = it is to our Sunrise = it is to the East from us). the old town Samarkand.

18500=14000 years ago. Excavating Sumerian towns he continued excavation down to 19m and found out other older towns. Vulli.44°) changes in limits 23. These 19m of slime affirmed that the Great Deluge existed and these old towns were built before the Great Deluge. animals and plants were perished. 28 (PART 1. Russia and Canada were under glaciers. The next Great Deluge will take place after 29000 years (in 31000 AD). All rivers (and new ones) became very swollen. 18500 years. intensive evaporation.6. THE GREAT DELUGE The main reason of the Great Deluge and line of other phenomena on the Earth is the slow change of the Earth Axis Incline angle (e).20) the change of Earth Axis Incline and Eras evolution in time are shown. particularly from Sumer and India.3. but more noticeable for polar regions where the Sun rays come under the more sharp angles. returning to Sumer after Great Deluge told the "new" Sumers about the Great Deluge and taught them much more knowledge. as the result of which the Great Deluge took place 12000 years ago (in 10000 BC) resulting from water covering of huge territories. So the glacial covering on the polar zones of Earth increases when the angle e decreases and glaciers decrease (melt) with increasing of e. Item 1. until the beginning of glaciers melting period 32500 . particularly in Mesopotamia.14 I showed that these old towns were Armennian ones. came to us from ID millennium BC. This angle (equal now 23. 28 in PART 1.3° ± 1. Le. In Item 3.2°. see Fig.1° (and back) during 41 thousand years. and these "new" Sumers were mixture between Armennians and local tribes.4°. the beginning of next freeze period in the Earth polar regions will come after 6500 years and then. Little by little temperature became lower and 32500 years ago the Northern parts of Europe. Many old legends of different nations about Great Deluge. The first factual demonstration of the Great Deluge existence was found by English archaeologist L. water vapor. The Glacial period was for a long time. With the advent of glaciers the people and animals moved to the South. The full (absolute) value of the change of angle e is 2. Then the period of intensive melt came. In Fig. The beginning of the last Freeze period was 34500 years ago.5° to 22. All lowlands were flushed by thick water covering. and heavy rains. Before that. from 24. So we can suppose that Armennians. all settlements and towns in lowlands were destroyed. during 2000 years. Later all these were covered by thick coat of slime. carrying huge mass of water to the seas and oceans. clouds. many people (tribes). In the result the level of world ocean grew up to 100 meters. This is not so conspicuous for weather of the tropical zones of the Earth. after intensive 179 .

6a). The rough rivers made big canyons in basalt rocks of mountains. bull. This is the reason why Armennians have no legend about the Great Deluge. In Armennia. So it became Aries. The helix form of the Aries horns became the beautiful architectural ornament (see Fig. In Armennia. of course. animals and plants were saved. So all the territory of the Great Armennia was as the symbolic giant Noah's Ark. 180 . 60. Le. Kesar. before than 12000 years ago (see Item 3. The aries. Because the Aries became the Symbol of AR after (or during) the Great Deluge and his sculpture is absent in Kappadokia sculptural group (see Fig. 45. etc. were too much clouds.65 . goat. came closer to people and their settlements. PART 2). Then will come the period of glaciers melt (during 2000 years) and the next Great Deluge will take place after 41000 -12000 =29000 years. because the average altitude of the Armennian Highland is 1700m and the lowest altitude of the mountain valleys is 600m (the ocean level grew up for lOOm only). There was not any water covering here. being afraid of Nature forces (lightning. Tir. the third (after lion (Ariuts) and Eagle (Artsiv» Symbol of the Sun (AR) God of Armennians and also the first Zodiacal constellation. seeking protection and were domesticated. Annahit. wind. where all people. all animals and plants were not perished.68) we can suppose that this sculptural group (AR. But the population with its culture. a beautiful and bold mountain animal. was not afraid of Iightnings and was free. What happened in Great Armennia during the last Great Deluge 12000 years ago? Nothing terrible. Vahagn. during the Great Deluge such animals as horse. Lion and Eagle) was built before the Great Deluge.freeze the next Glacial period (Ice Age) will come after 8500 years with the duration of 18500 years.). rain and powerful Iightnings.

"Anthropological data". clever and kind. 3. Middle Asia. Armennians were never aggressive. The Great Armennia existed on territories between Black and Caspian seas in Trans Caucasus (South Caucasus) on the both sides of river Cour (Kura). explanations for them.3. Gilbert wrote that much before Pyramids building and much before the travelling of Jewish forefather Abraham from Haldean Ur (Armennian Ar will be more correct. etc.5 MILLENNIA BC In the period of X-V millennia BC the Great Armennia still was the single state (with other Armennian kingdoms) in the World and Armennians were the single civilized nation. Babylon. had no chauvinistic or imperialistic ambitions. on the all Armennian Highland and Mesopotamia (Edessian Kingdom)". they were noble. 71. one nation of Indo-European birth already existed. Other nations. • Let us remember the Item 3. Phoenicians. states and civilizations began to form in Sumer.) to Khevron (Chevron). THE GREAT ARMENNIA IN 10 . etc. Van and Urmia. The English historian A. Asia Minor. 7. Sumer.1. India. Along with the Great Armennia there existed other Armennian kingdoms in Kilikia. Hittites and Chaldeans. Let us present here some of these enigmas. when there are many facts but there are no answers. Being the first in the World civilized nation. Egypt. But Armennians heroically defended their fatherland.H. Rimshneider wrote that all Greek culture was taken from Kilikians. Iran. as it was in Egypt. By this reason in the World Old History there are many enigmas and mysteries. and Mesopotamia". Babylon. lakes Sevan. P. often by less forces than enemy had. German historian M. with help of Armennians in III millennium BC and later. Gilbert knew but did not say the truth that it was Armennian nation. around mountains Ararat and Aragats. Their Great Mission was to civilize all tribes around and beyond. knowledge and Alphabet. It seems to me A. ENIGMAS IN WORLD OLD HISTORY The Old History of Armennia is made out from the World Old History. which were Urartians or inhabitants of Araratian kingdom [61]. Phoenicia. who was the ancestor of Persians and Europeans and who had the kings dynasties [33]. 181 . They came to other lands to help local tribes to form states. Ethiopia. having high culture.

The same questions for Stonehenge. 30). Answer to questions 1b and 2b is that the Great Pyramid and Stonehenge were built as the Observatories and memorials to keep for far future generations the information about the great scientific investigation that Earth is ball-formed (Item 1. By the geophysical data this was more than 6000 years ago! Moreover. particularly by Armennian Kesar Hayk (Item 3. 28. The Answers The main and general answer is that Carahunge and other data (including linguistic ones) are attested to say: at that time the necessary knowledge. There are also other examples of such astonishing old maps made with very high accuracy [24]. For example. by Original Brain Center (Item 1. there is so-called map of admiral Piry Rase dated by 1513 AD. Why were they built in their present places (sites)? For what were the great works done? 2. existed on not known yet place of Earth. discovered at 1818 AD. 3. which presented Antarktida.). The more interesting is that Antarctica on this map is shown without ice-covering as it is now. so more than 300 years before the discovery! Admiral wrote on margin of map that he made this map using more ancient sources (which are not saved). had researched almost the whole Planet and transited their knowledge to other nations [24]. Carnak and other big old monuments (4500-4000 years ago). The question (No. Here we can repeat them just shortly. Why were they built? For what purpose? Le.). 4) is who and why made this map more than 6000 years ago? The consequence of scientists is one: in prehistoric time a high civilization. c. New-Grenge. b. instruments and technology had Armennians only. p. Who and why built the pyramids and temples in tropical woods of Central America more than 6000 years ago? 4. 34. Who built the Great Pyramid 4500 years ago? And Great Sphinx much earlier? Lb. this map concurs with the map of Antarctica made in XX century using modern methods of seismography by international scientific expedition [24.a.The Questions La. Answer to questions la and 2a is that the Great Pyramid and Stonehenge and many other monuments were built by Armennians. The Great Sphinx was built to keep 182 . The more detailed answers of above questions in PARTS 1 and 2 were done. There are a few medieval time maps on which the different regions of Earth are shown. which have the high accuracy impossible for that time.9-17]. On these maps there are shown even regions not discovered yet at that time. The enigma of geographical maps.

of time. These enigmas include the presence of the same old legends of population of all said countries and the presence of old towns. 22. Aztecs (Mexico). Carahunge attests that they knew also mathematics. who knew everything and taught them kindness and knowledge. Hancock writes that old legends of Incas are taken from the book of Khose de Akosta. Answer to question 3 is that Armennians in 15-2 millennia BC researched almost all Planet.for far future the information about another great investigation of Earth Axis Precession phenomenon (Item 1. of arc or 2 sec. temples and pyramids of Ziggurat type (step by step) as they are in Babylon. in the old time to their countries came white-faced and big bearded (the main indications of Armennoid race) Gods.). trigonometry and had high experience of accurate measurements with accuracy of 30 sec. kindness. 3. This attests also the existence of the same old legends of different nations in different places. Ur (Ar in Armennian) and Egypt. Answer to question 4 is the following. the Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid are at latitude distances of about ± 100 from Carahunge.e. Their great mission was to teach local tribes everywhere. geometry (including spherical geometry and trigonometry).11 millennium AD. 72. Hindus. the Callenish (Scotland) and the oldest observatory and Amon-RA (the Sun) Temple in Egypt (near present Assuan) are in latitude differences of ± 160 from Carahunge. and 1. Chile) cultures of n millennium BC. Incas (Peru. etc. about 183 . Mexico. ARMENNIANS IN AMERICA There are many enigmas in Old History of Central America. G. but also the inhabitants of all countries of Central America (Peru. Such accurate maps could be prepared by the scientists who knew mathematics. According to these legends. etc. In the same time Kilikian and Phoenician Armennians had at that time big oceanic ships (''nav'' in Armennian) and high level of navigation. 35. Thus 6000 and more years ago the necessary knowledge and possibility had only Armennians. For example.). Bolivia. geometry. who had very accurate instruments for measuring the latitude and longitude of place and had big oceanic ships. Answer to questions 1c and 2c is that to demonstrate the ball-form of the Earth some monuments were built at the latitudes which are at the equal distances (by latitude) from Carahunge. Spanish scientist and priest (XVI century AD). Such astronomical and other instruments had in Carahunge time (7500 years ago) Armennian scientists. Such legends have not only Sumerians. l. Chile. Bolivia. coming from the period of many thousand years ago. to propagate knowledge. humanity and the kind religion of the Sun God AR. before the well known period of Mayas.

He was a mighty built white man with high forehead.). 49. p. art of witting (later forgotten) and understanding of complex bases of technique and building [24. 87]...haya big standing stones of Armennians" or "Car. big eyes and big beard . Hancock tells also that in town Tiauanako of lake Titikaka region the local Indians-Aymara speak until now in about 10000 years old language of Virakocha.i. that Quetzalcoatl (Mexican analog of Virakocha) was ''the rosy man with lengthy beard . Of course. In other legends of the Andes Mountains inhabitants it is said that Virakocha (Wirag~ha) was a white-faced and bearded man of middle height.74]. Armennian philologist Dr M. G. was very kind.ka there is the house of men". and Aymara means "hay . stock-raising. 54]. because in standing stones of Calasasaya there are not holes.ia the place of big standing stones". which in Ayamara language means ''The place of vertical standing stones" [24. p. In Armennian the word Calasasaya means "Car. pp.sas . The same old legends.sas . coming from ancestors of Mayas and Aztecs. Many legends said that Virakocha and his people went back by water. "Sun Gate" and square Calasasaya. Spanish chronicler (XVI century AD).. Hancock Calasasaya was a 15-17 thousand years old observatory and Stone Calendar [24.Incas descent after the Great Deluge: ''From the lake Titikaka came Virakocha God ••• and the augmenting of the human genus began". This impression becomes more trustworthy if to take into account that by G. metallurgy. have the people of Mexico. He called the people as his sons and daughters. cured diseases ''by touching". He condemns sacrifices besides fruits and flowers. The name Virakocha in Armennian means ''Vir-a-koch = called from above = tlbpbfi qn1tlwb".72]. These and other examples mean that Aymara and Armennian languages are close one to another indeed.a = Armennian from sea". = = = 184 ..17. But all these agree with our supposition that the first observatories in Armennia were built about 23 thousand years ago (see Item 1. p.•• He taught people to use fire ••• He also built houses and taught couples to live together as husband and wife•••" [24. p... taught people medicine. G.Sarkisian proves that Aymara language is very close to Armennian because from 600 words in English-Aymara dictionary she has found 54 words which are similar to Armennian words [l01]. 97]. Hancock tells the legend from the notes of Khuan de Torkvemada. Hancock describes the old Temple in Tiauanako (Bolivia) with big statue of Virakocha.mar. so accuracy of observations was not very high. moving by ocean (pacific) in ships without oars [24. He travelled and made miracles. 88]. it was not so developed observatory as Carahunge. He was known as the God of peace. or ''from mother Armennia". agriculture. This wise teacher "came from behind of sea in the boat which moves itself without oars . 48. G.". It is interesting that in Armennian Titikaka means ''t . In opinion of some linguists the Aymara language is the oldest in the World and has a rich and strong structure of syntax [24.

Machu-Pikchu has astronomical orientation and was built at the foot of double-headed big mountain which is very like to the Great and Small Mount Ararat (see Fig. p. founder of towns.. 355]. In town Cuzco (Peru) there is the old temple of the Sun with name Qozikancha (with images of Virakocha) [93. 36-53]. 96.. p. qwU1. Muller. built with local population big towns. major law-maker . This town was built too far from roads. very long roads (about 15000km !).According to G. Professor of astronomy of Potsdam University. R. 97]. Machu-Pikchu.. G. "from the East Sea") and later again sailed away to the same direction.Hancock S. 185 .G. 60]. 57]. p. he had to have the very serious reasons for that" [24... which was the reason of his deification". author of laws and calendar . pp. 84). This name is very close to Armennian word Carikanch = earl. Fig. All these and other legends confirm that the "Gods" came in old time to Central America. found out that the important elements of Machu-Pikchu buildings have astronomical orientations. the old town in Central America [24]. As the bright example of the presence of developed old towns we can note also Machu-Pikchu in the beautiful mountains of Peru.kanch = stone's call = puip]. p. . Morly. temples and pyramids...Hancock writes here that "All legends rightly affirm that Quetzalcoatl came to Central America from afar (from behind. Hancock writes "Who ever went ." [24. which is almost the same as Carahunge (Speeking Stones). of pantheon of Maya was the great organizer.. so about 6000 years ago [24. the top researcher of Maya writes that the same "Great God . The town was built much earlier than was Inkas civilization [24..• His main streaks and biography are so realistic that it is fully probably he was a real historical personage. Using the laws of Earth Axis Precession he calculated that the town was built 'between 4000 and 2000 BC. to build Machu-Pikchu here. so G. 84..

in the old time Armennians went to many other lands and seas and everywhere the local population deified them thanks to their kindness. 5. 3. which at that time had only Armennians. Hittitian Kingdom It is known that Hittitian State was in central part of Asia Minor during 17-12 centuries BC and Hittitian language (Hattiti) was IndoEuropean [87]. buildings and old "gods" (as Virakocha) as well as many words of some languages (as Aymara) have Armennian interpretation. high accurate instruments and navigation. of La-Pas University. About the Armennian Kingdoms of Komagena. Pyramid and Calasasaya square. because: 1. In Asia Minor there were a number of Armennian old Kingdoms. high knowledge and volition to help. LYDIA It is known that Armennian race was sole inhabitant of Asia Minor from the old time. 73. building. which are the indications of Armennoid race.Poznansky. 3. because many old. Sun Gate. 4. A. language and trust to the kind Sun God.The astronomical dating of the age of old towns. Sun-God Temples and Ziggurat type pyramids with astronomical orientation. They had big ocean ships. Have we enough bases to say that all these large activities in Central America at old time were done by Armennians? I think ''yes''. Kappadokia and Armennia Minor we said in Item 3. the "gods" built towns. Tsopc. This book shows that Armennians in old time (17-4 thousand years ago) were also kind. ARMENNIAN ASIA MINOR: HITTITIAN KINGDOM. 2. Kolsutter from Bonn University. clever and with high knowledge. 76]. PHRYGIA. This Item 3. Phrygia and Lydia. 26. All they demonstrated that Tiauanako is about 17 thousand years old [24. 10. They disallowed sacrifices and taught knowledge. 27. clever "gods" with high knowledge came from the East and then returned back to the East by sea. Dr F. particularly Tiauanako with Sun Temple. the "gods" were white and bearded men with high forehead and big eyes. roads. there are many the same legends of all countries of Central America. About Kilikia it was in Item 3. Prof. Bekker from the "Specula Vaticanica". were done at 1927-1930 by scientists A. The main God of local tribes was also the Sun. But what was before the said centuries? The book "Ancient civilizations" says: "Hatti seems to have been in origin a very ancient name 186 . that in old time the kind. even present names of towns. Prof. p. About Troy (lllion) will be in next Item 3. 11. is about Hittitian Kingdom. the "gods" language was Armennian.

) that 10 thousand years ago all Asia Minor was populated by Armennoid race only. by Armennians.Blegen. Before about the middle of XX century AD it was said everywhere that Hattitean language was Semitic. What was before ID millennium BC is unknown. The language was Indo-European. They received from Great Armennia many goods. But after the excavations of Hittitean capital Hattush with big library it was demonstrated that Hittitean language is IndoEuropean. Let us remember here the anthropological data (see Item 3.for the district around the city Hattush. Hittites. BC) and results of excavations of German archaeologist H. finery and weaponry. Lydia Lydia located in SW of Asia Minor was. 74. The language is separate branch of Indo-European family (as Armennian also). then Empire) was in close contacts with Great Armennia and other Armennian Kingdoms. inside other (bigger) Armennian Kingdoms (as Kilikia. It is known also that Hittitean country (state. 1986]. BC. It is obvious that these writings must be read in old Armennian language. The language is represented with inscriptions. Now it is known that many Hittitian words (and grammar) are the same as Armennians or very close to them [64].Dorpfeld and then. p. from whom came Indo-Europeans and Indo-European languages. Le. Excavations were continued by W. AD. ARMENNIAN TROY Our knowledge about Troy and Trojan Kingdom comes from "Iliad" of Homer (IX-VID cent. According to historical data Phrygia existed from 10-8 cent.Schliemann in 1870-1890 on a hill lying about 6km from the Dardanelles Channel. particularly with Kilikia. the kings of which were at one period brothers (from the one dynasty) with Hittiean kings. Phrygia After the fall of Troy (13c. 376. which was located in NW of Asia Minor.Semple and C. 187 . 3. with its capital Gordion. glosses and personal names [70. p. as Phrygia and other countries in Asia Minor.• The inhabitants of this district in the ID millennium BC spoke Hattiti and would therefore have had first right to the name of "Hattite" if they had not been pre-empted by the people of the later kingdom. of which Hattush was the capital" [93. 1. in 1932-1938 by American expedition led by W. BC to 2-3 cent.. BC) this country is known in the history as Phrygia. Lydia was independent state at 7-6 cent. 111]. Troy and others) in different times.

p. p. 85a.in Fig. the age of which now is under discussion (2500-1900 BC) [93. Tray Tray I • Tray 11 • Tray VI 0 Tray IX . Schliemann wearing Trojan jewellery [93]. 142] and Mrs. Map of excavations [93]. Mrs. 145. 144]. p. [97. Schliemann wearing Trojan jewellery . Fig. The map of Troy excavations is shown in Fig. p. 188 . 85 [93. 86 [93.Troy was a big old town surrounded by many settlements. 25. Troy. By the other sources Troy existed in IV millennium BC and was placed on the bank of old bay. BC. Fig. 144. 143]. 85. Trojan War was in XIII cent. 98].

etc.It is important for us how old really was the Trojan country. the King of Troy. especially to the East. Only Athen-Warrior (ugly-born 189 . came to conquer Troy. But on the routes to the East (marine and overland). From Armennia it was the King Zayrmayr of Nairi Country (z-ayr-mayr = mother's first son). Is it possible to be in any national epos. because: 1. to Him (to the God). Achean-Danayan (Greece) main heroes as Achilles and Agamemnon are presented negatively. Greek little states joined at first in one army and led by Agamemnon (one of little kings). including Black Sea basin (West was not developed yet). Greeks could not win but at the end did it by the cheat. In the result Achilles disowned war (during one year) and said to Agamemnon that he had nothing against Trojans. he fastened the body to the tail of his horse and drew it over the ground. Babylonian and others). the white-haired old Priam. 2. Hector's father. tamers of horses (i. Sumerian.d .e. Developing Greeks needed the trade ways. There were separate little town-states and island-states. impossible. Greeks were not formed yet as one nation. came and kneeled imploring Achilles to give him his son's body to bury. calling one another sordid. I am sure that it was more than 10 thousand years ago when Armennians lived here (Armennoid race) and it was Armennian country (Kingdom) having much more territory than in later period. and all old Trojan writings are necessary to read in Armennian language (as well as old Egyptian. Homer calls them as Acheans and Danayans.an = way to the AR. there came troops from a number of Eastern countries. noble Hekuba. But Homer used other epithets for Trojan heroes. but the opposite persons (of ten-year war enemy) called "noble"? I think. as noble Priam. Dardan is the old word which in Armennian means: D . To help Trojans to defend. The question is: could "Iliad" be Greek epos (or poem). In XIll century BC when Trojan War took place. Homer named Troy lllion which is Armennian name (Illion Arian=Ar-i-an=the town of Sun people). for what they were punished by their own Gods. I am sure that this will be affirmed by the new excavations. The main Gods. In fact it was the first World war between the developing West (Greece) and the East. To conquer the routes to the new lands. Of course not. All these are known from Homer's ''Diad''. etc. that their own heroes are called "sordid". are kept nonchalant. They are arguing. from the very beginning. In ''Diad''. The Greeks own Gods did not like Greece heroes. using hundreds of ships. which lasted ten years. When Achilles killed Hector. on Dardanelles Channel there was the Trojan Kingdom. hufTmg.ar. but Achilles refused. who fell in Trojan War. Zeus and Poseidon. Homer presents many other negative moments in actions of Greeks. against Armennians).

or more than 5000 years earlier than it is accepted in general. Hodiseus devised guile with big wooden horse. so the Copper Age in Armennia began about 10 thousand years ago. Armennian town (are h ean = town of AR worshipers). was built and operated more than 7500 years ago (see PART 1). For this dishonest and ignoble victory the Gods strictly castigated Greeks. On their back way home Poseidon made a powerful storm and more than half of Greek ships were sunk to bed. The monumental houses of this town were built according to one general project. the oldest in the World. When after ten-year war Greeks did not win and decided to go back.the Sun God. 4. 3. All these confirm that ''Iliad'' is Armennian (Trojan) epos and Homer (Tigran) was Armennian poet. their daughter Kassandra . Agamemnon on coming back to his town saw that now the king was another man.from the head of Zeus with her helmet) patroned Greeks. of course. 399]. It is known that Tigran is (and was) the popular Armennian name (Tigran= ''the man (who) makes beautiful home (life) of people"). The Greece philosopher Loukian (11 century AD) wrote that in his dream came Homer and on question ''from where you are and what is your real name?" he answered that he is from Eastern Babylonian countries (old Greeks almost everything on east called "Babylonian"). his wife Hekuba . It was a large and developed 190 . CULTURE IN GREAT ARMENNIA Excavations in Armennian Highland Near Armennian historical town Arhan (now Ergani in Diarbekir region of Turkey) 9500-year-old town with very high culture was excavated in 80-es of last century [91]. and his name there was Tigran [99. .''leader of people".75. pp."she is child of master. Zeus disallowed Hodiseus to return home during 20 years. It is under discussion until now who and from where was Homer."devoted protector of homeiand". etc. The name Tigran had also some Kings of the Great Armennia. 5. their son Paris ."devoted and generous". Many tools. when they were sleeping at night and to burn Troy. The patron of Trojans (-Armennians) was. It was. Territory of present Armennia Carahunge Observatory. of course. The names of Trojan heroes had Armennian meanings: King Priam (descendant of the God-King Dardan) . Apollo . instruments and weapons made from copper and marks of developed agriculture were found. devoted to his life". 3.''the man from the God (AR) surround". and Greeks became able to kill Trojans. 398. their son Hector .

They knew that the Earth rotates around its own axis and around the Sun. BC) from iron and steel. It was at first copper. it was necessary to have the high technology. instead of Armennian? These authors use whatever words just not to say "Armennia. Armennian researcher of Shakespeare E. Armennian. instruments. finery. copper. etc. Many excavations in Metsamor were done [92]. then (from 111-11 mill. beginning from V mill. ete. gold. Metsamor was a big old metallurgical plant. dishes. Lehashen. about 30 km from Yerevan. BC) found by archaeologist Professor T. the tinkle was ringing out and "evil spirits" ran away. appertained to ID-II mill. is connected with culture. art. The inhabitants of this territory were always Armennians. and also beads from colour glass. Science. They projected and built other large monuments in other latitudes. written language. that to cast (found) such a figure. 80 the bronze statuette of the Aries is presented (XIV-XIII cent. Mokhrablour.). placed with its Museum in Ararat Valley. Khachatourian during excavations near village Arrich on the North slope of Mount Aragats. Here. For example. BC presented by the results of many excavations on the territory of present Armennia between rivers Cour (Kura) and Aracs (Stengavit. BC. The production of Metsamor plant was widely sent abroad. Specialists say. Vandanian thinks that Armennian theatre was born about 8000 years ago [l08]. Why? In Fig. wood. silver. until 11 mill. bronze. The body of Aries is empty inside where metallic balls are put. BC. of course. Why did they call this culture "Cour-Arracsian" and their language ''HouriteUrartian". gold.observatory with many stone astronomical instruments of high accuracy. particularly in Europe. Many of the same artifices were found in other countries. statuettes. The artifices were made from stones. Developed Armennian Culture (so-called Cour-Arracsian Culture) of the period from 8000 years ago and earlier. bronze. silver. BC) iron and steel. When the cart moved. Aggarak. 191 . Armennians". knew mathematics. glass and further (111-11 mill. These are tools. The Aries stands on anchor which was necessary to fIX the statuette on cart. as the Great Pyramid and Stonehenge. Shannidar. measured its sizes. Vannadzor. Old Armennian scientists had very high knowledge. cosmogony. They knew that the Earth is ball-formed. metal was smelted in big quantities.

priests. but she had a very honorary place at home. Attacks on Armennia took place also. and in result Armennia very suffered from all sides. powerful. The era of total nobility on the Earth finished. 192 . 89). to domineer over others became usual relations. villeins never existed from the very beginning of political being of Armennia until now: Armennians never have the concept about some contemptible class" (p.3. There were never hetaeras in Armennia. Along of hallowed tradition of monogamy the wife of Armennian always was devoted friend of husband and authoritative hostess of family hearth" (p. "All foreigners.30). Russian historian S. slaves. that it was the single country in the World. to help them to federate their own first states. BC Before ID-I1 mill. This was demonstrated once more during last event in 1990-es. S. German researcher Magda Neimann wrote: ''It is known to everybody who knows history of Armennia. they began to make weapons and many of them began to kill one another. THE GREAT ARMENNIA IN 5 . who were captivated during war or came to Armennia by one's free will received. "Armennian State consisted of four estates: nobility (lord's genuses). to teach knowledge other people. on territory of Armennia the full freedom and equal rights with Armennians" [90. because the main power had the Great Armennia and other Armennian old Kingdoms and Armennians were not aggressive. They war for Fatherland which was present in their hearts and described on their old shields. 1833. p. But Bel was killed by Armennian Kesar Hayk in battle in 2492 BC and Babylonian army ran away (see Items 1. ''The woman in Armennia was not a subject of special cult. Unfortunately this new era lasts until now. and there came the era of avidity: ambitions to be rich. The first war in the World took place in the middle of III millennium BC. They went to many other lands with the single noble mission to propagate the humanity and kindness. Glinka in his book "Review of Armennian nation history". when army of giants from Babylon led by commander Bel came to occupy Armennia. They were just in natural relations with each other and kept mutual and common interest" (p. But the civil wars in Armennia never took place. to start wars. 89).1 mill. when all Armennian nation stood to protect the independence of Nagorni Karabakh. where castes. Here I want to show the opinion of other authors about Armennians. 89]. or they war for independence which was treasured higher than their own life". BC in the World there were no wars. 88).18 and 1. to occupy other territories. The main problems of State were decided together with public meetings [89]. townsmen and villagers.8.Petersburg. never wanted to occupy the territories of other people or countries. wrote: "Armennians never war for the war. But when other peoples (nations) learned knowledge.

p. Khorenatsi to us. Prince Hayk with his family. fiwtu-wpwp = fiwtuwUIbu umbtt. built the lord-house and gave it to his grandson Kadmos enthroning him as a Lord of Lake Van land. the father of Hayk. The word nakharrar came from M. Around this giant building a town soon arose. 79. and in present Armennian is in use as "minister". By the name of Kesar Torgom Armennia was also called (sometimes until now) ''Torgom's home (dome)".b1lwb"'. Then Hayk came to Ararratian land and became the Armennian Kesar (the King and Main Priest). p. in 1920-es was (with Nakhichevan territory) coercively devolved to Azerbaijan (turks) without Armennia assent.• comply with me and live calmly where you 193 . was the third after lafet (Habeth). 12]) the Armennian Kesar Torgom. and the building of the Tower stopped. But now sometimes in use "our ancestor".p =the kind life bringer). Khorenatsi wrote that in Armennia. son of Noah. so the king. the son of Noah) took place. after his father Torgom. In the middle of ID millennium BC the son of Torgom. the third after Cam. Hayk rested near Lake Van. six daughters and many grandsons. but•. The statue of Hayk in Yerevan was shown in color Fig. M. The word ''nakharrar'' in Armennian means: "nakhearar = precreated (man). which later was called Babylon after the name of Armennian commander Bab (p-w.l09]. He does not call Him ''Forefather of Armennians". p. so it means the top man standing before. so it is the highest administrative (and clerical) title in countries. over other men. ARMENNIAN KESAR HAYK According to the Bible (and also by Movses Khorenatsi [20. who later became the first King of Babylon. which in Soviet time. commander Bel began to act as a king there. 3. Khorenatsi calls Hayk as ''Famous and brave nakharrar.the Armennian own old territory with Armennian population.18. Hayk with his people (more than 300 person) returned to Armennia. M. top scientists and masters (more than 300 people) went to the South lands and started to build there the ziggurat type pyramid (Tower) with the help of local tribes. some conflict between Hayk and local commander Bel (by Bible Nebrot. 68. When the bigger part of Tower was built. 81. which is the same as very old Armennian word Kesar. but the first official King of Babylon was Bab (after Bel death). When Hayk had left Babylon. At that time Hayk had four sons. and marksman of the powerful bow" [20. on the way to Ararratian land. which is not right. So it is more exact to call Hayk as Kesar or King. the main priest. Bel sent (with his son) the letter to Hayk where it was said: "You are living in terribly cold land.

Torgom was 30 years old when Hayk was born (in 2544 BC). Hayk and Aramaniak. hoisted his taut big bow and his three-head" arrow breached body of Bel between shoulders and pierced into ground. 63. copper plates on bosom and back. Torgom was the third after lafet. Bel was the third after Cam. Kadmos (the grandson of Hayk) urgently arrived in Ararratian land and informed Hayk about Bel's Army coming. 2. Besides we can suppose the following: 1. Bel was dressed in helmet from iron. p. 2. The Hayk-Bel battle took place in 2492 BC. His army was shattered and exiled from Armennia [20. After Hayk Armennian Kesar became his son Aramaniak. Torgom was born in 2574 BC (and Bel . 19]. Kesar Hayk quickly gathered army and went to meet Bel. 3. 4. The battle started and terrible clatter rang around. 19- 23]. son of Hayk. armour on legs and arms. 194 . using the following known data: 1. Hayk was born in 2544 BC (when Torgom was 30 years old). Hayk ordered to celebrate this day of victory each year and Armennian new calendar (HBT) started (see Item 1. Hayk went forward. Hayk with a group of men of courage broke through Bel's Army to the position on hill where Bel was standing with the group of his warriors. When he came up to Lake Van. Bel fell Oat and died.18). We can try to calculate approximate dates of life and activity of Torgom. Then angry Bel gathered from the local tribes a big army (of Pedestrian giants) and went to occupy Armennia. Using these known historical facts and our suppositions.want in my country". This battle was in 2492 BC. 5. The sculpture of Hayk in Yerevan with his big bow is shown in Fig. 4. He wielded double-edged sword and a very long pike. Hayk. Artsiv (Eagle) and Aris (Aries). But Hayk answered with rigid refusal. that: 1. we can now calculate and reival approximately. and others. son of Aramaniak. Bel was for 15 years older than Hayk. 2. 3. 5. Torgom. On the back way from Babylon Hayk stayed in Armennian place near Lake Van. son of Noah. Aramaniak was 17 years old when Kadmos was born (in 2509 BC). Both armies met in Hayots Dzor (Armennian Gorge) to the North from Lake Van. Armennian nation deified Kesar Hayk. son of Noah. that he did not want to return to Babylon [20. • His arrow had three heads (pikes) because the main God AR had three symbols: Aryouts (Lion). built palace for Kadmos. Aramaniak.in 2559 BC). p. Kadmos became the Lord of Van land when he was 15 years old and in 2495 BC he was 17 years old. each of them lived 100 years. was born in Babylon.

when he was 49 years old (Torgom 79.2444 BC.2493 BC. 3.Kadmos was born in 2509 BC (when Aramaniak was 17 years old) and became the Lord of Van in 2494 BC. 7. when he was 51. where staying for about 10 years. Kadmos . These calculations are better to understand. when he was 66 years old. But he could not do it.67. Thus. Stonehenge in England. 4. and Bel . Aramaniak . Aramaniak was born in 2526 BC.Bel's battle was in 2492 BC. Hayk returned to Armennia in about 2467 BC. then it is understandable why in Big Pyramid nobody was buried whereas sarcophagus (also for his wife) was prepared. He was in Babylon and built Tower during 31 years. the first simple variants of present Carnak in Bretain. 10.2474 BC and King ? . 8. If all these took place.65).33). 9).2409 BC.3.2495 BC. when he was about 77 years old. After return to Armennia for one-two years Hayk in 2477 BC went to France (Bretain) and GB.17). promised to Egyptians to return back.2492 BC. who periodically died and revived again. when he was 15 years old. Kadmos -life 2509 .80. 2. Hayk -life period 2544 . Hayk became the Kesar of Armennia in 2493 BC. The Hayk . Hayk went to Babylon land in 2526 BC when he was 18 years old (at that time Torgom was 48 years old. when Hayk was 52 years old (Torgom . 5. Kesar 2444 .34. Egyptians were waiting for him and identified him with the God Osiris. Kesar 2493 . So.2426 BC. maybe. Hayk left Babylon in 2495 BC. He left Egypt in about 2480 BC and.64). Babylon Tower was in building during 2526 . Bel . 6. Bel. Bel . perhaps. Bel with army left Babylon in 2493 BC. it was finished after Hayk's departure). we can also write: Torgom -life period 2574 . 9. They were almost similar to Carahunge in Armennia but later were rebuilt to the present condition. Hayk went to Egypt in about 2490 BC and built the Big Pyramid during about 10 years (perhaps. We can suppose also the following: 1. After his death (in about 2444 BC) the Kesar of Armennia became his son Aramaniak (until about 2426 BC). Hayk returned to Armennia (at first in Van) in 2494 BC.2426 BC. beginning at the first from the last positions (10. became the Pharaoh and founded the IV Dynasty of Egyptian Pharaohs.2444 BC.82. when he was 50 years old (Torgom . Aramaniak -life 2526 . founded simple observatories. being used for other purposes (as cult). New-Grenge in Ireland and Callanish in Scotland. Bel (Nebrot) -life 2559 . 195 . For his kindness and high knowledge he was deified by Egyptians. Besides Callanish which is similar to Carahunge until now (the word "Carenish" in Armennian means "Stone Sign").

which in Armennian means "strong father". BC). BC). p.. w "• • . when at that place many workers were settled.b = he (is) kind". They were Armennians with high knowledge.ar .2495 BC. According to handbooks the flush period of Haldean Kingdom was at King Nabukhodonosor 11 (605 .562 BC). where Armenia and Harran are shown. 82. In Bible the town . Fig. which in Armennian means "came Bab (having) big soul" or "benign Bab came". . 196 . It will be more accurate to read this name as "Ar Armennian". 86.3. In 626 . The first King of this land was Armennian Bab (from 2492 BC). . Cherkassova it is said: "Later the terms "BabyIonian" and "Haldean" became synonyms". The main part is the first one "Nab". Reser and E. approximately at the period of 2526 . The flush period of Babylon was at King Khammurapi (18 cent. Armennian Kilikia and Lydia. "Ur Haldean" is noted. and in Armennian means "h s al e d = h . BC. "magi". "Babylon under Haldean Dynasty again achieved heyday" [117.d = (to) the Sun worshippers". ARMENNIANS IN BABYLON The town and State Babylon arose in South Mesopotamia during the process of building of Babylon Tower by Armennian Kesar Hayk. In this land from the old time many Armennians lived. In the book "History of Old World" by D. 86. There are many old maps where Armennia is shown. . which in Armennian means "na . From the old time Babylon was in friendly relations with the Great Armennia. The word "HaId" in many countries and for very long times (sometimes until now) was in use (means) as "sage men". such maps are presented [109]. The oldest one (came to us) Is the Babylonian clay tablet map dated from the VI cent. Bab in Armennian means "kind life bringer".538 BC and later Babylon was called Haldean (or NowBabylonian) Kingdom where kings were so-called Halds or Haldeans. the scheme of which is shown in Fig. 231]. After his name this land was called Babylon. Babylonian map (VI c. His name is very distorted by adding different parts. In the book of British historian Rouben Galichian more than 120 .

which was wrongly so-called ''Urartu''. so Armennian army with Mydian and Babylonian ones came to Ninve. And it is not necessary to devise other names for inhabitants of Armennia. Yerevan. In 9 century BC Nairi was united with Ararratian Kingdom at the period of the King (Kesar) Aram (860-840 BC) having the capital town Van. also Armennian Highland (Mountains) are presented (also Babylon and Assyria) [109. was founded in 782 BC by the King Argist I (788 . Present capital town of Armennia. dresses. dishes. The names of all kings of the period of 9-6 cent.4200 years ago there lived tribes of Hourites (or Hayassa). This means that there was not a certain "Urartu" for a short period of 9-6 centuries BC. BC Araratian Kingdom had a capital town Manazkert (founded in about 25 mill. ARMENNIAN BEHAYNA KINGDOM In many books on history it is said that in territory of the Great Armennia 4300 . because they were not tribes and did not have said names. paints. but was Armennian Ararratian Kingdom for a very long period. In the Great Armennia during the period of 13-6 centuries BC existed the Armennian Behayna Kingdom which consisted of two parts: Nairi Kingdom (known in 13-9 cent. These are wrong. 63]. which in Armennian means: Be-hay-na it (is) double Armennian 17w qpq(iwtUt hWJqwqw(i (bPtUtp t). which with Armennian Nairi Kingdom in 9-6 centuries BC were called Behayna. They were Armennians-Aryans living all the time in the Great Armennian Kingdom. for the period of 9-6 centuries BC. M. Neiman wrote that Assyria many centuries attacked Armennia. On the territory of present Armennia many excavations were done and many old things were found: home utensil. Assyria was annihilated [90. 83. p. and stormed it in 605 BC. capital of Assyria. carts. 3. Here = = 197 . BC) with capital town Van (founded in about 35 mill. etc. This united Armennian State was called Behayna. Assyria was a very aggressive country and a big lover of terrible wars with all countries around.764 BC). Urartian and after-Urartian periods are the same as well as the Armennoid race for people. On the territory of present Yerevan the old town-castle ''Yerebouni'' was excavated and partly reconstructed. In Armennia have always lived Armennians.Here the Armennia and Armennian Harran countries. BC are known (see Table of King below). Until 9 cent. weapon. 36]. All these artefacts for pre-Urartian. Ararratian Kingdom is well researched for the "Urartian" period. BC) and Ararratian Kingdom from very old time. p. decoration. BC).

on Mount Aragats. by the order of the God Bald this beautiful town built for the potency of Behayna country. with the text: "I am. and inhabitants of old Palestine were worshippers of Armennian Gods. 3.. They played an important role in the formation of local nations.Yerevan. ARMENNIANS IN SYRIA. when many Armennians from Kilikia and other regions came to the neighbouring Lebanon.was found out the stone with cuneiform characters of King Argist I (Armennians in that time used Alphabet and also cuneiform in parallel) about the foundation of Yerebouni ." (see Fig. In Fig. Lebanon and Palestine from the very old time (before the Great Deluge) on their way to the Phoenicia and Egypt. in Palestine Armennians founded the town Yerusalem (Jerusalem) (before the III mill. son of Menoua. For example. the adoration to the kind AR God and to other Armennian Gods. The stone with script about foundation of Yerevan (in 782 BC) by King Argist of Behayna country. 198 . BC).. is shown. art of houses and towns building. particularly. So now in Palestine. Now here along the seaboard there are many Armennian villages. 87). In Lebanon the quantity of Armennians increased after the genocide of Armennians in Turkey (including Kilikia) in 1915 AD. close to Armennians. 83. of the God Vahal (Vahagn) and the Goddess Astart (Astghik). So "Urartian" kings called their own country Behayna. Fig. Armennians taught inhabitants knowledge. LEBANON AND PALESTINE Armennians were in territories of present Syria. 88 another Armennian old and big castle "Amberd". Lebanon and Syria there are many Armennians and other Christians. 84. Argist.

55 BC) built his second capital town Tigrannakert (southward from Lake Van) and after occupation of Jerusalem invited to Tigrannakert about ten thousand Jews (and also Greeks) . the mountain ridge Armorika and others. 199 . at the time of Armennian Kesar Hayk (the middle of ill millennium BC) many Monuments were rebuilt with local tribes to have more religious designation. 586 . ARMENNIANS IN EUROPE The first Armennian expeditions to Europe took place probably in V IV millennia BC. than it is dated now. The main purpose was researching the lands. Miniean and Askanazian" Kingdoms" [110].64]. Afterwards. measuring latitudes of different points and building simple observatories having some analogy with Carahunge.535 BC) together with Iranian King Kir came and stormed Babylon.64].artisans. • Annennian Kingdoms [90. ARMENNIANS AND JEWS In 586 BC Jerusalem was occupied by Babylon and part of Jews was by force transmigrated to Babylon (Babylonian captives. In 1960-es AD in Jerusalem lived 15 . Jew's Seer Ieremia invoked his nation to call Armennians for help: "Boost flags. About the presence of Armennians and their settlements in Europe.wnntgqwb) mfibpD =the houses were kindly built. King of the Great Armennia Tigran Yervandouni (560 .17 thousand Armennians. p. But now they are only about one thousand. 3. besides Callanish in Scotland which has kept big analogy with Carahunge until now. So. the town Van. annihilated Babylon Kingdom at 539 BC and liberated Jews [90.3. Armennian King Tigran n the Great (95 . p. the age of Callanish is much more. beginning from In millennium BC. arm nations against him (Babylon). 85. call against him Ararratian. tell also the Armennian names kept until now in Bretain (France): as Carnak (the names of Monument and town). maybe.539 BC). The word ''Bret'' in Armennian means: p • P • h • m =pwp}1 wpqbg}1fi btwb (lJ. Because the threat for Judea still existed. blare trumpets amidst nations. Their descendants are living in Armennia until now. 86.

Sparta. Mycenae. In 5 .4 cent. The bloom of Athens was at Pericl (443 . 1538]. before the full formation of Greek nation with their Pantheon of Gods. however. ivory and gold" [111. Petrakos in his book ''Delphi'' wrote: "From the excavations carried out in the area.1200 BC. also in halls of Crete-Mycenaean culture. These are the words of Armennian Main God AR (the Sun) and Mother-Goddess Haya (Earth). 200 . among illustrations there was not shown even one Sun [111]. Asia Minor and Syria. the original owner of the place. p.Crete. the old town in South Greece. because in the books. The word Delphi in Armennian means: 11 • bl • UJ. BC was the bloom of polices. Crete in Armennian means: q • p • b • m • b =qpuwm wpqwb' mhq t = qmpqwb' mhq t 0l1lq}1) =cut place (island). Greek historian B. p. From there they secured supplies of copper.Delphi.wZlDDIl l1wIUl1tq = all worshipper men stand before (me). of course. Here everywhere on walls were the big Suns of gold colour with large and long rays. but about 1200 BC Mycenae was perished in fire [87. Mycenae and from North part . I bought there books about Crete and Mycenaean culture and was surprised. Greek historian J .339]. In National historical Museum in Athens I have been. Quickly.A.ID millennia BC from two sides: South . These Suns are the main indication or mark of the Armennian old culture. tin. The man who lived in Crete at that time knew how to cultivate wheat and used primitive stone tools.GREECE Armennians came to Greece during V . The bloom of Mycenae was in 1400 . ••• About the middle of the 5th millennium BC the making and use of hand-made pottery vases began. BC) Delphi was a small village whose inhabitants worshipped a female deity. ''In 8 . 802. • h • }1 =(}111) 1lP11wg blwfi pnlnp UJ. At the beginning of this period (from 2600 BC) the Neolithic elements still held sway in the way of life and art.429)" [87. we know that in the period now called "Mycenaean" (14th to 11th cent.13] The word Mycenae in Armennian means: U • }1 • p • b • fiw = Ubb' uWIUlqwfig wl1pngfihqwq fiw = it became the castle of big (top) men. pp. In honour of the AR the famous Temple of the Sun-God (Apollo) was built in Delphi. Crete. the old traits were creatively modified and the new inhabitants sought and found their own ways of exploring the rich resources of the island and came into contract with Egypt.6 centuries BC in Greece polices (townstates) were formed in Athens.1000 BC). Papapostolou in his book "Crete" wrote: ''The earliest traces of civilization••• have been noted at Knossos and belong to the end of the 7th millennium BC. was the centre of Aegean (Cretan-Mycenaean) Culture of the Bronze Age (about 2800 .

Or they came from West Asia at some time during the disturbances that followed the collapse of the Hittite and Mycenaean empires and settled in Italy cross-fertilizing with the native (Villanovan) population already established there. There is the hypothesis that Etruscans language pertain to the Indo-European family of languages. [87. 201 . and features of Etruscan religious ceremony . The question cannot yet be solved archaeologically.242].goddess Earth. Later. Basically there are only two tenable theories." [112. All these do not contradlet to existed supposition about Armennian genesis of Etruscans. But in 5 -3 cent.1568]. p. p. In the book of Ancient civilizations it is said: ''The question of the Etruscans is impenetrable. I am glad that they see the connection between Delphi and Armennians. which made a big influence on development of Rome. I know that in Europe in 19th cent. present Tuscany) lived Etruscans who had a developed civilization. It is not just the legend of Aeneans fleeing from Troy that was to figure so prominently in Etruscan art" [93. I am sure that it took place vice versa: Delphi was built by Armennians. BC they were vanquished by Roma. Etruscans in 7 cent. but could not find it. BC).•. AD the book was printed with title: "Armennian Origin of Etruscans". The word "Etrusc (Tusc)" in Armennian means: t • m • p • m • U • q (mnlult) =qbut! (lIwuf!) uiju ml)l1wl m1uUJ.7]. in I millennium BC. mbpfi t =the half (part) is the lord of this given place. Clay figurines of this deity were found in the deepest layers of the sanctuaries of Apollo and Athena Pronaia. but on the whole. BC made a unit from their 12 town-states and in 6 cent.•. the sanctuary of goddess Earth was taken over by Apollo. ITALY In I millennium BC on the NW of Apennine Peninsula (on territory of . p. I have heard that some Greek historians have the opinion that Armennians have arisen from Delphi. who probably came from the West Asia (Hittites) or from Balkan Peninsula (Mycenae). but because of the strength of the tradition that there was a migration from Asia Minor. can best be paralleled from eastern sources.241. the second solution seems more probable: not only because the Etruscan language has close affinities with eastern scripts . during the "Geometric" period (11th to 9th cent. This is very interesting and means also that Etruscan scripts are necessary to be read in Armennian. the Etruscans lived. BC held Campania region in the South of Italy (Neapol). Either they were an indigenous people who developed their culture as a result of contact with Greek traders and others. These and other sources tell that in Apennine Peninsula.

West German: English. Icelandic. CELTS "Celts (Roman name Galls) were ancient Indo-European tribes. So it is Armennian word. 202 . Celt in Armennian means: q • h • 1• m = qhut! (uwut!).6 cent. Norwegian. the Pyrenees and the Atlantic Ocean. p. Celts were Armennians. British Islands. Frizian.in ancient time the region on territory between river Po and the Alps.the group of kindred languages of the IndoEuropean family: East German ones: Gottian and others. and their languages came from Armennian language (see PART 2).Let me add that the supposition about Armennian genesis of Etruscans is right also because in I century BC Armennians were almost in all Europe. Irish. In 4 . 567]. knowledge. AD they captured a big part of West Roma Empire and formed some kingdoms: westgotian. and had tribal system. Belgium. hqwb" lwl{ mhq = the half (part) who came to the good place. culture and civilization. p. Dutch. Scandinavian or North German ones: Swedish. who brought to Europe Indo-European genes. Danube and Visla. and between the Alps. and in the end of 5 cent. burgundian. Celtiberian. Mediterranean Sea.567]. also because Armennia was the cradle of IndoEuropeans. AD was included in Franklin State" [87. Switzerland. "Gallia . p.271]. Czechia. Idish. and partly in Hungary and Bulgaria" [87. Farerian. ostgotian. frankian. and in South Scandinavia. rivers Rein." [87. Welchian. North and West Spain.the group of kindred languages of the IndoEuropean family.old tribes of Indo-European family of languages. Celts were the main connecting link between Armennia and young Europeans. "Celtic languages . langobardian" [87. German. North Italy. Danish. lived in the first century BC between the North and Baltic Seas. Africans". in Austria. GERMANY "Germans . BC territory of Gallia was occupied by German tribes. p. South part of Germany. Corian and British languages. From the beginning of 5 cent. Thereat Armennia never had hegemonic tendencies. Included: Gallian. Menian.296]: "German languages . There are very many facts showing this (see also below). who lived in second part of I millennium BC on territories of present France.

168]. FRANCE ''France . Very many marks of Armennian presence are in Brittany Peninsula. which during the 203 .19. There are many marks of presence of Armennians in France. p.population of Brittany•••• The language is Brettonian.. Probably. Brettonians . of Celtic group" [87. There are also many other French words and names. For example. especially.France". These names were transformed to German. 21 AD). Indeed.••• In ancient times on territory of France lived Galls (Celts) and country was called Gallia.to Germany. p. p. Haiti.in Armennian ''the Sun man". 76]. Other present marks are: Armorikan Hills. So Germany is the analogue of Armennia. and Arman . "Brittany (Bretagne) . AD . The name of Brittany Peninsula in ancient and medieval time was "Armorika". inhabitants of Brittany every day saw as the Sun is setting into the ocean-Mother. French Guiana" [87. The tribes were united by the leader by the name of Arminius. Canada (where it is one of official languages) and of many States of Africa. The word "Metzn" in Armennian means ''the Great". "Arminius (18 or 16 BC . etc. The leader of German tribe of Cheruski.the Indo-European language of Frenchmen and French population of Belgium. In other words.the Peninsula in the West (NW) of France. and country . Apropos. as Armaniak. the oldest Christian church in France (the church of Carolings) was built in Germini de Pre (Luara department) in 806 AD by Armennian architect Odon Le Messin (Metzn) [113]. d" Arting. In France at the I millennium BC the Celts-Armennians lived who were the ancestors of Frenchmen. "Armorika" is the explanation (in Armennian) of the word "West" (of the country). from the 10th cent. the town Van (the name of Lake Van in Armennia and name of the town Van. beginning with "Ar (the Sun)". which have the interpretation in Armennian. "French language . where "Caro" is Armennian rife first male name (means "Saint Stone") and ''ling or leng" means ''lame''. This word in Armennian means: Ar • mor • ika (UP-I! lTnpfi pqw) = the AR (Sun) to (His) Mother came. The main town Ren•••• Armorikan Hills (Highness) with top height 384 m. Switzerland. the name Caroling in Armennian means: Caro • ling. In 9 AD routed the Roman army led by Vara in Tevtoburgian forest" [87.in Armennian "(from) the Sun people". the nearest to Armennians in present Germany are Bavarians.The leaders of old German main tribes were Armennians with Armennian names Armen . on the West.1435]. d" Artanian.

p.VII cent.I mill. which in Armennian means "Stone Sign" or "Stone Mark" (see PART 1). Ireland. the names of the town and Old Monument "Carnac". Wales. p. AD. folk songs. Anglo-Saxons were West-Saxes who came to the U.K. The name England comes from VII cent. AD. From the book edition time and translation time passed more than 1000 years. AD. who were the ancestors of Frenchmen. The present population of Wales. saying "from Armennia"." [104]. In the I millennium BC on the territory of present U.K. Here they mixed with local population-Celts (or Brettons-ArmorikansArmennians). AD there have come Anglo-Saxons" [87. in ancient time the CeltBrettonian-Armennians lived. In the English oldest three-language book ''The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" (about VIII cent. 89c the translation on modern English of 1953 (now under title "The Laud Chronicle") is shown. The town Kumri is in 120 km from Yerevan. and Latin Alphabet . So. so it was forgotten that Armorikans (BritonsCelts) were Armennians who came to Armorika from Armennia and Armorika is old Armenian name of Briton..in VII cent. lived Celts. where 55% of words were taken from French (Celt-Armennian) language and 10% . the self-name of inhabitants of Wales is "Kumri". it had to be "from Armorika". 89a the first page of this book is shown. 1354]. who came from Armenia . THE UNITED KINGDOM ''The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has National regions: England. About predominant role of Armenians (Celts) in old territory of U. It is also interesting that both translators (of 1861 and 1953) marked that "from Armenia" is an error. and in Fig. Scotland and Ireland is more close to Armennians until now by their traditions.K. 89b the translation of original text into modern English of 1861 is shown. 204 . It is interesting to note that in Armennia there is the old region with the main town having the old and present names "Kumri" or "Gumri". In Fig. etc. habits. In 5-6 cent.from Latin group of languages. in 449 AD. BC was the capital of the Great Armennia). Scotland. As I know. The Christianity was adopted in VI .. 204]. dances. mentality. in France. In Oxford Dictionary is said: "Welch . etc. In Fig. AD) it is written: ''The first inhabitants of this land (Britain) were the Britons.the Celtic language of Wales" [58. tells also the data of analysis of the present English language. particularly in Brittany. So author (authors) of the old book were right.

.of the ~ In t. ErM ' __ ~ '"7'-' tol. ..' _..n..-aa .. e..a Dr. I ~ •• .po w · .o... Jl<>... '.{... r1I.rdoA . b." ." .\ x( ~ L0 -S AX0 N "r--- CIT l~ 0 NI CLE. .."...AadhPiblMbeamaUoo. _4 . laDg.J ~~ 1' ' ...rlllar .••• ". L 1...L ? 1I."Af:.. ...~d . 1l.." .. H.t· ') her "1. .. 1.<ion .& . £la (""'_ &. ~ r .e h i "0101011 b~ .- ." ._ rrno'..-.. M . ~ . . "... ') litr alnd mil..400 011 ~ia 1 .. rtW'dM . wy!1at . ll"yh...... 0...... __ '«It-"d..tr.. .. .." .... I Uclt. 11 _ _ _ _•• 1 ... .... IlCIf1INowMl'tlaa · ') "'~lUl ­ _ _ (.. ) fi.) Scc>Hu 1 - ' . J ... tr anslations into modern English of 1861 (b) and 1953 (c). -. lndll AD mw fbt Ar....d ATe 'people...WeJlh. ~ ... ..... 8qlll-r..w•• 1._.· \\' :1.. J>-... _ .r' ..I"'ak rt<l _ _ t .a. Brlf.. Fib.."........"Ile. . ~ t!M P'Se..". ') llar-l. . .hl• ..ia '" :r THE ... u ..be word.. -....-. .4 - I.. .. iih& h~' mUe....~~I" · I"'" ~ I.. 8ootdah. jl:"IIIi... THE LAUD cHRoNIO.... ·t ".. ~ .w .· an ....oIOO1 _ ••. J It( ~. _ n" •• . ... J WyU... 'I llrlll hc:.. _ l'oo< •• . k...1Id '-'~ y... Armoa "i...._.. ..e ...~la.. • • ___ t k • _ ..l... "' . Wad of Brieua It' .hi.a .. 1a. t-J. 1 . tu. . ~i...._ _ ~ YI>QI .. ... ) ~r. ~ .'.) I tf b.. ') w.... _ ....ila I....-r ""I'd ~U' c ..e eo. . : _ _ ~- 1 ~." buD<! llIila "'Ila' ') n . and :Book~Latlll. ...: 1 ..\Wt..tu... br'C*l f ud here u-..m E . 1k! .I 1I... hl. bit Wtloll BriUu ....n .dAd alae... '.. ') ' .c .... ...... u.. -e. Ilrl-J I. .. .l~ . '] n. ~ ~M _.n. · ') Eec- 11. . .... . .1l1eM Itl. oC JadI....rM . 1IIoo'_I'~"" r..E.. l.nd P .. b. -. ...J\J....lMa a«' _ w16Hy1l1. ..""(U. ...E (E) (c) Fig. ...-TM DUlNnlalA &be ..001 ~_ ...t... ef IC'~ ' .. of ~ it! Luor'lllll 'U111 " 11'' ''' 1'" _r>eIUIft ' .11. " ~ \..II_i.... ~ ...... .. .. rorpoun III a. bit lo.. ~ fire' iDhnblCln... .el_p Jferdo DTi comal1 J .laa ol I\( f!ellC!l ' . ~T -. 1. (a) _. _ /..&11 ~NNt 01:1 ..c. l.. . -u. " . hi t ar lll M la..hta Bn~. . .J'I'!P4. .. ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICtE..... . 1>_ .Da Annorloeao et!nel. le .. Copies of the "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" old book. !. 89.. 11... lDidl&Atl· t" t'01ftU) or 4nN-4 • !i!. .. .. 'If.. -. nr p . .moA.. ~ ~ ... (b) I· ... W .. Original book in thr ee languages (a)._ " ~ IoJ ~ _ ..h. ...• .... . land '!Yere Britona I they came tr.. r iltU..t--. ~ l'\btu...Wo M ... ~ I" ..c. 205 . r . •• . ':"'O de.... pa.. Ide .. . .....J lut.rd.. _ ....~lad" .-...~". _ .. and ilrlt ICttled lOuthward in Britain.. .-._ ... _ 441 _ .. where is said: "Britons came from Armenia".. . ) I~ ' . R~" • . r" oh ar ..e ..... IM • .\' be m i".) Drr li. Uld hro "...... lI.w.. In'the 1a1&D.rloJr".ut . . PiOtilh.-. .. bet ea. .. 1"11. ... .. . .. . ....... I. 1 .. ~ .. _ .orb..... ._ It'-" ..i!". I I". ... laDd .d.nnrn~ . ." .:'wo04.e:w~ bt"ud 11).lI. rWr- -.... wit_ Sc:othUD' OQ f (DU...u- "i... wllW .

There are a lot of information about ancestry and development of Slavs in connection with Armennians. rn.1149]. Serbs. Sloventses. ''Rossia'' (Russia in Russian) and ''Rousskiy'' (Russian in Russian) have no explanations in Russian language. CULTURE IN THE GREAT ARMENNIA During the period of 5 . D.1 mill. at the end of 1 millennium BC the name of local population became Rous. "Rous" and have explanations (meaning): "fi. Byelorussians). "Russians . IV) =(he) is big and beautiful man. 293]. Ukrainians. This group includes: the East group (Russians. BC the leading role of Armennian Science and Culture all over the World was continued.as also Ukrainians and Byelorussians. The languages are Indo-European (of the Slavian group). 3.590 BC there were four Kings having name Rousa (I.the group of nations having kindred ancestry. Bosnians)" [87. went with his troop to the North and on the bank of the river Dnieper in 585 AD founded the castle 5mbatas. "Rousastan". astan" = Rous country. This is confirmed by the big influence of Armennians and their culture on development of the 206 . p. Croats. The words "Rous". Besides. p. arose from the EastSlavian tribes and founded Ancient-Russian State around the town Kiev. Later Armennians mixed with local tribes. Thus. Macedonians and others) arose in the result of contacts between Armennians (coming to the region) and local tribes. Slovaks. Lujichians). that at the time of one of these Kings a part of Armennians went to the North (may be led by one of King with the name Rousa) and rested somewhere in Russia. in the Great Armennia in the first millennium BC (in Behayna-Arraratian country) in the period of 735 . The nation was formed in 14-15 cent. ARMENNIANS AND SLAVS "Slavs . and the name of their country Roussiya. Artan. Czechs. But in Armennian these three words are "Rous". Armennian Lord 5mbat Bagratouni after his victory in Livia sailed to Crimea.87. p. which later grew to the town Kiev. AD••••" [87. South group (Bulgarians. So the supposition is. At that time there were also other Armennian towns Armen (Romen). Artavet where lived Armennians and made valuable steel swords [115. Macedonians.1222]. Ukrainians.88.n1u" = D • D1 • U = (fim) lthb" t D1 uppn1fi = (he) is big and beautiful and "Rous . the West group (poles.3. There is the supposition that Slavs (Russians.

on the bank of river Araks (in about 630 BC) and educated in Armennia. as before. architecture. 20]. priests and magi lived. buried in Harran his father Farra and went to Palestine [33]. I want especially to note the beautiful Armennian Poetry. technology. priests. The progenitor of Jews Abraham (about 1680 BC) lived in Chaldean Ur (Armennian Ar). having not yet enough experience in kindness. BC) was born in Armennia. historians and others came to Armennia or to countries where Armennian scientists. Thereby he spent twenty two years (in Egypt) in temples. Abraham and others. he returned to the Samos Island" [33. Babylon.the first millennium BC. and Armennians knew it in Carahunge time. music. artists. The era of wars came and it continued until now. where is shown that Carpets propagated to all the World from Armennia. After twelve years. etc. shown here in Fig. accumulation of which needs thousands of years. The ''father of western philosophy" Pythagoras (VI cent. With their help he finished learning of arithmetic. The famous theorem of Pythagoras Babylonians knew 1200 years before Pythagoras. musicians. music and other sciences. consecrating him into their old knowledge and into the most ideal service to the Gods. Syria. p. It is known also the big influence of Armennians on the formation of Indo-European race and languages. on the science. so 3800 years ago. For example. philosophers. BC). then in Armennian big town Harran and. in the age of about 56. The founder of Persian Zoroastrism religion Zoroastrian (VII cent. About influence of Armennian culture and technology on development of other countries tells also the book "Oriental Carpets (Their Iconology and Iconography from Earliest Times to the 18th Century AD)" by Volkmar Gantzhorn [59]. according to Greece philosopher Yamblicus (ill . Many foreign scientists. particularly in Europe. which were much more developed in Armennia. learning astronomy and geometry not at all superficially meeting with all the secrets of the Gods•••• (then) in Babylon he had the great pleasure from contacts with magi. It is obvious from his map. 207 . Many important problems people try to decide by force. in the age of about 73. the centre of education and learning of the kind Sun God religion. p. Zoroastra. including also the early Christian period . This period was the time when many nations and countries arose and quickly developed. AD) " ••• visited all Egyptian priests and found all wisdom from each of them. also in Babylon. 53]. coming from the old time up to now. At the same time the Great Armennia was.IV cent.level of other nations and countries. human relations. so 7500 years ago. such as Egypt. 90 [59. such famous persons as Pythagoras. They learned also to make weapon and unfortunately the wars started in the World.

Martsella. 63]. which is Armennia (see Item 3. Ploutarkh. decoration. Efremiy. Zonar. BC . Horatsiy. Theodoret. Ptolemmey. Foreign authors. Tsedren. Polibbiy. Sozomen. 91 the Armenian female traditional silver belt of XVI century AD is shown. The first known information comes from Sumerian epos of III millennium BC. In Fig. Procopiy. Formation of other nations and countries gives also the new result in the field of information about Armennia. Kantakkouazen and others [90. AD) many Greek. travellers and historians began to write about Armennia. Svettoniy. 208 . p. Pliniy. Lev Diakkon.beginning of I mill. Pheophan. Doukas. 90. Tsitseron. BC (the Symbol of Sun) is shown. Herodot. osamarkand oKho r• • • n 0 Kabul . Dion. Sokrat.14)._ . Rome (I mill. Tatsit.j o Kerman lIalu<hl\ tan Fig. Zosim. T. After formation of Greece. where is said that their ancestors came from "Arratta". etc. Nikkita Khoniat. It found out near village Arich (Mount Aragts. They are: Sfrabon.In Armenia from the old time the making of different kind of utensil. Armenia) by archaeologist Prof. 92 the bronze statuette of Aries of XIII cent. Isidor. Sineziy. Hulian.Khachaturian. Michael Attalliot. from metals were traditionally developed. Sintsell. Evagriy. dishes. Georgiy. Map of Carpets propagation from Armennia to the all World [59]. Georgiy Pakhimer. warriors and historians were in Armennia and wrote about it. Nikkifor Gregoras. Ksenofont. Yevsevviy. In Fig. Roman and Byzantine travellers. Kassiy. Ammian. Konstantin Bagrianorodniy.

THE GREAT ARMENNIA IN 1 MILL. Movses Khorenatsi wrote: "Artashes ••• created his town. with the best view of the capital town". He founded in Ararat valley the new capital town of the Great Armennia . Armennian Kesar of Great Armennia Artashes I the Kind (186 . 23]. Mtsbin and other). from the Caspian Sea to river Euphrates and basin of river Chorokh to the Black Sea.I mill. Korduk and Armennian Mountains. BC .91.55 BC) led politics of development of economical and defensive power of Great Armennia and deliverance of other Armennian Kingdoms from Roman and Parthian aggression. Armennia Minor. ARMENNIAN KESAR ARTASHES I THE KIND In n century BC the independent Armennian States were the Great Armennia.9. the king Yervandouni. Other Armennian countries were occupied by foreigners. Plutarkh wrote about Artashat ''the very beautiful town". p. during present excavations near Mount Araggats (villages Aggarak and Dzorap) was found out an Armennian big town of the beginning of ill . In 86 BC he delivered from the Parthians Armennian Mesopotamia (Edessia. He returned into 209 . where from the old time was Armennian Dynasty of Abgarian (Yervandouni). 3. 3. In the result of his activity the Great Armennia re-established almost his full power from the river Cour (Kura) to the river Tigris. Tsopc and Kommagena. King of Kings (95 . For example. He reunited with the Great Armennia Tsopc (94 BC) and Kappadokia which was under Roman protege.Artashat. Armennian Mesopotamia.92. ARMENNIAN KESAR TIGRAN n THE GREAT. THE KING OF KINGS Armennian Kesar of Great Armennia Tigran n the Great.160 BC) of Yervandouni Dynasty (which came from Haykian Dynasty) established the Dynasty of Artashesouni and began to unite Armennia. In the inscriptions on stones (see Item 2. BC with developed architecture and culture [94].301 AD 3. son of Zareh of Yervandouni Dynasty which came back also to the throne of Kommagena (163 BC) [68. the Good (Kind) son of Zarekh".15) the King Artashes I called himself as "Artashes.The new information comes also as the result of new excavations on the territory of present Armennia. As the King of Tsopc became Merujan.

the capital town of Selevkides. who came to the Ararat valley and besieged Artashat. Nina . Precipitating Selevkides. The capital town Artashat was at the North part of the large Great Armennia. They wade Euphrates. southward of the Lake Van. p. To the Tigran 11 the Great Jews ambassadors came with rich bestowals and asked him to be gracious to their Tsarina and people. Ploutarch tells that "Around Tigran were many kings with the statute of servants" [68. Tigran 11 the Great gave hope to ambassadors of Jews Tsarina. 93 the silver coin of kesar Tigran 11 the Great is shown. Atrapatakan (Atropatena). Kommagena. because the private persons and lords in eager rivalry widened and beautified the town struggling to be . At the same time Armennia from the East was attacked by Parthian army with King Phraat Ill. In 68 BC Loukull went to Artashat direction.the Great Armennia the regions occupied by the Parthians: "Seventy valleys". In Fig. 93. But near the river Aratsani was met by Tigran 11 the Great with Armennian army which shattered Roman army and banished them out from Armennia (68 BC). in 83 BC he converted to the one of his capital towns where his coins were minted. but was shattered by Tigran 11 the 210 . In 66 BC from the side of Kilikia Armennia was attacked by Pompey with lOO-thousand Roman Army. Fig. besieged and came into the Tigrannakkert (when Tigran 11 the Great was absent). Phoenicia. so Tigran the Great in 80 BC built another capital town Tigrannakkert (with theatres) in the Agdznik region. p. Syria. compliant to the King" [68. Armennia was attacked by Loukull with Roman army. Antiokhia. Ploutarkh tells that "Tigrannakkert was very rich town with big treasures and expensive bestowals for Gods. Arbel (Adiabena) and other parts of Mesopotamia and also Ekbotan.. 26].26]. came via Tsopc. Tigran the Great added Syria and Kilikia to the Great Armennia and put on Syrian throne Armennian commander Bagarat as his deputy. Silver coin of Tigran 11 the Great The lordship of Tigran 11 the Great propagated also over Kilikia. Palestine with Judea and in the North over Iveria and Agouvank.

The paint of Tigran Il the Great on throne is shown in Fig. 3. After him the Kesar of the Great Armennia became his son.3 BC). where the union between Armennia and Parthia was renewed and sustained by the marriage of Artavvazd n sister with Orrod's sun Pakkor. The last period of Tigran Il the Great was placid. Antoniy carried off Artavvazd to Alexandria where with his wife Cleopatra put Artavvazd in jail. where negotiation with Artavvazd n began. At that time Parthian King Orrod was invited by Artavvazd n to Artashat. The same did his son Tigran IV (8 . where he after three years was killed. His head was taken to Artashat and shown to Artavvazd. In 34 BC Mark Antoniy attacked Armennia with Roman army and came nearer Artashat. Armennian Prince Artashes attacked Antoniy to deliver his father.34 BC). Seeing this. Pompey recognized Tigran n the Great as the king of Great Armennia in its native boundaries: from basins of Euphrates and Chorokh (in West) until river Cour (Kura) and Caspian Sea (in East) and Armennian Mesopotamia (in South). Roman army conquered his army and killed him. In 31 BC M.8 BC) who led politics of independence from Roma. then his uncle Artavvazd nI (5 .5 BC). Artashes Il was killed and his brother Tigran ID became the Kesar of Great Armennia (20 . Antoniy perished in battle with Oktavian and Cleopatra committed suicide. But during negotiation Antoniy disloyally arrested Artavvazd. Pompey disbelieved in his victory and they with Tigran n the Great decided to conclude the agreement of peace between Armennia and Roma (66 BC).93. In 64 BC Tigran n the Great concluded a peace also with Iranian Parthia. 68a. In 31 BC Artashes n (31 . The Kingdom of Great Armennia was proclaimed as the friend and ally of Roman nation. but could not do it. Artavvazd n (55 . In main battle near Harran Roman army was shattered (53 BC) and Krass was killed.PARTHIAN UNION In 54 BC Roman army with Mark Krass crossed river Euphrates from Syria side and came to town Harran in Armennian Mesopotamia with purpose to attack Parthia. Orrod and people in theatre where the demonstration of Greece play took place. In 20 BC other Roman army came to Armennia. ARMENNIAN . After 15 years.Great and banished out from Armennia. 211 .20 BC) became the Kesar of the Great Armennia and extirpated Roman army which occupied Armennia. on page 144. when in 39 BC Prince Pakkor with army went to Syria and Phoenicia.

where Be • hay • na in Armennian means ''Double Armennian Country". Indeed. it was Arraratian State of Armennian Behayna Kingdom (See Item 3. BC they also suddenly disappeared. which was united "Nairi Armennian Country" plus "Arraratian Armennian Country". Corbulon was forced to agree to conclude the peace agreement and to avow Trdat I as the King of independent Great Amennia. after what. I don't know what "genius" put ''0'' instead of "a" 212 . Armennian History is very negatively distorted. In the end of the 11 cent. this very strange state with unknown nation suddenly arose with very high developed level. But Emperor Neron (54 -68) did not want to agree and sent to the East. About so-called "Urartu". Vologes I came to Roman province Syria. They were able to cultivate metals (bronze. BC in South Caucasus and basin of Lake Van. 1. In 51 AD the King of Parthia became Vologes I Arshakid who was in allied relations with Armennian Kings. Then in VI cent. steel). Kappadokia. This army was shattered by Armennian-Partbian united army (62 BC). Neron in 64 AD was forced to avow Trdat I as King of Great Armennia. made a gross reception. Judaea and other countries. In 52 AD the brother of Vologes I Trdat became Armennian King Trdat I. BC the Dynasty of Arshakids became ancestral in Armennian throne as Aarshakouni dynasty. The top lords of Armennia de