RRHS Physics 12 Course Notes
J. Burke 2009-2010
Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28
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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .
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4 Fields 4. . . . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . .1 *Series Circuits .
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5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. .4 Gravitational Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion .3. . . . . . . . . 5. . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . .2.
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.2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . .1 Electric Current . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .1. . . . . . . 5. . . . . .
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. . .3 Magnetism . . .2 Electric Potential . . .2. . . . . .
. . . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . . . . . . .
. .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . 4. .2. . . . . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . .
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. . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . .2.
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CONTENTS . . . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . . . . . .
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. . . .3. . . . . . . .4 Implications . . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . .1. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . . . . . . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . .3. . . . 6.1 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .6 Problems . .
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .
. . . . .3. . . . 7. . . . . . . Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . .
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. . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .
. . . . . . . . . .2. . . .4 Half-lives . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . .2. . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .
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.5 Problems . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.3 Compton Eﬀect . .
. . .2 Beta Decay .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .
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CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics
. . . 6. . . . . .2 Transformers . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .2 Bohr Theory .
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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.1 Alpha Decay . . . .
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. . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . .
CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95
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.1 Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508. pg 862 #6.27
.3 2.3 3.3 #4.28 #2. BLM #1. pg 596 #12. pg 780 #2.1 3. pg 778 #1.8.9 #2.4.1 220.127.116.11 7. pg 661 #5.2.2 1.8. pg 863 #8.6. pg 655 #18.104.22.168. pg 515 #39.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18.10.8. pg 501 #31. pg 611 Conceptual Problems. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-622.214.171.124 7. pg 936-937 #26.40.6 #3.2 5.28 pg 495 #30. pg 934 #5. pg 608 #3.1 6.1 4.Textbook Correlations
Section 1.3.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.15
pg 641 #9.28. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.4 6. pg 595 #5. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2
pg 767 #1.6.8 #4. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.6.1 5.2 6.3 5.7. pg 886 #3.3 5.688-693 694-714.3. pg 489 #27.2 4.7.4 #36. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.1 1.14.2 2. pg 933 #126.96.36.199. pg 571 #21.3 7.2 4. pg 526 #1.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.4 pg 796 #1-188.8.131.52.3. pg 529 #30.5. pg 918-919 #3.
CHAPTER 0. TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS
force.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. 1
The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. when typing. displacement. Last year. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. For example. it is actually two numbers.1 Introduction to Vectors
In grade 11 physics. Likewise. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. acceleration.Chapter 1
1. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. For example. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). like a scalar is. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. In university. The symbol d represents these components. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). This year. velocity. it does not have a direction. a 30 m displacement
Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. dy ). we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. A vector is not just a single number. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. Consider the diagram below. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. When writing.
. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. In 2D space. For example.
we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together)
The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. For the examples that follow. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. south. ay ). 2. The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. west). The vector a actually represents the components (ax . INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long.1
Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. In this system. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o .1. and the diagram will look like this:
.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction.
CHAPTER 1. So a + b will give (ax + bx . (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). In math. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. To help visualize this. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. 3. This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. east. ay + by ). our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. in other words. In the previous diagram. DYNAMICS EXTENSION
1. we are actually adding their components.1. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. Since vectors are not single numbers. south would be 270o . In this system.1. This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). Your textbook uses this last convention. the other vector b represents the components (bx . the direction of the vector would then be 30o . 2
We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. north would be 90o . by ). 1. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. If we add these two vectors.
CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.
1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like
The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form
Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.
where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .
Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2
to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx
We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3
1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).
CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).
The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!
The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)
1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N
Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.
Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving
CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics
1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5
A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. mass. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. whose speed in still water is 2.1. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. why? 19. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line.0 m/s.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. How fast is the player running? 23. A hiker leaves camp and. 10 km W. 5 kmN.00 h. The speed of a boat in still water is v. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. 8 km N. wind speed? 18. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. To do so. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. 26. At the end of three days. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. 3 km E. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. walks 4 km E. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. Before it can move. using a compass. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. 20. the hiker is lost. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. Find the change in velocity.
. 6 km S. A ferryboat. We must assume u < v.1.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. and 3 km S.85 m/s. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6
CHAPTER 1. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. Diane rows a boat at 8.
the force of the man pulling is not. DYNAMICS EXTENSION
1. friction. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions.2. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration.1
We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law.
Notice that although the normal. FORCE VECTORS
1. I will take up as the positive direction. therefore. Notice that FN = Fg . FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative.
Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. RRHS Physics
1. Because we often know Fg and Fpy .2. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7
. In the diagram below. we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . therefore. both of which are vectors. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). First.2
In Physics 11. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. the vertical forces. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction).CHAPTER 1.
As can be seen in the diagram above. so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram.
Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. If friction is present. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem!
The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics
. as in the following diagram. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. we get
CHAPTER 1. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). these would have to be considered in the force analysis. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. Using trigonometry.2. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration).2.1.3. Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. if present. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry).2)
Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another).
m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. Again. the normal force can then be used in this calculation.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . Similarly. FORCE VECTORS friction for now). Again notice that FN = Fg . In order to apply Newton’s second law. Drawing a free body diagram. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . In other words. the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1.
A force of 300. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4.0 km/h.0 kg block and the ramp is 0.2. A 5. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . A rope attached to the 5.0o angle with the horizontal. The total mass is 80 kg.10. An 18. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.5 s for him to reach the bottom. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0. What is the acceleration of this system? 11. A 15.300 m/s2 . The tension in the rope is 110. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v)
1. It takes 13. where it is attached to a 4. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o . A car can decelerate at -5.3 m/s2 . A bicyclist can coast down a 4.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3. DYNAMICS EXTENSION
1. (a) Ignoring friction.CHAPTER 1. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal. RRHS Physics
.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley. (b) Using the same power as in (a).30. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6.0 N . how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom.0o incline and accelerates at 0. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h.0 kg box is released on a 33. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.0o angle with the horizontal. will the slug slide down the hill? If so. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill.20. A 55.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed.2. A 25. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6.30.0 km/h. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.2
1. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2.76.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air.0 m/s.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20.0o hill at 6. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.6o hill at a steady speed of 7.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal.
3. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero.
1.1. there are three forces acting on the mass. Remember. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. The mass is stationary. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. although the net force is zero in both cases.2
Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. therefore.3. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium.3
You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object.
Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. therefore. As we said.
1. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics
. Since force is a vector. but opposite in direction. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. therefore. DYNAMICS EXTENSION
This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. as shown in the following vector diagram:
A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium.3. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. there will be a net force in some direction.
As can be seen by the free-body diagram. EQUILIBRIUM
CHAPTER 1. it is obviously not accelerating.
As can be seen from equation 1. we must introduce the notion of a torque. the board will begin to spin. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. It can be thought of as a twisting force. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object.
. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. While forces were described using up. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque.. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board.4. Before dealing with torques. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point.CHAPTER 1. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). τ = F⊥ d (1. this is important. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). You will learn more about these in university. left. when calculating the work.3. right.4 The further away from this pivot. you multiplied only
If there is a natural pivot point (for example. To examine this more. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. etc. down. 11
where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. even though the forces are equal and opposite.
1. When you calculated work.4)
This is the second condition for equilibrium. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. Στ = 0
Obviously. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). As we have seen. but one up and one down. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. as it was when discussing work. This is called a dot product. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. the greater the torque. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. It is not in rotational equilibrium. it acts on every particle in the body. but for calculating torques.
The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. 9. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. When lifting a barbell. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N .5o with each other. The frame has a wire across the back. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle.0 m when a 50. The two ropes make an angle of 15.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. 8. Find the resultant force on the vehicle. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below:
5. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle. A high wire is 25. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. A 20. 10. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. RRHS Physics
4.1. 3.3.0 m long and sags 1.0 N . and you don’t want it to break. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated:
1. What is the tension in the rope? 2. 12
.3. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. A sign with a mass of 1653. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. EQUILIBRIUM
7.0 s. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6.3
1. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain.
0 kg person is sitting 1.
19.CHAPTER 1.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. A force of 500. apply to prevent acceleration?
1.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90. A 60.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane.0 kg person stands at its tip.0 m from the same end. In the following diagram.0 N. 14. and its center of gravity is located 4. one at either end. If there is a spring on the door 5. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13.0 kg (uniformly distributed)
. determine the magnitude. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. Fred. Betty is pulling with 205 N east.0 N applied to a rope held at 30.0 kg.0 m. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N . A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators. A 50. The plane has a base of 14.90 m away from the pivot on the other side. The platform is being held up by two students.3. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13
18.0 m platform has a mass of 10. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50. Find the equilibrant force: 12.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw.0 m and a length of 15. What equilibrant force must a fourth student. EQUILIBRIUM
17.0 cm wide. The 10. Where must a 22. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. direction.0 kg person is sitting 0.
1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION
An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile. The horizontal speed does not change. and acceleration.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15
. Ignoring air resistance. These are all vector quantities.1
Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance).
Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position. therefore. we see that there is only one . since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. velocity. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion.1)
where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. since max = ΣFx .1. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this
We can show this later on. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion. This also makes things somewhat simple. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. and t is the time in the air. as seen in the picture below:
Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). vx is the horizontal speed. Since we know our vertical acceleration. there is no horizontal acceleration.
2. as shown in the diagram below. namely using equations 2.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. since there are no horizontal forces. 2.
2. Remember. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. The horizontal speed vx is constant. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below:
Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16
This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude. and 2. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. t is the time in the air. Once this is done.2. the ball follows a parabolic path. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation.
CHAPTER 2. Again. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). vyi is the initial vertical velocity. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles.1.1 and 2. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement.1. In this case.4.2
Objects Launched at an Angle
We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. therefore. PROJECTILES used. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example.1.3.2)
2 2 vyf − vyi (2. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed.1 to 2.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. instead of horizontally. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. until it reaches zero at its highest point. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics
. As the ball rises. however. vyi will be zero in equations 2. The object does. the time in the air.4. For this reason.
1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy =
(2. Notice that equation 2. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?). but gravity will act to slow it down.
what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. 2-D MOTION
2. A baseball is hit at 30. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12.05 m above the ﬂoor.02 m from the basket. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot. how far from the building is the target? 6.0 m high. and with only 2. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. At the time of the throw. The building is 13. The ball is released at the height of the basket. PROJECTILES tree. by how much will it miss the target? 3. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31.5 m high.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.0 m away and are 3. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20.0 s later. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ.0o with the horizontal. A football is kicked with a speed of 21.0 m/s.1.0 m. The rotten egg landed 4. YES! It’s a score. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal. Immediately.0 m/s. Should the hunter aim directly at.2 m above the ground. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. As soon as the hunter ﬁres. A diver running 3.7 m above the ground. 14. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. above. an outﬁelder runs 4. 4. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17
2.0 m from the basket. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground.0 m/s as he leaves the ground. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal.CHAPTER 2. A person is in a moving elevator.2 m away from the elevator. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9.3
1.0o . He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s.1. the elevator was 8. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. Trailing by two points.0 m/s at an angle of 53. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. releasing the ball at the height of the basket. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5.0 s remaining in a basketball game. 3. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics
. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target.
22 m (horizontally). The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle.2. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all.6 m above the ﬂoor. 21. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. The basket is 2. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. 2-D MOTION speeds.1. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. (a) Draw the situation above. When it reaches the end of the table. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . Will the following quantities change? If so.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. PROJECTILES 14.0 m below. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range
where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. draw all vectors to scale.0 m away? 16. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone.1 m above the ﬂoor. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18
. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g
CHAPTER 2. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. 19. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. For each of the following questions. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. 20. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. At any moment.
or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2.CHAPTER 2. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached.1: Simple Harmonic Motion
When a mass is hung on a spring. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity.
. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. the suspension of a car. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. but is dependent on the spring. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance.7)
where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. etc. (See Fig 2.1b)). Also. The period (the time for one complete vibration. you will double the distance the spring stretches. 2-D MOTION
2. This is now its new equilibrium position . if you exceed the limits of the spring. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. suspension bridges.
Of course. a mattress. This is the equilibrium position. which causes the spring to stretch. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
2. depending on its spring constant.1a). diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it.at this point. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. this formula no longer holds). remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x.2
Simple Harmonic Motion
Figure 2. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. in this case. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion.6)
where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position).1c)and let it go.2. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. The units for the spring constant are N/m. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. which results in a downward acceleration. Suppose that you RRHS Physics
now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water.
work is done on the spring. or removed from. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
CHAPTER 2. therefore.2. the system.2.2.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m).6). at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L
where L is the length of the pendulum. this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. the total energy remains the same. At equilibrium.1
Conservation of Energy
When we stretch or compress a spring.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to. 2-D MOTION
1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. 1 Ep = kx2 (2. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant.
. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released.2
For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). however. Substituting this into Eq 2.
2. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3
If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that
is supporting a mass.7 we get T = 2π l g (2. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system.10)
Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass!
Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring.2.
The spring is then stretched an additional 0.325 m.200 kg ball. 2-D MOTION
2. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. has a frequency of 0. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3. What is the value of m? 6.30 g is caught in a spider’s web.8190 Hz at a particular location.10 g were trapped? 8. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics
.2. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz. whose other end is ﬁxed.10 m to load a 0.150 m when a 0. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m. in contact with a spring bumper. A mass of 2. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2. A block of mass 0. 13. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8.30 kg mass is hung from it. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. frictionless surface. if it had 3.100 m from this equilibrium point and released. The spring. A small cockroach of mass 0.
2. A spring stretches 0.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0.30 m.CHAPTER 2. What is the frequency of vibration? 7. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. it sinks deeper into the water by 5. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. whose length is 37.75 J of work done on it? 11.2. A geologist’s simple pendulum. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15.3
1.62 Hz.5 N hangs from it.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. When an 80. If the spring is stretched an additional 0.2 cm.48 Hz. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0.10 m? 12. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake.30 kg hangs from it? 5. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. the frequency is 0. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0.60 kg is hung from it. is then released. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1.110 m and released.10 cm.0 cm. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.50 kg is placed on a level. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4. What will its frequency be if only 0.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0.4 Hz when a weight of 0. When the man steps oﬀ. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. the raft vibrates brieﬂy.
a vector diagram must be drawn. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). In two dimensions. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision.11 and 2. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. if you remember from grade 11. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv).12. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. 22
Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions.
You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2.3. This still applies in two dimensional collisions.
2. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. Also. not velocity.13)
where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. We can now RRHS Physics
.2. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or.3
As with many of our topics so far in this course.12) (2.3. since p = mv. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. pa = pa + pb (2.13 would look like this:
where pt is really just pa .
2. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. however.12. so is momentum. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv. 2D COLLISIONS
Conservation of Momentum
If the collision is not head on.11)
Just as with one dimensional collisions. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. Since velocity is a vector.
an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va .14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. the collision is elastic. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. In this type of collision.
2. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half.CHAPTER 2. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem.3. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. therefore. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost.14. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. and one of the particles is initially at rest. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. such as thermal energy. some energy is lost. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2.
A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. For a two body collision. though. RRHS Physics
. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby
2.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem.2
Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. our conservation of energy equation (2. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. In other words. therefore.3. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). Since the masses are equal. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. Remember. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision.
In other words. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. after this collision. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved.
0o North of West. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h.00 m/s strikes a second ball. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. Find 24
. As a result of this elastic collision. Two cars collide at an intersection. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. the investigator determined that car A. After the collision (assumed elastic).60 kg. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West.00 m/s. 40.400 kg. and the second car had a velocity of 40. the second ball is moving North. A proton travelling with speed 8.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. From skid marks. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. At what angle will the second proton be observed. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. If they collide and remain stuck together. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. A billiard ball of mass 0. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. of mass 0. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . initially at rest.2×10−23 kg·m/s.3. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3.80 m/s. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics
2. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2.20 m/s. and a neutrino.40 kg strikes a second ball. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. 50.0o North of West. Immediately after impact. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle.0 km/h. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9.2. initially at rest. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. 6. of mass mb = 0.3. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10.0 km/h. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. an electron.3
1. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. 2D COLLISIONS
CHAPTER 2. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision.
There is. which is pulling inward. we can simply use d (3. however. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). So even though the speed is not changing.1 Uniform Circular Motion
the change of speed. the object moves in a curve.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr).1.1
Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. we get v= 2πr (3.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. we see v= 25
3. the object will speed up or slow down. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. in other words. the object will not speed up or slow down. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion.
. Since this is the only force.Chapter 3
3. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. there is still an acceleration. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. With projectile motion.
To calculate the speed of the object. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. not
Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. the acceleration must also be inward.
We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. an acceleration present. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. however. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration.
The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. ac = v2
3. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v.3.1. when solving centripetal force problems. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration. 2.2 and 3. by deﬁnition. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential)
You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one. however. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION
CHAPTER 3. Centripetal force is not.6)
Figure 3. horizontal surface. This is a common misconception of students. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. Looking at equation 3.2.5 becomes Fc = mac (3.1 below).5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle.1. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. 1.3) T Combining equations 3. then equation 3. it just shows the direction of the three quantities. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. In fact. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3. in particular.
where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26
Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics
. 3. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 .3.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle.1: This is not a free body diagram. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. always inward toward the center of the circle.
You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. We have already RRHS Physics
tangent to the circle
. If you break the string.
3. not outward. In this situation. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. in fact. the ball is not being pushed outward. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. being pulled inward by the string.CHAPTER 3. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. also. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. Pretend you are the ball in our example.1. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this:
3. in fact. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. If there were. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. it is. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. Remember.1. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). because of inertia. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand.
Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T .3
The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. because of Newton’s Third Law. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia.
9. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1.80 m long. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385.42. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h.00 revolutions in a second. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached.20 kg and is attached to a string 0. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96.1 times per second. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.20? 6. The yo-yo has a mass of 0. Assume a radius of curvature of 8. what force does the string now exert? 4.3. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1.5 cm.335 kg. 28
. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass?
3. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8.0 m radius and rotates 1. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION
CHAPTER 3.0 m rope. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11.3 days. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. A 5. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out. 3.4
1.30? 7. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5.1. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3.0 revolutions per second. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12.60. What is the critical speed (i. The ball makes exactly 2. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0. A coin is placed 18.e. If its speed is 3.15 m.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth.15 m/s and its mass is 0.000 km and a period of 27. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0.0 complete revolution each second.1.0 m.
When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. Assume no change in energy for the system. and explain this sensation. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. 15. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). If the person is standing on the equator.0 m long. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. 18. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. For the previous question. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. 19. 14. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. A person has a mass of 75. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. including the relevant forces. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. will a friction force be required? If so. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. how much and in what direction?
. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h.CHAPTER 3. PLANETARY MOTION 13.1. 17. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . what RRHS Physics
3. Sketch the situation. the vine is 4.0 kg.6 km. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point.
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth.2. it travels a further distance.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . we must consider the orbit. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena.) g= GM m R2
3. If the object is given a higher speed. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. In fact. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. it is falling toward the earth.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook.3. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
CHAPTER 3. however. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. given by G in the equation below. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. this is how the mass of the earth was found. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results.2. Assuming a circular orbit. Equation 3. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics
. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. speciﬁcally. Newton. This type of relationship appears often in physics. To determine this necessary speed.1
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
In the 1600’s. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth.3
If a projectile is thrown horizontally. equating the two expressions. People often ask what keeps a satellite up. gravity is much more common than this. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. we get mg = or GM (3.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). In this way. Fg = 30
In grade 11. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. but not to understand why they are so.2. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. however. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth.2
Acceleration Due to Gravity
For readings on this unit.2
3. PLANETARY MOTION
3. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets.2.
The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. as given in equation 3.4
More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. faster than this speed. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Solving this equation for v. 2. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator.11)
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). PLANETARY MOTION
3. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. m is the mass of the satellite.2.9. we get GM m mv 2 = (3.
2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2
F = mac
(3. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. If the satellite goes slower than this speed. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31
. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth.
Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites.4)into equation 3.2. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit. 3. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. v= GM r (3.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet).7.
What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects.CHAPTER 3. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun.
71×10−8 N .0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. A force of 40. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. determine the mass of Jupiter. 13. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4.98 × 107 m).0 N is required to pull a 10. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1. Frank is really concerned about his weight. 12. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three.6 times that of the earth. r = 6. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. 10. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3. What is g near the surface? 5.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1.50 × 108 km. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. See Dick and Jane ﬂy. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1.99 × 1030 kg). sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3. 7. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. 2.50 m. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1. PLANETARY MOTION weight.2.44 × 106 s and it is 1. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
CHAPTER 3. If the bowling balls are 0. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32
.85 × 105 km.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is.2. Do the previous question again. All distances are center to center.50 m apart.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. 6. But Frank is lazy. From this data. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another.
3. 8. Four 8.3.85 × 105 km. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. but has the same mass.5
1.90 × 1027 kg.
what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. what would happen to the value of G? 30. RRHS Physics
3. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. 33
. 27. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20.4 days) to do problem 16. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. PLANETARY MOTION 14. The asteroid Icarus. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. 31.CHAPTER 3.3 × 1022 kg. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. Why? 28. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. Find the value of this constant. 1969.2. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. A satellite is going around Earth.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. Jupiter is 5. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. though only a few hundred meters across. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. Its period is 410 days. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. On July 19.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. 32. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. orbits the sun like other planets. 16. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years.
2.3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
CHAPTER 3. PLANETARY MOTION
a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. for example. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet.
The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. not the protons. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. In a normal state. you notice that it will stick to the wall. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. If you rub a balloon in your hair. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. This kind of atom is called an ion.1
Insulators and Conductors
A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. Likewise. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. Metals are generally very good conductors. in the amount of charge is zero. According to atomic theory. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge.1
Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. In each case. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). During any of the processes described above. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. Remember. even more important than many people think. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. the net change 35
4. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. giving it a net negative or positive charge. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another).1.
. When a conductor is given a negative charge.
Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons.1.1. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper.
CHAPTER 4. but is just brought near it. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. i. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. As soon as they touch.1. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). in this way. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36
4. For example. if it is charged negatively. and they touch. there are more electrons than protons on the rod.however. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. An object can also be charged by conduction. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. The RRHS Physics
. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon.
4. giving it excess electrons. however. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects.2
Induction and conduction can also work together. it has merely been separated. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). conduction occurs. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one. No charge has been created. there are .e. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively.4. With induction. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. germanium. If you ground the sphere. The other way of charging an object is called induction. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds.3
An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged.
We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod.
If the electroscope is neutral. In some cases. giving it a permanent charge. as shown here. even after we remove the charged rod. the faster the charge will be carried away. now negatively charged. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. If charges become large enough.1. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative).1. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. Suppose. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. STATIC ELECTRICITY
Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. will repel each other and will spread out.
4. The more water molecules in the air. Think about how you may do this. more often. even when nothing is apparently done to them. RRHS Physics
A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air.
. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves.CHAPTER 4. You can. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. the leaves. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. however. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope.4
Permanency of Charge
If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances.
4. the two leaves just hang vertically. The leaves will then stay spread apart.even though they are neutral. particularly on each leaf. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away.
1. you remove the two positively charges objects. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. STATIC ELECTRICITY
CHAPTER 4. A attracts C. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. what kind of charge does B have? 6. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. 9. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. and C repels D. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. they ﬂy away in different directions.4.1. why does the record now attract dust?
4. one at each end of the line of blocks. Explain. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. When an electroscope is charged. close to but not touching the blocks. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. What charge is on the rod? 8. 12. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38
.1. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. but as soon as they touch the rod. If you know that D is positively charged. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. 3. 5. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. You place two objects with strong positive charges. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. Finally.
Using some test charge q.2
Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. When people think of forces. since it appeared to behave like magic. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics.2)
Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. it is precise for only point charges. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. and weak nuclear forces) continues.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 . they think of pushing or pulling an object. If the two objects are spheres. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. in fact. or some other type of contact. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton.1
Forces and Fields
The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. To help explain this idea.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. The search for simple. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s.2. FIELDS
4. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . r is the distance between the charges in meters. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge.1 is the distance between the centers. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it.
. strong nuclear forces. E= F q (4. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. which has an equal but opposite charge).1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics
4. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space.CHAPTER 4. tying a rope to something. then the r in equation 4. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1.
1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. without using some test charge. electromagnetic.2.it is a concept. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. This may require pushing with your hand. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. This worried people.2
4. however.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge.
4.2. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres.
or lines of force. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. consider a positive source charge. Substituting equation 4. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source.2. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. equation 4. we obtain kQ (4.2.3
Lines of Force
In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. FIELDS points around the sources. If there is more than one source charge.2. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). as the test charge is accelerated by the force.4. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40
In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. however. The electric ﬁeld would look like this:
The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. then equation 4. These electric ﬁeld lines.2. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. For example.1 into equation 4.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld.
4. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics
. For example. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. E=
CHAPTER 4. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. which interacts with all objects near the earth. 2. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this:
4. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. In reality. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance.1. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q .4
To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources.
The bottom electron is resting on a table. A third ball. located 16 cm to the right. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. -4.030 m to the east. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4.
4. In one model of the hydrogen atom. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13.0 µC is 0. -2. the typical size of an atom. located 25 cm above the second ball. mass 1. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others.0 N on each other? 4. You are given two similar spheres. and an electron. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. the RRHS Physics
. A second ball.00 × 10−17 C? 2. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other.1 × 106 m/s.2. 3.5 × 10−10 m. has a charge of -20 µC. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. What should you do? 11.2. Three particles are placed in a line. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity.0 µC. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F .050 m to the north and the other. A positive charge of 3. and the right -83 µC.11 × 10−31 kg. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. In other words. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). Two charges. One. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth.67 × 10−27 kg.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges.2). q1 and q2 .CHAPTER 4. has a charge of +25 µC. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41
4.145 N on each other. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. A and B. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. 8. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. mass 9. is 0. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. what force is exerted? 12. What is the force between them? 5. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1.5
1. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart.
Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude.0 µC charged particle? 21. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20.0 × 10−6 C test charge. are a distance l apart.0× 10−6 C charge. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. Take into account gravity and determine E. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain.2 cm apart.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0. FIELDS 20.
. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. Two positive charges. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle.0 µC charge 40. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby.2. Two charges.30 m apart. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). 42
CHAPTER 4. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. A water droplet of radius 0. 19.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. 24.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld.0 µC and the other 68. A proton (m = 1. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25.020 mm remains stationary in the air. When placed 1. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. −Qo and −3Qo . Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18.0 cm apart? 23. then repeat your work with a 2. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign.0 cm away from a 1. 17. Find the force on an electron. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1.4.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E.5 N and is repulsive. the force each exerts on the other is 28. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16.0 µC are 8. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. A negative charge of 2. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15.0 µC and a +60. one 33. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations. (a) two positively charged point sources.
This will add energy to the system. Suppose you have two spheres. The symbol for electric potential is V . Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. The potential energy here will decrease. which is called the volt. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B). you don’t have to do anything.
without accelerating it
.3. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence.2
Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. since they are trying to get away from one another. If positive work is required to move the charge.3.
4. namely potential energy. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge.1
Electric Potential Energy
As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy.3
We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. FIELDS
4.CHAPTER 4. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero.4)
The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. we say that it is at a high potential. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43
4. For example. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q
but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge.
where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . so Vab = Wab q (4. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. In this case. therefore.3. for example. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q
4. Just as with gravitational potential energy. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). If the two spheres are touched together. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. sphere B is said to be neutral. Remember that W = ∆E.
The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7.0 C is raised in potential by 1. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V .
or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions
. as shown below. How much charge is transferred?
(a) two positively charged point sources. The change in energy while doing this is 4. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line.4.0 µC charge. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. that is.
CHAPTER 4. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point.3.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5. What work is done when 5. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines.5 × 10−4 J. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9.3. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. A force of 0. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes.3. FIELDS 2. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). if they were not. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations:
4. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential.5 × 107 V .5 V ? 3. at this point.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld.4
1. the two spheres will be at the same potential. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3.
Contrary to a common belief. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. little was known about the structure of the atom. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. so its electrons are held very loosely. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. a battery is several cells connected together. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. In 1800. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time.1 Electric Current
Q (5. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. also referred to as an amp. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. at the same time. As was discussed in the previous chapter.1. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45
Until 1800. therefore. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). you will study this in more detail in chemistry. Remember that in solids.Chapter 5
Electricity & Magnetism
5. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. In short. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire.
. A wire is a conductor. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire.
The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. an ampere (A).1
Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. this is given a special name. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. When people discussed current.
In liquids and gases. we can use it here as well. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. 2. When charges are moved through a resistance. 46
. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. Temperature: In general.5. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. If one end of the pipe is raised. because of their atomic structure. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. This makes sense.1. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics
Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. therefore. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). it gains or loses energy. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. In our gravity/water analogy above. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. In the same way. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly.
CHAPTER 5. Comparing this to electricity. insulators have a very high resistance. These materials are than said to be superconducting. Resistance is measured in ohms. With a battery. the greater the ﬂow of water. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). 3. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). For practical purposes. they lose potential. however. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ).
In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. thereby increasing the resistance.3
This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words. light. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. That is. so it will have a lower resistance.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. the current also doubles. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. if you double the voltage. power is just the amount of energy 47
In most electric circuits. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. it is really energy that we pay for.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. We RRHS Physics
. the resistance must be constant. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage. the current is proportional to the voltage. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. Since wires have a resistance in the real world.4)
This gives us the power transformed by any device.1. Consider a wire that is carrying a current. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5.3)
5.1.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). or mechanical).
but I = q/t (equation 5. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time.5)
5. current can be expressed as V (5.CHAPTER 5. the watt (W ). I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. 4. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through.
5.1) so P = IV (5. Note that equation 5. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat.5. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. Looking at this equation.1. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible.2
Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4.4 with equation 5. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5.4) we have P = qV t
Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. the current is proportional to voltage). Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by.
5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. When she connects it to a 1. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects.1.0 A? 5. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. What is the current through a 6. but when a 3. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt.085/kW h).
5. above 100 mA can be fatal. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. 11.0 h. Does the device obey Ohm’s law?
the standard SI unit of energy
. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). If the device obeys Ohm’s law. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A.5. What is the voltage of the battery? 6. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows.5 V battery. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10.10 A ﬂows in a wire.4
1.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics
The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire.6)
CHAPTER 5. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. Is Joe correct? Explain. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9. A 1.1. The line has a resistance of 1. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. since R = V /I. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. at 20 mA. 14. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7.0 cm apart. Joe argues that.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4. What voltage will produce 12. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase.0 V battery is used. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. A current of 1. 5 mA can be painful.5 A for 6.
A transistor radio operates by means of a 9.29 kg/m3 . What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30.90 and it lasts for 300 hours.4 A from a 120 V line? 27. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V .CHAPTER 5.5 kg of water.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1.)
. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26. 18.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. How many 100 W light bulbs. operated at 120 V . what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0.1. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h.0 A when operated on 120 V . A modern television set draws 2. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line.000 V ? 21. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour.0 s? 25. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee.0o C to 55.0 minutes.11 per kW h. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. (a) 220 V are applied across it. What is its increase in temperature during the 30. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24. RRHS Physics
5.000 V rather than 12. by means of a converter.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20. At $0. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3.2 Ω lines. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7.08 per kW h. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0.20 kg of water. What is the eﬃciency of a 0. It is observed that it takes 12.0o C. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40.06 per kWh? 19. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0.
Consider the parallel circuit shown below:
The same current must pass through each resistor. and voltages throughout the circuit. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 .1
A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. R3 respectively. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. you increase the total resistance. *CIRCUITS
CHAPTER 5.9) RRHS Physics
5. when we put several resistance in series. I1 .2. By conservation of energy. since there is only one path. Because charge must be conserved. and R3 . R2 . currents. When you add more resistances.
5.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel. each resistor has its own path.2.2
In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5. Of course.5. V2 = IR2 . this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. applying equation 5. I2 . I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5. there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery.8) (5.2 we know that V1 = IR1 . If V1 . the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors.2
A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. Consider three resistors in series as shown below:
which makes sense.2 to analyze the resistances. Knowing the equivalent resistance. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols:
5. The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. then by applying equation 5. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50
If I is the total current that leaves the battery.2. V2 . and V3 = IR3 . R2 .
3.2. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated.
3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. If any resistors are in series. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1.
so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. since there is a junction in between the two. R3 . the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 .10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path.10)
Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits.CHAPTER 5. Consider the following example.
. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). then they are not in series.
In this example. This combination is then in series with R1 .2. equation 5. Remember. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. Also. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. every time you add a resistance in parallel. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. Remember. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). Again. If any resistors are in parallel. For example. *CIRCUITS 2. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. R3 is in series with R4 . and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. however. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). but are often some combination of the two. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. so they can be combined using equation 5. if there is a junction between the resistors. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. R1 and R2 are not in series. R2 . the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated.
It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. 2. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. breaking the circuit. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero.7. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. Houses are wired in parallel. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. For example. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current
4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course
. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. 2. A third type of safety device is slightly different.2. To deal with these circuits. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. For example. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. it is designed to detect small changes in the current.2. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates.4
*Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules
Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. a system of equations can then be found and solved. however. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. Some circuits4 are. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing.9.2. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths.
Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing.5. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. too complicated for this analysis. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). At any junction point. RRHS Physics
5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. 1. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. These rules actually apply to all circuits. *CIRCUITS
CHAPTER 5. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. for example. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. If this strip melts. This is just an expression of equation 5. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. If too much current ﬂows.
4. Find each resistance.50 A. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor.6
8. Find the unknown currents and voltages.
3. What is the resistance in each case? 53
. 7. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances.
2. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor.2. Find V. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics
9.CHAPTER 5. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
5. Find the current in each branch. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0.
17. Find R3 . Find It .V2 .5.
CHAPTER 5. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics
14. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2. Suppose that you have a 6.
12.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel. or 150 W at 120 V .I3 . Find the current in each branch. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors.2.0 V output for a 6. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery.0 54
. and I4 . If each resistor is 10 Ω.I2 . A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W . and P1 . If each resistor is 10 Ω.
16. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. 100 W . *CIRCUITS 10.0 V . Given an unlimited supply of 1.0 V input? 15. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.0 Ω.I3 . If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18.
CHAPTER 5. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. I2 . (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. (a) If they are connected in parallel. RRHS Physics 55 23. determine the currents I1 . which is brighter? 21. one larger than the other. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19.8 kΩ. and I3 in the following circuit. If one resistor is 2. *CIRCUITS
22. what is the resistance of the other?
. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors).
5. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit.2. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. Consider the circuit below.
magnetic forces act over distances. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. the domains are more lined up in one direction. This will be seen in the next section. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. however. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. since an electric current will always produce both. RRHS Physics
. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. each with a north and south pole. and cobalt. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet.3
As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole.3. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. the same as electric charges. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet.
5. in ferromagnetic materials. the result is two magnets.3.5. As a result. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. In most materials. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. Magnetic poles are not. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. A compass needle is really a small magnet. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. however. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. however. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction.
Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. In a magnetized piece of iron. nickel.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. On a small scale. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. for example. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. almost as if they were spinning on their axis.1
Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. MAGNETISM
CHAPTER 5. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. Since these forces do behave similarly.
5. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld —
The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. If you cut a magnet in two.
Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. this increases the strength
Some people use left hand rules instead. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. In other words. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. around 1820. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. but this was found to have no eﬀect. when using left hand rules. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. and θ is the angle between
depending on its orientation
. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow).
5.CHAPTER 5. By using more than one loop. it often7 experiences a force.3
Force on a Wire
We have already seen in section 5. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld.
5.3. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. To use this hand rule. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams.3. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. then. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire.2
The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil).11)
where I is the current in the wire in amperes.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. It was only with a moving charge. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). the second right hand rule can be used. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). In fact. This is an electromagnet. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. or a current. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more.3. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
5. it makes sense. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld.3. To use this hand rule.
MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. so F = qvB sin θ (5. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion.
CHAPTER 5. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page.3. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. as shown in the side view below. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. however. as shown below.4
Force on a Charged Particle
We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. Remember that I = q/t. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire.
5. The charges do not. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld. the force will be out of the page. If the moving particle is negative. As we learned before. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current.3. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t
An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy.5
5. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. you may also use the left hand rule. substituting this into equation 5. To do this. to
. To use this rule.8
Remember. This loop of wire will rotate.
where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld.5.
but l/t is just the speed of the particle. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. Between c and d.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b.
use left hand rules. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). have to be moving through a wire.3. There will be no force between b and c.
MAGNETISM other brush. we want it to turn continuously.6
1. In order to make the loop continue turning. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. but just touch one another. but no force acts on the wire.
If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture).3. Many loops of wire are usually used. (a)
Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. if the loop goes past this point. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
5.3. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. As the armature turns. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). To make eﬃcient use of a motor. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics
3. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. as well as a ferromagnetic core. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. (b) Two opposite poles. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. as shown below. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59
. As a result.CHAPTER 5.
5. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. Also. In reality. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes.
0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5.0 × 10−5 T .9 × 103 kg/m3 . it feels zero force. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. What is the force on the wire? 7.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. (a)
CHAPTER 5. A straight 2. identify the poles of the magnets.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. 11.90 T . A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. A proton having a speed of 5. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. If the force on the wire below is into the page. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. MAGNETISM 5. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15.
10. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13.0 A and weighs 0. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics
6.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0.3.35 N . When moving horizontally in a northerly direction.5. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60
If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. 17.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics
5.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3.000 V . It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19.032 T . what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18. what must be the speed of the ion? 26. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20.5 cm. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . If the velocity of the particle is 5. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. 21.08 m. Explain.10 cm in a 0.CHAPTER 5. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes.02 T.4 mm? 24. E=1000 N/C.385 T magnetic ﬁeld. Calculate the energy of the proton. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. 16.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward. A particle with a charge of 2. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6. A force of 5. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. which exists between the two parallel plates below. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. Calculate the mass of the particle.10 T magnetic ﬁeld.25 T .
. An electron (m = 9.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0.3. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. The radius of its path is 4. The force is upward and of magnitude 5.25 × 106 m/s. B=0.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V . The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.6 × 10−13 N .
23.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20.
Around 1831. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). We call this an induced emf. In other words. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N
The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current?
5. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. For example. when the magnet is removed. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below).4.13)
Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. INDUCTION
5. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld.14)
EMF stands for electromotive force. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary.5. The direction of RRHS Physics
. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. Such a current is called an induced current. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld.4.4
We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. For example. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. v.
(5. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. and not a force
If Ns < Np . Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). however. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. In the example shown below. INDUCTION
When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. There is. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. Remember. however. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. Notice that if Ns > Np .4. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). therefore. the two wires are insulated from one another. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil.4. this is called a step-up transformer. From equation 5. RRHS Physics
This is called the transformer equation. Just like before. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil.
5. Combining these two equations.2
When we discussed transmission of power. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. conservation of energy tells 63
. The primary coil has the incoming current.15)
5. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. This is called perpetual motion. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. But remember. this is a step-down transformer. therefore.CHAPTER 5.13. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t
where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current.
we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. we see what happens to the current. so the current must ﬂow from c to d.
If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. out of the page). so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. this means that if the voltage goes up.5. Since P = V I. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. Consider the picture below. Similarly. 64
Unlike the DC motor described earlier. into the page). INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. therefore. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation.
At position 1. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. at position 3. at positions 2 and 4. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
5. The wire ab is moving out. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. the force on cd must be out of the page.4.16)
A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. RRHS Physics
. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. then the current must be lowered.
current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. value. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. Since the current is not constant. In a generator. As we turn the generator. This is RRHS Physics
Taking the square root of each side. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power
. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. however. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. If we square an AC electric current graph. giving Pavg = 0. The more current that is drawn. or eﬀective. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction).5Imax
To make a DC generator. The greater the speed of the motor. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished.4. the situation is the reverse. as was seen in a previous graph. Instead. we get a sin2 θ graph.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. the greater the back (or counter) emf. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them.CHAPTER 5. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be
2 I 2 = 0. INDUCTION called a counter torque.
This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. we take a root mean square average (rms). we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire.11 we cannot just average the current over time. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. as were used with the DC motor.707Vmax (5.5Vmax Imax
In North America.707Imax (5. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. Back EMF As was previously stated.18)
Since power is P = V I.17)
Similarly. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
5. Alternating Current As we have seen. When a motor is operating. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0.
how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V . calculate the emf developed. Hence.800 T .5Pmax (5. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. A square coil of sides 5.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical.10 s. It is initially in a 0. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. with its plane perpendicular to B.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8.4
1.50 T magnetic ﬁeld.350 T to zero. A 12.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. If the wire has a resistance of 0. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer?
9. 6.0 cm/s. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed.4.19)
CHAPTER 5.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7.4 s. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0. What is the induced emf ? 4. If the rod is 12. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0. What is the average induced emf ? 2.405 T magnetic ﬁeld. (a) What voltage is across the secondary?
.4.15 Ω. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. In what direction is the induced current?
Also note that since P = V I. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. It takes 0.60 T magnetic ﬁeld.5 Ω.
5. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal.5. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5.
If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. 26. 19. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . What is the rms voltage across it? 27. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23.75 A. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily. If the primary and secondary were reversed. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. An ac voltage. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. is across a 35 Ω resistor. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. what would the new output voltage be? 16. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA.0 A respectively. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67
. and an output current of 0. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. Frequently. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. the coil will swing.0 V AC. INDUCTION 17. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source.4.0 A. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall.0 V source and measures 8. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary.0 V and the input current is 11. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. Why is this true? 18. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. It is used with a transformer in England. Why? 21. Calculate the peak current in a 2. whose peak value is 90 V . Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics
5. and (c) the power transformed 13.0 A. where the line voltage is 240 V .0 A. (b) the current in the primary.CHAPTER 5.0 V and an output current of 5.0 V at the secondary.
At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt?
CHAPTER 5. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
.25 A. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line.5. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line. INDUCTION 28. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. a 700 W hair dryer. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line.4. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs.
Waves and Modern Physics
6.1 Quantum Theory
extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.
Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.
Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis
When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69
Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-
6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)
CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics
where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)
where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.
When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70
CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)
6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly
Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.
Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics
The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J
In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71
however. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal. He suggested in 1923 that. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6.4 and 6. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. The photon does not actually slow down. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well.
.1 however. If he was correct. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. such as diﬀraction and interference. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. however. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). Objects such as electrons. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties.6)
but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2
6. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light
hc E = hf = (6. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. By making careful measurements.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. p= 72 hf E = c c
which is called the de Broglie wavelength. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. after the collision. he obtained mv = h λ
Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6.1. The difﬁculty here. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . only its frequency is lowered.1. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum.5).
In fact.6. QUANTUM THEORY Since
de Broglie Hypothesis
Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature.4).
What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. 14. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed.1.CHAPTER 6. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light.
6.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90.0 eV electron?
. Determine the wavelength of a 0.5
1. QUANTUM THEORY 8. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. If energy is radiated by all objects. 10. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. which has a shorter wavelength? 17.40 Hz. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2. 12.0 × 106 m/s. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5.80 nm. 13. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. does its wavelength change? If so. 15. of a 3.1 × 1013 Hz.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm
6. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . 16. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted.0 km/h. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. What are the wavelengths. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light.0 eV photon and a 5. 7. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. λ = 450 nm. does it increase or decrease? 11. RRHS Physics
9. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0.1. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. in meters. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0.
these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either).2. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries.6. since all waves at this time required a medium. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics
6. In a uniform medium. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74
. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. another group of scientists. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. As these particles passed through a prism. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. As the light gets closer to the water. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. for example. the particles must be moving very fast.
6. As with Newton’s particle model. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. was putting forward a wave model of light. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. led by Christian Huygens. a ball thrown against a wall). WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY
Historical Models of Light
In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors.2. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles.2
Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us.
the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air.
6. For example. Also. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. and interference where the particle theory fails. According to Maxwell’s theory. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave.2. however. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). the resulting image is slightly blurred. which contradicts Newton’s theory. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz.2
Modern Theory of Light
Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. however. indicating a spreading out of the light. which appear to be incompatible. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. but to understand light fully. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. refraction. in 1850. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. This model was not. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model.CHAPTER 6. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. however. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. The two theories. however. The two aspects of light complement one another. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. mainly due to Newton’s reputation.2. without its problems. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. we must refer to both theories. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. Similarly. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75
. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. By the middle of the nineteenth century. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics
6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. It states that to understand any given experiment.
We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. This would tell you where it is. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. however. is the set of its properties that we can measure.4
We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). its behavior is more like that of a particle. its behavior imitates that of a wave. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air.
6.2. You wouldn’t know where it is going. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). This has some major implications. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. this duality extends to particles as well. depending on which property of light is being measured. when light interacts with matter. or as a wave that has a mass. negatively charged particles. In terms of everyday language and images. like light. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. An electron. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. macroscopic world. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. In order to locate the ball. When we try to visualize light. light reveals both wave and particle properties. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. but in the process would move it from that position. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. but a visual picture is again not possible. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. you would have to feel your way around. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. it will actuRRHS Physics
6. you must interact with it.6.3
Modern Theory of Particles
As was shown by de Broglie. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave
Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. or even a combination of the two. In general.
. To locate this. Applied to a smaller scale. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball.2. when light passes through space or a medium. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like.
CHAPTER 6. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. When this radiation interacts with the electron. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand.2. We cannot picture what they are.
2. however. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. but according to equations 6. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. it is still a probability and not a certainty. Thus. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. and not determinism. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view.CHAPTER 6. In summary.
. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. but has wave properties. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.4 and 6. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. on the other hand. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. we must use a small wavelength. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. If. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. For examRRHS Physics
6.5. however. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time.
WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS
.2.6. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY
the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. scientists can analyze unknown materials. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. Although a major step forward.
6. heated solids.1
As we saw in section 6. By analyzing these wavelengths. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79
.CHAPTER 6. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. was accepted by scientists by 1900. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. When energy is transferred to atoms.3. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). emit a discrete spectrum. The emitted light is due to individual atoms.1. Less dense gases. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. This is known as an emission spectrum. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. This is how helium was discovered. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. not interactions between atoms. If they were at rest. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS
6. When viewing these spectra. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen.3
Models of the Atom
The existence of atoms. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. This became known as the Rutherford Model. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. but a few were bounced almost directly back. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. Using spectroscopy.
6.3. in industry. Around 1911. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away).
A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. since they are unique to each atom. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. This is known as an absorption spectrum. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics
The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines.1.
The higher the energy level. the atom would not be very stable. and also predicted an unstable atom. If an electron absorbs energy. A student of Rutherford. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. 2. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). in other words. green.red.3. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels.3. both are therefore quantized. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms.
CHAPTER 6. 1. however. going
3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory.8)
6. and violet. for example. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6.6 eV n2 (6. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. it makes 80
where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. In 1911.3. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. they are accelerating. Thus. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized.8). their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. The radius increases with n2 . Using quantum theory. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. As the electrons spiraled inward. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy.1). WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state.1 .2
The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. Neils Bohr. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state.6. electrons can jump directly or in steps.7)
where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). as shown in the diagram in section 6. as in solids). When changing energy levels.
. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. blue. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. as it loses energy. The Rutherford model could not explain this. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state.2.
or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. the energy is actually at a minimum. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus.
6. The electron. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. applying his theory of matter waves. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. however. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. however.CHAPTER 6. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. since it has a wave nature. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. Bohr did not know how to explain this. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics
. This was a major problem with the model. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. As a result.3
The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. however. If we consider the electron to be a particle. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. Notice in equation 6. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81
6. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. however. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. In quantum mechanics. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave.3. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). electron can go from 3 to 1. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. each independently. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements.8 that when n=1. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. Louis de Broglie. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state.3. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. determined energy levels of the elements. but is actually much harder to visualize. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model.
Explain any discrepancies. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics
. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful.4
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one.
CHAPTER 6. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. spin (ms )). In a ﬂuorescent light bulb.6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence?
6. 8. In a group of these atoms. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds.3. in luminous watch dials.
6. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed.1. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state.3. This is called ﬂuorescence. 5. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. for example. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials.3. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). Phosphorescence works in a similar way. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). however.5
1. These materials are used.3. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. At low temperatures. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. magnetic (ml ).
but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. This force only acts over short distances. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. A. They have the 83
Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. protons and neutrons. called a neutron. however. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus.1. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus.1 The Nucleus
same number of electrons and behave the same chemically.Chapter 7
7. the electromagnetic force. Z is the atomic number. Z. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus).
7. this force is the same between protons and protons. for example.1. so as the distance becomes greater. This adds energy to the system. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number.
. and A is the mass number. the electric force becomes more important. and neutrons and neutrons. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom.1
The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. Sometimes. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
This is one of the four forces of nature. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. and the weak nuclear force.
In the last chapter. the others being the gravitational force. In 1932. an element is written as A X. The notation used to represent particular atoms is
7. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant.2
where X is the symbol for the element.
the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931. which is iron. This implies that by adding energy to the system. It is expressed as a negative number. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. Thus. To be stable. Using equation 7. the number of protons.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. we are actually adding mass. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. In a nuclear reaction. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus.1.1.49 MeV.0 × 1011 J of energy. the total number of nucleons. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . What mass was converted? 4. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. For each of the following. u. The mass of 2 H is 2.015123 u).
where E is the energy in J. 84
1. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56.014102 u.1. 5. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. A nuclear reaction produces 9. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents.1)
CHAPTER 7.66 × 10 kg). Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. In general.
.007276 u mn = 1. it could just fall apart. In other words. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. m is the equivalent mass in kg. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents. and c is the speed of light in m/s. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. identify the element. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit.7. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97
3. We will look at this more in the next two sections.
CHAPTER 7.1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS
7. THE NUCLEUS
2. and required no external stimulation. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. beyond this. Since the charge was
2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section.
7. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following:
226 88 Ra
→222 Rn +4 He 86 2
Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. 2 They are not very energetic.2
In 1896. therefore. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger.7. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity).
7.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle.3. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. there are not enough neutrons to do this. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together.2. If the atomic number gets too large. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. As a result. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. This is known as (natural radioactivity). RADIOACTIVE DECAY
CHAPTER 7. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). Many unstable isotopes occur in nature.
. This is true for all alpha decays.
7. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. 4 He. These nuclei are very tightly bound.2
Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. as will be discussed in the following sections. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83.2.1
Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. 86
where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus.
when it drops down to a lower energy state. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). This photon is known as a gamma ray. In some cases. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. by emitting a positron.3
→14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0
where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. becomes a neutron. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. This is a random process. For this reason. but the opposite charge. Like an atom.CHAPTER 7. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. this means that half of the sample 87
. they can be very dangerous. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected.
7. In 10 years.
7. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the
3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). which has no charge and no mass. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). A neutrino is also emitted. This electron disappears into the nucleus. the nucleus does not undergo any change. it emits a photon. One of the protons. allowing a proton to become a neutron.2. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below:
14 6 C
All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. A positron has the same mass as an electron. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer.2. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. Other than releasing energy. In beta decay.
There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus).
Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons.2.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force.
A radioactive polonium isotope. 7. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. 8. 83 emits a β particle. When 23 N e (mass=22. or β + emission. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92
CHAPTER 7.2. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ.5
1. 210 P o. 84 emits a α particle. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time.
. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). NUCLEAR PHYSICS
7. β − . The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. so it is closely related to half-life. Write the complete nuclear equation. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4.7. Write the complete nuclear equation. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element.2. A radioactive bismuth isotope. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). showing the element formed. showing the element formed. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. After one half-life. In another 10 years. 214 Bi.
238 U 92
decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years.9898 u). It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. One Bequerel is one decay per second.
7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS
7. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. To detonate the bomb. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. this is known as radioactive fallout. or gamma rays. however. because it resembled cell division. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7.3. This ended the war. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). This would provide enormous amounts of energy. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. This was called nuclear ﬁssion.3% 238 U and only 0.3
Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. protons. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. the top scientists in Europe and the U.2
There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. RRHS Physics
7. but they can also occur in nature. following Fermi’s work. these particles are in direct contact with our cells.CHAPTER 7. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. the two masses would be brought together quickly.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92
which can be used in the form of heavy water. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb.2)
although there are many other possibilities. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki.
. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. neutrons. electrons. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. resulting in a transmutation. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). resulting in a sustained chain reaction.2 are moving too fast.S. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction.3. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released.
7. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions.3. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U .1
It was discovered in 1938. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. 2. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by
+235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0
(7. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima.
The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook.3
In nuclear fusion.3. particularly since they usually have large half-lives.3. Also present are control rods. which is very expensive. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario.
235 U . Quebec. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. and can be separated to be used as fuel. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps:
+1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0
1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H
The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. however. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. RRHS Physics
. usually containing cadmium. which was discussed earlier. 92
7. To slow the reaction down. so it can be built where technology is limited. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). 3. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. helium is extremely tightly bound. For example. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. It
This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. Because of its design. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. energy will be released. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. and New Brunswick.7. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. these control the rate of the reaction. It has a simpliﬁed design.
they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act
7.90722 u 235. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY
7. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors. At present. A few years ago.016029 u 4. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7.3. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1.043925 u 238. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong.007825 u 2.CHAPTER 7. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. 9. 6.9141 u 91.3. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3.2? 5. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium). Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction
+235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0
4. List three medical uses of radioactivity.9250 u 87. 3. 91
. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2.7 for this reason.002603 140. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). This is higher than any known material can stand. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. 2. Once this high temperature is achieved.016049 u 3.014102 u 3. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1.4
Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems.905625 u 135. How much energy would this release? 8. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy.050786 u
1. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos).
What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy?
CHAPTER 7.3. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.7.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS
.0 × 1014 J of energy. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV.
The wood may shrink or warp. errors due to rounding oﬀ.3 and 2.3 cm and 2. In other words. you will be expected to do an error analysis.1 Experimental Data
however. was friction considered to be constant.4. In our meter stick example. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. there are errors present. and probably even more. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured.Appendix A
Analysis of Data
A. For example. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. the ends of the stick may be chipped. Some of these may be due to human errors. we might estimate it to be 2. It may be smaller or larger. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. therefore. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. this 7 is only an estimate. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. errors in calculation.1 mm. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. for example. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93
In any scientiﬁc experiment. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure.3*. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. the thickness of the lines may vary. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. In writing lab reports. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument.4 cm. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. the device is only calibrated in millimeters.
. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. Take a meter stick.37.
This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. the smaller the standard deviation should be. or too low. For this reason. As long as these errors are random. In our error analysis. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). but it will not be very accurate. The more data points that we have. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. In this case. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. In the case of systematic error. this is not an excuse to be careless. we may end up with a very precise estimate.1
A. In this case.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. It is a good idea. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. It does not address any possible systematic errors. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. the less precise our results are.2.1
Precision and Random Errors
If you repeat an experiment several times. The more random error we have in our experiment. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large. The smaller this value. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data.2
The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. This may result from a mistake in 94
The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only.1. RRHS Physics
A. that is.2
Accuracy and Systematic Errors
The other case is if the errors are systematic. no matter how many estimates are averaged together.
APPENDIX A.A. This type of error is generally more serious. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. the measurements are always too high.1. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated.2. Section A. this type of error is present in all experiments. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used.
44 1.30 9.03 2.29 1. and N is the number of measurements.76 1.01 2. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate.81 1.38 1.16 3. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.20.34 1. In this case.17 2. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.7 63. we would use t = 2.14 2.35.26 3.35 to 5.35.18 3.APPENDIX A.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.37 1.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.2
The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.57 4.80 1.78 1.02 1.98 1.83 1.18 5.58
A.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0.50 2. if possible.53 2.77 1. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.13 1.20 3. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies. The relevant values for t are given in the table.70
1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times
and a standard deviation σ of 0.2. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.35 1.31 3.64 2. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval. however.4.05.2.96 2. 95
.40 1.1) where xi are the individual measurements.92 3.06 2.36 2. When examining the data. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.90 1. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2
A. we would use t = 2.8.84 2. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Table A. Note. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.45 3.60 2.78 4.08 6. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.25 2.36 1.36 1.86 1. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values.92 1.70±0.11 2.89 2.45.48 2. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed.31 1.94 1.71 2. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.36 3. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.7 4.23 3.42 1. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this. and got an average value x of 4. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ. and we took 12 measurements.35 1. If we have a theoretical value of 5. x is the average of all the values. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.