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Resource Assessment of Seabuckthorn_Hippophae L

Resource Assessment of Seabuckthorn_Hippophae L

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Resource Assessment of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.

) in Bajhang District: A Detailed Study from Kanda VDC


DISTRICT FOREST OFFICE, BAJHANG Consultant: Khilendra Gurung June, 2008



I would like to acknowledge Mr. Sanjeev Kumar Shrestha, NTFP specialist- WUPAP for facilitating the field work in Bajhang district. I am particularly thankful to Mr. Lal Narayan Singh, DFO, Bajhang and other staffs of District Forest Office, Bajhang for providing survey data, field information, support and cooperation to carry out this work. I am grateful to Prem Bahadur Bohora (Kanda village), Simal Rokaya (Jagera village), Mathbir Rokaya (Dhuli village) and all the local people for providing us the information of Seabuckthorn availability areas and their traditional use practices in Kanda VDC. I would also like to thank Mr. Keshab Kunwar (Clerk), Keshab Kunwar (Forest guard), Jhalke Bohora and Ram Bahadur Khati –District Forest Office, Bajhang for assisting me in the field trip to Kanda VDC during the study period. Special thanks goes to Mr. Rupak Ram Joshi-Monitoring and Evaluation Officer, LDFB, Bajhang for the overall information of the study area and for his kind cooperation during the study period.

Khilendra Gurung June, 2008


Abbreviations and Acronyms


Degree Centigrade Centimeter Communication Danish International Development Assistance Diameter at Breast Height District Forest Office East Hectare His Majesty’s Government Kilogram Local Development Fund Board Meter Milliliter Milimeter North Non Governmental Organization Number Nepali Rupees Nepal Swiss Community Forestry Project Non Timber Forest Products Personal Plant Participatory Rural Appraisal Research Center for Applied Science and Technology Tree Improvement Program Village Development Committee Western Uplands Poverty Alleviation Project

cm: comm.: DANIDA: DBH: DFO: E: ha: HMG: kg: LDFB: m.: ml.: mm: N: NGO: No.: NRs: NSCFP: NTFPs: pers.: pl: PRA: RECAST: TIP: VDC: WUPAP:


Table of Content
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background 1.2 Introduction 1.3 Justification of the study 1.4 Seabuckthorn for livelihoods 1.5 Name and taxonomic position 1.6 Geographical distribution 1.7 Plant morphology 1.8 Environmental requirements 1.9 Conservation value 1.10 Objectives CHAPTER TWO 2.1 Physiognomy of Bajhang district 2.2 Study area CHAPTER THREE 3.1 Data collection 3.1.1 Biophysical data 3.1.2 Inventory technique 3.1.3 Socio-economic data 3.2 Data analysis 3.2.1 Density 3.2.2 Frequency CHAPTER FOUR 4.1 Areas of occurrence 4.2 Distribution of Seabuckthorn 4.3 Density of Seabuckthorn 10 10 11 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 6 6 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5


4.4 Current stock of Seabuckthorn in Kanda VDC 4.5 Species association 4.6 Ecological status of Seabuckthorn 4.7 Male and female plant population 4.8 Fruiting and yield 4.8.1 Seabuckthorn juice
4.8.2 Seabuckthorn oil

11 12 14 14 14 14

4.9 Harvesting of fruits 4.9.1 Season 4.9.2 Technique 4.9.3 Problems 4.10 Local uses of Seabuckthorn 4.11 Uses of Seabuckthorn in other countries 4.12 Trading of Seabuckthorn 4.13 Pressure on Seabuckthorn

15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16

4.14 Identification of enterprises and their modalities to be set up in Kanda VDC 17 CHAPTER FIVE 5.1 Conclusion 5.2 Recommendations REFERENCES LISTS OF TABLES Table 1: Density of Seabuckthorn in Kanda VDC Table 2: Total stock of Seabuckthorn in Kanda VDC Table 3: Frequency of associated species of H. salicifolia Table 4: Potentiality for enterprise development in Kanda 11 11 12 17 18 19 21



1.1 Background Bajhang district is rich in biological diversity that harbors several species of flora and fauna of tropical to alpine regions. The plant species of both ecological and economic significance have been distributed in the district which has been utilized by the local people in the form of timber, fodder, fuel wood and other materials for domestic uses. In the varied habitats of the district, there are various plants occupying special habitats which are the assets of the district. The local people have been using them for their daily use as well as medicine and other purposes for long time. Plants of the region have been serving as the base of ethno-botanical knowledge. Besides all these facts, there are lots of species whose actual distribution and potentiality has not been assessed yet. The conservation, extension and utilization of such species can prove instrumental for the improvement of sustainable livelihoods of the people residing in the regions. 1.2 Introduction Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.), a wonder plant of the family Elaeagnaceae that occurs in higher altitudes can serve the purpose of both conservation and development if exploited wisely. Experiences in different parts of the world have shown that the plant is the source of food, employment and income for the local people who depend on the nearby natural resources for their livelihoods. National Herbarium and Plant Laboratory, Plant Research Division, Nepal at Godawari has specimens of three species of Hippophae, namely Hippophae salicifolia, Hippophae tibetana and Hippophae rhamnoides. However, only two species of Hippophae viz, Hippophae

salicifolia and Hippophae tibetana are identified in the high mountain areas of Nepal (Rongsen,
1992; Rimal, 1995; Gupta et al., 2001; Vaidya, 2001 and Gurung, 2001). Out of them

Hippophae salicifolia exists in the relatively lower altitudes and Hippophae tibetana in the
higher altitudes. Generally distribution of both the species is confined in the moist sites between 2000-4500m on the glacial deposits, alluvial and colluvial deposits along stream banks and sunny slopes. In Bajhang, Seabuckthorn exists in different localities confined in the specialized habitats. Though the existence of only one species has been reported in Kanda, Surma, Daulichaur, Chainpur and Dahabagar VDCs of Bajhang (pers. comm.), the actual status of the distribution and their economic potentiality has not been studied.


In this strength of information and taking into consideration the potentiality of the species in the district, District Forest Office (DFO), Bajhang/Western Upland Poverty Alleviation Project (WUPAP)/ Local Development Fund Board (LDFB), Bajhang wished to carry out the detail survey of the species in the Northern region of Bajhang based on the general survey carried out by DFO during 2007/2008. Due to the fact that Hippophae tibetana is not present in the area, this report is prepared based on the study about status and distribution of Hippophae salicifolia in the region. 1.3 Justification of the study Seabuckthorn berry is rich source of vitamins and it possesses a number of unique medicinal properties which have a great potential to provide health foods and a variety of medicines. However, despite being rich in exploitable potentiality, Nepal is yet to harness the rich potential of Seabuckthorn in producing foods, medicines, juices and other cosmetic products unlike other countries as China and India. Seabuckthorn is also equally important for firewood, fodder and serves as soil binder species in fragile ecology of Nepal Himalayas. Such important resource is largely underutilized in Nepal. It has a tremendous potential role in improving the living standards of mountain farmers and in maintaining the ecological stability. The plant, important for its environmental value and used for various purposes, has become concern of only a few people and industries at one hand and the resources have not been exploited to its full extent on the other (Rongsen, 1990). The cause of such situation is due to the lack of adequate information of the resource in the respective areas. Local people should have adequate information regarding the species. Therefore, this study is considered essential in Northern part of Bajhang in order to find the resource status and its potentiality to improve the livelihood of local residents along with biodiversity conservation. Although limited information is available about the species in the western and the extreme eastern region of the country, there are gaps for the investigation of the species in far western region where the study is concentrated. Therefore, distribution, status and the potentiality of the species in the area are considered essential to be explored and identified scientifically. For the detail study of Seabuckthorn in Bajhang, Kanda VDC was chosen taking into consideration the socio-economic condition, availability of the resources, people’s willingness and potentiality for the enterprise development in the region based on the survey data provided by DFO.


1.4 Seabuckthorn for livelihoods The natural resources of the mountain areas in Nepal are in no way abundant. But one of the potential sources of income in the areas is Seabuckthorn bushes. Seabuckthorn provides a number of products to rural poor people living in the high hills and mountains and fill important ecological niches. His Majesty’s Government of Nepal (HMG)/DANIDA, Tree Improvement Program (TIP) in early 1996 started a number of activities concerning the Seabuckthorn development. In one hand, it seeks to assist in conserving the existing Seabuckthorn resources especially in relation to the gene base; on the other hand the program has started activities in order to help inspiring and organizing the commercial exploitation of the resource. The later effort increases the livelihood of the local poor people. People from high mountain areas of Manang, Mustang and Taplejung districts have started juice making and other products from Seabuckthorn since 2000. Some entrepreneurs have started selling products in big cities like Pokhara and Kathmandu these days. Similarly, some of the hotels and restaurants in the region have included the Seabuckthorn products in Menu and Menu-boards. These activities altogether certainly increase the income and employment opportunities for the poor people in the areas. 1.5 Name and taxonomic position Seabuckthorn is the general term given to the shrub-tree Hippophae L. This genus belongs to the family Elaeagnaceae. Rousi (1971) recognized three species of Hippophae: Hippophae

rhamnoides L., Hippophae salicifolia D.Don and Hippophae tibetana Schlecht. Hippophae rhamnoides L. has been further divided into nine subspecies (Rousi, 1971).
Liu and He (1978) reported the existence of a new species, Hippophae neurocarpa S.W. Liu

et T.N. He. Again, Lian (1988) upgraded Hippophae rhamnoides, sub sp. gyantsensis, to an
independent species, viz Hippophae gyantsensis (Rousi) Lian. So, according to Lian’s classification system there are five species and eight sub species of Hippophae. 1.6 Geographical distribution The genus Hippophae is distributed between 270-690 N latitude and 70-1220 E longitude in the world (Rousi, 1971; Ruiling et al., 1989; Yu et al., 1989). Hippohae rhamnoides has an extremely wide distribution in Eurasia, from China Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Romania, Switzerland, France and Britain to North Finland, Norway and Sweden. It grows on hills and hillsides, in valleys and river beds, along sea coast and islands, in small isolated or large continuous pure or in mixed stands with other shrub or tree species (Yao, 1994; Schroeder and Yao, 1995). The remaining species of Hippophae have a rather limited 8

distribution and occur only in China and some neighboring countries along the Himalayan range (Rousi, 1971; Liu and He, 1978; Lian, 1988 and Yu et al., 1989).

Hippophae is the native plant of the mountain region of Nepal. This is reported from the
mountainous areas of Nepal such as Darchula, Humla, Mugu, Dolpa, Jumla, Jajarkot, Baglung, Mustang, Manang, Rasuwa, Ramechhap, Dolakha, Solukhumbu and Taplejung districts with altitudes ranging form 2000-4500m (Vaidya, 1999; Gupta et al., 2001; Bhandari, 2003 and Rawat, 2004). 1.7 Plant morphology The morphological structure of Seabuckthorn shows much variation. It exists as a deciduous dwarf shrub to a medium sized tree according to species accounting microclimatic adaptations. Though Seabuckthorn is a hydrophyte, yet it has developed some xerophytic features. Seabuckthorn is a dioecious plant species. Sex of the plant is not clear till the flowering stage. Flowers are devoid of petals in both male and female plants. Male flowers produce four stamens and female bears solitary ovary with only one ovule that develops into fruit in season (Rongsen, 1992). The plant has a very strong tap and horizontal root system. A symbiotic association has been found on roots of Seabuckthorn resulting root nodule formation (Rongsen, 1992). 1.8 Environmental requirements Ideal temperature for germination of seed is 240-260C. However, the plant can withstand temperatures as low as –430C and as high as 400C. Seabuckthorn can grow in areas where annual rainfall is 400-600 mm. Soil requirement of Seabuckthorn is sandy and silt loam with good drainage (Rongsen, 1992). 1.9 Conservation value Seabuckthorn is used as a garden plant in many European countries and the Canadian prairies. Observations and surveys show that many birds and animals utilize Seabuckthorn for food and shelter (Ma and Sun, 1986 and Anonymous, 1988). In Canadian prairies, Seabuckthorn serves as a valuable habitat for the sharp tail grouse, Hungarian Partridge and Pheasant (Schroeder, 1995). Characters such as wide ecological adaptation, fast growth, strong coppicing and suckering habits coupled with efficient Nitrogen fixation (60-180 kg/ha per year) make Seabuckthorn well suited for soil conservation, soil improvement and marginal land reclamation (Rongsen, 1992 and Khosla et al., 1994). Studies have shown that Seabuckthorn promotes the growth of Poplar, Pine and other trees in mixed stands (Lei et al., 1983 and Shi et al., 1987).


Furthermore, it contains nutritious berries containing protein and bioactive substances such as sugar, organic acid, amino acid, carotene, flavones and vitamins (B, C, E and K). The vitamin C content is 5-100 times higher than in most fruits and vegetables known (Rongsen, 1990, 1992, 1993). 1.10 Objectives The overall objective of the study is to explore the sites of Seabuckthorn distribution and the sites potential to extend them in Northern part of Bajhang. The specific objectives are as follows: • • • • • • To observe and verify the survey data collected prior by DFO staff To assess the availability and distribution sites of Seabuckthorn in Northern part of Bajhang To map potential spot having Seabuckthorn within the study area through participatory approach To document the current use pattern of Seabuckthorn in the study area To prepare the management plan of Seabuckthorn To identify the potential community based forest enterprises that can be set up


CHAPTER TWO 2.1 Physiognomy of Bajhang district Bajhang district lies in the far western region in Seti Zone, Nepal. By covering an area of 3, 47,559.40 ha, it lies at 290 29’–300 09’ N latitude and 800 46’–810 34’ E longitude. The altitudinal range varies from 915–7077m representing tropical, temperate and alpine types of climate. The district is surrounded by the Tibetan plateau and Humla to the North, Bajura and Humla to the East, Darchula and Baitadi to the West and Doti and Baitadi to the South. Saipal, Arya and Nampa Himal are the major Himalayan peaks. Seti river, Surma sarovar, Tima pond, Khaptad lake, Lokund lake, Khapar pond, Tilsari lake and Ramcha pond are the major lake and river system. Only 12% of the total land area is suitable for agriculture and 29.47% area is covered with forest. Bushy type of vegetation and snow capped hills are of special interest. The average rainfall in the district is 1343.9mm.The average temperature of the district was recorded as 18.60C as highest temperature and 5.70C as lowest temperature. The ecological zones of the study areas encompass Chir Pine, Alder, Himalayan Oak-Laurel, Mixed Rhododendron-Maple, Temperate Mountain Oak, Fir-Hemlock-Oak, Rhododendron, Birch-Rhododendron, Moist alpine scrub and Upper alpine meadows forest and vegetation types. 2.2 Study area The study area viz. Kanda VDC lies in the Northern part of Bajhang district. Dhalaun, bank of Bhusiya khola, Lokuntya and Khariya forests at the bank of Ghat Ganga river system, Jima village at the bank of Ghat Ganga river system, Kanda village at the bank of Ghat Ganga river system, Ram bagar at the bank of Seti river, Bebala forest above police check post in between Jyati and Laphadi villages, Bastola and Koto forests above and below Jyati village, Melchour forest in between Jyati and Laphadi villages, Laphadi khola, Laphadi forests in Laphadi village, Gurgadh at the bank of Seti River, Maphu at the bank of Seti River, Kirmale Sain below Dhuli village and Bangsara at Kailashmandu forest were the main fields of study area for the observation and measurement of the Seabuckthorn resource. The map of the study area is shown below.




3.1 Data collection Both biophysical and socio-economic information were collected. Biophysical data were collected and analyzed to find the status of Seabuckthorn in the area such as distribution, diversity, yield and so on. Socio-economic data were collected to find local uses of the species, potentiality of the species in the area and concerned issues. The study made use of both primary and secondary information related to the objectives. Primary data were collected using different tools like observation, measurement, group interview, consultation with key informants and other relevant PRA tools. The school teachers, local leaders, hotel owners, shepherds and farmers were the main key informants interviewed. The secondary information was collected from related publications, research papers, District Forest Office and other documents as per necessity. The secondary data were collected for the verification of primary data and additional information as well. 3.1.1 Biophysical data The observations and necessary measurements took place in the selected clusters. It is the best way to sample populations for which there are no convenient lists or frame. It is based on the fact that the species thrives more or less in natural groups or clusters. It is also the way to minimize travel time in reaching scattered units of data collection. Participatory forest inventory techniques as prescribed by NSCFP (2002) were also used to find out as well as to analyze the complex and most interdependent variables like fruiting status, resource condition and yield potentiality. Villagers from the nearby settlements participated in the inventory and assessments. 3.1.2 Inventory technique
Quadrats of 10 x 10m2 in square plots were laid down randomly and the species was counted and enlisted in each plot. Also, all the associated species were recorded. Generally the plant having DBH more than 10cm is considered as mature tree. But Hippophae salicifolia is a small tree and in practice the plants with DBH about 5cm are fully matured. So, 5cm DBH is proposed as matured tree for

Hippophae salicifolia (Gupta et al., 1999 and Gurung, 2001). From different plots, human interference
in Seabuckthorn was analyzed by observing the number of cut stumps.


Associated plant species were identified on the basis of researcher’s knowledge and with the help of reference literatures such as Polunin and Stainton (1997) and Stainton (1997) and consultation with local people. 3.1.3 Socio-economic data Participatory mapping, key informant interview and other PRA tools were applied for collecting relevant social and economic information. Key informants were usually the local leaders, traders, elderly persons having adequate knowledge and experiences, teachers and elite people either single or in groups, DFO staffs and other relevant persons. Verbal open ended questions were asked for the interview and discussions. The researchers explored the sites of Seabuckthorn distribution in the region on the basis of information provided by the local informants and records provided by DFO, Bajhang. 3.2 Data analysis Collected data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Data obtained by using PRA tools were analyzed qualitatively in descriptive methods whereas data obtained from inventory technique were analyzed quantitatively. For vegetation sampling of Seabuckthorn, frequency and density were analyzed according to Zobel et al. (1987). Quantitative characters for vegetation analysis were calculated by using the following formulae: 3.2.1 Density Density in general is the total number of individuals of a species in relation to definite area, which gives the numerical strength of a species in given community (Zobel et al., 1987). Hence, density is calculated by using the following formula:
Density ( pt / ha ) = Total number of individuals of species" A" x 10,000 Total number of quadrats sampled x Area of quadrats (m 2 )

3.2.2 Frequency
The frequency refers to the degree of dispersion in terms of percentage occurrence (Zobel et al., 1987). The frequency of the associated species was calculated as follows:

Frequency ( F ) =

Total number of plots in which species" A" occured x 100 Total number of plots sampled



4.1 Areas of occurrence Seabuckthorn is known by local as “Tarachuk” in the study area. Naturally growing Seabuckthorn was found in well drained soils of silt or sandy loam or mixture of all different proportions. Mostly Seabuckthorn were found in shaded areas where the moisture was good enough. An important requirement for Seabuckthorn was found to be good drainage condition. Furthermore, South, Southwest and West facing slopes were the best for Seabuckthorn. According to the available literature the distribution of Hipppophae salicifolia ranges from 2000-3500m and it was noticed in the field that H. salicifolia occurred between ca. 2100-2700m from Ghat ganga river bank to Kailashmandu forest above Dhuli village. 4.2 Distribution of Seabuckthorn Regarding the distribution of Hippophae salicifolia in Kanda VDC of Bajhang , few names of places can be listed as follows: Dhalaun, bank of Bhusiya khola, Lokuntya and Khariya forests at the bank of Ghat ganga river system, Jima village at the bank of Ghat ganga river system, Kanda village at the bank of Ghat ganga river system, Ram bagar at the bank of Seti river, Bebala forest above Police check post in between Jyati and Laphadi villages, Bastola and Koto forests above and below Jyati village, Melchour forest in between Jyati and Laphadi villages, Laphadi khola, Laphadi forests in Laphadi village, Gurgadh at the bank of Seti river, Maphu at the bank of Seti river, Kirmalesain below Dhuli village and Bangsara at Kailashmandu forest were the occurrence sites of H. salicifolia in Kanda VDC.


4.3 Density of Seabuckthorn The highest density of Hippophae salicifolia in Kanda VDC was recorded in Gurgadh (6400 individual per hectare) followed by Maphu (6000 individual per hectare) and Melchour (1133.33 individual per hectare), whereas the lowest density was recorded in Bastola and Koto (240 individual per hectare). The details are presented in table 1. Table 1: Density of Seabuckthorn in Kanda VDC SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Spots Kailashmandu Kirmulesain Maphu Gurgadh Laphadi Laphadi khola Melchour Bastola and Koto Bebala Ram bagar Ghat ganga-Kanda Ghat ganga-Jima Lokuntya and Khariya Bhusiya khola Dhalaun No. of plants/quadrat No. of quadrats Density/ha 23 3 766.67 32 4 800.00 60 1 6000.00 64 1 6400.00 30 3 1000.00 8 1 800.00 34 3 1133.33 12 5 240.00 8 2 400.00 11 1 1100.00 8 1 800.00 7 2 350.00 21 5 420.00 12 2 600.00 18 2 900.00

4.4 Current stock of Seabuckthorn in Kanda VDC It is estimated about 74140 Seabuckthorn resource was recorded in about 82 ha area in Kanda VDC. The current stock of Hippophae salicifolia in Kanda VDC was recorded as the highest in Gurgadh (12800 individuals) followed by Maphu (12000 individuals) and Kirmulesain (8000 individuals), whereas the lowest stock was recorded in Ram bagar (1100 individuals). The details of the current stock of Seabuckthorn are presented in table 2. Table 2: Total stock of Seabuckthorn in Kanda VDC SN 1 2 3 4 5 Spots Kailashmandu Kirmulesain Maphu Gurgadh Laphadi Density/ha Estimated total area (ha) Total plants 766.67 6 800.00 10 6000.00 2 6400.00 2 1000.00 5 4600 8000 12000 12800 5000


6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Laphadi khola Melchour Bastola and Koto Bebala Ram bagar Ghat ganga-Kanda Ghat ganga-Jima Lokuntya and Khariya Bhusiya khola Dhalaun Total

800.00 1133.33 240.00 400.00 1100.00 800.00 350.00 420.00 600.00 900.00

2 6 11 5 1 3 4 15 5 5 82

1600 6800 2640 2000 1100 2400 1400 6300 3000 4500 74140

4.5 Species association Various plant species were recorded from the study sites of Kanda VDC of Bajhang as the associated species of Hippophae salicifolia. Among them few plant species with high frequency and ecological similarities are expected as the true friends of H. salicifolia. The lists of associated species with H. salicifolia are given in table 3. Table 3: Frequency of associated species of H. salicifolia SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Species Frequency (%) 16.67 72.22 2.78 47.22 2.78 8.33 13.89 36.11 2.78 8.33 27.78 25 19.44 11.11 11.11 5.56 5.56 11.11 8.33 2.78 8.33 8.33

Acer caesium Wall. ex Brandis Alnus nepalensis D.Don Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. Arisaema jacquemontii Blume Arisema flavum (Forssk.) Schott Artemisia dubia Wall. ex Besser Arundinaria sp Aster sp Astilbe rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Berberis aristata DC. Berberis asiatica Roxb.ex DC. Cannabis sativa (Lam.) Small & Cronquist Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) A.DC. Cirsium sp Cissampelos pareira L. Clematis montana Buch.-Ham.ex DC. Coriaria napalensis Wall. Cotoneaster affinis Lindl. Debregeasia salicifolia (D.Don) Rendle Dendrophthoe falcata (L. f.) Etting Desmodium elegans DC.


23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61

Diplazium sp Erigeron sp Euphorbia wallichii Hook. f. Fagopyrum dibotrys (D. Don) H. Hara Geranium himalayense Klotzsch Geranium pratense L. Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis Gnaphalium sp Juglans regia C.DC. Leucosceptrum sp Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude Majus sp Morina sp Osmunda sp Oxalis corniculata L. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jacks. Plantago erosa Wall. Popupus ciliata Wall. ex Royle Potentilla sp Primula sp Prinsepia utilis Royle Pteris sp Pyracantha crenulata (D.Don) M. Roem. Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. Ranunculus sceleratus L. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhus wallichii Hook. f. Ribes glaciale Wall. Rosa sp Rubia manjith Roxb. ex Fleming Rubus ellipticus Sm. Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Salix sp Sarcococca hookeriana Baill. Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. Urtica dioica L. Zanthoxylum nepalense Babu

2.78 11.11 8.33 13.89 5.56 8.33 66.67 13.89 63.89 13.89 19.44 13.89 5.56 5.56 5.56 5.56 22.22 19.44 2.78 38.89 2.78 100 33.33 52.78 36.11 2.78 8.33 13.89 13.89 5.56 22.22 19.44 16.67 52.78 19.44 16.67 2.78 50 2.78

The main associates of H. salicifolia were Prinsepia utilis (100%), Alnus nepalensis (72.22%),

Girardinia diversifolia (66.67%), Juglans regia (63.89%), Pyracantha crenulata (52.78%) and Rumex nepalensis (52.78%).


4.6 Ecological status of Seabuckthorn Seabuckthorn occurred on the fragile lands with weak soil composition and unfertile river fords. Newly emerging plants were grown abundantly along the fords where the associated species were lacking. The plant species invade the barren lands as the pioneer species of secondary succession. This species grown and flourishes with a short interval from altitudinal point of view with occurrence in temperate regions at elevations ranging from 2100-2700m. 4.7 Male and female plant population Male and female plants’ identification was based on fruiting behavior. According to the local information, Seabuckthorn usually comes into bearing fruits in every alternative year. But the assessment time was non fruiting season, therefore the males and females were not differentiated and consequently the existing ratio of these plants could not be differentiated. Regarding the level of fruiting, some local respondents opined that the fruiting status varies from year to year. 4.8 Fruiting and yield The following assumptions were made to estimate the yield of the fruit: 1. The ratio of the male and female plants is equal (1:1) throughout the study area 2. All the female plants bear fruits 4.8.1 Seabuckthorn juice Among 74140 plants estimated to be found in the possible habitat of the study area, 37070 should be females based on the assumption made and 50% of females bear fruits in one season i.e. 18535 plants bear fruits. According to the local collectors and assessment carried out by DFO, Bajhang in 2007, the average fruiting per plant is 2-5 kg depending upon the size of the plant. Therefore, in average the female plant yield ca. 3.5 kg of fruit in the season. Thus, the quantity of fruits that can be yielded per year in the study area equals to ca. 65 tons. According to Vaidya (1999) and assessment by DFO, Bajhang in 2007, the fruit contains 60% juice; on that basis ca. 39 tons of concentrated Seabuckthorn juice can be obtained per year from the study area. 4.8.2 Seabuckthorn oil According to Singh et al. (1995) and Mekheyev (1989) the oil content in the seed of Seabuckthorn ranges from 5-8%. Thus, if seed occupies 10% of fruit’s total weight, ca. 3.25 quintals of the seed oil can be produced per year from the current stock in the study area.


4.9 Harvesting of fruits 4.9.1 Season The harvesting period of H. salicifolia may differ according to the local microclimate and ecology. For H. salicifolia below 3000m, the best fruit harvesting period seemed to be late October to mid November when the fruits ripe well with high content of juice. 4.9.2 Technique Local people adopt the following techniques to harvest the fruits: 1. Slashing the branch: Collectors slash branches of Seabuckthorn and pluck off the fruits using hands. For the large trees there is no other alternative than to slash the inaccessible branches. The branches are carried to their houses and the berries are collected using the stick. 2. Plucking the berries directly from the branches is another common practice for small accessible trees. After collecting the berries by any of the methods, they squeeze the berries and get juice which is boiled enough to make semi-solid residue (concentrate) locally known as Chuk. The Chuk is stored in bottle or gallon for the future use. 4.9.3 Problems Due to long and spiny thorns on the branches, locally adopted harvesting techniques are much painful and time consuming one. Furthermore, the loss of resource due to slashing of branches to get berries is causing serious threat to the resource. 4.10 Local uses of Seabuckthorn The local uses of Seabuckthorn in the study area were found poor. Most of the local people were unknown to the values of fruits for health. They are unaware about the varieties of fruit products produced and marketed in national and international markets. Traditionally, very few people make traditional vinegar (Chuk) from fruits which is used to sour vegetables and pickles, used as medicine to cure stomachache, burns and boils and as a source of yellow dye to color threads to weave ‘Liew’. Sometimes H. salicifolia is used for fuel wood, charcoal making and fencing. 4.11 Uses of Seabuckthorn in other countries Human beings have used Seabuckthorn since eighth centuries, as recorded in the Tibetan medical classics "the rGyud Bzi" (i.e. the Four Books of Pharmacopoeia), completed in the


Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), Li and Guo (1989). Based on the folklore as well as scientific research, Seabuckthorn has become an important medicinal and nutritional product, especially in Russia where it is referred to as “Siberian Pineapple” because of its taste and juiciness. According to the literature of the former USSR, the products of Seabuckthorn fruit and oil have been included in the diet of astronauts and as a cream for protection from cosmic radiation (Besschetnov et al., 1989). The Chinese experience with Seabuckthorn fruit production is relatively the recent one. The Seabuckthorn based sports drinks “Shawikang” and “Jianlibao” were selected as the designated beverages for Chinese Physical and Cultural delegation to the Olympic games in Seoul, 1988 and the Asian Games in Beijing, 1990 respectively (Rongsen, 1992). These days a wide range of Seabuckthorn products have been formulated and marketed in China, former Soviet Union and Mongolia. China is the leading Seabuckthorn producing country with 13 million hector farming, 200 industrial products and annual turnover of US $ 37.5 million. However, in Nepal few Seabuckthorn products have been formulated by RECAST as Seabuckthorn squash, jam, juice powder, wine and pickle (Vaidya, 1999). In recent year local communities of Kanchenjunga, Langtang, Manang, Mustang, Dolpa, Jumla, Mugu and Humla in collaboration with Alternative Herbal Products P. Ltd. are extracting juice from fruits and selling them in Kathmandu based markets (@NRs. 90-150 per bottle (650ml.) as well as to the trekkers (@ NRs. 250-350 per bottle (650 ml.) in their respective localities. 4.12 Trading of Seabuckthorn Seabuckthorn is getting less importance despite the richness of the resources in the area. The following may be the reason for not getting more importance: 1. Unaware of its multiple uses 2. Traditional living style and business with Tibet 3. Transportation constraints 4. Prefer collecting Yarshagumba (Cordyceps sinensis) in the season as a source of income. 4.13 Pressure on Seabuckthorn 1. Natural: As it grows and invades in fragile and virgin soil, it has the high risk of mass movement as well as flood wash. According to the local informants of Kanda village, large patches of Seabuckthorn were washed away by Ghat ganga river flood 8 years before. At present it was observed that only saplings are regenerating as pioneer species.


2. Man-made interference: Among the study sites Jyati, Laphadi, Jagara and Dhuli are highly affected by human activities. Large numbers of cut stumps were recorded in those areas. According to the local informants the migrated Humli people cleared the forest of Seabuckthorn settled in Laphadi and Jyati villages. As an evidence of that fact, old trees were observed in the cultivated lands and around settlements. Similarly, the local people are now cultivating cereals clearing the existing dense shrubs of Seabuckthorn in Laphadi and Jyati villages. 4.14 Identification of enterprises and their modalities to be set up in Kanda VDC On the basis of the resource availability, possibility of handover processing technology/equipments and market linkage, the following are the potentiality for enterprise development in the study area. Table 4: Potentiality for enterprise development in Kanda SN NTFPs/ Products Potentiality for enterprise Modality of enterprise development Juice and herbal drinks making Edible oil expelling Proprietorship/household level Proprietorship/household level Proprietorship/household level

1 2

Fruits of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae salicifolia) Seeds of Dhatelo (Prinsepia utilis), Pangar (Aeculus indica), Okhar (Juglans regia) Allo


Fiber processing and clothes weaving enterprise



5.1 Conclusion There is lack of adequate information in the local community regarding the use and benefits of the berries of Seabuckthorn and its products. Except for making Chuk, neither the collection nor the processing of the berries found in the region indicates that the local use of the species is mostly limited to fuel wood. The local uses of the species in the study area in comparison to its potential uses are almost negligible till now. Therefore, it is relevant to insist here that the possible commercial and domestic uses of its berries have remained unexploited due to the lack of adequate knowledge on this species. The potentiality of tourism in the region and demand of Seabuckthorn products can create a great deal of local and national level market for the variety of products produced from its berries in the same way that the juice is being used as the substitute for the imported cold drink and other imported fruit drinks as in Manang, Mustang and Kanchenjunga regions. The curiosity shown by the some local people reveals that some innovative people in the locality will certainly start to produce a number of products from the berries in the near future if the technical and financial support is provided to them. Its production not only generates the income to the local people for their livelihood but also ensures the goal of conservation of the resources. Although the net area of the natural habitats for the species is very small as compared to the area of the VDC, its occurrence is very near to the settlements. It clearly indicates that the small scale processing of the berries can be carried out in the village by individual household level. It needs neither huge production of its berries nor the large amount investment in the beginning. Therefore, the species is potential for the small scale income generating activities of the local people. It seems better to produce a variety of products from its berries in excess amount of its present demand so that the surplus is consumed locally. It will help to capture the benefits of the nutrients contained in it by the local people and to develop an independent local market of the products. In conclusion, the species is of tremendous potential for the area if the following recommendations are included in the management plan for their effective implementation.


5.2 Recommendations The role of local people is quite important for the conservation, management and sustainable utilization of Seabuckthorn, but “why and how to conserve and sustainably manage this resource” is a big question challenging ever. So, the plans for the development and promotion of Seabuckthorn in the study area, the following steps are recommended for immediate attention from the concerned parties: 1. Awareness campaign: Almost all the people of the study area are unaware of the potentiality of the species otherwise important for its nutritive, medicinal and income generating values. As a result they are indifferent to its sustainable management. Its potentiality in improving the livelihood of the local people cannot be overlooked since it has potential niche in the national and international markets. At the first step, an awareness campaign should be carried out in order to draw the attention of the people for the sustainable management and utilization of the species. The campaign should also include the demonstration of all the products made from the berries. The programs and activities implemented for the promotion should be launched through different means of media to generate mass awareness. 2. Habitat management: The species should be extended in the sites that are similar to its natural habitat. This will reduce the pressure on the existing resource base and generate further opportunities for its enterprise development. There are a number of ways to manage and extend the existing habitats. It includes diversion of natural water channels, irrigation channels, establishment of nursery and distribution of seedlings/cuttings, controlled grazing of livestock, division of root suckers and their plantation, thinning to maintain appropriate ratio of male and female plant (1:8), pruning of dead, diseased and dying branches and so on. The proper techniques of its habitat management should be adopted based on the ecological consideration and the site feasibility. In the same way nursery should be established near its natural bushes so as to avoid inbreeding and withering effects. Participatory approach should be applied for the in-situ conservation of the species. 3. Technology development and transfer: For any species, the technology for propagation (either vegetative or seed sowing), cultivation, sustainable harvesting and processing needs to be tailored according to the indigenous practices, socio-economic background and quality and quantity of products produced in the particular area. Though the appropriate techniques for these aspects have already been developed for Hippophae rhamnoides, relevant information for Hippophae salicifolia is lacking. Therefore, it should be developed and transferred to the local people and it entails for the intensive as well as extensive researches on a long term basis.


External inputs for technology transfer and the skill development regarding its cultivation, sustainable harvesting and value addition is essential. Moreover, exchange visits of entrepreneurs and local farmers to other countries should be emphasized to reinforce the further understanding and knowledge about the species and its research and development. Field exposure and training should also be focused on. Collection, harvesting and processing techniques of Seabuckthorn should be improved technically, in order to minimize the loss of product. 4. Marketing: Local entrepreneurs and farmers should be confident of getting returns by selling their products in the market. Buy back guarantee of the products ensures the production and encourages the people to the business. Therefore, feasibility of market of different types of products and the viable options for marketing management should be studied. Uses of products and its market value should be informed to the business community and entrepreneurs through different media. The role of different developmental organizations is important in this regards. 5. Enterprise development: Since the actual production possibility has not been yet estimated for the resource in the area, information about the total possible production capacity of the resource is still lacking. Therefore, measurement of actual production in the area is a must if any future enterprise in the region would be established. Development of community owned small scale industry for juice making and preparation of other feasible products can be beneficial to the local rural people. Hence, micro-credit programs at grass root level should be initiated. For the sustainable utilization of the species on larger scale, NGO, cooperatives and community based organizations should be involved. Analyzing the products produced from its berries, appropriate policies should be developed and enacted. As overall, Seabuckthorn should be given top priority in Northern Bajhang, so that its in-situ and ex-situ conservation would be ensured. This declaration should be done forthwith to recognize its medicinal and socio-economic values to the rural people.


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