ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology

Introduction to GSM
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 2
Course Outline
 Part 1: Introduction
o Historical overview
o Elements of network architecture
o Elements of air interface
 Part 2: Signal processing and network features
o Voice processing
o GSM Network features
 Part 3: Network design
o Coverage planning
o Capacity planning
o Migration towards 3G and beyond
The GSM logo used on numerous
handsets and by carries who wish to
identify a GSM product
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 3
History
 Driving Factors:
• Incompatibility of the European analog cellular systems
• Reaching of capacity limits
• Costs of the equipment
 1982, Conference of European Post and Telecommunications formed Group Speciale Mobile (GSM)
 1987, 15 operators from 13 countries signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)
 1991, Finland’s operator Radiolinia launched first GSM network in July 1991
 1992, Massive deployment of GSM started
 By 2000 GSM became the most popular 2G technology worldwide
 GSM standard still evolving and enriched with new features and services

GSM = Global System for Mobile communications
(GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile)
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 4
Deployment worldwide
 930 networks in 222 countries and regions
 More than 3 billion subscribers worldwide
 More than 80% worldwide market share
Worldwide map of GSM coverage (source www.gsmworld.com)
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 5
GSM in the USA
 1994, US FCC auctioned large blocks of
spectrum in 1900MHz
 GSM started deployment in PCS band
 1995, American Personal
Communications launched first GSM
network
 In 2002, 850 band opened for GSM
 Currently there are ~ 95M GSM
subscribers
 Largest GSM operators
 ATT
 T-Mobile


ATT coverage map
T-Mobile coverage map
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 6
GSM Standards
 Divided into 12 series
 Standardization efforts coordinated
by ETSI
 www.etsi.org
 Specifications available online –
free of charge
 Standardization and public
availability of specification - one of
fundamental factors of GSM
success

Series Specifications area
01 General
02 Service aspects
03 Network aspects
04 MS-BS interface and protocol
05 Physical layer and radio path
06 Speech coding specification
07 Terminal adapter for MS
08 BS-MSC interface
09 Network internetworking
10 Service internetworking
11 Equipment and type approval specification
12 Operation and maintenance
GSM Standard
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
GSM Network Layout
 GSM system layout is standardized
o Standardization involves:
 Elements of the network
 Communication Interfaces
o Standard layout allows for the use of equipment from
different suppliers
MSC
Area
HLR
MSC
Area
VLR
MSC TRAU BSC
BTS
BTS
BSS
MSC Area
BSS
BSS
BTS
PSTN
PLMN - Public Land Mobile Network
Gateway
MSC
NSS
•NSS: Network Switching subsystem.
•BSS: Base station Subsystem.
•BTS: Base Transceiver Station.
•TRAU :Transcoder and Adaptation Unit
•BSC: Base Station Controller.
•EIR: Equipment Identity Register
•MSC: Mobile Switching Center.
•HLR: Home Location Register
•VLR: Visiting Location Register.
•AUC: Authentication Center.
•OMC: Operation & Maintenance Center.
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 8
GSM Components and Interfaces
 Network has many functional components
 Components are integrated through a network protocol – MAP
 Standardized interfaces
 Um (air interface)
 A – GERAN interface
 A-Bis (somewhat standardized)
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 9
Mobile Station (MS)
 Two functional parts
o HW and SW specific for
GSM radio interface
o Subscriber Identity
Module (SIM)
 SIM – detaches user identity
from the mobile
o Stores user information
o Without SIM – only
emergency calls
Functional diagram of GSM mobile
SIM card
Keyboard
Control
Display
Transmit Audio
Signal
Processing
Receive Audio
Signal
Processing
Channel
Decoding
Deinterleaving
Message
Regenerator
Channel
Encoding
Interleaving
Message
Generator
Ciphering
Ciphering
RF
Processing
RF
Processing
SIM
Duplexer
Antenna
ANTENNA
ASSEMBLY
TRANSMITTER
RECEIVER
TRANSCEIVER UNIT
CONTROL
SECTION
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 10
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
 BTS is a set of transceivers (TX/RX).
 GSM BTS can host up to 16 TX/RX.
 In GSM one TX/RX is shared by 8 users.
 The main role of TX/RX is to provide
conversion between traffic data on the
network side and RF communication on
the MS side.
 Depending on the application, it can be
configured as macrocell, microcell, omni,
sectored, etc.

Typical BTS installation
BTS antenna system
Macrocell BTS radio
cabinet hosts TX/RX
Femto-cell
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
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 BSC plays a role of a small digital exchange.
 It can be connected to many BTSs and it offloads a great deal of
processing from MSC
 One BSC connects to several tens to couple of hundred BTS
 Some of BSC responsibilities:
o Handoff management
o MAHO management
o Power control
o Clock distribution
o Operation and maintenance
 TRAU is responsible for transcoding the user data from 16Kb/sec
to standard ISDN rates of 64Kb/sec.
 It can physically reside on either BSC side or MSC side.
 If it resides on the MSC side, it provides substantial changes in
the backhaul – 4 users over a single T-1/E-1 TDMA channel.
 TRAU, BSC and BTSs form Base Station Subsystem (BSS


Base Station Controller (BSC) and TRAU
Typical BSC
TRAU = Transcoding and Rate Adaptation Unit
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 12
 Responsible for connecting the mobile to the
landline side
 GSM MSC is commonly designed as a regular
ISDN switch with some added functionality for
mobility support
 GSM Network can have more than one MSC
 One of the MSC has an added functionality for
communication with public network – Gateway
MSC (GMSC)
 All calls from the “outside networks” are routed
through GMSC


Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 13
Registry HLR/VLR
 HLR – Home Location Registry
 Database for permanent or semi-
permanent data associated with the user
 Logically, there is only one HLR per
network
 Typical information stored in HLR:
International Mobile Service Identification
Number (IMSI), service subscription
information, supplementary services,
current location of the subscriber, etc.
 HLR is usually implemented as an
integral part of MSC

 VLR – Visitor Location registry
 Temporary database that keeps the
information about the users within the
service area of the MSC
 Usually there is one VLR per MSC
 The main task of the VLR is to reduce
the number of queries to HLR. When
the mobile, registers on the system its
information is copied from HLR to VLR
 VLR is usually integrated with the switch

ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 14
AUC/EIR
AUC – Authentication center
Integral part of HLR
GSM specifies elaborate
encryption
Three levels
o A5/1 USA + Europe
o A5/2 COCOM country list
o No encryption – rest of the
world
EIR – Equipment Identity Registry
Responsible for tracking equipment
and eligibility for service
Maintains three lists
o White list – approved mobile
types
o Black list – barred mobile types
o Gray list – tracked mobile
types



Over years – many other vendor specific features added to the system
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 15
GSM Air Interface - Um
Interface between the MS and the GSM network
Subject to rigorous standardization process
We examine:
o Channelization
o Multiple access scheme
o Interface organization:
 On the physical level
 On the logical level



ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 16
Frequency allocation
 For PCS-1900 band
o ARFCNul = (Fc-1850)/0.2+511; ARFCNdl = (Fc-1930)/0.2+511
 For GSM-850
o ARFCNul = (Fc-824)/0.2+127; ARFCNdl = (Fc-969)/0.2+127


Mapping formulas
GSM is FDD technology
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 17
TDMA Access Scheme
Multiple users operate on the same
frequency, but not at the same time.
Advantages of TDMA:
o Relatively low complexity
o MAHO
o Different user rates can be
accommodated
o Easier integration with the
landline
Disadvantages:
o High sync overhead
o Guard times
o Heavily affected by the
multipath propagation

Uplink ( From MS to BS)
Wireless Communication Channel
Downlink ( From BS to MS )
Base Station
f
u0,
s
1
f
d0,
s
1
, s
2
, ...,s
8
S
1
S
2
S
3
.... S
8
s
1
s
7
s
8
....
s
1
s
2
s
3
f
u0,
s
2
f
u0,
s
8
TDMA = Time Division Multiple Access
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 18
GSM as a TDMA system
GSM is a
combination of
FDMA and TDMA
TDMA supports:
o Up to 8 full rate
users
o Up to 16 half rate
users
GSM uses
Frequency Division
Duplexing


BTS
USER 1 USER 2 .... USER 8
USER 6 USER 7 USER 8 USER 1
USER 1,
ARFCN
1
USER 2,
ARFCN
1
USER 8,
ARFCN
1
USER 9,
ARFCN
2
USER 10,
ARFCN
2
USER 16,
ARFCN
2
ARFCN
1
ARFCN
2
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 19
GSM bursts
 Data sent over one time slot =
burst
 Five types: normal, frequency
correction, synchronization,
dummy, access
 Format of a burst defied by its
function
 DL: normal, frequency correction,
synchronization, dummy
 UL: normal, access

Time/Frequency/Amplitude diagram for GSM
normal burst
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 20
Normal Burst
Used to carry information on both control and traffic channels
Mixture of data and overhead
GSM defines 8 training sequences assigned in color code mode
Both on the forward and reverse link
• Total of 114 encoded user information bits
• Total of 34 overhead bits
Tail Traffic/Signaling Flag Training Sequence Flag Traffic/Signaling Tail
3 57 1
26 1 57 3
Normal burst
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 21
Frequency Correction Burst
 Sometimes referred to as the F-burst
 Provides mobile with precise reference to the frequency of the broadcast control
channel
 Inserting the F-bursts on the control channel produces spectral peak 67.7 KHz
above the central frequency of the carrier
 Only on the forward link



•Spectral characteristics of the control
channel.
•The peak in the spectrum allows for
easier MS network acquisition
•Format of the F-burst
•Fixed sequence consists of all zeros
f
c
f
c
+67.7 KHz frequency
Power Spectrum Density
BW = 200KHz
Tail Fixed Bit Sequence (All zeros) Tail
3 3
142
Frequency correction burst
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 22
Synchronization Burst
Facilitates the synchronization of the MS to the network at the base band
Commonly referred to as S-burst
Only on the forward link
The same sync sequence is used in all GSM networks

Tail Synchronization Training Sequence Synchronization Tail
3 3 39 39 64
Synchronization burst
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
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Dummy Burst
Supports MAHO
Used to ensure constant power level of the broadcast
control channel
Only on the forward link

Tail Predefined Bit Sequence Tail
3 3
142
Dummy burst
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 24
Access Burst
Used when the MS is accessing the system
Shorter in length – burst collision avoidance
Extended synchronization sequence
Used only on the reverse link

GSM mobiles use slotted ALOHA to access the system
In the case of collision – a hashing algorithm is provided
Tail Synchronization Access Bits Tail
8
41 36 3
Access burst
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 25
GSM TDMA Hierarchical Organization
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21 22 23 24 25
1 TDMA Frame
4.615 ms
26 Multiframe
120 ms
51 Multiframe
235.4 ms
51 x 26 Superframe or 26 x 51 Superframe
6s 120 ms
Hyperframe
3 h 28 min 53 s 760 ms
0 1 2 3 4 48 49 50
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 46 47 48 49 50
0 1 2 3 4 23 24 25
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 26
GSM Time Division Duplex
Communication on the forward and reverse link does not
happen simultaneously
Delay of three slots between TX and RX
Time division duplexing avoids RF duplexer at the RF stage
o Reduces the cost of mobile
o Saves battery


0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0
1 2 3 4 5 7 6 5
Forward Link - BTS Transmits
Reverse Link - MS Transmits
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 27
GSM Logical Channels
GSM Logical
Channels
TCH
TCH/F TCH/H
CCH
BCH CCCH DCCH
CBCH
ACCH SDCCH
FACCH SACCH
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
PCH
AGCH
RACH
TCH - Traff ic Channel
TCH/F - Traf fic Channel (Full Rate)
TCH/H - Traf fic Channel (Half Rate)
BCH - Broadcast Channels
FCCH - Frequency Correction Channel
SCH - Synchronization Channel
BCCH - Broadcast Control Channel
CCCH - Common Control Channels
PCH - Paging Channel
AGCH - Access Grant Channel
RACH - Random Access Channel
DCCH - Dedicated Control Channels
SDCCH - Stand-alone Dedicated
Control Channel
ACCH - Associated Control Channels
SACCH - Slow Associated Control
Channel
FACCH - Fast Associated Control
Channel
CCH - Control Channel
CBCH - Cell Broadcast Channel
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 28
 Traffic channel carries speech and user data in both directions
o Full rate ~ 33.85 Kb/sec
o Half rate ~ 16.93 Kb/sec
o Full rate uses 1 slot in every frame
o Half rate uses 1 slot in every other frame





 Data rates differ due to differences in Error Control Coding

Traffic Channels (TCH)
Full Rate TCH can carry:
• Voice (13 Kb/sec)
• Date at rates:
-9.6 Kb/sec
-4.8 Kb/sec
-2.4 Kb/sec
Half Rate TCH can carry:
• Voice (6.5 Kb/sec)
• Date at rates:
-4.8 Kb/sec
-2.4 Kb/sec
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 29
Control Channels
 GSM Defines 3 types of Control Channels:
1. Broadcast Channels (BCH)
 Broadcast information that helps mobile
system acquisition, frame synchronization,
etc. They advertise properties and
services of the GSM network.
 Forward link only
2. Common Control Channels (CCCH)
 Facilitate establishment of the link between
MS and system
 Both forward and reverse link
3. Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH)
 Provide for exchange the control
information when the call is in progress
 Both forward and reverse – in band
signaling


CCH
BCH
CCCH
DCCH
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 30
Broadcast Channels (BCH)
 Three types of BCH:
1. Synchronization channel (SCH)
 Provides a known sequence that helps mobile
synchronization
at the baseband
 Communicates with S-burst
 Broadcasts Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)
2. Frequency Correction channel (FCH)
 Helps mobile tune its RF oscillator
 Communicates with F-burst
3. Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
 Provides mobile with various information
about network, its services, access
parameters, neighbor list, etc.


BCH
SCH
FCH
BCCH
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 31
Broadcast Channels (BCH) cont’d.
 In general, the information sent over BCCH can be grouped into four categories:
1) Information about the network
2) Information describing control channel structure
3) Information defining the options available at the particular cell
4) Access parameters

Some BCCH messages
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 32
Common Control Channel (CCCH)
 Three types of CCCH:
1. Random Access Channel (RACH)
 Used by mobile to initialize communication
 Mobiles use slotted ALOHA
 Reverse link only
2. Paging Channel (PCH)
 Used by the system to inform the mobile
about an incoming call
 Forward link only
 GSM Supports DRX
3. Access Grant Channel (AGC)
 Used to send the response to the mobiles
request for DCCH
 Forward link only

CCCH
RACH
PCH
AGC
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 33
Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH)
 Three types of DCCH:
1. Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel
(SDCCH)
 Used to exchange overhead information
when
the call is not in progress
2. Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)
 Used to exchange time delay tolerant
overhead
information when the call is in progress
3. Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)
 Used to exchange time critical information
when the call is in progress


DCCH
SDCCH
SACCH
FACCH
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 34
Logical Channels - Summary
UL - Uplink DL - Downlink
Channel UL only DL only UL/DL Point to
point
Broadcast Dedicated Shared
BCCH X X X
FCCH X X X
SCH X X X
RACH X X X
PCH X X X
AGCH X X X
SDDCH X X X
SACCH X X X
FACCH X X X
TCH X X X
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 35
Timing Advance
 Mobiles randomly
distributed in space
 Timing advance
prevents burst collision
on the reverse link
 Maximum
advancement is 63
bits

BTS
SLOT 0 SLOT 1 SLOT 2 SLOT 3 SLOT 4 SLOT 5
MS
2
MS
1
d
2
, Slot 2
d
1
, Slot 1
d
1
> d
2
MS
2
MS
1
T
1
T
2
Collision
T
1
- Delay of MS
1
Signal
T
2
- Delay of MS
2
Signal
SLOT 7 SLOT 6
km 35
bit
s
10 693 . 3 bit 63
s
m
10 3
2
1
max
6 8
~
|
.
|

\
|
× · · × =
÷
D
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 36
Signal Processing –
From Voice to Radio Waves
Sampling,
Quantization and
source encoding
Channel
Encoding
(Error Correction
Coding)
Interleaving
Burst
Formating
Mapping
De-
Ciphering
Modulation
De-Modulation
Ciphering
Burst
Formating
Mapping
De
-Interleaving
Channel
Decoding
(Error Correction )
Source Decoding
and Wavef orm
Generation
Um
Interf ace
Voice
Signal
Voice
Signal
Transmit Side
Receive Side
As a digital TDMA technology GSM implements extensive
signal processing

ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 37
Sampling and Quantization
Sampling
o Sampling theorem
specifies conditions for
discretization of band
limited analog signals
o Voice needs to be
sampled at the sampling
rate greater then
8000Hz
Quantization
o Discrete values
assigned to continuous
samples
o Quantization noise
o In GSM, voice is
sampled at 8 K
samples/sec and
quantized with 8192
levels (13 bit words)
111 +3V
110 +2V
101 +1V
0V
001 -1V
010 -2V
011 -3V
111 +3V
110 +2V
101 +1V
0V
001 -1V
010 -2V
011 -3V
Analog Signal
Sampling Pulse
PAM
101 110 101 100 010 010 010 100 111 111
PCM
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 38
Speech Source Encoding
 Speech coder reduces the data rate
needed for voice signal representation
 GSM specifies operation of :
o Full rate vocoder
 13Kb/sec
o Half rate vocoder
 5.6Kb/sec
o Enhanced Full Rate (EFR)
 12.2Kb/sec
o AMR (Adaptive multi rate)
 AMR-FR (4.75-12.2Kb/sec)
 AMR-HR (4.75-7.95Kb/sec)
 AMR rate - function of C/I


BPF
A/D
converter
SPEECH
ENCODER
CHANNEL
CODING
TO
MODULATOR
MICROPHONE
BAND-PASS
300 Hz-3.4 kHz
SPEECH
DECODER
CHANNEL
DECODER
LP
LOW-PASS
4 kHz
D/A
converter
Vocoders enable efficient channel
utilization
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 39
Performance comparison of some
commercial vocoders
Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) - Voice Quality
source IIR. The First Annual CDMA Congress
London, Oct. 29-30, 1997
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
Clean Speech 20dB SNR
Babble
20dB SNR
Car
15dB SNR
Street
Mu-PCM
8Kb/s EVRC
(CDMA)
13Kb/s CELP
(CDMA)
IS-136 ACELP
GSM EFR

ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 40
 Error control coding (ECC) increases the robustness of the
signal
 ECC increases the overhead and reduces the efficiency of the
communication
 In GSM, the ECC increases the overhead per user by 57%

Channel Encoding
TYPE Ia
BITS
TYPE II
BITS
TYPE Ib
BITS
CONVOLUTIONAL
ENCODER
r=1/2
K=5
M
U
X
ERROR DETECTING CODE
50
132
78
3
4
189
189
378
456
0
TO
INTERLEAVER
F
R
O
M


V
O
C
O
D
E
R
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 41
Interleaving
 In mobile
communications, the
errors are “bursty”
 Optimal performance
from ECC is obtained for
uniform error
distribution
 Interleaving increases
the performance of ECC
in mobile environment
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

25 20 15 10 5
24 19 14 9 4
23 18 13 8 3
22 17 12 7 2
21 16 11 6 1
b b b b b
b b b b b
b b b b b
b b b b b
b b b b b
Data is written
column-wise
Data is read
row-wise


Interleaver
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
b
7
b
8
b
9
b
10
b
11
b
12
b
13
b
14
b
25
b
16
b
17
b
18
b
19
b
20
...
b
1
b
6
b
11
b
16
b
21
b
2
b
7
b
12
b
17
b
22
b
3
b
8
b
13
b
18
b
23
b
4
b
9
b
14
b
19
b
24
..
Burst Error
Caused by
Rayleigh Fading
Errors are spread over the bit stream
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 42
Modulation: GMSK (Gaussian MSK)
 GMSK has excellent spectral
characteristics
o Low sidelobes
o Robust to non- linearities
 Price paid is in the increased
Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)
Simplified GMSK block diagram
MSK
Filtered MSK
GMSK
(f-f
o
) / Rb 0 1 2 3
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
POWER SPECTRAL
DENSITY
dB
Spectral
characteristics
of GMSK
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 43
Tail Traffic/Signaling Flag Training Sequence Flag Traffic/Signaling Tail
3 57 1 26 1 57 3
Sequence used for equalizer training
Equalization
 Necessary due to the multipath
propagation
 Needs to have :
o Fast convergence
o Low complexity
 Two modes of operation
1. Training
2. Equalization
 GSM equalizer capable of equalizing for
two equal multi paths separated by 16
microseconds
 Introduces overhead of about 18%

RF
Processing
Adaptive
Equalizer
Equalization
Algorithm
Extraction of
Synchronization
Bits
Unequalized
Data
Equalized
Data
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 44
GSM Network Features
 Mobile Assist Handoff (MAHO)
 Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
 Dynamic Power Control (DPC)
 Frequency Hopping (FH)
 Intercell Handoff

ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 45
Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO)
 GSM Implements
MAHO
 In the process of
evaluating handoff
candidates, GSM
systems evaluate
measurements
performed by both the
MS and BTS

 There are three types
of measurements:

1. Signal Strength
Measurements
2. Signal Quality
Measurements
3. Timing Advance
Measurements
Measurement
type
Link Cell DTX Measurement
Source
RSL Downlink Serving Cell Full Set Mobile
RSL Downlink Serving Cell Subset Mobile
RSL Downlink Neighbors N/A Mobile
Quality Downlink Serving Cell Full Set Mobile
Quality Downlink Serving Cell Subset Mobile
RSL Uplink Serving Cell Full Set BTS
RSL Uplink Serving Cell Subset BTS
RSL Uplink Neighbors Full Set BTS
RSL Uplink Neighbors Subset BTS
Quality Uplink Serving Cell Full Set BTS
Quality Uplink Serving Cell Subset BTS
Timing Advance Uplink Serving Cell N/A BTS
Measurement
type
Link Cell DTX Measurement
Source
RSL Downlink Serving Cell Full Set Mobile
RSL Downlink Serving Cell Subset Mobile
RSL Downlink Neighbors N/A Mobile
Quality Downlink Serving Cell Full Set Mobile
Quality Downlink Serving Cell Subset Mobile
RSL Uplink Serving Cell Full Set BTS
RSL Uplink Serving Cell Subset BTS
RSL Uplink Neighbors Full Set BTS
RSL Uplink Neighbors Subset BTS
Quality Uplink Serving Cell Full Set BTS
Quality Uplink Serving Cell Subset BTS
Timing Advance Uplink Serving Cell N/A BTS
Measurement
type
Measurement
type
Link Link Cell Cell DTX DTX Measurement
Source
Measurement
Source
RSL RSL Downlink Downlink Serving Cell Serving Cell Full Set Full Set Mobile Mobile
RSL RSL Downlink Downlink Serving Cell Serving Cell Subset Subset Mobile Mobile
RSL RSL Downlink Downlink Neighbors Neighbors N/A N/A Mobile Mobile
Quality Quality Downlink Downlink Serving Cell Serving Cell Full Set Full Set Mobile Mobile
Quality Quality Downlink Downlink Serving Cell Serving Cell Subset Subset Mobile Mobile
RSL RSL Uplink Uplink Serving Cell Serving Cell Full Set Full Set BTS BTS
RSL RSL Uplink Uplink Serving Cell Serving Cell Subset Subset BTS BTS
RSL RSL Uplink Uplink Neighbors Neighbors Full Set Full Set BTS BTS
RSL RSL Uplink Uplink Neighbors Neighbors Subset Subset BTS BTS
Quality Quality Uplink Uplink Serving Cell Serving Cell Full Set Full Set BTS BTS
Quality Quality Uplink Uplink Serving Cell Serving Cell Subset Subset BTS BTS
Timing Advance Timing Advance Uplink Uplink Serving Cell Serving Cell N/A N/A BTS BTS
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 46
MAHO - Signal Strength Measurements
 Performed on uplink and downlink
 Reported as a quantized value RXLEV:
RXLEV = RSL[dBm] + 110
 Minimum RXLEV:
-110, MAX RXLEV = -47
 On the downlink, measurement
performed for both serving cell and up
to 32 neighbors
 Up to 6 strongest neighbors are
reported back to BTS through SACHH



Example measurement report
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 47
MAHO - Signal Strength Measurements
 Measurements of the
neighbors are performed on
the BCCH channels – not
affected by the DTX
 Measurements on the serving
channel – affected by the
DTX.
 Perform over a subset of
SACCH that guarantees
transmission even in the case
of active DTX
 Before processing, the RXLEV
measurements are filtered to
prevent unnecessary handoffs
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Measurement
R
X

L
E
V

(
d
B
m
)
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
580
B
C
C
H

A
R
F
C
N
RX LEV (dBm) BCCH
Example RSL measurement
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 48
MAHO – Signal Quality Measurements
 Performed on uplink and downlink
 Only on the serving channel
 Reported as a quantized value RXQUAL
 For a good quality call RXQUAL < 3
 Measurements are averaged before the
handoff processing
 If DTX is active, the measurements are
performed over the subset of SACCH that
guarantees transmission


RXQUAL BER
0 Less than 0.1
1 0.26 to 0.30
2 0.51 to 0.64
3 1.0 to 1.3
4 1.9 to 2.7
5 3.8 to 5.4
6 7.6 to 11.0
7 Above 15
RXQUAL BER
0 Less than 0.1
1 0.26 to 0.30
2 0.51 to 0.64
3 1.0 to 1.3
4 1.9 to 2.7
5 3.8 to 5.4
6 7.6 to 11.0
7 Above 15
RXQUAL RXQUAL BER BER
00 Less than 0.1 Less than 0.1
11 0.26 to 0.30 0.26 to 0.30
22 0.51 to 0.64 0.51 to 0.64
33 1.0 to 1.3 1.0 to 1.3
44 1.9 to 2.7 1.9 to 2.7
55 3.8 to 5.4 3.8 to 5.4
66 7.6 to 11.0 7.6 to 11.0
77 Above 15 Above 15
RXQUAL mapping table
RXQUAL
measurements
Measurement report
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 49
 Performed on uplink (BTS)
 Only on the serving channel
 Used by the BTS to estimate
distance to the MS
 Expressed in number of bits
of TX advancement
 Can be between 0 and 63
 TA


MAHO – Time Alignment Measurement
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 50
Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
 Typical voice activity is around 60%
 DTX discontinues transmission during
silent periods
 Benefits of DTX
o Uplink:
 System interference reduction
 Lower battery consumption
o Downlink
 System interference reduction
 Reduction of the intermodulation
products
 Lower power consumptions
Downsides of DTX usage:
o MAHO measurements are less accurate
o Voice quality is degraded due to
slowness of VAD
Mobile station Environment Typical
voice
activity
Handset Quiet location 55%
Handset Moderate office noise
with voice interference
60%
Handset Strong voice
interference (ex. airport,
railway station)
65-70%
Hands free /
handset
Variable vehicle noise 60%
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 51
Dynamic Power Control (DPC)


There are three reasons for DPC:
1. Reduction of battery consumption
2. Elimination of “near-far” problem
3. Reduction of system interference
Power Class GSM (900MHz)
[W]
PCS - 1900 / GSM – 1800
[W]
1 20
(1)
1
2 8 0.24
3 5 Not Defined
4 2 Not Defined
5 0.8 Not Defined
Power Class GSM (900MHz)
[W]
PCS - 1900 / GSM – 1800
[W]
1 20
(1)
1
2 8 0.24
3 5 Not Defined
4 2 Not Defined
5 0.8 Not Defined
Power Class Power Class GSM (900MHz)
[W]
GSM (900MHz)
[W]
PCS - 1900 / GSM – 1800
[W]
PCS - 1900 / GSM – 1800
[W]
1 1 20
(1)
20
(1)
1 1
2 2 8 8 0.24 0.24
3 3 5 5 Not Defined Not Defined
4 4 2 2 Not Defined Not Defined
5 5 0.8 0.8 Not Defined Not Defined
(1) Not available commercially
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 52
Dynamic Power Control (DPC)
 DPC for MS
o Depending on its power class, MS can adjust its power between the max and min
value in 2dB steps
o MS can perform 13 adjustments every SACCH period, i.e., 480ms
o Large adjustments > 24 dB will not be completed before the arrival of new
command
o Commonly implemented as BSC feature. Many vendors are moving it at the BTS
level
 DPC for BTS
o Vendor specific
o Based on MAHO reports
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 53
Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)
 Incorporates various cell sizes into
layers of RF coverage
 Three common layers:
1. Umbrella cells (HL = 0)
2. Macrocells (HL = 1)
3. Microcell (HL = 2)
 HCS provides a way to assign
preference levels between the cells
 Very effective way for capacity and
interference management

Signal
Strength
Reselection
Points
Select Micro-Cell
SS_SUFF
Macrocel
Preferred
Micro-Cell
Distance
HL = 1
HL = 2
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 54
Handling of Fast Moving Mobiles
 If the mobile is moving at a high speed, it will
spend a short time in the coverage area of the
microcell
 To prevent excessive handoffs, a temporal
GSM introduces temporal penalty – prevents
immediate handoff initialization
 If the duration of mobile stay within the
coverage area is shorter than the temporal
penalty, it will never initialize handoff


ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 55
Frequency Hopping (FH)
 FH - multiple carriers used over the course of radio transmission
o There are two kinds of FH:
1. Slow Hopping – change of carrier frequency happens at the rate
slower than the symbol rate
2. Fast Hoping – carrier frequency changes faster than the symbol
rate
o GSM implements slow FH Scheme
o Carrier frequency is changed once per time slot
o There are two reasons for frequency hopping
1. Frequency Diversity
2. Interference avoidance

ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 56
Frequency Diversity of FH
 Mobile environment is
characterized with small
scale fading
 The depth of signal fade
is a function frequency
 If two signals are
sufficiently separated in
frequency domain they
fade independently
 Frequency diversity gain
diminishes for fast
moving mobiles

ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 57
Interference Avoidance of FH
 FH averages interference
 Allows for tighter reuse of frequencies
 Increases the capacity of the system

User 1
User 2
User 3
User 4
User 5
f
1
f
4
f
1
f
1
f
1
f
1
f
1
f
2
f
2
f
2
f
2
f
3
f
4
f
1
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
3
f
4
f
1
f
4
f
3
f
1
f
3
f
4
4T T 2T 3T 5T
4T T 2T 3T 5T
4T T 2T 3T 5T
4T T 2T 3T 5T
4T T 2T 3T 5T
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 58
Baseband FH in GSM
 Each radio operates on a
fixed frequency
 The bursts are routed to
individual radios in
accordance to their hopping
sequence

 Advantages of baseband hopping
 No need to “real time” retune – simpler
radios
 More efficient combiners
 Disadvantage of baseband hopping
 Number of hopping frequencies limited
by the number of radios

TX/RX
TX/RX
TX/RX
Carri er
Freuqnacy
f
1
Combiner
Carri er
Freuqnacy
f
2
Carri er
Freuqnacy
f
n
1
2
n
Bus for Routing
and Switchning
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 59
Synthesized FH in GSM
 Each radio is hopping in an
independent way
 Radios retune – “real time”
 Advantages of synthesized hopping:
Set of the hopping frequencies can be assigned in
an arbitrary way
 Disadvantage of synthesized hopping:
Need for expensive and lossy combiners

TX/RX
TX/RX
TX/RX
Carri er
Freuqnacy
f
0
,f
1
,...,f
m
Broadband
Combiner
1
2
n
Carri er
Freuqnacy
f
0
,f
1
,...,f
m
Carri er
Freuqnacy
f
0
,f
1
,...,f
m
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 60
FH Algorithms
• Random Hopping
• Implemented in a pseudo – random way
• Uses one of 63 available pseudorandom sequences
• The actual frequency is obtained as a modulo operation with
number of available frequencies in allocation list (FH group)

  , , , , , , ,
3 2 1 4 3 2 1
f f f f f f f
  , , , , , , ,
3 2 3 4 4 2 1
f f f f f f f
Cyclic Hopping
o Frequencies are used in the consecutive order
o If the radio is performing cyclic FH the order of frequencies in the
sequence goes from the lowest ARFCN to the highest ARFCN
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 61
Intracell Handoff
High Interference
Measurement indicates:

o Poor RXQUAL
o Good RXLEV

 There is high probability that the call will improve with the handoff to
different carrier within the same cell
 To avoid unnecessary handoffs, system introduces maximum number
of intercell handoffs


ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 62
GSM RF Planning / Design
 Link Budget and Nominal Cell Radius Calculation
 Receiver Sensitivity
 Required C/I ratio
 Mobile Transmit Power
 Examples of Link Budget
 Calculation of a Nominal Cell Radius
 Frequency Planning and Reuse Strategies
 Frequency Planning Using Regular Schemes
 Automatic Frequency Planning
 Capacity of GSM Networks

ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 63
Migration:
1. High speed circuits
switched data
(HSCSD)
2. Packet switched data
(GPRS,EDGE)
3. Integrated packet
services – possibly
under different access
scheme (UMTS)

GSM Migration Towards 3G
GSM 2+
9.6 Kb/sec
HSCSD
64 Kb/sec
GPRS
114 Kb/sec
EDGE
384 Kb/sec
UMTS
2Mb/sec
1999
1Q
2000
2Q
2000
3Q
2001
4Q
2002
Timeline
Data Rate
HSCSD - High Speed Circuit Switched Data
GPRS - General Packet Radio System
EDGE - Enhanced Data GSM Environment
UMTS - Universal Mobile Telephone Service
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 64
GSM 2+ Data Services
GSM’s traffic channel can support the data transfer of a bit rate up to
9.6Kb/sec
o This data rate can be used for:
 Short messages
 Fax services
 E-mail, etc.
o Circuit switched data services
o Not suitable for Internet
 Too slow
 Too costly (user would pay for the “circuit” even if there is no
traffic exchanged

ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 65
High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)
 HSCSD is using existing GSM organization to provide data
services of a somewhat higher data rates
 It can combine several existing traffic channels into a single
connection, i.e., it allows for mobiles multislot operation
 HSCSD can be implemented through software upgrades on
existing networks and no hardware upgrades are needed
 Seems to be less accepted by the service providers

ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 66
 GPRS is another new transmission capability for GSM that will be especially
developed to accommodate for high-bandwidth data traffic
 GPRS will handle rates from 14.4Kbps using just one TDMA slot, and up to
115Kbps and higher using all eight time slots
 It introduces packet switching - can accommodate the data traffic
characteristics

General Packed Radio Data (GPRS)
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 67
GPRS Network architecture
New type of
node:
GPRS Service
Node (GSN)
BSC
BSC
MSC
VLR
HLR
AUC
EIR
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS - Base Station
BSC - Base Station Contoller
MSC - Mobile Switching Center
VLR - Visitor Location Register
HLR - Home Location Register
AUC - Authentif ication Center
EIR - Equipment Identity Register
Um
Interface
A-Bis
Interface
A
Interface
D
C
PSTN
B
B,C,D,E,F - MAP
Interfaces
SGSN
GGSN
SGSN - Service GPRS Support Node
GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support Node
Gn
Interface
Gr
Outside
Packet
Network
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 68
GPRS Call routing
SGSN
GGSN
GGSN
SGSN
BTS
BTS
GPRS - PDN
GPRS - PDN
Routing is performed “parallel” to the GSM network
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 69
 Packet switched
 Upgrades the modulation scheme
o From GMSK to 8-PSK
o Maximum speed ~59 Kb/sec per time slot, ~473.6 Kb/sec for all 8 time slots
o Variable data rate – depending on the channel conditions
 Defines several different classes of service and mobile terminals

Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE)
EDGE enabled data mobile
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 70
Practically achievable data rates
Theoretical rates are constrained by mobile
power and processing capabilities
Most mobiles support less than the maximum
allowed by standard
Practically achievable data rates
ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology
Page 71
 UMTS – 3G cellular service
 Provides data rates up to 2Mb/sec
 Possibly standardized as W-CDMA

Universal Mobile Telephone Service (UMTS)
Outline of UMTS
(WCDMA) network

Course Outline
 Part 1: Introduction

o Historical overview
o Elements of network architecture o Elements of air interface  Part 2: Signal processing and network features o Voice processing o GSM Network features  Part 3: Network design o Coverage planning o Capacity planning o Migration towards 3G and beyond The GSM logo used on numerous handsets and by carries who wish to identify a GSM product

Florida Institute of Technology

ECE Department

Page 2

History
 Driving Factors: • Incompatibility of the European analog cellular systems • Reaching of capacity limits • Costs of the equipment  1982, Conference of European Post and Telecommunications formed Group Speciale Mobile (GSM)  1987, 15 operators from 13 countries signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)  1991, Finland’s operator Radiolinia launched first GSM network in July 1991  1992, Massive deployment of GSM started  By 2000 GSM became the most popular 2G technology worldwide  GSM standard still evolving and enriched with new features and services

GSM = Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile)

Florida Institute of Technology

ECE Department

Page 3

Deployment worldwide  930 networks in 222 countries and regions  More than 3 billion subscribers worldwide  More than 80% worldwide market share Worldwide map of GSM coverage (source www.com) Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 4 .gsmworld.

GSM in the USA ATT coverage map  1994. American Personal Communications launched first GSM network  In 2002. 850 band opened for GSM T-Mobile coverage map  Currently there are ~ 95M GSM subscribers  Largest GSM operators  ATT  T-Mobile Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 5 . US FCC auctioned large blocks of spectrum in 1900MHz  GSM started deployment in PCS band  1995.

GSM Standards GSM Standard Series 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Specifications area General Service aspects Network aspects MS-BS interface and protocol Physical layer and radio path Speech coding specification Terminal adapter for MS  Divided into 12 series  Standardization efforts coordinated by ETSI  www.org  Specifications available online – free of charge  Standardization and public availability of specification .etsi.one of fundamental factors of GSM success 08 09 10 11 12 BS-MSC interface Network internetworking Service internetworking Equipment and type approval specification Operation and maintenance Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 6 .

•AUC: Authentication Center. •HLR: Home Location Register •VLR: Visiting Location Register. •EIR: Equipment Identity Register •MSC: Mobile Switching Center. PLMN . •OMC: Operation & Maintenance Center. •BSS: Base station Subsystem.GSM Network Layout BSS BSS BTS BSC BTS TRAU MSC Area Gateway MSC NSS MSC VLR HLR PSTN BTS BSS MSC Area MSC Area •NSS: Network Switching subsystem. •BTS: Base Transceiver Station.Public Land Mobile Network  GSM system layout is standardized o Standardization involves:  Elements of the network  Communication Interfaces o Standard layout allows for the use of equipment from different suppliers Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department . •TRAU :Transcoder and Adaptation Unit •BSC: Base Station Controller.

GSM Components and Interfaces  Network has many functional components  Components are integrated through a network protocol – MAP  Standardized interfaces  Um (air interface)  A – GERAN interface  A-Bis (somewhat standardized) Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 8 .

Mobile Station (MS)  CONTROL SECTION TRANSCEIVER UNIT ANTENNA ASSEMBLY Channel Encoding Interleaving Message Generator Two functional parts o HW and SW specific for GSM radio interface Receive Audio Signal Processing Display Ciphering RF Processing o Antenna Duplexer RECEIVER Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)  Control SIM Channel Decoding Deinterleaving Message Regenerator SIM – detaches user identity from the mobile o Stores user information Keyboard Transmit Audio Signal Processing Ciphering RF Processing o Without SIM – only emergency calls TRANSMITTER Functional diagram of GSM mobile SIM card Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 9 .

 The main role of TX/RX is to provide conversion between traffic data on the network side and RF communication on the MS side. sectored. etc. Femto-cell Typical BTS installation Florida Institute of Technology Macrocell BTS radio cabinet hosts TX/RX ECE Department Page 10 . omni.Base Transceiver Station (BTS)  BTS is a set of transceivers (TX/RX).  In GSM one TX/RX is shared by 8 users. BTS antenna system  Depending on the application. it can be configured as macrocell.  GSM BTS can host up to 16 TX/RX. microcell.

 It can be connected to many BTSs and it offloads a great deal of processing from MSC  One BSC connects to several tens to couple of hundred BTS  Some of BSC responsibilities: o Handoff management o MAHO management o Power control o Clock distribution o Operation and maintenance  TRAU is responsible for transcoding the user data from 16Kb/sec to standard ISDN rates of 64Kb/sec.  It can physically reside on either BSC side or MSC side.  TRAU. BSC and BTSs form Base Station Subsystem (BSS TRAU = Transcoding and Rate Adaptation Unit Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 11 .Base Station Controller (BSC) and TRAU  BSC plays a role of a small digital exchange. it provides substantial changes in the backhaul – 4 users over a single T-1/E-1 TDMA channel. Typical BSC  If it resides on the MSC side.

Mobile Switching Center (MSC)  Responsible for connecting the mobile to the landline side  GSM MSC is commonly designed as a regular ISDN switch with some added functionality for mobility support  GSM Network can have more than one MSC  One of the MSC has an added functionality for communication with public network – Gateway MSC (GMSC)  All calls from the “outside networks” are routed through GMSC Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 12 .

there is only one HLR per network  Typical information stored in HLR: International Mobile Service Identification Number (IMSI). supplementary services. service subscription information.Registry HLR/VLR  HLR – Home Location Registry  Database for permanent or semipermanent data associated with the user  Logically. current location of the subscriber. When the mobile. etc.  HLR is usually implemented as an integral part of MSC  VLR – Visitor Location registry  Temporary database that keeps the information about the users within the service area of the MSC  Usually there is one VLR per MSC  The main task of the VLR is to reduce the number of queries to HLR. registers on the system its information is copied from HLR to VLR  VLR is usually integrated with the switch Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 13 .

AUC/EIR  AUC – Authentication center  Integral part of HLR  GSM specifies elaborate encryption  Three levels o A5/1 USA + Europe o A5/2 COCOM country list o No encryption – rest of the world  EIR – Equipment Identity Registry  Responsible for tracking equipment and eligibility for service  Maintains three lists o White list – approved mobile types o Black list – barred mobile types o Gray list – tracked mobile types Over years – many other vendor specific features added to the system Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 14 .

Um Interface between the MS and the GSM network Subject to rigorous standardization process We examine: o Channelization o Multiple access scheme o Interface organization:  On the physical level  On the logical level Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 15 .GSM Air Interface .

Frequency allocation GSM is FDD technology Mapping formulas  For PCS-1900 band o ARFCNul = (Fc-1850)/0.2+127. ARFCNdl = (Fc-969)/0. ARFCNdl = (Fc-1930)/0.2+511.2+127 Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 16 .2+511  For GSM-850 o ARFCNul = (Fc-824)/0.

. but not at the same time.. s7 s8 s1 s2 s3 fu0... s8 Downlink ( From BS to MS ) Wireless Communication Channel Base Station  Disadvantages: o High sync overhead TDMA = Time Division Multiple Access o Guard times o Heavily affected by the multipath propagation Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 17 . S8  Multiple users operate on the same frequency. s2.. ..s8 fu0. s1 S1 S2 S3 .. s2 Uplink ( From MS to BS) o MAHO o Different user rates can be accommodated o Easier integration with the landline ..TDMA Access Scheme fu0.  Advantages of TDMA: s1 o Relatively low complexity fd0.. s1.

ARFCN 2 USER 1.. ARFCN 1 USER 2. ARFCN 2 USER 10. ARFCN 1 USER 1 USER 2 .. ARFCN 2 BTS Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 18 . ARFCN 1 ARFCN 1 USER 6 USER 7 USER 8 USER 1 ARFCN 2  GSM uses Frequency Division Duplexing USER 16.GSM as a TDMA system  GSM is a combination of FDMA and TDMA  TDMA supports: o Up to 8 full rate users o Up to 16 half rate users USER 9.. USER 8 USER 8.

frequency correction. frequency correction. dummy  UL: normal. dummy. synchronization.GSM bursts  Data sent over one time slot = burst  Five types: normal. access Time/Frequency/Amplitude diagram for GSM normal burst Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 19 . access  Format of a burst defied by its function  DL: normal. synchronization.

Normal Burst  Used to carry information on both control and traffic channels  Mixture of data and overhead  GSM defines 8 training sequences assigned in color code mode  Both on the forward and reverse link 3 Tail 57 Traffic/Signaling 1 Flag 26 Training Sequence 1 Flag 57 Traffic/Signaling 3 Tail Normal burst • Total of 114 encoded user information bits • Total of 34 overhead bits Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 20 .

7 KHz frequency •Spectral characteristics of the control channel.Frequency Correction Burst  Sometimes referred to as the F-burst  Provides mobile with precise reference to the frequency of the broadcast control channel  Inserting the F-bursts on the control channel produces spectral peak 67. •The peak in the spectrum allows for easier MS network acquisition Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 21 .7 KHz above the central frequency of the carrier  Only on the forward link Power Spectrum Density 3 Tail 142 Fixed Bit Sequence (All zeros) 3 Tail BW = 200KHz Frequency correction burst •Format of the F-burst •Fixed sequence consists of all zeros fc fc+67.

Synchronization Burst  Facilitates the synchronization of the MS to the network at the base band  Commonly referred to as S-burst  Only on the forward link  The same sync sequence is used in all GSM networks 3 Tail 39 Synchronization 64 Training Sequence 39 Synchronization 3 Tail Synchronization burst Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 22 .

Dummy Burst  Supports MAHO  Used to ensure constant power level of the broadcast control channel  Only on the forward link 3 Tail 142 Predefined Bit Sequence 3 Tail Dummy burst Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 23 .

Access Burst  Used when the MS is accessing the system  Shorter in length – burst collision avoidance  Extended synchronization sequence  Used only on the reverse link 8 Tail 41 Synchronization 36 Access Bits 3 Tail Access burst GSM mobiles use slotted ALOHA to access the system In the case of collision – a hashing algorithm is provided Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 24 .

615 ms Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 25 .GSM TDMA Hierarchical Organization Hyperframe 3 h 28 min 53 s 760 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 51 x 26 Superframe or 26 x 51 Superframe 6s 120 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 46 47 48 49 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21 22 23 24 25 26 Multiframe 120 ms 51 Multiframe 235.4 ms 0 1 2 3 4 23 24 25 0 1 2 3 4 48 49 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 TDMA Frame 4.

BTS Transmits 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 Reverse Link .GSM Time Division Duplex  Communication on the forward and reverse link does not happen simultaneously  Delay of three slots between TX and RX  Time division duplexing avoids RF duplexer at the RF stage o Reduces the cost of mobile o Saves battery Forward Link .MS Transmits 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 26 .

Synchronization Channel BCCH .Slow Associated Control Channel FACCH .Cell Broadcast Channel TCH/F TCH/H BCH CCCH DCCH FCCH PCH ACCH SDCCH SCH AGCH DCCH .Dedicated Control Channels SDCCH .Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel ACCH .Paging Channel AGCH .Frequency Correction Channel SCH .Common Control Channels PCH .Broadcast Control Channel CCCH .Traffic Channel (Half Rate) BCH .GSM Logical Channels GSM Logical Channels CCH .Access Grant Channel RACH .Random Access Channel Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 27 .Associated Control Channels BCCH RACH SACCH FACCH SACCH .Fast Associated Control Channel TCH .Traffic Channel (Full Rate) TCH/H .Traffic Channel TCH/F .Broadcast Channels FCCH .Control Channel TCH CCH CBCH CBCH .

Traffic Channels (TCH)  Traffic channel carries speech and user data in both directions o Full rate ~ 33.8 Kb/sec -2.4 Kb/sec  Data rates differ due to differences in Error Control Coding Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 28 .85 Kb/sec o Half rate ~ 16.5 Kb/sec) • Date at rates: -4.6 Kb/sec -4.93 Kb/sec o Full rate uses 1 slot in every frame o Half rate uses 1 slot in every other frame Full Rate TCH can carry: • Voice (13 Kb/sec) • Date at rates: -9.4 Kb/sec Half Rate TCH can carry: • Voice (6.8 Kb/sec -2.

frame synchronization. Broadcast Channels (BCH)  Broadcast information that helps mobile system acquisition.   Common Control Channels (CCCH) Facilitate establishment of the link between MS and system Both forward and reverse link CCCH 3. Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH)   Provide for exchange the control information when the call is in progress Both forward and reverse – in band signaling ECE Department DCCH Florida Institute of Technology Page 29 . etc. Forward link only CCH BCH  2.Control Channels  GSM Defines 3 types of Control Channels: 1. They advertise properties and services of the GSM network.

Synchronization channel (SCH)  Provides a known sequence that helps mobile synchronization at the baseband Communicates with S-burst Broadcasts Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) BCH   2. neighbor list.  SCH Frequency Correction channel (FCH) Helps mobile tune its RF oscillator Communicates with F-burst FCH Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Provides mobile with various information about network. BCCH Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 30 . etc. its services.Broadcast Channels (BCH)  Three types of BCH: 1.   3. access parameters.

the information sent over BCCH can be grouped into four categories: 1) Information about the network 2) Information describing control channel structure 3) Information defining the options available at the particular cell 4) Access parameters Some BCCH messages Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 31 .Broadcast Channels (BCH) cont’d.  In general.

Common Control Channel (CCCH)  Three types of CCCH: 1. AGC Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 32 . Random Access Channel (RACH)  Used by mobile to initialize communication  Mobiles use slotted ALOHA  Reverse link only Paging Channel (PCH)  Used by the system to inform the mobile about an incoming call  Forward link only  GSM Supports DRX Access Grant Channel (AGC)  Used to send the response to the mobiles request for DCCH  Forward link only CCCH RACH 2. PCH 3.

Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH)  Three types of DCCH: 1. Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)  Used to exchange overhead information when the call is not in progress 2. Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) DCCH SDCCH  Used to exchange time delay tolerant overhead information when the call is in progress SACCH 3. Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)  Used to exchange time critical information when the call is in progress FACCH Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 33 .

Summary Channel BCCH FCCH SCH RACH PCH AGCH SDDCH SACCH X X X X X UL only DL only X X X X X X X X X X UL/DL Point to point Broadcast Dedicated X X X Shared X X X X X X FACCH TCH X X X X X X UL .Downlink ECE Department Page 34 .Logical Channels .Uplink Florida Institute of Technology DL .

Delay of MS 2 Signal D max  Florida Institute of Technology 1 s  8 m  63bit  3. Slot 1 MS 1 SLOT 5 SLOT 6 SLOT 7 Collision T1 T2 MS 1 MS 2 T1 .693  10 6  3  10   35km 2 s bit  ECE Department Page 35 .Timing Advance  Mobiles randomly distributed in space d2. Slot 2 MS 2 d1 > d2  Timing advance prevents burst collision on the reverse link  Maximum advancement is 63 bits BTS SLOT 0 SLOT 1 SLOT 2 SLOT 3 SLOT 4 d1.Delay of MS 1 Signal T2 .

Quantization and source encoding Channel Encoding (Error Correction Coding) Interleaving Burst Formating Mapping Ciphering Modulation Um Interface Receive Side Voice Signal Source Decoding and Waveform Generation Channel Decoding (Error Correction ) De -Interleaving Burst Formating Mapping DeCiphering De-Modulation Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 36 .Signal Processing – From Voice to Radio Waves As a digital TDMA technology GSM implements extensive signal processing Transmit Side Voice Signal Sampling.

voice is sampled at 8 K samples/sec and quantized with 8192 levels (13 bit words) PCM Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 37 .Sampling and Quantization  Sampling o Sampling theorem specifies conditions for discretization of band limited analog signals o Voice needs to be sampled at the sampling rate greater then 8000Hz 111 +3V 110 +2V 101 +1V 0V 001 -1V 010 -2V 011 -3V Analog Signal Sampling Pulse  Quantization o Discrete values assigned to continuous samples o Quantization noise 111 +3V 110 +2V 101 +1V 0V 001 -1V 010 -2V 011 -3V 101 110 101 100 010 010 010 100 111 111 PAM o In GSM.

2Kb/sec)  AMR-HR (4.75-12.Speech Source Encoding  Speech coder reduces the data rate needed for voice signal representation  GSM specifies operation of : o Full rate vocoder  13Kb/sec o Half rate vocoder  5.75-7.4 kHz LP D/A converter SPEECH DECODER CHANNEL DECODER Vocoders enable efficient channel utilization Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 38 .6Kb/sec o Enhanced Full Rate (EFR)  12.95Kb/sec)  AMR rate .function of C/I LOW-PASS 4 kHz MICROPHONE BPF A/D converter SPEECH ENCODER CHANNEL CODING TO MODULATOR BAND-PASS 300 Hz-3.2Kb/sec o AMR (Adaptive multi rate)  AMR-FR (4.

5 3 2. The First Annual CDMA Congress London. 1997 4.Voice Quality source IIR. Oct. 29-30.5 1 0.5 2 1.5 0 Clean Speech 20dB SNR Babble 20dB SNR Car 15dB SNR Street GSM EFR Mu-PCM 8Kb/s EVRC (CDMA) 13Kb/s CELP (CDMA) IS-136 ACELP Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 39 .Performance comparison of some commercial vocoders Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) .5 4 3.

Channel Encoding  Error control coding (ECC) increases the robustness of the signal  ECC increases the overhead and reduces the efficiency of the communication  In GSM. the ECC increases the overhead per user by 57% 50 ERROR DETECTING CODE 3 189 CONVOLUTIONAL TYPE Ia BITS FROM VOCODER ENCODER MUX 378 456 TO INTERLEAVER TYPE Ib BITS 132 r=1/2 K=5 189 0 78 TYPE II BITS 4 Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 40 .

. the errors are “bursty”  b1 b6 b b 7  2 b3 b8  b4 b9 b5 b10   b11 b16 b21  b12 b17 b22   b13 b18 b23   b14 b19 b24  b15 b20 b25   Data is written column-wise  Optimal performance from ECC is obtained for uniform error distribution  Interleaving increases the performance of ECC in mobile environment  Data is read row-wise Interleaver Burst Error Caused by Rayleigh Fading b1 b6 b11 b16 b21 b2 b7 b12 b17 b22b3 b8 b13 b18 b23 b4 b9 b14 b19 b24..Interleaving  In mobile communications. Errors are spread over the bit stream b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 b9 b10 b11 b12 b13 b14 b25 b16 b17 b18 b19 b20. Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 41 ..

linearities Filtered MSK 3 (f-f o) / Rb 0 1 2  Price paid is in the increased Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) ECE Department Florida Institute of Technology Page 42 .Modulation: GMSK (Gaussian MSK) Simplified GMSK block diagram dB 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY Spectral characteristics of GMSK MSK  GMSK has excellent spectral characteristics o Low sidelobes GMSK o Robust to non.

Equalization GSM equalizer capable of equalizing for two equal multi paths separated by 16 microseconds Introduces overhead of about 18% 3 Tail  Extraction of Synchronization Bits Equalization Algorithm  57 Traffic/Signaling 1 Flag 26 Training Sequence 1 Flag 57 Traffic/Signaling 3 Tail Sequence used for equalizer training Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 43 . Training 2.Equalization   Necessary due to the multipath propagation Needs to have : o o  Fast convergence Low complexity RF Processing Unequalized Data Equalized Data Adaptive Equalizer Two modes of operation 1.

GSM Network Features  Mobile Assist Handoff (MAHO)  Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)  Dynamic Power Control (DPC)  Frequency Hopping (FH)  Intercell Handoff Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 44 .

GSM systems evaluate measurements performed by both the MS and BTS Measurement type RSL RSL RSL Quality Quality RSL RSL Link Downlink Downlink Downlink Downlink Downlink Uplink Uplink Uplink Uplink Uplink Uplink Uplink Cell Serving Cell Serving Cell Neighbors Serving Cell Serving Cell Serving Cell Serving Cell Neighbors Neighbors Serving Cell Serving Cell Serving Cell DTX Full Set Subset N/A Full Set Subset Full Set Subset Full Set Subset Full Set Subset N/A Measurement Source Mobile Mobile Mobile Mobile Mobile BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS  There are three types of measurements: 1. Signal Strength Measurements 2. Timing Advance Measurements RSL RSL Quality Quality Timing Advance Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 45 . Signal Quality Measurements 3.Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO)  GSM Implements MAHO  In the process of evaluating handoff candidates.

Signal Strength Measurements  Performed on uplink and downlink  Reported as a quantized value RXLEV: RXLEV = RSL[dBm] + 110  Minimum RXLEV: -110.MAHO . MAX RXLEV = -47  On the downlink. measurement performed for both serving cell and up to 32 neighbors  Up to 6 strongest neighbors are reported back to BTS through SACHH Example measurement report Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 46 .

the RXLEV measurements are filtered to prevent unnecessary handoffs Example RSL measurement Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 47 .Signal Strength Measurements -40 -50 -60 550 -70 540 -80 530 -90 -100 0 500 1000 Measurement RX LEV (dBm) BCCH 1500 2000 520 510 580 570 560  Measurements of the neighbors are performed on the BCCH channels – not affected by the DTX BCCH ARFCN RX LEV (dBm)  Measurements on the serving channel – affected by the DTX.MAHO .  Perform over a subset of SACCH that guarantees transmission even in the case of active DTX  Before processing.

6 to 11.30 0.3 1.26 to 0.7 3. the measurements are performed over the subset of SACCH that guarantees transmission RXQUAL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BER Less than 0.51 to 0.MAHO – Signal Quality Measurements      Performed on uplink and downlink Only on the serving channel Reported as a quantized value RXQUAL For a good quality call RXQUAL < 3 Measurements are averaged before the handoff processing  If DTX is active.64 1.0 to 1.0 Above 15 Measurement report RXQUAL measurements RXQUAL mapping table Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 48 .4 7.9 to 2.1 0.8 to 5.

MAHO – Time Alignment Measurement
 Performed on uplink (BTS)  Only on the serving channel  Used by the BTS to estimate distance to the MS  Expressed in number of bits of TX advancement  Can be between 0 and 63  TA

Florida Institute of Technology

ECE Department

Page 49

Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
 Typical voice activity is around 60%  DTX discontinues transmission during silent periods  Benefits of DTX
o Uplink:  System interference reduction  Lower battery consumption o Downlink  System interference reduction  Reduction of the intermodulation products  Lower power consumptions

Mobile station
Handset Handset Handset

Environment
Quiet location Moderate office noise with voice interference

Typical voice activity 55%
60% 65-70% 60%

 Downsides of DTX usage:
o MAHO measurements are less accurate o Voice quality is degraded due to slowness of VAD

Strong voice interference (ex. airport, railway station) Hands free / Variable vehicle noise handset

Florida Institute of Technology

ECE Department

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Dynamic Power Control (DPC)
 There are three reasons for DPC:
1. Reduction of battery consumption 2. Elimination of “near-far” problem 3. Reduction of system interference
PCS-1900 / GSM – 1800 [W] 1 0.24 Not Defined Not Defined Not Defined

Power Class

GSM (900MHz) [W] 20(1) 8 5 2 0.8

1 2 3 4 5

(1) Not available commercially

Florida Institute of Technology

ECE Department

Page 51

e. 480ms o Large adjustments > 24 dB will not be completed before the arrival of new command o Commonly implemented as BSC feature. i.Dynamic Power Control (DPC)  DPC for MS o Depending on its power class.. Many vendors are moving it at the BTS level  DPC for BTS o Vendor specific o Based on MAHO reports Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 52 . MS can adjust its power between the max and min value in 2dB steps o MS can perform 13 adjustments every SACCH period.

2. 3. Umbrella cells (HL = 0) Macrocells (HL = 1) Microcell (HL = 2) SS_SUFF Preferred Micro-Cell HL = 2 Select Micro-Cell Distance   HCS provides a way to assign preference levels between the cells Very effective way for capacity and interference management Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 53 .Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)  Signal Strength Incorporates various cell sizes into layers of RF coverage  Macrocel HL = 1 Reselection Points Three common layers: 1.

Handling of Fast Moving Mobiles  If the mobile is moving at a high speed. a temporal GSM introduces temporal penalty – prevents immediate handoff initialization  If the duration of mobile stay within the coverage area is shorter than the temporal penalty. it will spend a short time in the coverage area of the microcell  To prevent excessive handoffs. it will never initialize handoff Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 54 .

Interference avoidance Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 55 .multiple carriers used over the course of radio transmission o There are two kinds of FH: 1. Frequency Diversity 2.Frequency Hopping (FH)  FH . Fast Hoping – carrier frequency changes faster than the symbol rate o GSM implements slow FH Scheme o Carrier frequency is changed once per time slot o There are two reasons for frequency hopping 1. Slow Hopping – change of carrier frequency happens at the rate slower than the symbol rate 2.

Frequency Diversity of FH  Mobile environment is characterized with small scale fading  The depth of signal fade is a function frequency  If two signals are sufficiently separated in frequency domain they fade independently  Frequency diversity gain diminishes for fast moving mobiles Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 56 .

Interference Avoidance of FH  FH averages interference  Allows for tighter reuse of frequencies  Increases the capacity of the system User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5 f1 T f1 2T f4 3T f3 4T f2 5T f2 T f1 2T f1 3T f4 4T f3 5T f3 T f2 2T f1 3T f1 4T f4 5T f4 T f3 2T f2 3T f1 4T f1 5T f1 T f4 2T f3 3T f2 4T f1 5T Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 57 .

Baseband FH in GSM  Each radio operates on a fixed frequency 1 TX/RX Carrier Freuqnacy f1 2 TX/RX Carrier Freuqnacy f2  The bursts are routed to individual radios in accordance to their hopping sequence Combiner n TX/RX Carrier Freuqnacy fn  Advantages of baseband hopping  No need to “real time” retune – simpler radios  More efficient combiners Bus for Routing and Switchning  Disadvantage of baseband hopping  Number of hopping frequencies limited by the number of radios Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 58 .

f1..f1......f1.fm  Advantages of synthesized hopping: Set of the hopping frequencies can be assigned in an arbitrary way  Disadvantage of synthesized hopping: Need for expensive and lossy combiners Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 59 .fm  Radios retune – “real time” Broadband Combiner 2 TX/RX Carrier Freuqnacy f0.Synthesized FH in GSM  Each radio is hopping in an independent way 1 TX/RX Carrier Freuqnacy f0....fm n TX/RX Carrier Freuqnacy f0....

f1 . f 4 . f 2 . Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 60 . f 2 .FH Algorithms Cyclic Hopping o Frequencies are used in the consecutive order o If the radio is performing cyclic FH the order of frequencies in the sequence goes from the lowest ARFCN to the highest ARFCN  f1 . • Random Hopping • Implemented in a pseudo – random way • Uses one of 63 available pseudorandom sequences • The actual frequency is obtained as a modulo operation with number of available frequencies in allocation list (FH group)  f1 . f 3 . f 4 . f 3 . f 4 . f 2 . f 3 . f 2 . f 3 .

Intracell Handoff Measurement indicates: o Poor RXQUAL o Good RXLEV High Interference  There is high probability that the call will improve with the handoff to different carrier within the same cell  To avoid unnecessary handoffs. system introduces maximum number of intercell handoffs Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 61 .

GSM RF Planning / Design  Link Budget and Nominal Cell Radius Calculation  Receiver Sensitivity  Required C/I ratio  Mobile Transmit Power  Examples of Link Budget  Calculation of a Nominal Cell Radius  Frequency Planning and Reuse Strategies  Frequency Planning Using Regular Schemes  Automatic Frequency Planning  Capacity of GSM Networks Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 62 .

High speed circuits switched data (HSCSD) Packet switched data (GPRS. GPRS 114 Kb/sec GSM 2+ 9. 3.EDGE) Integrated packet services – possibly under different access scheme (UMTS) HSCSD 64 Kb/sec HSCSD GPRS EDGE UMTS .High Speed Circuit Switched Data .General Packet Radio System .GSM Migration Towards 3G Migration: 1.6 Kb/sec 1999 1Q 2000 2Q 2000 Timeline 3Q 2001 4Q 2002 Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 63 .Enhanced Data GSM Environment .Universal Mobile Telephone Service Data Rate UMTS 2Mb/sec EDGE 384 Kb/sec 2.

GSM 2+ Data Services  GSM’s traffic channel can support the data transfer of a bit rate up to 9. etc. o Circuit switched data services o Not suitable for Internet  Too slow  Too costly (user would pay for the “circuit” even if there is no traffic exchanged Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 64 .6Kb/sec o This data rate can be used for:  Short messages  Fax services  E-mail.

e.High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)  HSCSD is using existing GSM organization to provide data services of a somewhat higher data rates  It can combine several existing traffic channels into a single connection. i.. it allows for mobiles multislot operation  HSCSD can be implemented through software upgrades on existing networks and no hardware upgrades are needed  Seems to be less accepted by the service providers Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 65 .

General Packed Radio Data (GPRS)  GPRS is another new transmission capability for GSM that will be especially developed to accommodate for high-bandwidth data traffic  GPRS will handle rates from 14. and up to 115Kbps and higher using all eight time slots  It introduces packet switching .can accommodate the data traffic characteristics Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 66 .4Kbps using just one TDMA slot.

F .D.Serv ice GPRS Support Node GGSN .MAP Interfaces SGSN .GPRS Network architecture PSTN BSC BTS VLR B C D HLR New type of node: GPRS Service Node (GSN) BTS MSC AUC Gr EIR SGSN A-Bis Interface BTS BTS BSC MSC VLR HLR AUC EIR Base Station Base Station Contoller Mobile Switching Center Visitor Location Register Home Location Register Authentif ication Center Equipment Identity Register BSC BTS A Interface Gn Interface GGSN Outside Packet Network Um Interface B.Gateway GPRS Support Node Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 67 .C.E.

PDN SGSN GGSN SGSN GGSN GPRS .GPRS Call routing Routing is performed “parallel” to the GSM network BTS GPRS .PDN BTS Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 68 .

Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE)  Packet switched  Upgrades the modulation scheme o From GMSK to 8-PSK o Maximum speed ~59 Kb/sec per time slot. ~473.6 Kb/sec for all 8 time slots o Variable data rate – depending on the channel conditions  Defines several different classes of service and mobile terminals EDGE enabled data mobile Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 69 .

Practically achievable data rates  Theoretical rates are constrained by mobile power and processing capabilities  Most mobiles support less than the maximum allowed by standard Practically achievable data rates Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 70 .

Universal Mobile Telephone Service (UMTS)  UMTS – 3G cellular service  Provides data rates up to 2Mb/sec  Possibly standardized as W-CDMA Outline of UMTS (WCDMA) network Florida Institute of Technology ECE Department Page 71 .

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